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Four Perspectives on Educational Technology

Mr Kurt S Candilas MAE Eng 2

Educational Technology
The combination of the processes

and tools in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies

Historical Perspectives
Important to examine the four

different historical perspectives on these processes and tools, each of which has helped to shape current practices in the field:
Media and Audiovisual Communications 2. Instructional Systems 3. Vocational Training (Technology Education) 4. Computer Systems

1. Technology as Media
Saettler (1990) Audiovisual

Another way of delivering

information other than books, or teacher instruction. Early forms of Media were: slides, overheads, filmstrips, opaque projectors. Some critics felt these methods were more effective

Groups involved in Media and Audiovisual Communication

The Association for Later (1988) refocused

Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) -concerned with machines which contain messages and their application in classrooms

their concerns with telecommunications and computer information systems.

Media Impact
The impact of media has been

widespread and continues to be an important part of educational technology. Teachers are constantly trying different ways to reach their students particularly when they are confronted with so many media images in their daily lives.

2. Instructional Systems
Took shape in the 1960s and 1970s

systems approach to solving educational problems came from military and industrial training Systems was introduced to K-12 by university personal working with schools. The system was based on the belief that teachers and media could be parts of a system for addressing instructional need.

Instructional Systems
Educational technology was now

seen as a systematic approach to design, develop and deliver instruction matched to specific needs. From the 1960s to the 1980s the application of the systems approach was influenced by the popular learning theories of the time. Initially Behaviorist theories followed by Cognitive theories.

In the 1990s the systems theory was criticized by

popular learning theories, suggestion it was too rigid. Todays constructivist theories have changed opinions once again and are embracing the Instructional Systems approach.

3. Technology as Vocational Training

Vocational Training is another view of educational

technology. It sees technology as a tool used in business and industry called technology education. It derived from trainers and vocational educators in the 1980s. Key words: Job skills, work world, business/industry Examples: Robotics, manufacturing systems, and computer-assisted design

Current View of Vocational Training

Computers are shaping the world around us. Both are constantly changing as we speak. Business, industries, and teachers all play in important part in vocational training in the industrial classroom and in the classroom itself in all content areas.

4. Computer Systems
Advent of computers in 1950s for

business, industry, and military trainers Recognized the potential of computers as instructional tools Computer technology was predicted to be the most important components of educational technology. Instructional applications of computers did not produce the anticipated success

From 1960s to 1990s educational computing was

created to encompass both instructional and support applications of computers In the 1990s a combination of technology resources, including media, instructional systems, and computer based support systems Currently our system combines all resources to aid in learning

What could have caused this disagreement?

Individuals in this scenario each had

a different perspective of what Technology Integration meant. Their idea of the technology plan could have been different because of the following: Prior educational experience Age of the teacher Comfort level with technology Background tech knowledge

Our thoughts
Each individual had one piece of

the pie, but nobody was seeing the big picture. In order to attain Technology Integration combined resources, including media, instructional systems and computer based support systems must be used.

Boudreau, Tammy et. al. (2011).

Four Perspectives on Educational Technology. Retrieved January 16, 2014 from [electronic version] erspectives_on_Educational_Te chnol... ] 0.1007%2FBF02297313 htt:// id=230