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TNG CC MI TRNG

TRUNG TM QUAN TRC MI TRNG

PHNG PHP TNH TON CH S


CHT LNG KHNG KH (AQI)

H Ni, 6.2011

NI DUNG TRNH BY
1.
2.
3.
4.

Khi nim AQI


C s xy dng phng php tnh AQI
Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh
V d tnh ton

D liu ch th - ch s

M hnh thp d liu


Ch s

Mc din gii, phn tch v tng


hp thng tin

Ch th

D liu
-c x l

D liu th

1. Khi nim
Ch s cht lng khng kh (vit tt l AQI) l ch
s c tnh ton t cc thng s quan trc cc
cht nhim trong khng kh, nhm cho bit tnh
trng cht lng khng kh v mc nh hng
n sc khe con ngi, c biu din qua mt
thang im.

2. C s xy dng phng php tnh AQI


Kinh nghim xy dng, p dng AQI trn th
gii v Vit Nam
Trn th gii: M, Braxin, Canada, Hng Kng, Hn
Quc, Thi Lan, Australia, Anh, Php, B o Nha.
Vit Nam: Thnh ph H Ch Minh
Quy chun cht lng mi trng khng kh
xung quanh hin hnh: QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT

Kinh nghim xy dng AQI


Nghin cu kinh nghim AQI trn th gii v Vit
Nam cho thy c 3 phng php tnh AQI c
xy dng v p dng:
Phng php 1: S dng bng i chiu (Anh,
Php, Canada)
Phng php 2: S dng cng thc n gin
(Australia, Thnh ph H Ch Minh)
Phng php 3: S dng cng thc phc tp (M,
Braxin, Hng Kng, Hn Quc, Thi Lan, B o
Nha).

Phng php 1
Phng php tnh AQI p dng ti Anh
Cc thng s dng tnh AQI: NO2, SO2, O3, CO,
PM10
Cc mc AQI nh sau:
Low - Index 1 to 3

Moderate - Index 4 to 6

High- Index 7 to 9

Very High - Index 10 or over

Bng i chiu AQI


Inde
x

Ozone

Nitrogen Dioxide

Sulphur
Dioxide

Carbon Monoxide

PM10 Particles

Running 8 hourly or hourly


mean*

hourly mean

15 minute
mean

Running 8 hourly
mean

Running 24 hour mean

ppm

gm-3
(Grav.
Equiv.)

gm-3
(Ref.
Equiv.)

0-3.8

0.0-3.2

0-21

0-19

33-66

3.9-7.6

3.3-6.6

22-42

20-40

177265

67-99

7.7-11.5

6.7-9.9

43-64

41-62

150199

266354

100132

11.6-13.4

10.0-11.5

65-74

63-72

382-477

200249

355442

133166

13.5-15.4

11.6-13.2

75-86

73-84

77-89

478-572

250299

443531

167199

15.5-17.3

13.3-14.9

87-96

85-94

180-239

90-119

573-635

300332

532708

200266

17.4-19.2

15.0-16.5

97-107

95-105

240-299

120-149

636-700

333366

709886

267332

19.3-21.2

16.6-18.2

108-118

106-116

300-359

150-179

701-763

367399

8871063

333399

21.3-23.1

18.3-19.9

119-129

117-127

360
or more

180
or more

764
or more

400
or
more

1064
or
more

400
or
more

23.2
or more

20
or more

130
or more

128
or more

gm-3

ppb

gm-3

ppb

gm-3

ppb

mgm-3

0-33

0-16

0-95

0-49

0-88

0-32

34-65

17-32

96-190

50-99

89-176

66-99

33-49

191-286

100149

100-125

50-62

287-381

126-153

63-76

154-179

Low

Moderate

High

Very High
10

Phng php 2
Phng php tnh ton AQI p dng ti Thnh
ph H Ch Minh
Trc ht ti mi trm, AQI s c tnh cho tng cht theo 2 loi
l AQI theo gi v AQI theo ngy.
- Cng thc tnh AQI theo gi ca cht i ti trm j:

C
AQI
*100
S
h
i

h
i

h
i

h
i
h
i

: Nng trung bnh ca cht i.


: tiu chun mi trng cho php ca cht i

Phng php 2
Phng php tnh AQI ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh
So snh AQI max ca tt c cc thng s trong trm, gi tr AQI
no ln nht s l ch s cht lng khng kh ca trm quan trc
tng ng trong ngy.

AQI j Maxi ( AQI i )


AQI theo tng loi s c gi tr bng trung bnh cng cc
gi tr AQI ca cc trm thuc cng 1 loi . V d c 4 trm ven
ng th AQI ven ng giao thng s c tnh nh sau:

AQI GT

AQI DO AQI HB AQITN AQI BC

Phng php 2
Cc mc AQI ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh
Nhom
iem
0 -> 50

Chat lng
Anh hng sc khoe
khongkh
Khong
Tot

51 -> 100 Trung bnh


101->200 Kem
201->300 Xau
Tren 300 Nguy hai

Nhom nhay cam, oi khi nen


gii han thi gian ngoai nha.
Nhom nhay cam nen han che
thi gian ngoai.
Nhom nhay cam tranh ra
ngoai. Nhng ngi khac nen
han che thi gian ngoai.
Moi ngi nen trong nha.

Phng php 2
Tiu chun p dng: TCVN 5937:1995
STT

Thng s

Trung bnh
1 gi

Trung bnh
8 gi

Trung bnh
24 gi

CO

40

10

NO2

0.4

0.1

SO2

0.5

0.3

Pb

0.005

O3

0.2

0.06

Bi l lng

0.3

0.2

Phng php 3
Phng php tnh AQI p dng ti M
Cc thng s dng tnh: O3, PM-10, PM-2,5, CO, SO2,
NO2
Cc mc AQI p dng ti M
Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values)

Levels of Health Concern

When the AQIis in this range:

...air quality conditions are:

0-50

Good

51-100

Moderate

101-150

Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups

151 to 200

Unhealthy

201 to 300

Very Unhealthy

301 to 500

Hazardous

13

Phng php 3
Phng php tnh AQI p dng ti M
Cng thc tnh

I Hi I L 0
C p BPL0 I L0
Ip
BPHi BPL 0
Ip: Ch s cht lng mi trng mi trng khng kh ca cht
nhim p
Cp: Nng ca cht nhim p
BPHi: Ch s trn ca Cp
BPH0: Ch s di ca Cp
IHi: Ch s AQI ng vi nng BPHi
IL0: Ch s AQI ng vi nng BPL0

Phng php 3
Cc mc trn v di

AQI

CO

(g/m3)
24 gi

PM2.5
(g/m3)
24-gi

0 - 54

0.0 - 15.4

0.060 0.075

55 154

0.076 0.095

0.125 0.164

0.096 0.115

o3 (ppm)

O3 (ppm)

PM10

8-gi

1-gi(1)

0.000 0.059

ngha

SO2 (ppm)
24-gi

NO2

0.0 - 4.4

0.000 0.034

0 - 50

15.5 -40.4

4.5 - 9.4

0.035 0.144

51 - 100

155 254

40.5 - 65.4

9.5 12.4

0.145 0.224

101 - 150

nh hng n
nhm nhy
cm

0.165 0.204

255 354

65.5 150.4

12.5 15.4

0.225 0.304

151 - 200

Tc ng xu n
sc khe

0.116 0.374
(0.155 0.404)4

0.205 0.404

355 424

150.5 250.4

15.5 30.4

0.305 0.604

0.65 1.24

201 - 300

Tc ng rt xu n
sc khe

0.405 0.504

425 504

250.5 350.4

30.5 40.4

0.605 0.804

1.25 1.64

301 - 400

Nguy him

0.505 0.604

505 604

350.5 500.4

40.5 50.4

0.805 1.004

1.65 2.04

401 - 500

Rt nguy him

(ppm)
8-gi

(ppm)
24-gi

Tt

Trung bnh

Tiu chun mi trng ca Hoa K


Cht
nhim

Loi tiu chun

Tiu chun a

CO

Trung bnh 8 gi b

9 ppm (10 mg/m3)

Trung bnh 1 gi b

35 ppm (40 mg/m3)

Pb

Trung bnh qy

1.5 g/m3

NO2

Trung bnh nm

0.053 ppm (100 g/m3)

O3

Trung bnh mt gi cao nht c

0.12 ppm (235 g/m3)

Trung bnh 8 gi cao nht trong ngy d

0.08 ppm (157 g/m3)

Trung bnh nm

50 g/m3

Trung bnh 24 gi e

150 g/m3

Trung bnh nm f

15 g/m3

Trung bnh 24 gi g

65 g/m3

Trung bnh nm

0.03 ppm (80 g/m3)

Trung bnh 24 gi b

0.14 ppm (365 g/m3)

PM-10

PM-2,5

SO2

Phng php 3
Tnh ton th AQI cho CO vi nng C=10 ppm
Tra trong bng c cc gi tr sau:
BPHi=12.4
BPH0:

9.5

IHi:

150

IL0:

101

150 101
10 9.5 101 109
I
12.4 9.5

nh gi u nhc im ca cc phng php tnh AQI

Phng php 1
u im: n gin, d xc nh
Nhc im: Ch phn hng c cc mc AQI
m khng th so snh hai gi tr AQI cng mt
hng.

nh gi u nhc im ca cc phng php tnh AQI

Phng php 2:
u im: cng thc tnh ton n gin, ch cn s
dng Tiu chun khng kh quc gia l c th xc
nh c gi tr AQI
Nhc im: Cc khong phn hng gi tr AQI
ng vi cc nh hng khc nhau n sc khe
khng c ph hp bng phng php 3.

nh gi u nhc im ca cc phng php tnh AQI

Phng php 3:
u im: Do bng cc ch s trn v ch s di
dng tnh ton AQI c xc nh da vo Tiu
chun mi trng khng kh quc gia v cc nghin
cu v nh hng ca sc khe do nhim mi
trng khng kh nn cc mc AQI ng vi tng
loi tc ng n sc khe ph hp vi thc t
nht.
Nhc im: Cng thc tnh ton kh phc tp v
vic xy dng cc bng ch s trn v ch s di
kh khn.

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


Gii thch thut ng:
AQI thng s l gi tr tnh ton AQI cho tng thng s quan trc.
AQI theo ngy (AQId) l gi tr tnh ton cho AQI p dng cho 1
ngy.
AQI tnh theo trung bnh 24 gi (AQI24h) l gi tr tnh ton AQI s
dng s liu quan trc trung bnh 24 gi.
AQI theo gi (AQIh) l gi tr tnh ton AQI p dng cho 1 gi.
Trm quan trc khng kh t ng c nh lin tc l trm quan
trc c nh c kh nng o t ng lin tc cc thng s v cht
lng khng kh.
Quy chun: Quy chun s dng tnh ton AQI l cc mc quy
nh trong Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng khng kh
xung quanh hin hnh (QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT).

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


Mc ch s dng AQI:
nh gi cht lng khng kh mt cch tng qut;
C th c s dng nh mt ngun d liu xy
dng bn phn vng cht lng khng kh;
Cung cp thng tin mi trng cho cng ng mt
cch n gin, d hiu, trc quan;
Nng cao nhn thc v mi trng.

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


Cc yu cu i vi vic tnh ton AQI
AQI c tnh ton ring cho s liu ca tng trm quan trc
khng kh t ng c nh lin tc i vi mi trng khng
kh xung quanh;
AQI c tnh ton cho tng thng s quan trc. Mi thng
s s xc nh c mt gi tr AQI c th,
Gi tr AQI cui cng l gi tr ln nht trong cc gi tr AQI
ca mi thng s;
Thang o gi tr AQI c chia thnh cc khong nht nh.
Khi gi tr AQI nm trong mt khong no , th thng ip
cnh bo cho cng ng ng vi khong gi tr s c
a ra.

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


Quy trnh tnh ton AQI
Thu thp, tp hp s liu quan trc t trm quan
trc mi trng khng kh t ng c nh lin tc
(s liu qua x l).
Tnh ton cc ch s cht lng khng kh i vi
tng thng s theo cng thc.
Tnh ton ch s cht lng khng kh theo gi/theo
ngy.
So snh ch s cht lng khng kh vi bng xc
nh mc cnh bo nhim mi trng khng kh
v mc nh hng ti sc khe con ngi.

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


Cc yu cu i vi s liu quan trc
S liu quan trc s dng tnh AQI l s liu ca
quan trc ca trm quan trc khng kh c nh, t
ng, lin tc. S liu quan trc bn t ng khng
s dng trong vic tnh AQI.
Cc thng s thng c s dng l cc thng s
trong QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT bao gm: SO2, CO,
NOx, O3, PM10, TSP.
S liu quan trc c a vo tnh ton qua x
l, m bo loi b cc gi tr sai lch, t yu
cu i vi quy trnh quy phm v m bo kim
sot cht lng s liu.

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


1. Tnh ton gi tr AQI theo gi
Gi tr AQI theo gi ca tng thng s (AQIxh)

AQI

h
x

TS x

.100
QC x

TSx: Gi tr quan trc trung bnh 1 gi ca thng s X


QCx: Gi tr quy chun trung bnh 1 gi ca thng s X
Lu : i vi thng s PM10: do khng c quy chun trung bnh 1
gi, v vy ly quy chun ca TSP trung bnh 1 gi thay th cho
PM10
AQIxh : Gi tr AQI theo gi ca thng s X,

Gi tr AQI theo gi

AQIh = max(AQIhx)

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


2. Tnh ton gi tr AQI theo ngy
2.1.Gi tr AQI theo ngy ca tng thng s
B1: tnh gi tr trung gian l AQI TB 24 gi ca tng thng s theo
cng thc sau y:

AQI

24 h
x

TS x

.100
QC x

AQIx24: gi tr AQI tnh bng gi tr TB 24 gi ca thng s X.


TSx: gi tr quan trc trung bnh 24 gi ca thng s X
QCx: gi tr quy chun trung bnh 24 gi ca thng s X
Lu : khng tnh gi tr AQI24hO3.

B2: tnh gi tr AQI theo ngy ca tng thng s

AQI xd max( AQI x24 h , AQI xh )


Trong AQIdx l gi tr AQI ngy ca thng s X
Lu : Gi tr AQIdO3 = max(AQIhO3)

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


2. Tnh ton gi tr AQI theo ngy
2.2. Gi tr AQI theo ngy
Sau khi tnh c gi tr AQI theo ngy ca mi
thng s, gi tr AQI ln nht ca cc thng s
c ly lm gi AQI theo ngy ca trm quan trc
.

AQI max( AQI )


d

d
x

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


3. So snh AQI c tnh ton vi bng
Khong gi Cht lng
tr AQI
khng kh

nh hng sc khe

Mu
Xanh

0 50

Tt

Khng nh hng n sc khe

51 100

Trung bnh

Nhm nhy cm nn hn ch thi gian Vng


bn ngoi

101 200

Km

Nhm nhy cm cn hn ch thi gian Da


bn ngoi
cam

201 300

Xu

Nhm nhy cm trnh ra ngoi. Nhng


ngi khc hn ch bn ngoi

Trn 300

Nguy hi

Mi ngi nn trong nh

Nu

Ghi ch: Nhm nhy cm bao gm: tr em, ngi gi v nhng ngi mc bnh h hp

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


4. Cng b thng tin v AQI cho cng ng
Yu cu v ni dung thng tin v AQI c cng b:
Tn trm quan trc, a im trm quan trc;
Gi tr AQI theo ngy, gi tr AQI theo gi v mc
cnh bo nhim tng ng vi mc nh
hng ti sc khe con ngi;
Thng s c mc nhim cao nht (thng s ng
vi gi tr AQI ln nht l thng s c mc
nhim cao nht).

3. Phng php tnh AQI do TCMT ban hnh


4. Cng b thng tin v AQI cho cng ng
Cc hnh thc cng b AQI cho cng ng:
Bo ch
Truyn thanh
Truyn hnh
Bng thng tin in t
Trang thng tin in t

4. V d tnh ton AQI


Vi s liu quan trc gi nh nh sau:
Thi gian

O3

CO

PM-10

SO2

g/m3

g/m3

g/m3

g/m3

g/m3

5/30/2011 0:00

76.3

43.1

1373.2

128.0

1.7

5/30/2011 1:00

61.9

34.0

1455.3

138.7

2.9

5/30/2011 2:00

67.9

43.0

1620.8

138.4

2.1

5/30/2011 3:00

69.9

26.0

1846.4

150.1

1.8

5/30/2011 4:00

78.9

28.6

2440.5

152.2

1.6

5/30/2011 5:00

74.4

28.0

4673.5

146.2

1.5

5/30/2011 6:00

123.0

22.0

6191.1

153.8

1.9

5/30/2011 7:00

168.2

28.1

6888.6

150.2

4.6

5/30/2011 8:00

159.5

26.1

5534.3

165.9

5.2

5/30/2011 9:00

164.5

40.2

3987.3

160.5

12.7

5/30/2011 10:00

134.4

65.0

4062.1

124.3

20.2

5/30/2011 11:00

134.7

86.1

3259.0

136.9

18.8

5/30/2011 12:00

109.4

113.4

2589.4

116.9

17.0

5/30/2011 13:00

104.2

103.7

2678.8

97.3

17.5

5/30/2011 14:00

113.8

113.8

2948.8

84.8

17.9

5/30/2011 15:00

120.8

103.3

3564.4

85.4

16.0

5/30/2011 16:00

127.1

104.8

4437.4

86.8

14.9

5/30/2011 17:00

137.8

91.4

5748.9

104.8

13.4

5/30/2011 18:00

137.0

103.4

3275.2

134.9

10.6

5/30/2011 19:00

74.1

80.6

3095.6

136.8

3.4

5/30/2011 20:00

66.9

61.3

2814.5

119.3

1.7

5/30/2011 21:00

78.5

46.1

2723.5

110.7

1.8

5/30/2011 22:00

69.3

49.4

2517.4

120.2

1.8

74.3

50.7

2678.0

123.1

4.6

105.3

62.2

3433.5

127.8

8.1

5/30/2011 23:00
Trung bnh 24 gi

NOx

4. V d tnh ton AQI


1. Tnh ton AQI theo gi
V d AQI lc 11 gi:
AQI thng s v AQI c tnh nh sau:
3259
134 .7
11 h
AQI

.100 11 AQI NOx


.100 66
30000
200
86 .1
18 .8
11 h
11 h
AQI O 3
.100 48
AQI SO 2
.100 5
180
350
116 .9
11 h
AQI PM 10
.100 39
300
11 h
CO

AQI 11 h Max (11;66 ;48 ;5;39 ) 66


Kt lun: cht lng khng kh lc 11 gi mc trung bnh,
thng s c mc nhim cao nht l NOx

4. V d tnh ton
Kt qu tnh ton AQI gi cho c ngy 30/5
Thi gian

AQI

AQI

AQI

AQI

AQI

NOx

O3

CO

PM-10

SO2

AQI

5/30/2011 0:00

38

24

43

43

5/30/2011 1:00

31

19

46

46

5/30/2011 2:00

34

24

46

46

5/30/2011 3:00

35

14

50

50

5/30/2011 4:00

39

16

51

51

5/30/2011 5:00

37

16

16

49

49

5/30/2011 6:00

61

12

21

51

61

5/30/2011 7:00

84

16

23

50

84

5/30/2011 8:00

80

14

18

55

80

5/30/2011 9:00

82

22

13

54

82

5/30/2011 10:00

67

36

14

41

67

5/30/2011 11:00

67

48

11

46

67

5/30/2011 12:00

55

63

39

63

5/30/2011 13:00

52

58

32

58

5/30/2011 14:00

57

63

10

28

63

5/30/2011 15:00

60

57

12

28

60

5/30/2011 16:00

64

58

15

29

64

5/30/2011 17:00

69

51

19

35

69

5/30/2011 18:00

68

57

11

45

68

5/30/2011 19:00

37

45

10

46

46

5/30/2011 20:00

33

34

40

40

5/30/2011 21:00

39

26

37

39

5/30/2011 22:00

35

27

40

40

5/30/2011 23:00

37

28

41

41

4. V d tnh ton
2. Tnh AQI ngy
Tnh AQI theo trung bnh 24 gi ca tng thng s
Trung bnh 24
gi
Quy chun
AQI tnh theo tb
24h

NOx

O3

CO

PM-10

SO2

105

62

3434

128

100

5000

150

125

105

69

85

AQI ngy ca tng thng s:


V d AQI ngy ca NOx
AQI AQI
Tb ng
0 h 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h 5 h 6 h 7 h 8 h 9 h 10 h 11 h 12 h 13 h 14 h 15 h 16 h 17 h 18 h 19 h 20 h 21 h 22 h 23 h 24h y

38 31 34 35 39 37 61 84 80 82 67 67 55 52 57 60 64 69 68 37 33 39 35 37 105 105

4. V d tnh AQI
Tnh AQI ngy
AQI
ngy

AQI ngy ca tng thng s


Thng
s

NOx

O3

CO

PM-10

SO2

AQI

105

63

69

85

105

Kt lun: cht lng khng kh ngy 30/5 mc


km, thng s nhim nht l NOx

Cm n qu v ch theo di