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PROBLEMS ON PILES/DEEP

FOOTING
Problem # 01
 A cast in place concrete pile in
medium sand is 0.5 m in dia and 10 m
long. The water table is 2 m below the
top of the pile. The bulk density of sand
above the water table is 1.8 t/m3 . and
below the water table the density is
1.95 t/m3 . Angle of shearing resistance
is 38o . Assume Nqp = 60 and ks tan  =
0.5, Dc /B = 8. Determine the ultimate
load and the safe load for a pile with F.S
= 3.
Solution
 Qf = Qb + Qs 2 m
Dc = 4 m
 (1) Base resistence (Qb )
 B = 0.5 m
 Lp= 10 m
 Nqp = 60 Dc= ? From table
 for medium sand, Dc = 8 x B = 8 x 0.5 =
4m
 Lp > Dc .
 fb = o  Nqp Where o = Effective
vertical pressure at Dc .
 o = (1.8 x 9.8 x 2) + ( (1.95-1) x 9.8
x 2) = 53.9 kPa.
• (ii) Frictional resistence, Qs
 Qs = Asx fs
 fs =?
 The frictional resistence is calculted by
considering the pile in three parts, 0-2m, 2
m - 4 m (Dc ) and 4 m –
 10 m. The frictional resistence will increase
upto Dc only = 4 m.
  at 2 m = 2 x 1.8 x 9.8 = 35.28 kPa.
  at 4 m = (35.28 + ( 1.95- 1) x 9.8 x 2) =
53.9 kPa.
 Average vertical stress for 0-2 m = 17.64 kPa.
( 0+ 35.28/2)
  Av. fs1 =17.64 x ks tan  = 17.64 x 0.5 =
8.82 kPa.

• Vertical stress below Dc is assumed
constant and equal to 53.9 kPa.
• fs3 = 53.9 x 0.5 = 26.95 ( unit skin
friction)
• Qs = fs1 x B x D1 + fs2 x B (Dc –
D1) + fs3 B (Lp - Dc )
• = 8.82 x  x 0.5 x 2 + 22.3 x 
x 0.5 x 2 +26.95 x  0.5 x 6 = 352
kN.
• Qf = Qb + Qs = 635 + 352 = 987 kN.
• Q = Q /3 = 987/3 = 329 kN.
Problem # 02
• A cased concrete pile, 0.42 m outside
diameter, is driven through 11 m of
loose sand and for a depth of 3 m
into underlying medium dense
sand. The skin friction is measured
with a static cone fitted with a
friction sleeve; fs = fc(av) = 20 kPa
in loose sand and fs = fc(av) = 55
kPa in medium dense sand. The
cone resistence at base level is
12000 kPa. Determine the safe load
for a pile, using F.S = 2.5.
Solution
• Qf = Qb + Qs

• Qb = /4 B2 x fb fb = qc =
12000 kPa but limit is 11000 kPa
• Qb = /4 (0.42)2 x 11000 = 1524 kN.
• Qs = Qs1 + Qs2 ,Qs1 = through loose
sand = 11m
• Qs2 = through medium dense sand =3 m.
• Qs = B x 11 x 20 + B x 3 x 55
• =  x 0.42 x 11 x 20 +  x 0.42 x 3 X 55 =
290.28 + 217.71
• Q = Q + Q = 1524 + 290.28 + 217.71=
Problem # 03
• Determine the penetration depth for a
40 cm dia. Concrete pile which is
required to carry load of 900 kN at a
safety factor of 2.5. The soil consists
of silty sand upto a depth of 10 m in
which the average cone resistance
(qc)av = 4000 kPa. Silty sand is
underlain by dense sand. The average
cone resistance increases to 13000
kPa within the depth 10 m to 10.5 m
and to 18000 kPa below 10.5 m. to
reach full base resistance the pile
must be driven to at least 5B, i-e 2 m,
in bearing stratum of dense sand.
Solution
• Try the allowable load for a pile,
embedded length 12m. Min.
• Qf = Qb + Qs
• Qb = fb x Ab
• fb = qc= 18000 kPa But limit of fb
=11000 kPa
• Qb = fb x /4 B2 = 11000 x (0.42)2 x
/4 = 1381.6 kN.
• Now Qs = Qs1 +Qs2 +Qs3 .
 0-10m 10-10.5m + > 10.5.
• fs2 = 10 – 10.5 = qc av /200 = 13000/200 =65 kPa.
• fs3 = 10.5 – 12 = qc av /200 = 18000/200 = 90 kPa. (< 100
kPa)
• Qs =  B [(10x20) + (0.5x65) + (1.5x90)]
 D1 x fs1 D2 x fs2 D3 x fs3
 =  x 0.4 ( 200 + 32.5 + 135) = 461.81 kN.
Q = Q
f b + Qs = 1381.6 + 461.81 = 1 843.41
f
s3 x  B x D = 407
 D = 407/90 x x 0.4 = 3.6m.
 12 + 3.6 = 15.6 m
Q
a = Qf/F.S. 1843.41/2.5 =737.36
Q = Q
f a x F.S = 900 x 2.5 = 2250.

 Receiving Load = 2250 – 1843 = 407 kN


Problem # 04
• A bored concrete pile 30 cm in dia.
And 6.5m long, passes through stiff
fissured clay, subjected to seasonal
shrinkage and swelling upto a
depth of 1.5m. The average
undrainedstrength of clay varies
linearly from 50 kPa at 1.5m to 186
kPa at 10m. Find the ultimate load
capacity. Assume  = 0.3.
Solution
• 1.5m top is ignored as the shrinkage
may cause all adhesion to be lost.
• Cu at 1.5m depth = 50 kPa.
• Now cu at base = 50 + 186- 50/8.5 x 5
= 130 kPa
•  Average cu = 50 + 130 /2 = 90 kPa.
• Qf = fb x Ab + fs As
• 1170 x  /4 (0.3)2 + 27 x  x 0.3 x 5
• =82.7 + 127.27 = 210 kN.
Problem # 05
(uplift Resistance)
• Find the uplift resistance and the safe
uplift resistance (F.S = 2.5) of the
under reamed pile installed in clay
with the following data. (if the top 2m
clay is active and subjected to
swelling)
• Dia of shaft = 40 cm, dia. of bulb at
base = 100cm.
• Length of shaft above bulb = 5m cu av
along shaft = 115 kPa. Cu at base =
150 kPa and adhesion factor  = 0.4
Solution
• Projected area of bulb = /4 (Bb –
B2)= 0.659 m2 .
• Neglecting top 2m of activeness
• As =  B x 3 = 3.77 m2
• Qup = 0.659 fb + 3.77 fs [ fb =Nc
x cu =9x150=135

]
fs =  cu = 0.4x 115 = 46
 = 0.659x 1350 + 3.77 x 46 =
1063 kN
 Safe uplift resistance =
Problem # 06
• Find the penetration depth for a 35cm
square R.C pile driven through sea
bed for a jetty structure to carry a
maximum compressive load of 500 kN
and a net uplift load of 300 kN. The
soil below sea bed consists of a 10m
thick layer of saturated medium
dense sand overlying dense sand and
gravel. The average corrected SPT
blows in the top 10m sand are 12 and
on bottom sand gravel layer 40. No
erosion is expected. The minimum
safety factor should be 2.5 on the
uplift load and 4 on the compressive
Solution
• Nav for top10m = 12 (sandy layer)
• N in sand –gravel = 40
• Total ultimate uplift resistance required = 2.5x 300 = 750
kN
• Now fs (medium dense sand)= 2 Nav = 2x12=24 kPa.
• Qs (uplift ) in top 10m = (4x0.35x10)24 = fs x As =336 kN.
• Remaiing uplift resistance = 750 – 336 = 44 kN.
• Friction resistance per meter length in sand gravel = fs xAs
(one meter)
• fs (dense gravel) = 2 Nav = 2x 40 = 80 kPa.
 Friction resistance /meter length = 80 x 4 x 0.35x1
=112 kN/m.
Further penetration required in dense gravel to resist the

uplift of 414 kN.


 = 414/112 = 3.7m
Total Penetration = 10 + 3.7 = 13.7m for uplift.
 Check for compressive load.
Q =Q
f b + Qs.
Q
b = fb x Ab.
 fb (dense gravel) = 40 N Lp /B ≤ 400 N. ≤400x40 ≤
16000 kPa.
=40x4x 3.7/0.35= 16914.3 ≤ 16000 kPa.

But maximum value of f


b which could be adopted = 11000
kPa.
  fb = 11000.
Now Q 2
b = 11000 x (0.35) = 1347.5 kN.
Q
s is same for compression as for uplift.
∴ Qf = 1347 + 750 = 2097 kN.
∴ F = Qf /Qa= 2097/500 = 4.2 > 4 safe.
 this indicates that the required penetration is governed
by uplift resistance.
Problem # 07
(Pile load test)
• The following data refers to a cyclic
pile load test carried out on a
300mm dia. pile 10m long.
• Load on pile top (kN) 150 200 250 300 400 500 600
Total settlement on pile top 1.45 2.25 2.75 3.6 5.75 10.75 30.00
• (mm)
Net settlement on pile top 0.40 0.65 0.80 1.0 1.70 5.25 22.80
(mm)

• Plot the load settlement curves (total
and net) and estimate the
allowable load by different
methods/criterians.
Solution
• Plot the load vs settlement ( Arithmatic graph)
• Plot the load vs Net settlement(Arth. graph)
• (a) Two third of the load causing 12 mm settlement,
that is
• Qa = 2/3 x 500 = 333.33 kN
• (b) 50% of the load causing
• Total settlement equal to 10%
Load
• Of the pile dia. i.e settlement of
• 30mm (i.e 600 kN)

Settlement
• Qa = 1/2 x 600 = 300 kN.
• (c) Net settlement 6mm 2/3 rd of that
• 2/3 x 550 = 1100/3 = 366.66 kN
• (d) Falling to striaght line Qu 600 kN, use F.S =2.
• 600/2 = 300
• Least of the above is 300 kN
Problem # 08
• Two independent loading tests on
300mm dia. Short bored piles in clay
for which  = 0, yielded the following
results.
• Embedded length of pile Added load at
failure (kN)
• 2.15 100
• 2.75 110
• Assuming the adhesion is effective over the
whole of the embedded length, estimate
the mean cohesion of the soil and the shaft
adhesion factor to be used in extrapolating
the test results to larger piles. The densities
of the soil and concrete are 1.92 Mg/m3 and
2.40 Mg/m respectively.
Solution: P

• At point of failure  v =0
• s = 1.92 Mg/m3 Wt.
Qs
• c = 2.4 Mg/m 3. Qb + Qs = P +
• (wt. of pile – wt. of excavated material)
• Now P = 100 kN Lp = 2.15m.
• Qb + Qs = c Ncp x Ab +  c As= c Ncp x /4xd2 +Q b
c
x x d x Lp.
• = c x 9x /4 x 0.32 +  c x  x 0.3 x 2.15 = 0.636 c
+ 2.027  c
• Ncp = 9 (Lp /d > 4)
• P = 100 + wt. of pile – wt. of excavated material
• = 100 + (2.4- 1.92) x 9.81 (/4 x 0.32 x 2.15)
• = 100 + 0.715
• v=0
•  100.715 = 0.636 c + 2.027  c
-----------(i)
• Similarly for 2nd test results  v = 0
• Qb + Qs =9x c x /4 (0.3)2 +  c x x
0.3 x2.75
• = 0.636 c + 2.592  c
• Load = 110 + (2.4 – 1.92) x 9.81 (/4 x 0.32 x
2.75)
• = 110 + 0.915 = 110.915
• 110.915 = 0.636 c + 2.592  c
---------------------(ii)
• Solve equation simultaneously
Problem # 09
• A free standing, square group of 16
piles extends to a depth of 12 m in
stiff clay which is underlain by rock at
24 m depth. The piles are 0.5 m in
diameter and are spaced at 1.5 m
centres. cT at base = 140 kPa,
average (cT)av along shaft = 90 kPa,
adhesion  = 0.45, coefficient of
volume decrease mv below base =
0.08 m2/MN, remoulded cT along shaft
= 50 kPa. Assume group efficiency Eg
= 0.65. Find the allowable load for the
group with F = 2.5. Also estimate the
Solution:
• (a) Considering individual piles.
 fb = cT Ncp = 140 x 9 = 1260 kPa
 fs =  cT = 0.45 x 90 = 40.5 kPa
 Qf =  /4 B2 fb + B Lp fs
 = /4 0.52x 1260 +  x 0.5 x 12 x 40.5
= 247.4 + 763.4 = 1010.8 kN
 Qg = Eg .n Qf = 0.65 x 16 x 1010.8 = 10512
kN
(b)Considering block failure.
 QB = Bo Lo fb + 2 Lp ( Bo +Lo) fB ; Bo = Lo
= 5 m, Lp = 12 m
 fb = cT Ncp = 140 x 9 =1260 kPa
 fs = cT ( remolded) = 50 kPa
 QB = 43500 kN > Qg (31500 + 12000)
 Q = 1/2.5 Q = 10512/2.5 = 4205 kN
• For a settlement the load is assumed
to act at an equivalent raft (5 m x 5
m) located at 12/3 = 4 m above the
base. The compressible zone of 16
m thickness is divided into 4 layers,
each 4 m thick. Pressure increase
at the middle of each layer is
calculated by assuming 2:1 spread
of load Qs. The calculations are
given in table. The total settlement
is 48 mm.
Layer Mid-depth Area  mv  H (mm)
1 (m)
2 49 2 )
(m (kPa)
85.80 27.45
2 6 121 34.75 11.12
3 10 225 18.68 5.97
4 14 361 11.65 3.73
48.28
Problem # 10
• A 40-ft-long precast pile is fully
embedded in sand. The cross
section of pile measures 12 in x 12
in. The allowable working load for
the pile is 80 kip and 54 kip is
contributed by skin friction.
Determine the elastic settlement of
the pile. Ep = 3 x 106 lb/in2 , Es =
4500 lb/in2 , and s = 0.3.
Solution:
s1 =
( Q wp + ξQws ) L
Ap E p
Let ξ = 0.6, E p = 3 x 106 lb / in 2 = 3 x 103 kip / in 2 , Qws = 54 kip, Qwp = 26 kip
Ap = 12 x 12 = 144 in 2 .Then

s1 =
[ 26 + (0.6)(54)](40 ×12) = 0.065 in.
(144)(3 × 103 )
qwp D
(1 − µ s ) I wp
2
s2 =
Es
From Figure 3.27, I wp = 0.82. Also,
Qwp
26
qwp = = = 0.18 kip / in 2
Ap 144
So
0.18 ×12
s2 =
 4500 
( )
1 − 0.32 ( 0.82 ) = 0.38 in.
 
 1000 
 Qws  D
s3 =   (1 − µ s 2 ) I ws
 pL  Es
L 40
I ws = 2 + 0.35 = 2 + 0.35 4.21
D 1.0
So
54 12
s3 = (1 − 0.32 )( 4.21) = 0.287 in.
( 4 ×12)( 40)  4500 
 1000 
Hence the total settlement is
s = 0.065 + 0.358 + 0.287 = 0.71in.
Problem # 11
 Refer to Figure 8.47 which shows
the plan of a pile group. Each pile has
a square cross section measuring 12
in x 12 in. the center-to-center
spacing of the piles is 30 in.
 Determine the group efficiency of
the piles by using:
 a. Eq. (8.112)
 b. Eq. (8.114)
12in

30 in.

Fig. 8.47
Solution:
• Part a: Using Eq. (8.112)

2( n1 + n2 − 2 ) d + 4 D
η=
pn1n2
For n1 = 4, n2 = 3, D = 12 in, and p = 4 D = 48 in.,
2( 4 + 3 − 2 )( 30) + 48
η= = 0.604 = 60.4%
(18)( 4)( 3)
• Part b: Using Eq. (8.114)
•  ( n1 − 1) n2 + ( n2 − 1) n1  −1  D 
η = 1−   tan  
 90n1n2  d
−1  D  −1  12 
tan   = tan   = 21.8o
d  30 
So
 ( 3)( 3) + ( 2 )( 4 ) 
η = 1−  (  21). 8 o
= 0.657 = 65.7%.
 ( 90 )( 3)( 4 ) 
Problem #13
• Refer to Figure 8.41a. For this group
pile, n1=4,n2= 3, D = 305 mm, d =
1220 mm, and L= 15 m. The piles
are square in cross section and are
embedded in a homogenous clay
with cu = 70 kN/m2. Use FS = 4 and
determine the allowable load-
bearing capacity of the group pile.
Assume  = 0.63
Solution:
• From Eq. (8.116),
• ΣQu = n1n2 [9 Ap cu ( p ) + Σαpcu ∆L ]
Ap = ( 0.305)( 0.305) = 0.093 m 2
p = ( 4 )( 0.305) = 1.22 m 2

From Figure 8.19 for cu = 70kN / m 2 , α = 0.63.


So
ΣQu = ( 4 )( 3) [ ( 9 )( 0.093)( 70 ) + ( 0.63)(1.22 )( 70 )(15) ]
= 12( 58.59 + 807.03) ≈10387 kN
• Again from Eq. (8.117), the ultimate block
capacity is Lg Bg cu(p) Nc*+2(Lg +Bg) cu
 L, So
• Lg = (n1 – 1)d +2(D/2) = (4-1)(1.22)+
0.305=3.965 m
• Bg = (n2-1)d + 2(D/2) = (3-1)(1.22)+
0.305= 2.745 m
• L/Bg = 15/2.745= 5.46
• Lg /Bg = 3.965/2.745 = 1.44
• From Figure 7.16, Nc* 8.6. Thus
• Block capacity = (3.965)(2.745)(70)(8.6) +
2(3.965 + 2.745)(70)(15) = 6552 + 14091
= 20643 kN
• So
Problem # 14
• A group pile in clay is shown in Fig.
Determine the consolidation
settlement of the pile groups. All
clays are normally consolidated.
Qg = 500 kip
sand
6 ft
 = 105 lb/ft3
Water table 3
ft
30 ft
45 ft 27 ft Clay

48 ft
sat = 115 lb/ft3
eo = 0.82
Po(1), 21 ft Cc = 0.3
z p(1)
3
2v:1H Po(2), 2v:1H sat = 120lb/ft
Clay 12 ft eo = 0.7
p(2)
Cc = 0.2
Po(3), sat = 122 lb/ft3
Clay 6 ft e = 0.75
p(3) o
Cc = 0.25
Rock Pile group: Lg = 9ft; Bg = 6ft
Solution:
• The stress distribution pattern is
shown in Figure 8.49. Hence
∆p =
Q
= g ( 500)(1000) = 1554 lb / ft 2
• ( L + z )( B + z )  9 + 21  6 + 21 
(1)
g 1 g 1

 2  2

∆p( 2 ) =
( 500)(1000) = 421lb / ft 2
( 9 + 27 )( 6 + 27 )
∆p( 3) =
( 500)(1000) = 265 lb / ft 2
( 9 + 36)( 6 + 36)
Cc (1) H1  po (1) + ∆p(1) 
∆s1 = log  
1 + eo (1)  p o (1) 
 21 
po (1) = ( 6)(105) +  27 + (115 − 62.4) = 2603 lb / ft 2
 2

∆s1 =
( 0.3)( 21) log 2603 + 1554  = 0.7 ft = 8.45 in.
 
1 + 0.82  2603 
Cc ( 2 ) H 2  po ( 2 ) + ∆ p( 2 ) 
∆ s2 = log 
1 + eo ( 2)  po ( 2) 
po ( 2) = ( 6)(105) + ( 27 + 21)(115− 62.4) + ( 6)(120− 62.4) = 3500lb / ft 2

∆ s2 =
( 0.2)(12)  3500+ 421
log = 0.84in
1 + 0.7  3500 
po (3) = ( 6)(105) + ( 48)(115− 62.4) + (12)(120− 62.4) +
( 3)(122− 62.4) = 4025lb / ft 2
∆ s3 =
( 0.25)( 6)  4025+ 265
log = 0.024 ft ≈ 0.29in
1 + 0.75  4025 
Total settlement, ∆ s g = 8.45 + 0.84 + 0.29 = 9.58in.
Problem # 15
• It is proposed to carry the load from a
column on 350 mm diameter bored piles.
The total load to be carried is 2000 kN and
the soil consists of a deep deposit of clay
having the following properties:
• If the piles are Depth
0 Undrained
100 2 shear strength
(m) (kN/m )
• about 9 m long, 3 110
• Estimate the 6 125
• Number reqired 9 125
• And suggest how 12 135
• they should be
• arranged
Solution:
• Consider the ultimate load carried on pile:
• Qf = Qb + Qs
• Taking average cu on shaft of pile as = 115
kN/m2 and an adhesion factor of 0.45 for a
bored pile:
• Qf = 125 x 9 x (/4 x 0.352) + 115 x 0.45
x ( x0.35 x 9)
• = 108 + 512 = 620 kN
• Using a factor of safety of 3: Qa = 620/3 =
207 kN
•  No of piles required to carry 2000 kN =
2000/207 = 9.6
• Say 9 piles which reduces the factor of
• Bored piles should be spaced at about 3
times their diameter and a suggested
arrangement is shown on Fig.
1 m
• The action of the group
• Must be checked for 1 m
2.35 m
 stability.
Consider a pier 2.35 m square:

Q = 125 x 9 x 2.352 +115 x 0.45 x (4 x


fg
2.35 x 9)
 = 6212 + 4378 = 10590 kN