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Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.

5
p. 105 # 2
Let B = {
1
,
2
,
3
} be a basis for C
3
dened by:
1
= (1, 0, 1),
2
= (1, 1, 1), and
3
= (2, 2, 0).
Find the dual basis of B.
Let B

= {g
1
, g
2
, g
3
} be the dual basis for B and {f
1
, f
2
, f
3
} be the dual basis for the standard basis.
Then: g
1
= a
1
f
1
+b
1
f
2
+c
1
f
3
. Hence we have the following system of equations:
g
1
(
1
) = a
1
c
1
= 1
g
1
(
2
) = a
1
+b
1
+c
1
= 0
g
1
(
3
) = 2a
1
+ 2b
1
= 0
The matrix for this system is:
A =
_
_
1 0 1
1 1 1
1 1 0

1
0
0
_
_
R =
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

1
1
0
_
_
.
Now we have g
1
= f
1
f
2
.
A similar solution shows g
2
= f
1
f
2
+f
3
and g
3
=
1
2
f
1
+f
2

1
2
f
3
.
p. 105 #3
If A and B are n n matrices over the eld F, show that trace(AB) = trace(BA). Now show that
similar matrices have the same trace.
Let C = AB = (c
ij
) Then c
ij
=

n
k=1
a
ik
b
kj
. So c
ii
=

n
k=1
a
ik
b
ki
. Now:
trace(AB) =
n

i=1
n

k=1
a
ik
b
ki
=
n

k=1
n

i=1
b
ki
a
ik
= trace(BA).
Now if A is similar to B then P such that B = P
1
AP. trace(B) = trace(P
1
AP) = trace(AP
1
P) =
trace(A).
p. 105 # 4
Let V be the vector space of all polynomial functions from R to R which have degree 2 or less: p(x) =
c
0
+c
1
x +c
2
x
2
. Dene three linear functionals on V by
f
1
(p) =
_
1
0
p(x) dx, f
2
(p) =
_
2
0
p(x) dx, f
3
(p) =
_
1
0
p(x) dx.
Show that {f
1
, f
2
, f
3
} is a basis for V

by exibiting a basis for V of which it is the dual.


We wish to nd a basis B = {p
1
, p
2
, p
3
} V such that {f
1
, f
2
, f
3
} = B

.
Let
_
_
_
p
1
(x) = c
10
+c
11
x +c
12
x
2
p
2
(x) = c
20
+c
21
x +c
22
x
2
p
3
(x) = c
30
+c
31
x +c
32
x
2
then we have:
1
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.5
f
1
(p
1
) = c
10
x +
c11
2
x
2
+
c12
3
x
3

1
0
= c
10
+
c11
2
+
c12
3
= 1
f
2
(p
1
) = c
10
x +
c11
2
x
2
+
c12
3
x
3

2
0
= 2c
10
+ 2c
11
+
8c12
3
= 0
f
3
(p
1
) = c
10
x +
c11
2
x
2
+
c12
3
x
3

1
0
= c
10
+
c11
2

c12
3
= 0
This linear system yeilds the following matrix:
A =
_
_
1 1/2 1/3
2 2 8/3
1 1/2 1/3

1
0
0
_
_
R =
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

1
1
3/2
_
_
.
Now we have p
1
(x) = 1 +x
3
2
x
2
.
Similar solutions show that: p
2
(x) =
1
6
+
1
2
x
2
and p
3
(x) =
1
3
+x
1
2
x
2
.
A simple check will show that f
i
(p
j
) =
ij
as required. It remains to be shown that {p
1
, p
2
, p
3
} is a
basis for V .
Suppose that c
1
p
1
+c
2
p
2
+c
3
p
3
= 0. This gives:
_
_
_
c
1
c
2
/6 c
3
/3 = 0
c
1
+c
3
= 0
3c
1
/2 +c
2
/2 c
3
/2 = 0
. This homogeneous linear
system yields the following matrix:
A =
_
_
1 1/6 1/3
1 0 1
3/2 1/2 1/2

0
0
0
_
_
R =
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

0
0
0
_
_
.
Hence this system has only the trivial solution. Now {p
1
, p
2
, p
3
} is linearly independent, and since dimV = 3,
it must be a basis.
p. 105 # 5
If A and B are n n complex matrices, show that AB BA = I is impossible.
Evedently trace(A+B) = traceA+ traceB, and by # 3, we have trace(AB) = traceAtraceB. Suppose
now that AB BA = I, Then trace(AB) trace(BA) = traceI therefore 0 = traceI = n
p. 105 # 6
Let n and m be positive integers and F a eld. Let f
1
, . . . , f
m
be linear functionals on F
n
. For F
n
,
dene T() = (f
1
(), . . . , f
m
()). Show that T is a linear transformation from F
n
into F
m
. Then show
that every linear transformation from F
n
into F
m
is of the above form, for some f
1
, . . . , f
m
.
Linearity is trivial.
Let L : F
n
F
m
be linear. Let {
1
, . . .
m
} be the dual to the standard basis on F
m
. For 1 j m
and F
n
, dene f
j
() =
j
L(). Then if L() = (y
1
, . . . y
m
), we have f
j
() = y
j
. Hence T() =
(f
1
(), . . . , f
m
()).
2
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.5
p. 105 # 7
Let
1
= (1, 0, 1, 2) and
2
= (2, 3, 1, 1), and let W be the subspace of R
4
spanned by
1
and
2
.
Which linear functionals f:
f(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
) = c
1
x
1
+c
2
x
2
+c
3
x
3
+c
4
x
4
are in the annihilator of W?
If f W

then we have the following homogeneous linear system:

f(
1
) = c
1
c
3
+ 2c
4
= 0
f(
2
) = 2c
1
+ 3c
2
+c
3
+c
4
= 0
which gives the following matrix:
A =
_
1 0 1 2
2 3 1 1

0
0

R =
_
1 0 1 2
0 1 1 1

0
0

.
Now we have c
1
= c
3
2c
4
and c
2
= c
3
c
4
. So if f W

, then f(x) = (a 2b)x


1
+ (a b)x
2
+ax
3
+bx
4
for some real numbers a and b. By theorem 16, dimW + dimW

= 4. Since the space of functions dened


above has dimension 2 in R

, it is equal to W

.
p. 106 # 9
Let V be the vector space of all n n matrices over R, and let
B =
_
2 2
1 1

C =
_
0 0
0 1

.
Let W be the subspace of V consisting of all A suct that AB = 0. Let f be a linear functional on V with
f W

. Suppose that f(I) = 0 and f(C) = 3, where I is the 2 2 identity matrix. Find f(B).
Let
E
1
=
_
1 0
0 0

E
2
=
_
0 1
0 0

E
3
=
_
0 0
1 0

.
Now I = E
1
+C therefore 0 = f(E
1
) +f(C) = f(E
1
) + 3 therefore f(E
1
) = 3. Observe that:
_
1 2
0 0
_
2 2
1 1

= 0 and
_
0 0
1 2
_
2 2
1 1

= 0.
Now 0 = f
_
1 2
0 0

= f(E
1
) + 2f(E
2
) = 3 + 2f(E
2
) therefore f(E
2
) = 3/2.
0 = f
_
0 0
1 2

= f(E
3
) + 2f(C) = f(E
3
) + 6 therefore f(E
3
) = 6.
Now B = 2E
1
2E
2
E
3
+ E
4
. Hence f(B) = 2f(E
1
) 2f(E
2
) f(E
3
) + f(C) = 2(3) 2(3/2)
(6) + 3 = 6.
p. 106 #11
Let W
1
and W
2
be subspaces of a nite dimensional vector space V .
a) Prove that (W
1
+W
2
)

= W

1
W

2
.
b) Prove that (W
1
W
2
)

= W

1
+W

2
.
a) Suppose that f (W
1
+W
2
)

and w W
1
and v W
2
. Then w, v W
1
+W
2
. Hence f(w) = f(v) = 0.
So f W

1
W

2
. Now (W
1
+W
2
)

1
W

2
.
3
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.5
Now suppose that f W

1
W

2
and u W
1
+ W
2
, then w W
1
, v W
2
such that u = w + v.
f(u) = f(w) +f(v) = 0. Hence f (W
1
+W
2
)

and W

1
W

2
(W
1
+W
2
)

.

b) Suppose that f (W
1
W
2
)

. Let = {
1
, . . . ,
r
} be a basis for W
1
W
2
, and choose =
{
1
, . . . ,
m
}, = {
1
, . . . ,
s
} so that is a basis for W
1
and is a basis for W
2
. Note that
the set is linearly independent and hence can be extended to a basis of V , say by the vectors
= {
1
. . . ,
t
}. Now dene f
1
by f
1
(
i
) = f(
i
) = 0, f
1
(
i
) = 0, f
1
(
i
) = f(
i
), and f
1
(
i
) = f(
i
). Dene
f
2
by f
2
(
i
) = f(
i
) = 0, f
2
(
i
) = f(
i
), f
2
(
i
) = 0, and f
1
(
i
) = 0. f
1
W

1
, f
2
W

2
, and f = f
1
+ f
2
,
hence (W
1
W
2
)

1
+W

2
.
Now suppose that f W

1
+ W

2
and u W
1
W
2
. f = g + h where g W

1
and h W

2
. Hence
f(u) = g(u) +h(u) = 0. Now f (W
1
W
2
)

and W

1
+W

2
(W
1
W
2
)

.

p. 106 # 12
Let V be a nite dimensional vector space over the eld F and let W be a subspace of V . If f is a linear
functional on W, prove that there is a linear functional g on V such that g() = f() for each W.
Let {
1
, ,
m
} be a basis for W. Choose
m+1
, ,
n
so that {
1
, ,
m
,
m+1
, . . .
n
} is a basis
for V . Let {f
1
, . . . , f
m
, f
m+1
. . . , f
n
} be the dual basis. Now f = f(
1
)f
1
+ + f(
m
)f
m
. Dene g =
f(
1
)f
1
+ +f(
m
)f
m
+ 0f
m+1
+ + 0f
n
.
p. 106 # 13
Let F be a subeld of C, and let V be any vectorspace over F. Suppose that f and g are linear
functionals on V such that the function h dened by h() = f()g() is also a linear on V . Prove that
either f = 0 or g = 0.
Suppose that neither f nor g is 0, and let dimV = n. Then dimker f = dimker g = n 1. Hence
ker f ker g 6= V . Let V \(ker f ker g). Now suppose that h is linear. Then
2h() = h(2) = f(2)g(2) = 4f()g() = 4h().
But this implies that h() = 0 (F must have characteristic 0), contradicting the fact that f() 6= 0 and
g() 6= 0. Hence h is not linear.
p. 106 # 14
Let F be a eld of characteristic 0, and let V be a nite dimensional vector space over F. If
1
, . . . ,
m
are nitely many vectors in V , each dierent from the zero vector, prove that there is a linear functional f
on V such that f(
i
) 6= 0, 1 i m.
Let = {
1
, . . . ,
m
}, and dene an equivalence relation on by
i

j
i F such that
i
=
j
.
Now is a disjoint union of equivalence classes, say
1
, . . . ,
k
. For 1 i k choose
i

i
and extend
i
to a basis for V , say {
i
,
i2
, . . . ,
in
}. For 1 i k dene the functional f
i
by f
i
(
i
) = 1, f
i
(
ij
) = 0 for
2 j n. Now f
i
(
j
) 6= 0 if and only if
j

i
. The functional f =

n
i=1
f
i
has the required property.
If W and W
0
are subspaces of V , then W W
0
is a subspace W W
0
or W
0
W.
4
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.5
p. 106 # 15
Let V be the space of 2 2 matrices over the eld F and let P be a xed 2 2 matrix. Let T be the
linear operator on V dened by T(A) = PA. Prove that trace(T) = 2traceP.
The matrices E
ij
1 i, j 2 where the i, j entry is 1, and all other entries are 0 form a basis for V .
The matrix for T in this basis is:
B =
_
_
_
p
11
p
12
0 0
p
21
p
22
0 0
0 0 p
11
p
12
0 0 p
12
p
22
_
_
_.
Now traceT = traceB = 2traceP.
p. 107 # 16
Show that the trace functional on the n n matrices is unique in the following sense. If W is the space
of n n matrices over the eld F and if f is a linear functional on W such that f(AB) = f(BA) for each A
and B in W, then f is a scaler multiple of the trace function. If, in addition, f(I) = n, then f is the trace
function.
The matrices E
ij
1 i, j n where the i, j entry is 1, and all other entries are 0 form a basis for W.
It is easy to verify the following facts:
(1) For 1 i n, E
i1
E
1i
= E
ii
and E
1i
E
i1
= E
11
(2) For 1 i n and 1 k n i, E
i,i+k
E
i,ik
= 0 and E
i,ik
E
i,i+k
= E
i,i+k
Now (1) i f(E
ii
) = f(E
11
) and (2) if i 6= j, then f(E
ij
) = 0. If A = (a
ij
) then A =

n
i,j=1
a
ij
E
ij
Hence f(A) =

n
i,j=1
a
ij
f(E
ij
) = f(E
11
)

n
k=1
a
kk
= f(E
11
)trace(A).
Suppose now that f(I) = n. It is not necessarily true that f = trace, but if we assume further that it
is not the case that k | n where k is the characteristic of F then we have: n = f(E
11
)trace(I) = nf(E
11
)
f(E
11
) = 1. So f = f(E
11
)trace = trace.
To see that the extra assumption was necessary let F = Z
2
and f 0, then
0 = f
_
1 0
0 1

= 1 + 1 = trace
_
1 0
0 1

,
but since trace
_
1 0
0 0

= 1, f 6= trace.
p. 107 #17
Let W be the vector space of n n matrices over the eld F, and let W
0
be the subspace spanned by
the matrices C of the form C = AB BA. Prove that W
0
is exactly the subspace of matrices which have
trace 0.
By #3 we see that if C W
0
, then trace(C) = 0 so W
0
ker(trace).
In # 16 we dened the matrix units E
ij
for 1 i, j n, and observed that for 1 i n and
1 k ni, E
i,i+k
E
i,ik
= 0 and E
i,ik
E
i,i+k
= E
i,i+k
. Hence E
i,i+k
= E
i,ik
E
i,i+k
E
i,i+k
E
i,ik
= 0,
so we have that if i 6= j, then E
ij
W
0
. In # 16 we also observed that for 1 i n, E
i1
E
1i
= E
ii
and E
1i
E
i1
= E
11
. Now for 2 k n dene A
k
to be the matrix with the 1,1 entry equal to 1, the k, k
entry equal to 1 and all other entries equal to 0, then traceA
k
= 0, and by the above observation we have
A
k
= E
1i
E
i1
E
i1
E
1i
, hence A
k
W
0
.
Its clear that the set {E
ij
: i 6= j} {A
k
: 2 k n} is linearly independent and there are n
2
1
elements in this set. Now W
0
= ker(trace), as required.
5
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.7
p. 115 # 1
Let F be a eld and let f be the linear functional on F
2
dened by f(x
1
, x
2
) = ax
1
+bx
2
. For each of
the following operators, T, let g = T
t
f and nd g(x
1
, x
2
).
a) T(x
1
, x
2
) = (x
1
, 0).
g(x
1
, x
2
) = (T
t
f)(x
1
, x
2
) = f(T(x
1
, x
2
)) = ax
1
.
b) T(x
1
, x
2
) = (x
2
, x
1
).
g(x
1
, x
2
) = (T
t
f)(x
1
, x
2
) = f(T(x
1
, x
2
)) = ax
2
+bx
1
.
c) T(x
1
, x
2
) = (x
1
x
2
, x
1
+x
2
).
g(x
1
, x
2
) = (T
t
f)(x
1
, x
2
) = f(T(x
1
, x
2
)) = a(x
1
x
2
) +b(x
1
+x
2
).
p. 115 # 2
Let V be the vector space of polynomial functions over R. Let a and b be xed real numbers and let f
be the linear functional on V dende by:
f(p) =
_
b
a
p(x)dx.
If D is the dierentiation operator on V , what is D
t
f?
(D
t
f)(p) = f(D(p)) =
_
b
a
p
0
(x)dx = p(b) p(a).
p. 115 # 3
Let V be the vector space of all n n matrices over the eld F, and let B be a xed n n matrix. If
T is the linear operator on V dened by T(A) = AB BA, and if f is the trace function, what if T
t
f?
(T
t
f)A = f(TA) = trace(AB BA) = 0. Hence T
t
f = 0.
p. 115 # 4
Let V be a nitedimensional vector space over the eld F and let T be a linear operator on V . Let c
be a scaler and suppose there is a non-zero vector in V such that T = c. Prove that there is a non-zero
linear functional f on V such that T
t
f = cf.
Let dimV = n. Extend to a basis B = {,
2
, . . . ,
n
} and let B

= {f, f
2
, . . . , f
n
} be the dual basis.
Let x V . Then x = f(x) +

n
i=2
f
i
(x)
i
so (T
t
f)(x) = f(Tx) = f(x)f() +

n
i=2
f
i
(x)f(
i
) = cf(x).
p. 116 # 5
Let A be an mn matrix with real entries. Prove that A = 0 if and only if A
t
A = 0.
() Trivial.
()
Let B = A
t
A then b
ii
=

m
k=1
a
t
ik
a
ki
=

m
k=1
a
ki
a
ki
=

m
k=1
a
2
ki
= 0 a
ki
= 0 k i.
6
Homan & Kunze Solutions 3.7
p. 116 # 6
Let n be a positive integer and let V be the space of all polynomial functions over the eld R which
have degree at most n. Let D be the dierentiation operator on V . Find a basis for the null space of the
transpose operator D
t
.
{1, x, . . . , x
n
} is a basis for V . Let {f
0
, f
1
, . . . , f
n
} be the dual basis. The image of D is the collection
of polynomials with degree at most n 1, hence deg(D(V )) = n. If f is a functional, then dim(ker f) = n
or f = 0. Now f ker D
t
D(V ) ker f.
p. 116 # 7
Let V be a nite-dimensional vector space over the eld F. Show that T 7 T
t
is an isomorphism of
L(V, V ) onto L(V

, V

).
Suppose that T L(V, V ) and T
t
= 0, then for every functional f, T
t
(f) = 0, hence f T = 0. We
claim that this implies that T = 0. Suppose that such that T 6= 0, then we may choose
2
, . . . ,
n
such that {T,
2
, . . . ,
n
} is a basis for V (n = dimV ). Let {f
1
, . . . , f
n
} be the dual basis. T
t
(f
1
)() =
f(T()) = 1 6= 0, contradicting the assumption that T
t
= 0. Now T 7 T
t
is an injection. dimV =
dimV

dimL(V, V ) = dimL(V

, V

). Hence, T 7T
t
is an isomorphism.
p. 116 # 8
Let V be the vector space of n n matrices over the eld F.
a) If B is a xed n n matrix, dene a function f
B
on V by f
B
(A) = trace(B
t
A). Show that f
B
is a
linear functional on V .
b) Show that every linear functional on V is of the above form.
c) Show that B 7f
B
is an isomorphism of V onto V

.
a) f
B
(A+C) = trace(B
t
(A+C)) = trace(B
t
A+B
t
C) = traceB
t
A+traceB
t
C.

b) For 1 i, k n let E
ik
V be the matrix with i, j entry 1 and all other entries 0. These matrices
form a basis for V . If f is a functional on V and M = (m
ik
) V then we have:
f(M) =
n

i,k=1
f(E
ik
)m
ik
=
n

k=1
n

i=1
f(E
ik
)m
ik
. ()
Let B =
_
_
_
f(E
11
) . . . f(E
1n
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
f(E
n1
) . . . f(E
nn
)
_
_
_. Then (B
t
M)
kk
=

n
i=1
f(E
ik
)m
ik
. A comparison with () shows that
f(M) = trace(B
t
M).

c) If A = (a
ij
) is any matrix, then AE
ij
is the matrix whose j
th
column is equal to the i
th
column of A
and all other entries are 0, hence the only non-zero entry on the diagonal is a
ji
.
Suppose now that for a matrix B, f
B
= 0. Then 0 = f
B
(E
ij
) = B
t
E
ij
= b
ij
, hence B = 0. Now the
map B 7f
B
is an injection and hence an isomorphism since dimV = dimV

.

7