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Unit Topic: Introduction to Historical Literacy Stage 1: Desired Results

Content Standard/Established Goals(s):

Grade Level: 3rd Grade

National Council for Social Studies Standards


NCSS B.I.sa.2 Learners can have the opportunity to begin to develop the skills of historical thinking that will enable them to differentiate past, present, and future time, and to raise questions and seek answers from historical stories and records from the past. NCSS. A.1.a. Guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference. NCSS. B.I.b. Guide learners in practicing skills of historical analysis and interpretation, such as compare and contrast, differentiate between historical facts and interpretations, consider multiple perspectives, analyze cause and effect relationships, compare competing historical narratives, recognize the tentative nature of historical interpretations, hypothesize the influence of the past on the present.

Pennsylvania State Standards: Social Studies


PASS 8.1.3.C. Conduct teacher guided inquiry on assigned topics using specified historical sources. (Reference RWSL Standard 1.8.3 Research) PASS 8.1.3.B. Identify fact, opinion, multiple points of view, and primary sources as related to historical events.

Pennsylvania Common Core State Standards


PACCSS.CC.143C Expand a topic for an informational/explanatory piece by presenting a combination of facts, data, and details PACCSS.CC.1.5.3.D (CCRS.SL.3.4) Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and clean pronunciation. PACCSS. CC.1.4.3.D (CCRS.W.3.2) Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. PACCSS. CC.1.4.3.C (CCRS.W.3.2) Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Understanding(s) Our families, and we ourselves, live and participate in history. History can be measured using standards units of time (years, decades, centuries, millennia) or in generations. A generation, within a family, is

Essential Questions What was life like for our grandparents when they were in third grade? What was life like for enslaved Americans? What are the different ways we can look at a historical era? How can time be measured?

Understanding(s) Our families, and we ourselves, live and participate in history. History can be measured using standards units of time (years, decades, centuries, millennia) or in generations. A generation, within a family, is defined by subsequent groupings of parents and offspring. Within a society, a generation is loosely defined as a group of people who were born in the same 15-25 year period. People who were born in the same generation may have different perspectives on history. We can look at history using different lenses: social, economic, technological, and cultural. Historians use sources to gather evidence to investigate a historical research question, without drawing on outside knowledge. Sources can be primary or secondary. We can only know history partially, and with incomplete evidence.

Essential Questions What was life like for our grandparents when they were in third grade? What was life like for enslaved Americans? What are the different ways we can look at a historical era? How can time be measured? Is there more than one way to tell the history of an era?

Student Objectives/Outcomes Students will know... Four different lenses through which history can be analyzed (economic, social, technological, cultural.) The general living conditions and culture of slaves in the American South. Proper etiquette for conducting and interview. The general living conditions for a variety of people who lived during their grandparents youth. The differences between broad and narrow questions; open-ended and yes/no questions. The Gregorian units of Historical time (years, decades, centuries, millenia) and how to manipulate

Student Objectives/Skills Students will be able to... SWBAT design interview questions based on their prior knowledge and interest in order to interview their grandparents about their lives in third grade. SWBAT recognize and utilize different historical lenses in order to gather evidence from historical resources. SWBAT use the generations and standard historical units in order to quantify and conceive of historical time in the last 200 years. SWBAT gather evidence in order to define the perspective of a historical figure or writer. SWBAT compare and contrast perspectives on the same historical time period in order to explore the pluralistic nature of history. SWBAT take research notes in order to gather evidence for a historical inquiry.

Performance Task(s)

Stage 2: Assessment Evidence Other Evidence


Class Discussion Monitoring student conversation Conferencing Self-monitoring checklists for interview etiquette Feedback from community members interviewed by students. Student report on community member interview. Student notes from peer interview.

*Generate a list of people in their grandparents or parents generation who they are not related to. *Use primary and secondary sources in order to look at the lives of enslaved Americans through different historical lenses. *Use the evidence they have gathered about the lives of enslaved Americans to compose at least a page of history about their lives. *Use prior knowledge to create a list of historical hypotheses answering the research question What was life like when my grandparents were in third grade? *Pick 5 historical hypotheses to focus on and develop 3 interview questions to investigate each. *Prepare a list of main interview questions with three follow up questions each. *Interview grandparent, filling out research notes to gather evidence to answer the research question: What was life like for our grandparents in third grade. *Use interview/research notes to compose a page-long history of life when their grandparents were in third grade. *Use interview/research notes to compose an artistic reflection on life when their grandparents were in third grade.

Learning Activity B E G I N I N G * C U L M I N A T I N G
Read Aloud Discussion Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson. Focus on defining generations and tracking the generations of a family. Time Machine Math: How long ago? Students solve a math word problem about time travel. Historical Hypothesis Sheet As part of a historical investigation, students explore their prior understandings about life when their grandparents were in third grade. Read Aloud Discussion: A Light in the Darkness by Lesa Cline Ransom A read aloud focusing on observing technology used in clandestine pit schools operated by slaves. Time Machine Math: How Old? Given a persons date of birth, students will determine how old that person is today. Historical Research: Technological Analysis In groups differentiated by reading levels, students will investigate primary and secondary sources through a technological lens, looking for evidence of the technology used by enslaved Americans

Stage 3: Learning Plan Objective/Goal


- SWBAT define a generation using examples from the story and vocabulary to indicate family relations (grandparents, grandchildren, etc.)

Formative Assessment
- Keeping track of generations during read aloud. - Intermittent discussion of generations and how they are related (Grandmother, great grandmother, etc.)

- SWBAT determine the length of time between two years using addition and subtraction strategies on a timeline. - SWBAT discuss and categorize understandings of recent history in order to form hypotheses about life when their grandparents were in third grade.

- Class discussion
- Student demonstration and explanation of strategies.

-Together class will chart what they think they know about this time period. -Students will organize their understandings on a worksheet, dividing them into previously defined economic, social, technological, and cultural categories. - Read aloud discussion. Students will explain what technology they see and why it satisfies this definition. -Students will snap when they see different technology that satisfies our definition.

SWBAT use the definition of technology of any non human tool that makes life easier to find examples of technology in the read aloud.

SWBAT determine the age of a person in years using their own addition and subtraction strategies.

- Student work and discussion will demonstrate their ability to conceive of historical time in terms of years.

SWBAT analyze primary and secondary source documents through a technological lens in order to gather evidence about the lives of enslaved Americans.

- Student markings (circling, underlining, marginalia) on documents will record process of analysis. - Notes in Research Packet will demonstrate understanding of what it means to research this era through a technological lens.

Time Machine Math: Counting with decades Given a historical figures date of birth, students will determine how old that person would be today. Read Aloud Discussion: Henrys Freedom Box by Ellen Levine Students will listen to a read aloud focusing on the subject of slavery and looking for evidence to describe the question What are the rules of slavery? During and after the read aloud, students will discuss their findings and later reflect on them in writing. Historical Research: Economic Analysis In groups differentiated by levels of reading comprehension, students will investigate primary and secondary sources through an economic lens, looking for evidence of the economic lives of enslaved Americans (defined as their jobs, their source of food, type of shelter.) Read Aloud: Follow the Drinking Gourd by Jeanette Winterson Students will listen to a recording of Follow the Drinking Gourd following along with printed lyrics. During a read aloud, students will underline lyrics of the song that they connect to the book. Afterwards the class will discuss their findings and the meaning of the code.

- SWBAT determine the age of a recognizable historical figure in years and decades using their own addition and subtraction strategies.

- Student work and discussion will demonstrate their ability to conceive of historical time in terms of years and decades.

SWBAT discuss and provide a working definition for the rules of slavery using evidence from Henrys Freedom Box in order to build a foundation for thinking of slavery as an institution governed by laws and customs.

-Students will answer the focusing question using pieces of evidence from the book. -Students will use of evidence from a specific text, without prior knowledge, to discuss the issue of slavery. -Student discussion will demonstrate their understanding of the focus question.

SWBAT analyze primary and secondary source documents through an economic lens in order to gather evidence about the lives of enslaved Americans.

- Student markings (circling, underlining, marginalia) on documents will record process of analysis. - Notes in Research Packet will demonstrate understanding of what it means to research this era through an economic lens. -Observation of group work will allow me to monitor students understanding of the task.

SWBAT analyze and name the codes used in the tradition song Follow the Drinking Gourd SWBAT Compare and contrast the codes in Follow the Drinking Gourd and in show way quilts in order to discuss the role of coded art in the Underground Railroad.

-By naming specific lines of the song and matching them to events in the book, students will demonstrate the meaning of the codes in Follow the Drinking Gourd -By comparing and contrasting specific aspects of Follow the Drinking Gourd and the quilts from Show Way students will demonstrate their understanding of the role and meaning of coded art in the Underground Railroad.

Historical Research: Cultural Analysis In groups differentiated by levels of reading comprehension, students will investigate primary and secondary sources through a cultural lens, looking for evidence of the cultural lives of enslaved Americans. Read Aloud Discussion: Henrys Freedom Box Students will listen to a read aloud focusing on the emotional experience of Henry Brown and looking for evidence of the different feelings he has in his life as a slave. During and after the book, students will discuss their findings and later reflect on them in writing, building on their previous writings about slavery. Writing History: Composing a history of the Lives of American Slaves Using their research notes as a reference, students will write a short history of slave life through the four lenses that they have studied. Interview Workshop: Focusing Interests and Generating Questions Students will use their Historical Hypothesis sheets to pick 5 topics they are interested in researching through their interviews. They will generate three questions for each of these topics on a research questions sheet.

SWBAT analyze primary and secondary source documents through a cultural lens in order to gather evidence about the lives of enslaved Americans.

- Student markings (circling, underlining, marginalia) on documents will record process of analysis. - Notes in Research Packet will demonstrate understanding of what it means to research this era through a cultural lens.

SWBAT describe how the conditions of slavery affected the emotional lives of enslaved people in order to deepen their understanding of the institution of slavery.

-Students will demonstrate their understanding of the ways that slavery affects Henrys life using evidence from the book. -Students will enrich their definitions of slavery using specific details from Henrys life to describe the human dimensions of slavery. - Students will demonstrate their ability to connect the structures of slavery to the human dimensions by matching specific structures with personal examples from Henrys life. - Students writing will demonstrate their ability to use notes to compose an original piece of non-fiction summarizing their research. - Students writing will demonstrate their capacity to write from research notes while ignoring outside knowledge. - Students will demonstrate their interest in 5 different, selfselected subjects by generating three related questions. -The logical connection between student questions will help me to assess student understanding of the task. -The depth and open endedness of students questions will help me pre-assess their experience with interview.

SWBAT use evidence that they have gathered through research to write a page long history of the lives of American slaves. SWBAT compose an original piece of non-fiction writing using only evidence gathered through research.

SWBAT draft interview questions on topics picked from their hypothesis sheet.

Interview Workshop Discussion: Lead and Follow Up questions. In a mini lesson, the class will analyze a topic with a set of questions to organize them into lead and follow up questions. Interview Workshop: Refining Questions The students will then organize their own questions this way, weeding out questions that dont belong. Interview Practice: Interviewing a Community Member as a Class Student groups differentiated by interest in a different pre-selected members of the school community will generate questions to ask him or her. Each student will choose a question to ask and take notes on. The group will present their research data to the class question by question. Interview Practice: Interviewing a Peer Using a set of predetermined questions, students will interview their peers and take notes, practicing and monitoring interview etiquette using a checklist. Interviewing a Grandparent. Using the questions that they have designed, students will interview their grandparents about their lives when they were in third grade.

SWBAT define a lead question and a follow up question in the context of their personal interviews.

- Students discussion and questioning about a modeled topic will demonstrate their developing conception of broader and more specific questions in the context of their interviews. - Students organization of their questions will demonstrate their ability to conceptualize broader and more specific questions in the context of their chosen subject. - Students will demonstrate engagement with questioning prior experience by drafting and refining a list of questions. - Students will demonstrate interview etiquette by self monitoring through the use of checklists. - I will monitor interviews by circulating during that interview time. - Students will self-monitor their interview skills by using an interview etiquette checklist.

SWBAT organize questions into lead and follow up questions in order to structure their interviews.

SWBAT generate questions in groups in order to interview a member of the school community as a class. SWBAT take notes in an interview setting in order to compose a short report of their research findings.

SWBAT conduct a three-question peer interview and take coherent notes.

SWBAT conduct and take notes on an interview using original and teacher-assigned questions.

- Students will self-monitor their interview skills by using an interview etiquette checklist. - I will review student notes in between days one and two of interview practice in order to give feed back for the second day of practice. - Students will take notes that, in their brevity, provide a clear answer to the question asked. -Students will demonstrate comprehension of their subjects answers by taking clear notes. -Students monitor their own mastery of interview conventions by using a checklist provided by their teacher.

Read Aloud: The Escape of Oney Judge I This introductory read aloud of The Escape of Oney Judge by Emily Arnold McCully will focus the students attention on the circumstances of the life story of Oney Judge, who was owned by the Washington family. Using prior knowledge of revolutionary America, students will be encouraged to interact with and deconstruct their ideas about George Washington and the American Revolution at a developmentally appropriate level. Read Aloud: The Escape of Oney Judge II Revisiting The Escape of Oney Judge by Emily Arnold McCully, students will be encouraged to view the story through the perspectives of various characters: Oney, Washingtons driver, a ship captain who transports Oney, the Jonses a free black couple who hides Oney, Mr. Sullivan a white man who helps Oney escape, and Martha Washington. I am Poems Drawing on their analysis of character perspectives in The Escape of Oney Judge, students will compose I Am poems (Levstik & Barton, 129) written from the perspectives of these characters.

SWBAT draw on prior knowledge of the colonial America in order to interpret the story of Oney Judge.

Students will demonstrate prior understandings about George Washington and the American Revolution in a preliminary discussion. Based on students prior knowledge and a list of possible points of conversation, I will generate questions to encourage students to examine their own understandings through the lens of Oney Judges experience. Discussion will demonstrate students understanding of Oney Judges perspectives on slavery throughout her life.

SWBAT compare and contrast the perspectives of characters in The Escape of Oney Judge in order to cultivate empathy for the characters and develop a complex understanding of the social circumstances at the time.

Throughout the reading, students will be asked, in pairs, to consider the actions and ideas of various characters in the book. Students synthesis of their partners ideas will demonstrate their ability to listen closely to both the story and their peers reflection on the story. Student responses will measure their understanding of and empathy for character motives as based on textual evidence.

SWBAT compose I am poems in order to further explicate character perspectives in The Escape of Oney Judge and cultivate historical empathy.

Student compositions will demonstrate empathy using evidence of their beliefs, thoughts, fears, hopes, feelings, and sensory experiences derived from textual evidence to represent character perspectives.

Composing History: Reporting on an Interview. Students will use their interview notes to compose a one page history of their grand parents lives as third graders. Creative Project: Interviews Students will choose from a number of possible media projects to create an original composition based on their interviews.

SWBAT use interview notes to compose an original history of their grandparents lives as third graders.

Students will demonstrate their ability to compose an original piece of non-fiction writing using only research notes from an interview source by reporting all relevant source material in a logical fashion.

SWBAT use interview notes to compose an original piece of art or narrative in the media or their choice.

Students will demonstrate ability to compose an original piece of art or narrative using only their research notes from an interview source by providing a logical explanation of their creative process in relation to their interview research. - Students will present their project with an explanation of their creative process and thinking in representing their interview research. Students will use specific examples from peer presentations to discuss the differing perspectives that exist within a generation that grew up in the same era.

Reflective Writing: Perspectives on a Generation Students will reflect on the different perspectives within their grandparents generation drawing on evidence in their peers interview presentations to answer the question: What have you learned from these presentations about life during your grandparents youth?

SWBAT compare and contrast the experiences of their peers interview subjects in order to reflect a historical era from different perspectives.