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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

IN

MEMORY OF

Gerald E. Baggett

CO .Sk ?

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2008

with funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/arabicmanualcollOOcrow

LUZAC'S ORIENTAL

GRAMMARS

SERIES.

LUZAC'S ORIENTAL
Vol.
I.

GRAMMARS
C.

SERIES.
J.

Manual

of

Hebrew Syntax. By
VAN DEN BlESEN.

D.

WlJNKOOP and

2S. 6d.

II.

Manual

of

Hebrew Grammar. By
C.

J.

D.

WlJNKOOP and

VAN DEN BlESEN.


Colloquial
etc.,

2s. 6d.

III.

Modern Persian
By

Grammar,

with Dialogues, Extracts from Nasir Eddin

Shah's Diaries, Tales,


F.

and Vocabulary.
\os. 6d.

Rosen.
F. E.

IV.

Arabic Manual. By

Crow.

ARABIC MANUAL

ARABIC MANUAL
A COLLOQUIAL HANDBOOK IN THE SYRIAN DIALECT FOR THE USE OF VISITORS TO SYRIA AND PALESTINE, CONTAINING A SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR, A COMPREHENSIVE ENGLISH AND ARABIC VOCABULARY AND DIALOGUES.
THE WHOLE
IN ENGLISH CHARACTERS, CAREFULLY TRANSLITERATED, THE PRONUNCIATION BEING FULLY INDICATED.

F.
I.ATE
II.
P..

E.

CROW,
AT
I'.EIUUT.

M. VICE-CONSUL

Co., PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE


46, Great Russell Street

UZAC

LONDON &
1901.

PRINTED BY

E. J.

HRILI>,

I.EYDEN (HOLLAND).

c
cor-

PREF A CE.
It
is

hoped that the present work


felt

will

supply a want,

which has long been


of business
or

by

those, who, for purposes


visit

recreation,

have been led to


of

Syria

and

Palestine.

The extensive scope


of tourists
to

English

and
in-

American missionary development, and the yearly


crease
in

the influx

this

country may,

perhaps, render both useful and acceptable any means,

which

facilitate the acquisition of colloquial

Arabic. This

manual has no
exhaustive.
to
It

classical
is

pretensions and

is,

by no means
to

intended, merely, as a practical guide

the

spoken language, which

may

serve

enable

those,

who wish

to

deal

directly

with the natives, to

do

so,

without being obliged to have recourse to the


of an interpreter.

medium
book

The

limited

compass of the

has, necessarily, restricted the selection of the vo-

cabulary, and the words chosen will merely satisfy the

ordinary and
allowances
nunciation.

most practical requirements. In using


for

it,

must be made
It

local

differences of pro-

should, also, be borne in


is

mind

that colloits

quial Arabic

never written, and that both

pronun-

VI
ciation

PREFACE.
and terminology are loose and undefined. English
are used throughout the work, which places

characters
it

within the reach of those,

who have made no study


has been adopted,

of Oriental languages.
ciation,
for

As

regards spelling and pronun-

a system

of transliteration

purposes of uniformity, but local difterences of dia-

lect

and the arbitrary disregard,


rules,

in

spoken Arabic,

for

the

which govern the formation of the

classical

language, necessarily preclude an absolutely rigid adher-

ence to
I

it.

take

this

opportunity
kind

of

expressing

my
I

grateful

appreciation of the
ceived,
in

assistance

which
work,

have
from

re-

the

compilation

of

this

Dr.

WORTABET, Messrs. ESPER and FUAD Shoucair and Mr. Const ANTINE KhouRI of Beirut, and from Messrs. Nesif Bey and Michael Meshaka of Damascus.
British Consulate.

F. E. C.
i.

Damascus,

October

1899

CONTENTS.
Page.

Orthography and Pronunciation

Etymology
Paradigms of Verbs

10

22 58

Numerals
Prepositions

60
63 70
71

Adverbs
Conjunctions
Interjections

Seasons, Months, and Days of the

Week

73

Time
English and Arabic \'ocabulary
Dialogues in English and Arabic

74

79

305

ABBREVIATIONS.
a.

adjective.

ad.
c. c.

adverb.

comparative.
p.

collective plural.

com.
con.
contr.
d.
f.

common

to

both genders

conjunction.
contracted.
dual.

feminine.
imperfect.

imp.
imper.
lit.

imperative.
literally.

m.
n.

masculine.

noun.
negative.
plural.

neg.
Pp.p.

passive participle.
passive.

pass.
per.
pr.

person.
preposition.

pres. part.

present participle.

pro.

pronoun.

pro. suff.
s.

pronominal
singular.

suffix.

sup.
V.
V. V.
a.

superlative.

verb.
active verb.

n.

neuter verb.

ARABIC MANUAL.
PART
I.

GRAMMAR.

ARABIC MANUAL.
I.

Grammar.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.


The oriental character is not used in this Httle work. The Arabic letters are represented by their approximate
is completed vowel sounds as pronounced. The system of orthography adopted for this purpose has been followed as closely as local differences in pronunciation will admit. It is, however, not rigid and the aim is rather to reproduce, as correctly and as intelligibly as possible, the sound of words as pronounced, than to give a forced rendering of the Arabic letters by the

English equivalents and the transliteration


figuring the

by

substitution of arbitrary equivalents.

Alphabet.

The Arabic alphabet


which
are

figured

consists of twenty-eight letters, throughout the book by the cha-

racters represented in the following table.

ARABIC MANUAL.

Arabi c

English
letters.

Figured.

equivalent.

elif

a,

e, i or u (modified according to the vowel sound).

be
te

b
t
s,
J

b
t

se

th

s
J

or

jim ha

khe
dal
zal oi
-

hh kh
d
thai
z,

kh
d
th
z
r

re

zayn
sin

'V

z
s

z
s

shin

sh
s

sh
s

sad

dad
ta

dd
t
It

d
t

za
'ain

z,
'.

th

z
'

none

placed before a vowel (gives a hollow sound like the at-

tempt
ghain '^0<T
fe kaf,
'

to

pronounce a vowel

without a consonant).
f

'af

("a)

"

when the k sound is omitted, and k when it is pronounced, which is rare.

kef

k
1

k
1

lam
mini

m
n w, oo

m
n w,
u,

nun

wow
he ye

u or

ow

h
y.
i

h y or

GRAMMAR.
The hemza
It
is

a soft breathing or point of disjunction. creates a hiatus before the vowel which it introduces
its

very similar to the sound made when attempting to pronounce a vowel without a consonant. It is either a radical letter or an inflection prefixed to verbs and is joined to the letter elif, which has no

and

effect

is

sound of itself in Arabic. When it comes in the middle and has of a word it is represented by the breathing 'ain, e. the similar to g. a sound very
'

mu'min a
In the vernacular the
is

believer,

ma'kulat eatables.

hemza
e. g.

in

the middle of a word


lawful (pronounced

often

replaced

by ye

je'iz

jeyiz); le'i"

proper (pronounced

leyi").

Vowel

sounds.

The Arabs have only three vowel signs which are They are called fatha, kesra and damma. The fatha has an open sound like the 'a' in 'ashore', hadd a boundary. The kesra has the sound of e. g. in 'in', e. g. hibr ink. The damma has the sound of 'u'
unwritten.
'i'

in

'puir, e. g.

kutub books.
is

As

the oriental character

not used in this book,

its

object being merely to reproduce the sound of Arabic words as pronounced by means of a system of transliteration,
it

will

be sufficient to note that there are ten

vowel sounds and three compound vowel sounds, for each of which a specific character has been adopted,
as follows:

a
a

long
short

as in father, far

written a

ashore, china

ARABIC MANUAL.
e

french
short

as in egal
w n
n

(li

ike a in fate) written


V

e
i

merit

e
1

long
short

11

marine
ill

n
n

V
V

long
short

old
or

6
o
u

o
u

n
n
11

oo or u long
short
ai,

n
1)

too
pull
in
n

ay

is

pronounced
n n

this
V

book
n V

as in aisle.
V V n n

ey

prey.

ow

powder.

Observations on pronunciation.
se

(figured
suls

or

t)

is

sometimes pronounced
't',

*s',

e. g.

a third, and sometimes

e. g.

ti"il

heavy. but
it

Its
is

proper pronunciation is 'th' as in rarely heard in conversation, jim (figured j) is pronounced in Syria
like the
*z'

'thick'

like a soft 'g' or

in azure,

ha (figured
akin to

h)

has an

open guttural sound, somewhat


deep guttural sound, resembling
is

'kh'.

khe
zal

(figured kh) has a


'ch' in

the

the Scotch word loch.


(figured
'th',
is

or thai

z)

generally pronounced

the plain and

as in 'them',

'z' on on the mountain. In

some places
'ain

it

pronounced
I

'd'.

(figured
'ind-i

'

before a vowel) has a deep hollow sound,

e. g.

with me,
"

have,
'k'

kaf (figured

when

the

sound
'k'

when

it

is

pronounced).

The

has completely disappeared in

is omitted and k sound in this letter most parts of Syria and

GRAMMAR.
only retained like the Arabic
is

7
It
is

among

the Druses.

pronounced

hemza with a deep hollow sound, "iddem-i before me; wa"aft I stood; kadir 'ala e. g. kill shey The Almighty. y followed by a vowel is pronounced as in yes.

diairesis,

placed,
e. g.

is

t'ai

vowel, over which it is pronounced separately, as in 'naive', come, (imper. fem.) mai water.
to be
;

denotes that the

The
syllable

acute accent

is

used

to

indicate

the

letter or

on which the accent

falls.

Termination.
In Syria, after the following letters, the final te (called
te

marbuta or

tied

te) the sign

of the fem. sing, and


is changed and pronounced short
i

the general
like the
'y'

termination
in

of

all

fem. words,

into ye in the colloquial language

merry.

It

is

here written
a blow.
a plant.

after be
77

e.g. darbi
77

te

nebti
ba'asi

77

sc

77

a mission. a

77

jim
dal
zal

77

merji

meadow.

77

77

wardi
khuzi
lowzi
jilsi

a rose.
a helmet.

77

77

77

zayn
sin

77

an almond.
a sitting. a bite.

77

77

77

shin
fe

77

nehshi
rejfi

77

77

trembling
a cake.

77

kef

77

ka'aki

77

lam

77

baghli

a she-mule.

mim

77

rah mi

mercy.

8
after

ARABIC MANUAL. nun


e. g.

hafni

a handful.

wow
ye

serwi
zabiyi

wealth.
a gazelle.

Note. These words are properly darbeh, nebteh, ba'aseh, etc. and darbet, nebtet, ba'aset, etc. before a word

beginning with a vowel.


After the following letters the final te is dropped altogether and the fatha or open sound of the preceding
syllable
is

alone pronounced.

fatha always precedes


elif.

the sien of the fern. sing, whether te or


after
n

ha

e.g. tiffeha
V
11

an apple.
a chicken.

khe
sad

ferkha
fursa

an opportunity.
a loan. a dot.

V n n
n

dad
ta

It

"urda nu"ta
lafza

za
'ain

V V w

an utterance.
a tract of land a
list.

bu"

'a

ghain
"af (kaf)

latgha

hal"a

a ring.

suspicion.. shubha he Note. These words are properly tififehah, ferkhah, fursah,
etc.

and

tiffehat, ferkhat, fursat, etc.

before a

word

beginning with a vowel.


After the letter re the
into
ye,
final

te

is

sometimes changed
ill,

pronounced
kbireh),

'i'

short

as

in

e. g.

kbiri big

(properly

zghiri

small

(properly

sghireh),

and

sometimes omitted altogether, leaving only the fatha of


the preceding syllable, e, g. jerra a jar (properly jerreh or j arret before a vowel). In all words, which have the ending of the fem. sing..

GRAMMAR.
the
't'

sound of the original termination reappears, when the word is immediately followed by another word beginning with a vowel, e. g. jneyni the garden. jneynit al-khuri the priest's garden.

Shortening of words.
The tendency
of the
of the spoken language and especially
is

words as much as possible. Hence the vowel sound, which properly belongs to the initial letter of a word, is only pronounced when the second syllable is quiescent (called in Arabic sukun) and the word would be unintelligible, if it were omitted.
Syrian dialect
to clip the

Thus, the kesra belonging to the letter 'k' in kiteb a book is suppressed and we have instead kteb; sha'ir
barley becomes sh'ir; resasa a bullet becomes rsasa, and so on. This is especially noticeable in the passive past
participles of certain forms of verbs, in

which the middle


of the
first

radical
syllable

letter
is

is

doubled,

when

the
e. g.

damma

invariably dropped,

pieces {not mukesser),


ded),

mshedded tightened

mkesser broken in [not mushed-

msellem surrendered [not compensated {)iot mu'owwad).


Note.

musellem),

m'owwad

The pronunciation
in

of vulgar Arabic varies greatly of


Syria.

different

parts

That adopted
is

in

the

grammar and vocabulary


at

used

in Beirut

and the dialogues


given in

the

end of the book are

the Damascus

dialect.
in

The pronunciation

most of the Christian in the coast towns and villages of the Lebanon is very similar to that of Beirut. Among the Druses the sound of 'k'

10
in

ARABIC MANUAL.
the

kaf

is

invariably preserved but, in other

respects,

their

pronunciation

differs

Httle

from

that of the Damascenes. In Beirut, the plain and

parts
like
'fate'

of the

Lebanon
'e'

elif is

usually pronounced or
like the
*a'

the
e. g.

French

in

'egal'

in

uled children, ken there was, msefir a

traveller,
it

de'imen always. Whereas,


of
'a'

in

Damascus,
ulad, kan,

has the sound


da'imen.

in

'far'

e. g.

msafir,

The

negative
is

particle

'mush'
parts

(composed of

ma hu

shey)

used in

many

of Syria but never in Damascus, where they say


'mau'. In Beirut the letter

wow

is

generally pro-

nounced

like the 'ow'

in 'how', e.g.

hown, here;

yowm,
cus,
it

a day; jow", a band, etc. while, in Damas-

has the

sound of the

'o'

in 'bone', e. g.

hon, yom, jo".


Beirut
in

The

'ain in

'ind takes a kesra in


'ind-i I
it

and the Lebanon,


e. g.

e. g.

have, but

Damascus and other


'and-i.

parts

is

pronounced

with a fatha,

Etymology.

The Article.
The Arabs have only one
and
is

article

'al',

which

is

definite
e. g.

prefixed

either

to

the

singular

or plural,

al-fcrruj

When
sh,
z,

the chicken; p. al-fererij. followed by any one of the letters


j,

t,
'1'

d,
is

r,

s,

n and colloquially
at-tilaghraf the

the sound of the


letter,
e. g.

assi-

milated to that of the succeeding


lady;
telegraph;

as-sit

the

ash-shighl

the

work;

az-zuruf the circumstances; aj-jim'a the week.

GRAMMAR.

The Noun.
There are two genders of nouns in Arabic, masculine and feminine. Nouns are feminine either by signification or termination; e.g. by signification, imm taiyibi a good mother;
ikht
latifi

pleasant

sister;

or

by termination,

e. g.

jneyni kbiri a big garden; uda kvvaiyisi a pretty room.

There are three numbers in Arabic, singular, dual, and The dual is formed from the singular by adding eyn, e. g. walad a child, dual, vvaladeyn bint a daughter,
plural.
;

dual, binteyn.

In words having a feminine termination the final vowel


is

either
e. g.

changed into

't'

or a

't'

is

intercalated before

eyn,

mdini a town, dual, mdinteyn; se'a an hour,


a

dual, se'ateyn.

When
n

pronominal
e. g.

suffix follows the dual the final

disappears,

id

hand,

dual,

ideyn,

my

two

hands ideyi;
'aineyk.

'ain

an eye, dual, 'aineyn, your two eyes


plurals, regular
for

There are two kinds of


or

and irregular
is

broken.

The

regular

plural

masculine nouns
in.

formed from the singular by adding


e. g.

nejjar a carpenter, p. nejjarin.

khaiyyat a

tailor,

p.

khaiyyatin.
p.

khiddem-ak your servant,

khiddemin-ak.
in
'e' 'a'

The
(vulgar
is

regular
i
;

plural

for

feminine nouns ending


note
letters into at or et.

sec

introductory

on tertninations) or

formed by changing these

12
e. g.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bereki a blessing, p. bereket.
kelbi a female dog, p. kelbet.

hara a house, quarter,


ghasseli a

p.

harat.
p. ghasselet.

washerwoman,

The plurals not formed as above are very irregular and varied, so that a thorough knowledge of them can only be acquired by practice. Those in common use will be found in the Vocabulary.

The Adjective.
There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective, sahih true; kerim generous; sabur patient; hiilu beautiful, sweet, but there is only one form of adjective derived from substantives. This is formed by adding i to the substantive, e.g. ward roses, wardi rosy; shems
e.g.

the sun, shemsi solar.

The comparative
fixing
'a'

is formed from the positive by preand lengthening the last syllable of the adjective;

e. g.

sihl,

easy.

c. c.

as-hal.

heyyin,
kbir,
tawil,

ah wan.
atwal.

big, c. akbar.

long.

c.

kwaiyis,
'than'
is

pretty.

c.

akwas.

akbar min
the
case

expressed by the preposition min, e. g. beyt-i beyt-ak my house is bigger than yours. In

of participles, used as adjectives, and various

adjectival forms, which do not readily admit the regular

comparative,

the

latter

is

formed by adding the word

aktar, the comparative of ktir much.

GRAMMAR.
e. g.

meshghul busy%
ikhtiyar
'atshcn
old,

c.
c. c.
c.

meshghul
ikhtiyar
'at.shcn

aktar.

aktar.
aktar. aktar.

thirsty,

deficn

warm,

dcficn

Comparative measure as to the difference in quahty objects is expressed by adding the preposition bi, e. g. al-hawa akhaf min al-mai bi ktir, air is
of various

much hghter than


The
superlative

water.

formed by adding the article to ahsan better, sup. al-ahsan akbar bigger, sup. al-akbar, or by adding the article to the word following, e. g. ahsan an-nes, the best of men hui akbar al-kill (akbar min al-kill), he is the greatest of all.
is

the comparative,

e. g.

The
number.

adjective

agrees with

the

noun

in

gender and

The feminine
^e'

of adjectives

to the masculine, the e

is formed by adding 'a' or being changed in the Syrian


i

dialect

into

ye pronounced

{see

introductory note on
i

terniinations).
e. g.

The
taiyib

feminine
f. f. f.

is

figured short
pretty,

or

a.

kwaiyis

kwaiyisi
taiyibi

good,
well,

mabsut

mabsuta

happy.

When
which
it

an adjective stands next to a substantive with agrees, it is placed after the substantive and
it,

not before
follows

e. g.

jneyni kwaiyisi, a pretty garden.


colour

Adjectives

denoting

form

their

feminine as

14

ARABIC MANUAL.

abyad
asfar

white,

f.

baida.
safra.

yellow,
red,

f. f.
f.

ahmar
akhdar
azra"
'aswad) asvvid

hamra.
khadra,
zer"a.

green,
blue.

f. f.

black,

sowda.

nouns is regular formed in the same way. Adjectives of relation formed from nouns and ending in 'i' form their plural by adding the feminine termination ye, e. g.
plural of adjectives like that of
is

The

or irregular and

fransewi french, p. fransewiyi. Rjel fransewiyi or franse-

wiyin Frenchmen. Note.

They say
beyt
is

in

Arabic beyt

'aali,

a high house
'aali,

al-

al-'aali,

the high house; al-beyt

the house

high.
is

Colloquially the adjective


culine
plural

often placed in the mas-

with nouns which are


thus violating the

feminine or with
of the written

broken

plurals,

rule

language.
e. g.

niswen
al-kiitub

taiyibin

good women,
pretty
girls.

(benet) benat

kwaiyisin
lezizin

the books are interesting.

Cases.

No

use

is

made

colloquially of the case endings.

The
de-

relation

of words to

one another

in

a sentence

is

termined by their respective positions or by means of a preposition. The following examples will sufficiently
illustrate this

Genitive.

Ija

ahad

khiddemin

al-"onsul.

One

of the

GRAMMAR.
Consul's servants

came

(lit:

there

came one of the

servants of the Consul).


a'ala
jibel

ad-dunia.

The

highest mountain in the

world

(lit:

the highest of the mountains of the world).

sukkcn beled an-nemsa. The number of the (lit: inhabitants) of the country of Austria. beyt at-tejir u jneynt-uh. The merchant's house and garden (lit the house of the merchant and his garden). the se'at Yusuf aj-jdidi. Joseph's new watch (lit watch of Joseph the new one). bwebct al-medini. The town gates (lit the gates
'aded

population

of the town).

beb khasheb.
'ati-ni

wooden door

(lit

a door of wood),

kibbeyi mai. Give

me

a glass of water, safifeyn


the genitive
of

ashjar.

Two rows of trees. common way of expressing


'teb'a',

is

by
to.

the use of the word


e. g.

belonging or appertaining

al-beyt teb'a sherik-i.


(lit
:

The house

my

partner
the

belonging to
teb'a

my

partner).

al-kiteb

Butros.

Peter's

book

(lit

book belonging
(lit
:

to Peter),

al-miftch teb'a as-sandu".

The key
is

of the box

the key belonging to the box),


teb'ai.

haida mush

This

not mine

(lit

this

does not belong to me). Some, one of, is expressed by ba'ad followed by the article, e.g. ba'ad an-nes, some people; ba'ad at-tijjar, one of the merchants; ba'ad al-liyeli, one night.
Dative.

The
al,

dative
(li)

sition ila
article

to.
'a'

formed by means of the prepoWhen the word is preceded by the


is

the

of the article disappears before the

preposition,

ARABIC MANUAL.
e.g.

khud khud

hal-kirsi lil-beyt, take this chair to the house,


is

hal-hisan Hl-bey'a, this horse

for sale,

haj-jurnel Hr-rijjel, take this

newspaper to
inter-

the man.
Vocative.

The

vocative

is

formed by adding the

jection ya to the noun,


e. g.

ya abu-na ya habib-i ya 'y'^n-i!

O our father O my friend O my eyes! (a


is

(used to priests),

term of endearment).
etc.

Ablative.

The

ablative

formed by means of the pre-

positions 'an, of or about,


e. g.

min from,

tkellamna 'an al-beyt, we spoke about the house, terjam hal-kiteb min al-'arabi lil-fransewi, he translated this book from Arabic into French.

The Pronouns.
Personal
he,
(f.

pronouns are
inti is


it

ana

inta

(f.

inti)
;

[in

the
(hui)

vernacular
it;

used for either genderj thou hu hiyi she; nahn (nahna) we; intum you;
suffixes are
(ni)

hum
ik)

hinni) they.
:

Pronominal
or our;

me

or

my
(a)

ak

(f.

thee or thy; uh him,

or his, its; ha

her; na us

kum you

or your;

hum

(um) them or their.

When
to

express the accusative


e. g.

joined to a verb these pronominal suffixes serve case of the personal prodarab-ni, darab-ak
(f.

noun,

ik),

darab-uh

(f.

ha)

darab-na, darab-kum, darab-hum.

He

struck me, thee,

him, her,

us,

you, them.
to

When
uh
his,

joined
ha),

nouns and other words they serve as


e. g.

possessive pronouns,
(f.

kiteb-i, kiteb-ak

(f.

ik),

kiteb-

kiteb-na,

kiteb-kum, kiteb-hum my, thy,

her, our, your, their book.

; ;

GRAMMAR.
They
a),

1/

also

serve

as reflexive pronouns
e. g.

when joined
ik),

to ha,

the word zet

self,

zet-i,

zet-ak

(f.

zet-uh

(f.

zet-na, zet-kum,

zet-hum myself,

thyself, himself, etc.

They

are also joined to

many

adverbs, prepositions and


; ;

m'a with min from beyn between; "iddem in the presence of; 'ind by or with, etc., e. g. weyn-ak where are you? m'a-uh with him; min-ha from her; minshen-na for us; beyn-kum between you "iddem-hum before them 'ind-ak with you 'ind-uh with him. 'ind-i with mc The personal pronouns are sometimes added to the pronominal suftixes, when the latter are preceded by a preposition or a noun for the sake of emphasis, e. g. il-li ana to me myself; il-luh hui to him himself; kiteb-i ana my own book. The pronominal suffixes are joined to the cardinal numtletit-na we three bers, e. g. itneyn-kum you two
particles,

such as weyn where

minshen

for;

wahd-i

alone.
is

When
is

a verb

followed by two personal pronouns, as


it

in the

sentence 'He brought

me', the indirect object

placed
is

immediately after the verb and the word


lit:

ye

prefixed to the direct object.

e.g. b'ati-h yeh

'atat-hum yeh
'atu-ni 'ati-ha

him She gave them


I

will give

it.

it.

yeha

They gave me

it

(f).

Give her them, jeb-li yeh He brought me Reflexive pronouns are expressed by the words or nefs joined to the pronominal suffixes.
e. g.

yehum

it.

zet, hal

"atal hal-uh

rah hui bzet-uh

He killed He went
It

himself.
bj' himself,

ken

ar-rijjel

zet-uh

was the man himself.


2

ARABIC MANUAL.

haida (f. haidi) this; Demonstrative pronouns are: haidak (f. haidik) that howdi these haidolik those. When the demonstrative pronoun is joined to the article it contracts into hal, e.g. hal-kiteb this book;
;
;

hal-bint

this

girl;

hash-shajara this tree;

hal-kutub
al-

these books.

But they say haidak al-beyt that house; haidik


bint that girl;

haidolik an-nes those people.

The

relative

conversation,

pronoun 'who, which' has only one form in which is uninflected, illi, pronounced
halli.

more commonly
e. g.

ar-rijjel halli

fil-uda.

The man who


the room,

is

in

at-tijjar halli

"iddem-kum.
inta u

The merchants who


are before you.

yehum. The children with whom you came. min who, whom? limin Interrogative pronouns are: whose, to whom? esh, shu which, what? ay (eni) which one, what e. g. min hownik, who is there? min shuft (inti), whom did you see? limin hal-beyt, whose house is this? limin "ilt, whom did you tell? ay kiteb, what book? shu al mes'eli, what is the matter?
al-uled halli
jit

The Negative.
The negative 'no' and mush
'nothing'
e. g.
is

expressed by the words


contraction of

ma

'not',

la

(a

La, ana

Ana mush

mabsut,

ma hu shey) or mau ma kint hownik. No, I was not there. am not well. The syllable sh (a I
is

contraction of shey thing)

in parts of Syria frequently

GRAMMAR.
added
e. g.

to give

emphasis but

is

never heard

in

Damascus,

Ma

intish mabsut.
I

You

are not at

all well.

Ana ma
'arid.

kintish hownik.

was not

there. An-nahr,

ma

hush

The

river

is

not wide.

The Verb
The

'to have'.
'to

present tense of the verb

have'

is

formed

by-

means of a preposition and the pronominal suffixes, and the past tense is formed by adding to the present the 3rtl pers. sing, of the past tense of the verb ken 'to be'.

Present.
'ind-i

khibz
(f.

have

(lit:

there

is

with me) bread,


'ind-ak

ik)

lahm

Thou

hast

thee) meat,

'ind-uh

(f.

ha) imbid

He

has (she has)


him) wine,
us)

'ind-na bird"an

We

'ind-kum fweki 'ind-hum


tififeh

have You have

are

oranges,
fruit,

you)

They have
Past.

are

them) apples.

ken ken ken ken ken ken

'ind-i

injas

had

(lit:

there were with me) pears,


'ind-ak (f.ik)dirre"

Thou hadst

thee) peaches,

'ind-uh

(f.

ha) kerez

He had (she had)

him) cherries,
us) walnuts,

'ind-na jowz

We had

'ind-kum

khowkh You had 'ind-hum 'inib They had


tense
sing,
is

you) plums,

them)grapes.

the

The future yd pers.

formed

in the

same way, by adding


ken
'to'

future tense of the verbs


(ila)

'to be'

or sir 'to
'with'

become' to the prepositions li joined to the pronominal sufExes.

or 'ind

20
e. g.

ARABIC MANUAL.
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) li or 'ind-i I shall have (lit there will be to me), lak (bikun) or yesir (bisir) f. lik or 'ind-ak f. ik yekun
:

Thou
yekun (bikun) or

shalt have,
f.

yesir (bisir) lull

la

or 'ind-uh

f.

ha

He

(she) shall have,


(bisir) il-na

yekun (bikun) or yesir

or 'ind-na

We
yekun (bikun) or

shall have,

yesir (bisir) il-kum or 'ind-kum


shall have,

You
yekun (bikun) or

yesir (bisir)

lum or 'ind-hum

They

shall have.

The Verb

'to be'.

The present tense of the verb 'to be' is formed by means of the personal pronoun and an adjective, verbal
adjective or participle used as an adjective,
e. g.

ana
inti

mabsut
keslen.
f.

f.

mabsuta.

am

well.

Thou
f.

art lazy,
is

hui

hiyi

meshghul
so'ada.
ta'isin.

meshghula.

He

(she)

busy.

nahna intum

We
You

are fortunate.

are unlucky,
are sad.

hum

f.

hinni

mahzunin.

They

The other
verbs ken
'to

tenses are conjugated as follows from the


be' or sir 'to

become'

e. g.

Future.
z'alen I shall be angry, akun (bkun) tekun f. tekiini (btkun f.btkuni) 'atshen Thou wilt be thirsty. yekun f. tekun (bikun f.bitkun) defien He (she) will be warm.

GRAMMAR.
nckun (niinkun) tekunu (btkunu)

21

yekunu (bikunu)

mcsruriii We shall be pleased, mkhaiyerin You will be puzzled, meskinin They will be miserable.

Past.
kint
kint
f.

t'aben
kinti

I
f. f.

was

tired.

neyim
zghir
tai'yin

ken f. kenet kinna kintum (kintu) kenu


Note.
In
sing,
I

zghiri

jein raihin

neyimi Thou wert asleep. He (she) was young. We were obedient. You were coming.

They were
'b'
is

going.
all

Syria the letter

prefixed to

persons

and

pi.

of the present tense except to the

St

pers. plural

when the

letter 'm' replaces 'b'.

Imperative.

kun
(neg.)

'a"il
(la)

Be

quiet, sensible,

ma

tkun bulit

Do

not be noisy.

The Verb
Present
asir
tesir
f.
f.

'to become'.

or

Future.
f.
f.

Past.

(bsir) tesiri

(btsir
(bisir

btsiri)
bitsir)

become Thou
I

(I

yesir nesir
tesiru

tesir

He

(she)

shall become) becomest etc. becomes

(minsir)
(btsiru)
(bisiru)

We
You They
Past.
sirna
.sirtum (u)

yesiru

become become become

sift
sirt
(f. i)

became. Thou becamest.


I

We became.
You became. They became.

sar

(f.

silrat)

He

(she) b(jcame. saru

22

arabic manual.
Imperative.
S.
2.

sir

Become.

P. 2.
(neg.)

siru

ma

(la)

tsir

Do

not become.

The Verb.
In

verb, reference to

dealing with so complex a subject as the Arabic its theoretical construction or to the
rules,

elaborate

which govern

its

formation, has been

purposely omitted.
will

Ample

information on the subject

be found in any treatise on Arabic grammar by those who contemplate a deeper study of the language. The majority of Arabic verbs are formed from three, and a few from four radical letters. The root of the
verb
root
to
is

the 31"^ pers. sing, of the past tense. From this other forms are regularly derived by the addition

stem of certain prefixes, affixes or infixes. The meaning of each derivative varies according to its form
the

and

is

fully conjugated.

The
Syria,

various derivative forms, as used colloquially in are, as far as is possible in so small a work,
in

are

Vocabulary and the vocal inflections pronounced. Practice alone can render the learner familiar with these forms and inflections, and rules regarding them would only burden the memory of a beginner. As the present work has no clas-

embodied

the

written

as

sical

merely intended to meet the practical requirements of those who wish to learn enough of the spoken language to enable them to hold direct intercourse with the natives of the country, without
pretensions and
is

GRAMMAR.
employing the
sufificient

23

for

medium of an interpreter, it will be ordinary conversational purposes to give a


which
sufficiently

few paradigms of verbs, which arc likely to be of general


rities

use

and

indicate the peculia-

of the Syrian dialect. These


for the rest.

may

serve as rough

models

To WRITE.
In/mitive or

Noun of action.

Participle or

Noun of agent.

kitebi the (act of) writing,

ketib

f.

ketibi p. ketibin a writer.

Present or Future.
(I

write or

shall or will write, etc.).

m.
/

com.
biktub

f.

I.

S.
'

2.
3.

btiktub

btiktubi

byiktub

bitiktub

!i.
2.

mniktub
btiktubii

3.

byiktubu
In

Note.

Syria the letter

'b'

is

prefixed to

all

persons
ist

sing,
pi.

and

pi.

of this tense except to the


'b'.

pers.

when

'm' takes the place of

In dependent

sentences or

when preceded by another verb


is

these

prefixes are omitted.

The

dual

not

used

in

conversation and

is

thus omitted throughout.


In

order to give this tense the exact signification of


present,
e. g.
I

the

am

writing, the participle or

noun

24
of agent

ARABIC MANUAL.
'ammal doing, often contracted into 'amm,
to
it

is

commonly added

without inflection.

Present.
(I

am

writing, etc.).
f.

m.

!i.
2.

com. 'ammal ('amm) biktub

'amm^al ('amm) btiktubi 'ammal ('amm) btiktub 'ammal ('amm) bitiktub 3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktub 'ammal ('amm) mniktub !i. 'ammal ('amm) btiktubu 2. 'ammal ('amm) byiktubu 3. Note. The present can also be expressed by means of the personal pronoun joined to a present partiraihin we are ciple, e. g. ana raih I am going going, or to a verbal adjective, e. g. ana 'atshen
;

am

thirsty.

The exact signification of the future is commonly expressed by the word bedd (bidd) contracted from bi wudd 'it is the desire of'..., joined to the pronominal
suffixes
'b'

attached to the verb


locution

and placed before the present tense. The prefix is more correctly dropped in
but
is

this

generally retained

in

the

vulgar

language.

Future.
(I

will,

am
m.

about to or wish to write,

etc.).

com.
bedd-i iktub

I.

2. 3.

bedd-ak tiktub bedd-uh yiktub

bedd-ik tiktubi

bedd-a tiktub

GRAMMAR.
bedd-na niktub
p.

25

bedd-kum tiktubu bedd-hum yiktubu


Past.
(I

wrote or have written,

etc.)

m.
I.

com.
katabt

f.

^\
\

2.
3I.

katabt

katabti

katab

katabet

katabna
katabtu

p.
3-

katabu

Imperative.
(Write).

S.

2.

m. uktub (ktub)
ist

com.

f.

uktubi

(ktibi)

P. 2.

liktubu (ktubu)
pers. plural imperative
is

Note.

The

taken from the


is

present
let us

or future tense,
2ntl

e. g.

niktub hal-mektub,
omitted).

write this letter (the prefix 'm'

person of the imperative, when used negatively, is taken from the same tense with the

The

addition
correctly

of the
la,

negative

e.g.

ma

(la)

more tiktub hal-mektub, do not


particle

ma

or

write this letter (the prefix

'b'

is

omitted).

tense

The imperfect by adding

is

formed from the present or future

the verb ken with or without 'ammal.

26

arabic manual.
Imperfect.
(I

was writing or
m.

used to write,

etc.).
f.

com.
kint ('ammal) biktub
kinti

!i.
2. 3.

kint ('ammal) btiktub

('ammal) btiktubi

ken

('ammal) byiktub

II. 2.
3.

kenet ('ammal) bitiktub kinna ('ammal) mniktub kintu ('ammal) btiktubu kenu ('ammal) byiktubu

The

pluperfect

is

formed from the past by adding the

verb ken.

Pluperfect.
(I

had written,
com.
kint katabt

etc.).
f.

m.
I.

2.

kint katabt

kinti katabti

3I.

ken katab

kenet katabet

2.
3-

kinna katabna kintu katabtu

kenu

katabu

Conditional.

The formation of the conditional present and past by means of ken used with the present or future tense or
with the past will be seen from the following examples.
I.

If the weather is fine to-morrow I shall go to

I.

Izaken at-ta"s hulu bukra


bitl'a al-berriyi.

the country.

GRAMMAR.
2.

27
ila

If I
I

should go to France

2.

Izakint bruh
b'arrif-ak.

Fransa

3.

will let you know. Although you are going to Dubbaich you can

3.

M'a in-nak raih ila Dbbaiyi bti"dir tiktub


al-mektub "abl

write

the letter before

ma

truh.

4.

5.

you start. I would go with you if I had time. If you would go with

4.

5.

Kint bruh m'a-ak low ken m'a-i wa"t. Low kint btruh m'a-i
kint ibkun mabsut.

6.

me I should be glad. He would have gone


with us him.
If
I
if

6.

Ken

biruh m'a-na low

we had

told

"ilneluh.

7.

you had been ready would have taken you

7.

Low
biyi.

kint

hadir

kint

bekhd-ak m'a-i
8.

bil-'ara-

with
8.

me

in the carriage.

The minister would have


given him the post if he had asked for it. I hoped that you would have come here.

Ken

al-wezir 'ata-h al-

9.

9.

merkez (al-matrah) low ken talab-uh. T'immelt in-nak btkun


jit

lahown.
b'arif izakint
')

10.

do not know whether I shall go to the mountains to-morrow or not.


I

10.

Ma

bruh
la.

'aj-jebel
i)

biikra

am

Contracted from

'ala aj-jebel.

The
The
of the
written,
passive,

passive.

properly speaking, with the exception


e. g.

past
is

participle,

maksur broken,

not

much used
active

in conversation, as

maktub the Arabs

prefer
e. g.

to

give an

the old

woman whose

rendering to their sentences, son was killed, is rendered

28
in

ARABIC MANUAL.
Arabic by,
al-ikhtiyara
halli

"atalu

ibn-a

(lit:

the

they killed her son). A passive signification is however given to active verbs by adding the syllable 'in' and this form is in frequent use, e. g.
old

woman

of

whom

katab he wrote inkatab it is written. keshef he uncovered inkeshef it is uncovered. sha" he split; insha" it is split. jerah he wounded; injerah he is v/ounded.
;

wajad he found; inwajad it is found. keser he broke inkeser it is broken.


;

There is also another form of the passive derived from the active verb, e.g. "at'a he cut; ta"att'a he was cut in pieces. This is however rarely employed in conversation.

The

regular

form of the present or future and past

tenses passive, which only differ from the active


substitution
syllable,
is

by the
first

of

damma

for

fatha

or

kesra in

the

as follows.

To BE

KILLED.

Present or Future.
(I

am

or shall be killed,

etc.).

m.
I.

com.
bu"tal

t.

2.
3I.

btu"tal

btu"tali
bitu"tal

byu"tal

minu"tal
btu"talu

2.
3-

byu"talu

GRAMMAR
Past.
(I

29

was

killed, etc.).

m.
"utilt
"util

com.
"utilt

f.

"utilti
"litilet

"utilna
p.

"utiltu
"litilu

The
in

following
brief form.

verbs
will

in

common

use are conjugated

With the help of the preceding parabe able to supply the remaining

digms the reader


tenses.

TO COME.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

Ta'a (Come).

Ta'ai

Present.
m.
I.

com.
biji
(I

f.

come,

will

come,

etc.)

2. 3I.

btiji

btiji
bitiji

byiji

mniji
btij

2.

3-

byiju

30

ARABIC MANUAL.
Past.
m.
com.
jit
(I
f.

came,

etc.)
jiti

ija

fjit

jina
P.
jitu
iju

TO

GO.
f.

Imperative.
Sing.
2.

ruh (Go).

ruhi

Present.
m.
S.

com. bruh

(I

go, will go, etc.).

btruh
biruh

btruhi

bitruh

mnruh
btruhu
biruhu

Past.
m.
riht (ruht)

com.
riht (ruht)
(I

f.

went,
rihti

etc.).

(ruhti)

rah
rihna (ruhna)
rihtu
(ruhtu)

rahit

rahu

GRAMMAR.

31

TO STOP
m. wa""if

(Transitive).

Imperative.
1.

Sing.

2.

(Stop).

wa

in

Present.
m.
btwa""if biwa""if
P.

com. bwa""if

f.

(I

stop, will stop, etc.).

btwa""ifi
bitwa'"'if

mn\va""if btwa""ifu biwa" "ifu

Past.

m.
S.

com. wa""aft

f.

(I

stopped,

etc.).

wa""aft

wa""afti

wa""af

wa""afat

wa" "afna
wa""aftu wa""afu.

TO
m.
Sing.
2.

SIT.

Imperative.
f.

u"'d.

(Sit).

u" 'uddi.

32

ARABIC MANUAL.

Present.
m.
I.

com. bu"'ud

f.

(I

sit,

will

sit,

etc

S.

2. 3I.

btu"'ud

btu"'udi bitu"'ud

byu"'ud

mnu"'ud
btu"'udu

2.
3-

byu"'udu
Past.
m.

com.
"a'adt
(I

I.

sat,

etc.).

S.

2. 3I.

"a'adt

"a'adti

"a'ad

"a'adat

"a'adna
"a'adtu

2. 3-

"a'adu

TO STAND

UP.

Sing.

2.

Imperative. m. "um. (Stand up).

f.

'ijmi.

Present.
m.

com.

f.

b"um
bf'um
bi"iim

(I

stand up,

etc.).

bf'umi bif'um

min"um
bt"umu bi"umu

GRAMMAR.
r
m.
unit

33

s t.
f.

com.

"umt

(I

stood up,

etc.).

"umti

am
"umna
P.

"amat

"umtu
-

amu
or

TO ASCEND, GO
m.
Ding.
2.

COME
f.

UP.

Imperative.
tl'a

(Go

up).

tlai

P resent.
m.
I.

com.
bitl'a (I

f.

go. will

go up,

etc.)

2.
3I.

btitl'a

btitl'i

byitl'a

bititl'a

mnitl'a
btitl'au

P.

2.
3-

byitl'au

Past.
m.
tl'at
til'ia

com.
tl'at
(I

f.

went up,

etc.).

tl'ati

tiTiat

tl'ana

tlatu
tiriu

34

ARABIC MANUAL.

TO DESCEND, GO
m.
Sing.
2.

or

COME DOWN.
f.

Imperative.
(Go down).

inzel

inzelli

Present.
m.
I.

binzel
btinzel

(I

go, will

go down,

etc.)

S.

2.
3I.

btinzeli bitinzel

byinzel

mninzel
btinzelu

2.
3-

byinzelu

Past.
m.
S.

com.
nzilt (I

went down,
nzilti

etc.)

nzilt
nizil

nizlit

nzilna
p.

nziltu

nizlu

TO EAT.
Imperative.
m.
kol.
(

f.

Eat).

kili.

GRAMMAR.
Present.
m.
I.

35

com.
bekol
(I

f.

eat

will eat, etc.).

S.

2.
3I.

btekol

btekoli

byckol

bitekol

mnekol
btekolu

P.

2.
3-

byekolu

Past.
m.
I.

com.
akelt
(I
.

f.

ate,

etc.).

2. 3I.

akelt

akelti akelit

akcl

akelna
akeltu

2.
\

3.

akelu

TO DRINK.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

shrab (Drink).

shrabi

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bishrab
(I

f.

drink, will drink, etc.)

2.
1

btishrab

btishrabi
bitishrab

3.
I-

byishrab

mnishrab
btishrab Li

^.
*

3.

byishrabu

36

ARABIC MANUAL.
Past.
m.
I.

com.
shribt
(I

f.

drank, etc.)
shribti
shiribit

2.
3I.

shribt
shirib

shribna
shribtu
shiribu

2.
3-

TO PUT.
Imperative.
m.
ing. 2. hutt (Put.).
f.

hutti

Present.
m.
bthutt
bihutt

com.
bhutt
(I

put, will put, etc.).

bthutti

bithutt

minhutt
bthuttu
bihuttu

Past,
m.
hattait

com.

f.

hattait (hatteyt) (I put, etc.).


hattaiti

hatt

hattat

hattaina
P.

hattaitu

hattu

GRAMMAR.

37

TO SAY, TELL.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
"il
f.

(Tell).

"iUi

Present.
m.
1.

com.
bi"il

f.

(bi"ul)

(I

tell,

will tell,

etc.).

S.

2.
3.
I.

bf'il (bt"ul)
bi"il (bi"ul)

bt"ili (bf'uli) bit"il

(bif'ul)

min"il (min"ul)
bf'ilu (bf'ulu)
bi"ilu (bi"ulu)

P.

2.
3-

Past.
m.
s.
'ilt

com.
"ilt
("ilit)

f.

(I

told,

etc.)

"ilti

al

"alit

"ilna
p.
"iltu

"alu

TO DO, MAKE.
Imperative.
m.
Sing
2.
f.

'amul ('amcl) (Do).

'aniili

38

ARABIC MANUAL.

Present.
m.
S.

com.
b'amil
(I

f.

do, will do, etc.).


bt'amili
bit'amil

bt'amil
bi'amil

mn'amil
bt'amilu
bi'amilu

Past.
m.
'aniilt

com.

f.

'amilt (I did, etc.).


'amilti

'emil

'emlit

'amilna
'amiltu

'emlu

TO RETURN
m.
Sing.
2.

{come back).

Imperative.
f.

rj'a

(rj

e'a)

(Return).

rj'ai

Present.
m.
/

com.
birj'a (I
,

f.

I.

return will return, etc.)


btirj'i

1
1

2. 3.
I-

btirj'a

byirj'a

bitirj'a

mnirj'a
btirj'au

'

3-

byirj'au

uu

GRAMMAR.
Past.
m.
s.
rj'at
n'j'a

39

com.
rj'at
(rj'et)

f.

(I

returned,
rj'ati
rij

etc.).

'et

rj'ana
rj'atu
rij

'au

TO RETURN

(give back).

Imperative.
f.

Sing.

2.

rajj'a

(Give back).

rajj'i

Present.
m.
s.
btrajj'i
birajj'i

com.
brajj'i (I

f.

give back, will give back,


btrajj'i
bitrajj'i

etc.).

minrajj'i
btrajj'iu
birajj'i u

Past.
m.
raj j "at

com.
j

f.

raj 'at

(I

gave back,
rajj 'ati

etc.).

rajj'a
rajj

rajj 'at

'ana

p.

rajj' at

rajj 'a

40

ARABIC MANUAL.

TO TAKE
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

khud

(khod). (Take).

khudi

Present.
m.
I.

com.

f.

bekhud
btekhud

take, will take, etc.)

3.

byekhud

btekhudi bitekhud

mnekhud
P.
I

^'

'

btekhudu byekhudu
Past.
com. akhadt
akhadt akhad

(I

took, etc.).

akhadti

akhadat

akhadna akhadtu akhadu

TO GIVE.
Imperative.
m.
2.
'ati
f.

(Grive).

'ati

GRAMMAR.
P resent.
m.
bt'ati

I 41

com.

f.

b'ati (I give, will give, etc.)


bt'ati
bit'ati

by'ati

mn'ati
p.

bt'atu

by'atu

Past.
m.
'atait

com.
'atait

('ateyt)

(I

gave, etc.)
'ataiti

'ata

'atat

'ataina

p.

'ataitu
'atu

TO TAKE AWAY, REMOVE.


Imperative.

m.
Sing.
2.

f.

shil

(Take away).

shili

Present.
m.
bshil
s.
(I

com.

f.

take away, will take away,


btshili

etc.).

btshil
bishil

bitshil

mi n shil
p.

btshilu
bishilu

42

ARABIC MANUAL.
Past.

m.
I.

com.
shilt (I

f.

took away,
shilti

etc.)

2.

shilt

3I.

shel

shelit

shilna
shiltu

2.
3-

shelu

TO LEAVE, LET, ALLOW.


Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.

khalli (Let).

khalli

Present.
m.
btkhalli
bikhalli

com. bkhalh

f.

(I

let,

will let,

etc.).

btkhalli
bitkhalli

minkhalli
btkhallu
bikhallu

Past.
m.
khallait

com.

f.

khallait (khalleyt) (I let, etc.).


khallaiti

khalla

khallat

khallaina
khallaitu

khallu

GRAMMAR.

43

TO BRING.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

jib (Bring).

jibi

Present.
m.
s.

com.
bjib
(I

f.

bring, will bring, etc.).


btjibi
bitijib

btjib

byijib

minjib
p.

btjib u

bijibu

Past,
m.
jibt

com.
jibt (I

f.

brought,

etc.)

jibti

jeb
jibna
jibtu

jcbet

jebu

TO BEGIN.
Imperative.
m.
bellish (Beein).
f.

bellshi

44

ARABIC MANUAL.

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bbellish
(I

f.

begin, will begin, etc.)


btbellshi
bitbellish

2.
3I.

btbellish
bibellish

minbellish
btbellishu
bibellishu

2.
3-

Past.

m.
bellesht

com.
bellesht
(I

f.

began,

etc.).

belleshti

ballesh

balleshet

belleshna

'

belleshtu

balleshu

TO FINISH.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

khallis (Finish).

khallsi

Present.
m.
S.

com.

f.

bkhallis (I finish, will finish, etc.).


btkhallis
bikhallis

btkhallsi
bitkhallis

minkhallis
P.

btkhallisu
bikhallisu

GRAMMAR.
P a S t.
com.
khallast
s.
(I
f,

45

finished, etc.).

khallast

khallasti

khdllas

khallasct

khallasna
khallastu

khallasu

TO CUT.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

"uss (Cut).

'ussi

Present.
m.
S.

com.

f.

b"'uss (I cut, will cut, etc.).

bt"uss
bi"uss

bt"'ussi

bit"uss

min"uss
bt"ussu
bi"ussu

Past.
m.
'assait

com.

f.

"assait (I cut, etc.).


"assaiti

'assa

"assat

"assaina
"assaitu

"assu

46

ARABIC MANUAL.

TO MEND.
Imperative.
m.
ing. 2. sallih
f.

(M end).

sallhi

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bsallih (I

f.

mend,

will

mend,

etc.)

s.

2.

btsallih
bisallih

btsallhi
bitsallih

3I.

minsallih
btsallihu
bisallihu

p.

2.

3-

Past.
m.
sallaht

com.
sallaht (I

mended,

etc.).

sallahti

sallah

sallahat

sallahna
sallahtu

sallahu

TO BREAK.
Imperative.
m.
ksLir TBreak).
f.

ksuri

GRAMMAR.
Present.
m.
I.

47

com.
biksur
(I

f.

break, will break,


btiksuri

etc.).

2.
3I.

btik.sur

byiksur

bitiksur

miniksur
btiksLiru

2. 3-

byik-suru

Past.
m.
^'
[

com.
kesert
(I

broke,

etc.).

2.
3I.
1

kesert

kescrti

kescr

keserat

keserna
kesertu

'?

!3.

keseru

TO LOSE.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

khsar (L ose).

khsari

Present.
m.
(

com.
bikhser
(I

f.

lose,

will lose, etc.).

2.

btikhser

btikhseri

(3.
I.

byikhser

bitikhser

minikhser
btikhseru

P.
1

2.
1

3.

byikhseru

48

ARABIC MANUAL.
Past.
m.
I.

com.

f.

khsirt (I lost, etc.).

S.

2.
3I.

khsirt

khsirti

khasir

khasiret

khsirna
khsirtu

2. 3-

khasiru

TO FIND.
Imperative.
m.
mg.
2.
f.

ujad (Find).

ujadi

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bujad
(I
i

f.

Ind, will find, etc.)

2.

btujad

btujadi

3I.

byujad

bitujad

mnujad
btujadu

P.

2. 3.

byujadu

Past.
m.
I,

com. wajadt

(I

found,

etc.).

S.j
(

2.

3.
I.

wajadt wajad

wajadti

wajadet

wajadna
wajadtu wajadu

P.'

2.

3-

GRAMMAR.

49

TO CHANGE,

(transitive).

Imperative.
f.

Sing.

2.

ghaiyir (Change).

ghaiyiri

Present.
com.
bghaiyir
btghaiyir
bighaiyir
(I

change, will change,


btghaiyiri

etc.

bitghaiyir

minghaiyir
P.

btghaiyiru
bighaiyiru

Past,
m.
ghaiyert
ghaiyir

com.
ghaiyert
(I

f.

changed,

etc.).

ghaiyerti

ghaiyeret

ghaiyerna ghaiyertu
ghaiyeru

TO SEND.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

b'at (Send).

b'ati

50

ARABIC MANUAL.

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bib'at
(I

f.

send, will send, etc.)


btib'ati

2. 3I.

btib'at

byib'at

bitib'at

mnib'at
btib'atu

P.

2.
3-

byib'atu

Past.
m.
I.

com.
ba'att
(I

sent, etc.).

2. 3I.

ba'att

ba'atti

ba'at

ba'atet

ba'atna
ba'attu

2. 3-

ba'atu

TO PAY.
Imperative.
m.
)ing.
2.
f.

df'a (Pay).

df'ai

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bidf'a
(I

f.

pay, will pay,


btidf'ai
bitidf'a

etc.).

2.
3I.

btidf'a

byidf'a

minidf'a
btidf'au

P.

2.

3-

byidf'au

GRAMMAR.
Past.
m.
s.

51

com.
clfa'at (I

f.

paid, etc.).
dfa'ati

dfa'at

def'a

def'at

dfa'ana
dfa'atu

def'au

TO BUY.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

shtri (Buy).

shtri

Present.
com.
bishtri
btishtri
(I
f.

buy, will buy,


btishtri
bitishtri

etc.).

byishtri

mnishtri
btishtru

byishtru

Past.
f.

shtrait (shtreyt)

(I

bought,

etc.).

shtrait

shtraiti

shtera
shtraina
shtraitu

shterat

shteru

52

ARABIC MANUAL.

TO SELL.
Imperative.
m.
Sincr.
2.
f.

bi'a (Sell).

bi'i

Present.
m.
btibi'a

com.
bbi'a
(I

f.

sell,

will sell, etc.


btibi'i

bibi'a

bitbi'a

minbi'a
btibi'u

bibi'u

Past.
m.
be'ut

com.
be'ut
(I

f.

sold, etc.).

be'uti

be'a

be'at

be'ena
P.

be'etu

be'u

TO CLEAN.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

Naddif. (Clean)

naddfi

GRAMMAR.
Present.
m.
S.
'

S3

com. bnaddif

f.

(I

clean, will clean, etc.).

2
3
I

btnaddif
binaddif

btnaddfi
bitnaddif

mnaddif
btnaddifu
binaddifu

P.
'

2
3

Past.
in.

com.
naddaft
(I

f.

cleaned,

etc.).

S.

j
'

2
3

naddaft

naddafti

naddaf
naddafna naddaftu naddafu

naddafat

'1'
'

TO PREPARE.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

haddir (Prepare).

haddri

Present
m.
S.

com.
bhaddir
(I

f.

prepare, will prepare, etc.

bthaddir
bihaddir

bthaddri
bithaddir

minhaddir
bthaddiru
bihaddiru

54

ARABIC MANUAL.
Past.

m.
I.

com.
haddert
(I

f.

prepared,
hadderti

etc.).

2.

haddert

3I.

hadder

hadderet

2.

3-

hadderna haddertu hadderu

TO SPEAK.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

hki (Speak).

hki

Present.
m.
I.

com.
behki
(I

f.

speak, will speak, etc

S.

2.

btehki

btehki
bitehki

3I.

byehki

mnehki
btehku

P.

2.

3-

byehku
Past.
m.
hakait

com.
hakait (hakeyt)
(I

f.

spoke, etc.

hakaiti

haki (ihka)

hakit

hakaina
P.

hakaitu

haku

GRAMMAR.

55

TO HEAR.
Imperative.
m. sm'a (H ear).
f.

Sing.

2.

sm'ai

Present.
m.
I.

com.
bism'a
(I

f.

hea r,

will hear, etc

2.
3I.

btism'a

btism'i

byism'a

bitism'a

mnism'a
btism'au

2.
3-

byism'au

Past.
m.
I.

com.
sma' at
(I

h eard,

etc.)

2.
*

sma' at
simi a

sma'ati
simi'at

3.
I.

sma'ana
sma'tu
simi'u

i;:

TO SEE.
Imperative.

m
Sing.
2.

f.

shuf

See).

shufi

56

ARABIC MANUAL.

Present.
m.
S.

com. bshuf

f.

(I

see, will see, etc

btshuf
bishuf

btshufi

bitshuf

minshuf
btshufu
bishufu

Past.
m.
I.

com.
shuft
(I

saw.

etc.).

2.
3I.

shuft

shufti

shef

shefet

shufna
shuftu
shefu

2.
3-

TO KNOW.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

'arif

(K now).

'arifi

Present.
m.
I.

com.
b'arif
(I

f.

kno w,

will

know, etc

2. 3I.

bt'arif

bt'arifi

bi'yarif

bit'arif

mn'arif
bt'arifu

P.

2. 3-

bi'yarifu

GRAMMAR.
Past.
m.
C4.1X1C
i

57

y*

X^X.^.

'arift
'

'arifti

3^

'araf
'arifna
'ariftu
'arifu

'arafet

'

3.

TO SHOW.
Imperative.
m.
Sing.
2.
f.

ferrji

(Show).

ferrji

Present.
m.
S.
'

com.
bferrji
(I

f.

sho w,

will

show,

etc.)

2.
3-

btferrj
biferrji

btferrji
bitferrji

minfcrrji
\

2.
3-

btferrj u

'

biferrju

Past.
m.
I.

com.
ferrjait

(ferrjeyt)

(I

showed,

etc.).

S.
3I.

ferrjait

ferrjaiti
ferrjit

ferrja

ferrjaina
ferrjaitu
ferrjia

P.

2. 3-

58

ARABIC MANUAL.

TO BE ABLE.
Present.
m.
1.

com.
bi"dir (bu"dir) (be"dir)
(I

f.

can, etc.).

2.
3.
1.

bti"dir (btu'dir)

bti"diri (btu"diri)

byi"dir (byu"dir)

biti"dir (bitu"dir)

mni"dir (mnu"dir)
bti"diru (btu"diru)

2.
3.

byi"diru (byu"diru)

Past.
m.
"edirt

com.
"edirt
(I

f.

could,

etc.).

"edirti
"idrit ("edrit)

"ider ("eder)

"edirna
"edirtu
"I'dru

NUMERALS.
Cardinal numbers.
I.

wehid
itneyn.
tleti.

(ahad).

8.

tmeni.
tis'a.

15-

khamst'ash.

2. 3-

9-

16. sitt'ash. 17- seb'at'ash.


18.

10.
1

'ashra.

4. arb'a.
5-

1.

hid'ash.
itn'ash.

tmunt'ash.

khamsi.
sitti.

12.
13-

19. tis'at'ash.

6.

tlitash.

20. 'eshrin. 21.

7- seb'a.

14. arb'at'ash.

wehid u

'eshrin

GRAMMAR.
30. tletin.

59

800. tmcnmiyi.

40. arbc'in.
50.

900.
1000.
1

tis'a
alf.

miyi.

khamsin.

60. sittin.
70. sebe'in.
80. tmcnin.

100. alf u miyi.

1250. alf u miteyn u khamsin.

2000. alfeyn.
10,000. 'ashert elef.

90. tise'in.
100. miyi.

20,000. 'eshrin

alf.
alf.
alf.

200. miteyn.
300. tletmiyi.

100,000. miyet

200,000. miteyn
1,000,000. miliyon.

400. arb'amiyi.
500.

khamsmiyi.

2,000,000. miliyoneyn. 4,000,000. arb'a melaiyin.

600. sittmiyi.
700. seb'amiyi.

numbers from 3 to by the noun in the plural. numbers are followed by the singular.
cardinal

The

10 inclusive

are

followed

All

subsequent

e. g.

Tlet urtcl sikker. Three rottels of sugar.

Arb'a rus kheyl. Four head of horses. Khamst'ashir ras kheyl. Fifteen head of horses.

Ordinal numbers.
I St

owwel.
telit.

4th rab'i.
5th
6tli

7th seb'i.
8th

lOtl^

'ashir.

2nd teni.

khamis.
sedis.

temin.

y^

9th tcs'i.

After

ten

the

cardinal

numbers are used

in

conver-

sation instead of the ordinals.

When
noun,
half,

an

ordinal

number

e. g.

teni marra, the


;

is used it precedes the second time.


;

iply,

nu.ss whole, kill; quarter, rub'a add, jm'a; multdrub; divide, u"sum; subtract, trah or us"ut.

>

60

ARABIC MANUAL.

a;

ci

>

^^

cj

V,

y^-^

CD

O w

^
'2
.

:^

?
^

,^

V-^ ^'2
5
S"
irt

d:n-r I ^

:-n

6|
-u^

J.

--z:

^^

ji :b

.r.

^
^nS

"0

nS

1j

^
!b

-5 11
13
.

-d

"rt

XJ
;:

d
"^^
;=

3
**
^

X ^
-03
"'

..V

>

c a

3 ? C

c
>.
oj

.r.

'^

05

.0

-o

^
'O

.Si>

XI

c
^'~'

XI S^
-

<u
.

3 O

bove,

cross,

'3
fter.

<

<<

<

<

< < < < <

6 c b/) -i;

n
c/2

6
!->

'6

^
OJ

^
<u

PQ

FQ

GRAMMAR.
-.

>^

CL,

o o ^

H
- _ T3 _

'J

3
o
'::i

u ^

ii

-^

u-

hi

o
'-'

'->

'-^

'->

^^

rt

^
'

4J
rt

TJ -^'

"c?

rt

>
-^

C
'3 'O

a
T :i

C.

r^

O-.jJrt

G ^

_:

rt

<^

^'--;'>
03

^
-

-M

i;
.

c ?

-^

V "
r-

,rt

G>;a-Q;I^;:'C'T

^ ^

-^

T'

-<
rt

rt

_,

V)

*-"

tL ^

>,

t-^girt
>.

J?2V '

9 5.-

rG

JL
"J

rt

- ^D -r
.:::

ri

^
,

GG,^,^-S-^'^rt> - o G "O
rt

=
.-

'^ rf

rt

<3

C
^<U

G
rt

15

^-

G
.X

4-J

-a

>^
rt

iri

o
-Q

4->

J3

IS ^^
C/5

c:

^ 'o

C O o
i->

o G -d rt c a o o O- G
Irt CJ
/--N

+J

G
I-

'O
^.

"

>N >^
1
i-Ji

U X

CJ

6 O

.2

CQ r^

62

ARABIC MANUAL.

o
en

^'

/.>

i-i

^^ o u
fS

t^-,aj

o| aj ali3

2^ o-|

^So
e

>^

f^

D O

HH

OO

P^ P^ P^

H H < O

Ph

;d

D^ ^

-CD

C
OS
^

-i^

>^

;^ -^ -5 : .5 ^g

.S

rt

rt

'^

.ti
.

-rt

;!:

'1

r ;^
i- .^

.^ -6

iH

^ f

I
:si.

^t':^^

=.

2. 7^

X.4

s ^

:2 p^ -S

^. s

V(JJ

75

'6

i.

c
Ml

:5

s.

^-

'a

s
o
JU

(J
r^

^OOOO
O

^
o
c:

O O

0-1

'~

o
Ci! e^

^ H

>B P HP;=)^^ H

GRAMMAR.

63

ADVERBS.
The following adverbs and adverbl\l locutions ARE IN common USE.
absurd.
accidentally;
afterwards.
bila m'ana.

by

accident.

bi sudfi; bil-'arad.

b'adeyn.

ago (long). ahead.


again
;

min zemen.
"iddem.
karnen; b'ad.
"arib.
'al

besides.

almost.
aloud.
already.
also.

al-'ali.

"ablan.

aidan; kamen.
killun sawa.

altogether.

always.

de'imen.

anew.
apart.

min
'ala

jdid.

wahd-uh (with

pro. suff.

apparently.

zahiran.

around
as.

all

round.
an).

'ala de'ir.

mitl.
'ala

average (on

m'addal.
wara.

awake. backwards.
before.

we'i; faiyi".
ila

"abl.
taht.

below.
besides.
better.

ma'ada; kamen; fadlan


ahsan.

'an,

beyond everything.
briefly.

fow"

kill

shey

(shi).

bil-ikhtisar.

certainly; without doubt.

m'alum; ma"

fura;

ilia.

64
chiefly.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bil-akhas; khususan.

commonly.
comparatively.
completely.
conditionally.

'umumen.
bin-nisbi.
bil-killiyi; 'ala shart.

tamemen.

confidently.

bil-emniyi.

constantly.

de'imen;

'ala

dewam.

contrary

(on the).

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf.

day by day. day (by). day (all).


deliberately; slowly.
directly.

yowm
kill

b'ad

yowm.

fin-nahar.

an-nahar.

'ala

mahl-uh (with pro.

suff.).

halan.
bi

double-faced.

wejheyn wilseneyn (with two faces and two tongues),


shekk; bidiin shubhi.
taht;
fi

doubtless.

bila
ila

downhill.

nezli.

downstairs.
early
;

taht.

in the
(in).

morning.

bekkir; 'ala bukra

('a

bukra).

earnest
easily.

min jedd.
bis-suhuli.
bila niheyi;
bikeffi
(it

endless.

ma

luh ekhir.

enough.
entirely.

is

sul^cient),

bit-tememx; bil-kemel.
bi

especially.
et-ccetera.

now' khususi; khususan.

ila akhiri.

even.

hatta.
(for).

ever

de'imen.

exactly.

bit-temem.
ktir ktir;
lil-ghaiyi.

exceedingly.
excessively.
face to face.

bi ziedi.

mwajiha.

GRAMMAR.
fact
far,
(in),

65

bil-ha"i"a.
afar,

from

min-be'id.
bi-sur'a; seri'an.
bil-ekhir.

fast,

finally.
first,

at

first,

in the first place,

owwel
meshi.

owwelen.

foot (on),

force (by).

bil-"invi; jebran.

formerly, previously, forwards,


future
(in),

"ablan.
ila

"iddem.
'itiyadiyen.
suff.^

b'adeyn.

general

(in),

'umumen;
'ala

gently (slowly),
(kindly).

mahl-uh (with pro.

bi lutf.

God

forbid.

(thank).

Allah la yismah. al-hamd ul-illah.


to),
I

(would
(in),

hope,

inshallah.

goodbye,
halves
hardly,
(by),

m'as-salemi; khatir-kum..
bin-nuss.
bi s'ubi; bil-kedd.

hence,
here.

here and there,


hither,

hitherto,

min hown. hown, howni. hown u hown. ila hown. hadd al-wa"t. li
kif (keyf).

how. however,

how many, how much.


immediately, at once,

m'a zelik. kam. "add esh.

"awcm;

fil-hal.

impunity
incognito,

(with),

bila "isas.

mutnekkir.
bil-ha"i"a.

indeed.

66
indirectly.
inside.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bil-wasta.

juwwa;
'al

dekhil.

inside out.

al-"elb.

instance

(for).

meselen (metelen).
bil-"asd.
ila

intentionally.

inwards.
just so.
justly.

juwwa.
bil-ha"".

bit-temem.
bil-'adl;
'al

land
late.

(on).

al-berr.

last (at).

akhiran.
la"is.

lately, latterly.

mu'akhiren.
bi-tul.

lengthwise.
less.

bin-na"is.

literally.
little

harfiyan.
little.

by

shwayi shwayi.

matter
merely.

(no),

never mind.

ma
fi

biseyl.
fi

meanwhile.
moreover.

hal-fursa;

esna.

bes; fa"at. aidan.


y'ani.
tabi'i.

namely.
naturally.

nearly.
necessarily.

"arib;

min "arib; ta"riban.

daruri; daruriyen.
all,

never, not at

on no

abaden.

account,
nevertheless,

m'a

zelik.

not quite,

lissa;

b'ad ma.
(contr.

now.

halla"

from haza

al-

wa"t, at this time) and issa


(contr.

from haza

as-se'a, at

this hour).

GRAMMAR.
now and then. now or never.
now-a-days.
officially.

67

ahiyenen.

wa
fi

ilia

fa la.

hal-iyem.

resmiyen.
ghaliben.

often.

only.

bes; fa"at.

openly, publicly.
ordinarily.

jehran (jiharan).
'adeten.

otherwise.
outside.

wa
ila

ilia.

berra;

ila

berra;

min

berra.

outwards.
partly

berra.

partly.
(in).

ba'ad-uh haik-ba'ad-uh haik.


bil-khusus.
fil-miyi.

particular

per cent.
perhaps, possibly.
personally.
plainly.

yumkin;
sarihan.

belki (berki).

bi zet-uh (with

pro

suff.).

plenty
present

(in).

bi kitra. bi te'ekid.

positively.
(at).

halla"; fil-hal.

presently.
privately.

b'ad shwayi.
sirran.

probably.

al-arjah.

purpose
quickly.
quietly.
quite.

(on).

"asdan.

"awem
'ala

bil-'ajeli.
suft".).

mahl-uh (with pro.


bil-killiyi.

tamemen;
(at).

random
rarely.

bila "asd

bila fikr.

nediren.
'al

readily.

ar-ras wal-'ain (on

head

and
really.
fe'elen.

eye).

68
reason
(in).

ARABIC MANUAL.
sawab. haseb al-"an6n.
tekraran.
'adeten.

regularly.

repeatedly.
rule (as a).
safely.

m'as-salemi
(all

bil-amen.

same

the).

sawa

mitl ba'ad-uh.

scarcely.

bil-kedd.

seldom.
separately.
seriously.

nediren.

wahd-uh wahd-uh.
bi jedd.
bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil.

short

(in).

shortly, presently.

b'ad

"alii

b'ad shwayi.

sideways.
simply, solely.
singly.

bil-'ard.

bes; fa"at.

killwehid wahd-uh.
'ala

slowly.
so, thus.

mahl-uh (with pro


(f.)

suft".).

haik (heyk).
fulan
fulani
(of persons)

so

and

so.

softly.

keza wa keza (of things), bi hudu.


kif

somehow.
sometimes.

ma

ken.

ahiyenen.
fi meken. kamen; b'ad.

somewhere.
still,

yet.

straight, in a straight line.

rasan; 'ala khatt musta"im.

suddenly.

baghteten: fajaten.
kettir khair-ak; sellim daiyat-

thank-you.

ak (lit. may God preserve your hands) eywah (eywal;

lah).

then,

thence.

sum; b'adeyn. min hownik.

GRAMMAR.
there.

69

hownik, howniki.
li

therefore.
thither.

zelik.

ila

hownik.
(contr.

time (up to
(at
(in),

this).

lissa

from
fi

li

haza as-

se'a,

to this hour). nefs al-wa"t.

the same)

fil-wa"t zet-uh;
fi

time

wa"t-uh.
;

together,

sawa

ma'an.

too Httle.
too much,
totally,

"alii ktir.

bi ziedi. bij-jumli.

truly,

ha" "an.
'al

trust (on),

al-ameni.

turn

(in),

bid-dowr; bin-nowbi.
bil-ittifa".

unanimously,
unawares,

'ala ghafli.

unexampled.
unintentionally,
unwillingly,

bila mitel. bila "asd.

ghasban 'an-nuh.
ila

up

hill,

fow";

fi

tal'a.

upstairs,
useless,

fow".
'abes; bila fe'idi; 'abes; batilan.
ktir.

ma

biyinfa

vain
very,
well,

(in),

taiyib.

what ?
whatever?

esh; shu.

esh ma.

when ?
whenever? whence ? where?
wherever.

aimtin (aimta), eymta.

ay wa"t.

mineyn (mneyn). weyn.

weyn ma.

70

ARABIC MANUAL.
iza

whether or no.
whither?

ow

la.

liweyn
to

(leyn).
li

why?
word
yes.
(in
a),

lesh (contr. from

ay shey,

what

thing).

al-hasil; bi

kilmi wehdi.

n'am

and superiors). N'am also means "what?" or "I beg your par(said to equals

don?" when the repetition of

any thing
yes certainly, surely.

said

is

desired.

eh (said to
(ay
contr.

inferiors);

ey n'am

n'am);

eywah (aywah)

from ay wallah, yes

by God.
yet; not yet.

b'ad; lissa ma.

Conjunctions.
after.

b'ad ma; b'ad ann.

although.

m'a inn (with pro.


wa,
kif
u.

suff.).

and.
as,

because.

hais ann. (with pro.

sufif.).

as

if.

ma. ka; ka ann (with pro.

sufif.

as long as.
as soon as.

madem.
bes; limma; hal ma.

before.
but.

"abl ma.
lekin;
or.

either

wa amma.

imma-imma.
ilia.

except.
if.

iza;

low (with past

tense),

izaken, inken (with pres.).

GRAMMAR.
in so far as.

71

"add ma.
bedel ma.
la

instead

of.

neithcr-nor.
or.

wa

la.

perhaps.

ow; am. rubbama.


'ala shart

provided that.
since.

ann (with pro.

sufif.)

b'ad ma; limma.


hatta, ta.

so that, in order that.


than.
that.

min.

unless.
until.

when.
whereas.
while.

ann (with pro. sufif.). iza ma; izaken ma. hatta ma. 'indama; halama; limma; wa"t illi.
inn
or

low

la;

hais.

without.

beynama. bidun ma.


Interjections.

Ah! alas! By God! God preserve you


God
give you a safe jour-

a;

akh.

wallah.

Allah yahfaz-ak Allah yusellim-ak.


Allah yuwassl-ak bi-salemi.
Bismillah.

ney
In God's

name

For God's sake! Long life to you I beg your leave.

minshen Allah,
towwil 'umr-ak.
khatir-kum; owd'ana-kum (we

have placed you

in

God's

hands, said on leaving anyone).

72

ARABIC MANUAL.
your leave!
out!
care!
destur.

By

Look Take

make way!

ua ua. dahr-ak (your back). dir bel-ak (turn your attention).


yallah
(lit.

Come on go on
!

let

us go

God!).

Capital
I

mashallah.

congratulate you.

heniyen
de'imi

(said to

any one

after

drinking water).
(said

to
his

a host after
coffee

drinking

"may

you always have guests").


Farewell
!

goodbye

m'as-salemi.
hari" hari".

Fire! Fire!

Help! help!

ya ahl al-muruwi; aman aman.


wai wai.

Look! look!

Mercy
Please!
I

aman aman.
beg of you!
dakhl Allah. 'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak.
ahl
jiri.

ya O neighbours! ya O my friend ya O boy! waiter! ya O my soul! ya O my heart! ya O my eyes! ya O light of my eyes! ya O my father! ya Sir! O my master! O O sir! (servant to his master) ya O treasure of my heart! ya

habib-i.

walad.
ruh-i.

kibd-i.
'y'^^'i-

nur 'ain-i. abu-na (said to khowaja.


sid-i
(lit.

priests),

lord!).

muhjet

"elb-i.

Shame! shame!
Disgraceful

'aib.

mu'ib.
aferim.

Well done! bravo!

GRAMMAR.
Welcome!
ahla u sahla.
bismilli;
'ala
(if

73

ras-i.

Would that What a pity

Inshallah

God wills). dey'an-uh (lit. we have


it);

lost

ya khsara.
al-f usul.

The seasons.
ar-rabi'a.

Spring.

as-saif (seyf).
al-kharif.

Summer. Autumn.
Winter.

ash-shita.

The months.
kenian at-teni.

ash-sh uh u r.
January.

shubat.
adar.
nisan.

February. March.
April.

iyar (nuwar).

May.
June.
July.

hazeran.

tammuz.
eb.
ailul.

August. September.
October.

teshrin al-owwcl. teshrin at-tcni.

kenun al-owwel.

November. December.
1

Days
al-had.

of the week.

- j

a.

Sunday.

al-itneyn.
at-tleti.

Monday,
Tuesday.

74
al-arb'a.

ARABIC MANUAL.

Wednesday.
Thursday.
Friday.

al-khamis.
aj-jim'a.

as-sebt.

Saturday.

Time. al-wa"t.
This year.
Last year.
has-sini.
')

sint al-madi.

Next

year.

sint aj-jei.
sint al-"admi.

Two

years ago.

Three years ago. Every year.


All the year.
I)

min sinteyn. min thet snin.


kill
kill
sini.

as-sini.

In Damascus 'am al-ow\vel.

Next month.
Last month. Monthly. This week. Next week. Last week. Every week. A few weeks ago. This day next week.
In a fortnight.

shehr aj-jei. shehr al-madi.


kill

shehr.

haj-jim'a.

jim'at

aj-jei.

jim'at al-madi.
kill

jim'a. jim'a.

min kam

b'ad jim'a.

ba'd khamst 'ashir yov/m.

For a long time.


To-day.

middi

tawili.

al-yowm.
bukra.

To-morrow.
Yesterday.

imbereh.

GRAMMAR.
This morning. This evening.
All day.

75

al-yowm'a bukra. al-yowm min 'ashiyi.


kill kill

an-nahar.

Every day.

yowm.

Two

days ago. Three days ago.


Early. All night.

min yowmeyn. min tlet iyem.


bekkir.
kill

al-leyl.

Late at night.
Mid-night.
Sun-rise.

ekhir al-leyl.

nuss
tlu'a

leyl.

ash-shems.

Sun-set.

ghiyeb ash-shems. The day after tomorrow. b'ad bukra. The day before yesterday. owwelt imbereh.

The
What
It
is is is is is is is

hour, as-se'a.
"add esh
se'a.

time

is

it?

12 o'clock.
I

se'a tn'ash. se'a wx^hdi. se'a tinteyn. se'a tinteyn u rub'a. se'a tinteyn u nuss.

It It
It

o'clock.

2 o'clock.

a quarter past two.


half past two.

It
It

a quarter to three.

se'a tleti ila rub'a. se'a arb'a ila 'ashra.

It

ten minutes to four.

It is five

minutes past
is is

four. se'a arb'a u

khamsi.

It

is

6 o'clock exactly.
fast.

se'a sitti

tamem.

The clock The clock The clock

as-se'a bittsabbi". as-se'a bitta 'akhkhir.


as-se'a wa"afat.

slow.

has stopped.

PART

II.

A COMPREHENSIVE
ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY ALPHA BETICALLY ARRANGED.

ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY.

A.
abandon,
abashed,
v. a. to be,
a.

bitruk, tarakt, truk, p.p. matruk.


v. n.

bikhjcl, khijilt (min), p.p. makhjul.

abbreviate, v.

bukhtisir, khtasert, khtisir, p.p. mukhtaser.

abdicate, v. btnazel, tnazelt, tnazel ('an).


ability,
n.

shatara; mahara.

able,

a.

mu"ticlir;

"adir ("edir);

to be able,

v. n.

bi"dir

(bu"dir), "edirt.
ablution, n. vvudu; to

perform
battalt,

ablutions, v. n. bitwaddu,

twaddait, twadda.
abolish,
v.
a.

bbuttil,

battil;

abolished,

batil;

niulgha.

abounds
Note.
tenses

(it),

mowjud; wajd
in

bi kitra.
i" person

Verbs are given


2"**

the

singular present

and past

and the
a

person singular imperative.


followed

When

other parts are

given they are indicated.

When

verb
it.

is

by a preposition the

latter

is

given in

brackets after

Only passive

participles in use are given.

Plurals of nouns

When

the

pronunciation

and adjectives not indicated are regular. of words greatly varies an alternative

is

given in brackets.

8o

ARABIC MANUAL.

about, ad. "arib; ta"riban; pr. bkhusus; 'ala.

above, pr.

fow"
vs..

(fo")

above

all,

fow"

al-kill.

abscond,
absence,

v.

bihrub, harabt, hrub(min);

bfirr, ferrait, firr.

n.

ghiyeb.
v. n.

absent, to be,

bghib, ghibt or kint ghaiyib,

ghib

('an); absent-minded, fikr-uh ghaiyib.

absolute, a. mutla".

absurd,

a. mustahil; ad. bila m'ana. abundance, n. kitra; abundantly, ad. bi kitra. abuse, v. a. bbahdil, bahdilt, bahdil bishtum, shetemt,
;

shtum.
abuse, n. msebbi; behdeli.
accelerate, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt,
accept,
V. a.
'ajjil.

bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel, p.p. ma"bul.

accident, n. hadisi p.

hawadis;

'arid p. 'awarid; by accident,

ad. bi sudfi; bil-'arad.

accompany,

v. a.

brefi",

refa"t, refi".
fi

accomplice, n. mushtirik

zenb.

accomplish, v.a. bkemmil, kemmelt,

kemmil,p.p.mkemmel;
to cir-

according,

btemmim, temmemt, temmim, p.p. mtemmem. haseb; bi mowjab; according to, ad.
ctunstances,

haseb az-zuruf.
bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a.

account, n. hiseb p. hisebet; (story) riweyi p. ruwaiyet.

accumidate,

v. a.

accuracy, n. sahha; zabt (dabt). mazbut dughri. accurate, a. sahih


;

accusation,

w.

tehmi
a.

p.

tehmet

c. p.

tehm

shekwa

p.

shekwet.
accuse, (of), v.

bit-hum, tahemt, t-hum


;

(fi).

accuser, n. mushtiki

sheki.
v. n.

accustom (oneself p.p. mu'ated.

to),

bit'owwad, t'owwadt

('ala),

1;

VOCABULARY.
V. a.

8
('ala),

b'ovvwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid

p.p.

m'owwad.

ace, n. ass.

ache,

V.

n.

(3^^

per.)

biyuj'a,

waj'a

or

ken yuj'a;

my

head
acid, a.

aches, ras-i biyuj'a-ni. n.

waj'a p. owje'a.

hamud
n.

f.

hamda.

acorn, n. balluta p. ballut.

acquaintance,

m'arifi p. ma'arif.

acquire, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala).


acquisition, n. tahsil.
acquit,
v. a.

bbcrri,

berrait,

berri,

p.p.

mberra;

to

be

acquitted, bitberra, tberrait.


acquittal, n. tebria.

Acre, Akka.
across, ad.
niiii

jeha

ila

jeha.
;

act {action), n. 'amel p. a'mcl


V. bitlub-Lih,

to

bring an action against,

talabt-uh lil-malikemi; v.a. bhakim, hakamt,

hakim.
active, a neshit (nishit).

actual, a ha"i"i.

adapt
add,

(to),
V. a.

V. a.

bwefi", wafa"t
zidt,

('ala),

p.p.
;

mwefi".

bzid,

zid

added,

zc'id

add

up, v.

a.

bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a.


additio)i,
n.

jem'a.

address, n. 'unwen ('ihvan) p. 'unwenet.


adjective, n.
n'at.
'aal.

adniirable,

a.

admiral,

n.

amiral

p.

amiraliyi.

admire

(to praise), v. a.

bimdah, madaht, mdali / admire


;

(am pleased
admissible,
a.

zvith) anything,

bi'ajib-ni,

"ajab-ni

jeyiz.
"ibilt,

admit,

v.

bi"bcl,

"ibel
(fi),

(fi

or

bi),

p.p.

ma"bul
6

bsellim, scllemt, sellim

p.p. msellem.

82
adnionisJi, v.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bnebbih, nebbeht, nebbih
('ala).

admonition, n. nasiha; tenbih.

adopt (of measures), v. a. bittikhiz, ttakhazt, ttikhiz a child), V. a. bitbenna, tbennait, tbenna.
adoration, n. 'ibedi.

[of

adore, v.

a.

be'abed, 'abidt, 'abed.

bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin, p.p. mzeyyen. adulterate, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh, p.p.
adorn,
v. a.

maghshush.
adultery, n. zina.

advance (money), v. a. bsellif, silleft, sellif (proceed) v. n. bit"addam, ta"addemt, ta"addam; advance guard, tali'at aj-jeysh; advanced in years, ta'in fis-sinn.
;

advantage,
adversary,

n.

fe'idi
a.

p.
;

fwe'id.

advantageous,
n.

nef'i

mufid.

khism

p.

akhsam.

adversity, n.

msibi p. msaiyib.

advertise, v. a. b'alin, 'alant, 'alin.

advertisement, n. e'alen p. e'alenet.


advice, n. nasiha. advise, v. a. binsah, nasaht, nsali.
affair, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; "adiyi p. "adaiya.
affected, a.
affection,
affiance,
n.

mutsann'a.

mahabbi
v. a.

hunu.
(ila)
;

(to),
a.

bkhattib, khattabt, khattib

afv. n.

Jianced,
affidavit,

khatib.
hilfen
;

n.

yemin;

to

make an
(li)

affidavit,

biUuf,

lialaft,

hmf.
p.p.

affirm, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid


affix,
afflict,

m'ekked.
it

(to),
V. a.

V. a.
(31'^

blazzi", lazza"t, lazzi"


per.)

('ala).

bikeddir,

kedder;

afflicts

me,

bikeddir-ni.

VOCABULARY.
affluence, n.

83

ghina.
ihcni
; ;

affront,
afloat,

n.

v. a.

bhin, hint, hin.

a.

feyish

'aiyim.

afraid, (of), v. n. bkhaf, khift (dont be afraid) la tkhaf (min); bifz'a, fze'at (min); a. fez'an; khaiyif.

Africa, Afrikia
after, pr. b'ad
;

african, afriki.

con. b'ad ma, b'ad ann.

afternoon, ad. b'ad ad-dohr.

afterwards, ad. b'adeyn.


again, ad.

kamen

b'ad; aidan; again

and again, kamen


dudd
khatr-i.

u kamen.
against, pr. 'ala;

dudd; against my
jil

will,
'asr.

age, n. 'umr; (century }

p. ajiyel;

agency,
agent,

n.

n.

wekil

wekeli p. wekelet. p. wukela.


sir'a

agile, a. herik.
agility,
n.
;

khiffi

hareki.

agony,
irda

n.

neze'a.
(fi

agree, (to), v. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel


(fi

or bi); bircla, irdit,

or
a.

bi).

agreeable,

mlih

p.
;

mlah; ma"bijl.
ittife"
(ittifa").

agreement,

n.

teswi

agriculture, n. fleha (felaha).

ague, n. dowriyi
aid, n. mse'adi.
ail,

berdiyi.

ahead, ad. "iddem.


V. n.

biskhun, sakhant.
; ;

aim (object), n. "asd ghaiyi; gharad (in shooting) nishen aim (at) v. n. bitneshin, tneshent, tneshen ('ala). air, n. hawa; (of music) \z\m; (appearance) manzar; v. a. bhowwi, howwait, howwi. alarm, n. khowf; fez'a; r'abi.

84
alcohol, n. sbirto
;

ARABIC MANUAL.
alkoliul.

Aleppo, Haleb.
alert, a.

mutiya"iz.

Alexajidretta, Skenderuna.

Alexandria, Iskenderiya.
alien, n. ejnebi p. ajenib.

alight, (from), v. n. binzel,


V. n.

nzilt,

inzel (min); alight at,

binzel

fi.

aliglu, a. sha'len.
alike, a.

mutsewi; ad. mitl ba'ad-uh (with pro.


a. kill

sufif.)

alive, a. taiyib.
all,

n.

and

(kull).

allegiance, n. ta'a.
alleviate, v, a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif.

alliance, n.

ma'ahedi

mhalif.
(li).

allow, V. bismah, semalit, small

allowance, n. ma'ash; ratib.


alloy, n. khalit;

mezij.

allure, v. a. bistemil, stemelt, stemil.

allurement, n. istimeli.
ally,
n.

halif p. hiilefa.
n.

almanack,

riznemi p. riznemet.
"adir 'ala
;

Almighty
almond,
alms,
aloe,
n.

(the),

kill

shi.

n.

lowzi p. lowz

almond

tree,

lowzi.

almost, ad. "arib.

sada"a.

n.
a.

sabr (subber).

alone,

wahd-uh (with
;

pro. suff.)

let

him

alone,

bi-

truk-uh wahd-uh

ad. 'ala wahd-uh.

along, pr. 'ala tul (at-tul).

alongside of, pr. bi-jenib; jenb. aloud, ad. 'al al-'ali.

VOCABULARY.
alphabet, n. elifbe.

85

already, ad. "ablan. aidan. also, ad. kamen


;

altar, n.
alter,
V. n.

medbah

p.

mdebih.

v. a.

bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir.

bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. mutghaiyir.

altercation, n.

mkhascmi.
'ulu.

although, con. m'a inn.


altitude,
n. irtife'a;

altogether, ad. kill-un sawa; jumli; 'ala ba'ad-uh.

alum,

n.

shebbi.

always, ad. de'imcn.


auiass, V. a.

bkowwim, kowwamt, kowwim.


p.

ambassador, n. sefir amber, n. amber.


ambition, n. tam'a.
ambitious,
a.

sufera.

tamma'a.

amble, v. n. (3rd per.) birahwin, rahwan.

ambler, n. rahwen.

ambuscade, n. kemin. America, Amerika; american, amcrikeni.


amiable,
a.

latif p.

lutafa.

anujiunition, n. jebakhani; zakhra.

amnesty,

n.

'afu.

ainong, pr. beyn.

amount,
ample,
aniulet,

n.

mcblagh
;

p.

mbeligh.

a.

kcfi

wcs'i.

amputate,
n.

v. a.

b"uss, "assait, "uss p.p. ma"sus,

hirz p. huruz.
selli
; ;

amuse,
me,

v. a. bselli, selleyt,

v. a.

biyubsut-ni,

basat-ni

to

be

{y^ per.) it amuses amused, binbusit, in-

basatt.

86

ARABIC MANUAL.
;

aimisemeiit, n. tesliyi

lahu.

ancestor, n. jidd p. ajded.

anchor,

n. yatir

mirsi

v. n. birsi, rsit, irsi

at anchor,

resi.

ancient, a. 'ati" p. 'utu";

"adim

p.

"udm,

and, con. wa;

u.

anecdote, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi p. hikeyet.

anemone,
angel, n.

n.

sha"shi" (shi"e").
melai'eki.
za'al; ghaiz.

anew, ad. min jdid.


anger,
n.

melak p. ghadab;
be,

angle, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "irni p. "arani.

angry,

to

(with),

v. n.

biz'al,

zi'ilt

(min); binghaz,
;

inghazt (min). /

am
p.

angry, ana z'alen, kint z'alen


za'alt,

to

make angry,
animal,
n.

v. a.

biz'el,

zu'ul.
p.

haiwen

haiwenet; dabbi

dawab.

anivwsity, n. 'adewi.
ankle, n. kehil p. kewehil.

a7inex (to), v.

a.

busul, wasalt, usul


(ila).

(usil), (bi),

p.p.

mowsul;
of the

bdumm, dammait, dumm


announce,
thing),
v.

a bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir

('an,

annoy,
annul,

v. a.

biz'el, za'alt,

zu'ul

it

annoys me,

biyiz'el-ni,

za'al-ni.
v.
a.

bbuttil,

battalt,

battil;

annidled,

a.

batil

(battal).

anoint, v. a. bimsah, masaht,

msah.
suff.).

another,

a.

ghair-uh (with pro.

answer,
ant, n.

n.

jeweb
p.

p.

jewebet;

v. a.

bjewib, jewabt, jewib.

nemli

nemel.

Antioch, Antakiyi.
anvil, n. sidden (sinden).

anxiety, n. inshighal bel

"ala".

VOCABULARY.anxious,
a.

87
a.

meshghul

al-fikr;

"al"an; (desirous)

mush-

tah
any,

(li).

a.

ahad

anybody, hada

any tiling,

shi

(sheyj.

apart, ad. 'ala jcnib; 'ala wahd-uh.


aperient, n. mus-hil (mis-hil).

apologise (to), v. n. be'itizir, etazert,

e'itizir

(ila).

apology, n. 'uzr;

'itizar.

apoplexy,
apostle, n.

n.

sakti.
risl.
;

resul p.
n.

apothecary,

farmashyeni

saidcli

apothecary's shop,

farmashia; saideliyi.
apparent,
a.

zahir; apparently, ad. zahiran.

appeal (ask for


(judicial)
v. n.

help)

v. a.

bistenjid, stenjedt, stenjid;


ste'nif.

bistc'nif, ste'neft,

appear,

v. n.

bizhar, zahert, izhar.


n.

appearance,
appetite, n.

zuhur

(zahir)

laha.

"abliyi.

applaud,

V. a.

bza""if, za""aft, za""if

(li).

applause, n. tez"if.
apple, n. tiffcha p. tcffeh.

apply (use)
bhutt,
"usLid.

v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil

v. a.

(put on)

hattait,

hutt

('ala)

{ask)

v. a.

bi"sud, "asadt,

appoint,

V. a.

b'aiyin, 'aiyent, 'aiyin p.p.

m'aiyen

to

be

appointed, bitwazzaf, twazzaft.


appoint))ient,
p.
n.

wazifi

p.

wazaiyif; ma'nuiriyi; merkez

merakiz.
b"errib, "errabt, "errib
istahscn.
bistahsin, stahsent, stahsin.
p.

apprentice, n. san'i p. sunna'a.

approach,
approval,

v. n. v. a.

(li).

approve,

apricot, n.

mishmshi

mishmish;

apricot-tree,

m\'i\\x)\'i\\\.

88
April, n. nisan.

ARABIC MANUAL.

apron,

n.

wazra;

( child's)

mariul p. marawil.
n.

aqueduct, n. "anayit mai p. "anawat.

Arabia, beled al-'arab


a.

Arab,

'Arabi

p.

'arabi; classical arable, 'arabi fasih;

'Urben arable, vulgar arable,


;

'arabi derij.

arbitrary,

a.

mustebidd.
p.

arbour,
arcli,
n.

n.

s"eli

s"eyil;

"ibbet khasheb.

"antara

p. "anatir.

arcJibishop, n. raiyis asa"fi.

archer, n.

"uwwas

p.

"owwasa rami sihm


;

p.

rumet sihm.

architect, n.

mhendis.
sijillet;

architecture, n. hendisi; resm; na"sh.

archives, n. p.

owra".

ardour,

n.

liamesi.

area, n. mseht al-ard. argue [about] v. bjedil, jedelt, jedil (fi). argument [proof], n. burhan p. berahin; (dispute)

jdel.

arithmetic, n. 'ilm al-hiseb.

ark, n. [Noah's ark]


n.

filk

Nuh.

arm, d. ideyn; fore-arm, dr'a p. udr'u; zind p. znud; [weapon] sleh (slehi) p. esliha; arms alet harb. armour, n. dir'a.
id

armpit, n. bat

p.

batat.

army,

n.

jeysh
a.

p.

jiyush; m'asker.
'ala de'ir.

around, ad. howl; min de'ir; all round,


arouse, v.

bfeyyi", feyya"t, feyyi"; bnebbih, nebbeht,

nebbih.

arrange,
sevvi

v. a.

bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt,


n.

p.p.

msewa.
teswi; tedbir p. tedebir.

arrangement,
arrears,
n. p.

ba"aiya.

VOCABULARY.
arrest,
v. a.

89

bikmish,

kmcsht,

kmush; bimsik, mesakt,

msuk.
arrival, n. wusul.
arrive, v. n. busal, wusult.

arrogance,
arrogant,

n.
a.

tekebbur; kibriya. mutkebbir; muta'ajrif.

arrozo, n. sihni p. sihem.


arsenic, n. zernikh;
art, n. fenn p. finun

semm
;

al-far.

{craft) san'a p. sanaiy'a.

artery, n. shirien p. sheraiyin.


articJioke, n.

ardishowki.

articulate, v. n. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz.


artificial,
a.

istina'i.

artillery, n.

topkhana

medfai'a;

artilleryman topji

p.

topjiyi.
as, ad.

mitl; ka; con. mitlma; hais

as long as, as
if,

madem

as soon as, bes


suff.).

ann (with pro. suft".) limma halma


;
;

ka; ka inn (with pro.


tl'at,

ascend, v. n. bitl'a,
ascent, n. tal'a.

tl'a

('ala).

ascertain,

v.

bistakhbir,

stakhbcrt,

stakhbir

('an);

v. a.

bha""i", ha'"'a''t, ha""i".

ash (tree),

n.

lisen al-'asfur.
;

aslianied, to be (of) v. n. bistilii, stahait (min)


a.

ashamed,

makhjul.
al-berr.

ashes, n. p. rimed.

ashore, ad. al-berr;

'al

ash-tray, n. sahn sikara;


Asia, Asia; asiatic,
aside, ad. 'ala jenib.
a.

manfada

p.

rnnahd.

asiawi.

ask (a question),
asleep, a.

v. a.

bis'cl,

sa'clt,

is'cl.

neyim;

ra"id.

QO
asparagus,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
haliyun.

assassin, n. "etil p. "utela.

assassinate, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul p.p.

ma"tul.

assassination, n. "atl.
assault, V. bihjum, hajamt,

hjum

('ala)

n.

hujum; mhajemi.
(3rd per.
p.)

assemble,

v. a.

bijm'a,

jem'at,

jm'a;

v. n.

biyijtim'u, ijtem'au.

assembly,

n.

jeme'i; ijtima'a.
(fi

assent, v. birda, irdit, irda

or

bi).

assessor,
assets,
assist,

n.

mtemmin

mkhammin.

n. p.

mowjudet.
bse'id, se'adt, se'id.

V. a.

assistance, n. mse'adi.
associate, n. sherik p. shureka.

assurance,

n.

te'ekid

{boldness) jesara.
(li).

assure, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid


astern, ad. wara; astern

of

the ship,

astonish,
it

v. a.

(3rd per.) bidhish,


vie,

wara al-merkeb. dahesh p.p. medhush

astonishes

bi'ajjib-ni,

'ajjab-ni; to be astonislied,

V. n.

bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt.

p.p. mut'ajjib.

astonishment, n. dehshi; t'ajjub.

asylum (for the insane)


at,

n.

meristen.

pr.

fi

'ind;
kefir.

bi

ad. at all,

abaden; mnowb. (mnob).

atheist, n.

Athens, Atina.
attach,
V. a.

(to)

v.

a.

burbut,
'alii"

rabatt,
(bi).

urbut
n.

(bi)

{hang up)

b'alli",

'alla"t,

attack, V. bihjum, hajamt,

hjum

('ala);

hujum.

attempt,

v.

n.

bijtihid,

ijtahadt, ijtihid;

bjerrib, jerrabt,

jerrib; n. ijtihad; tijrubi p. tejerib.

attend (be present at)

v. n.

behdar,

hadert,

hdar

(fi)

{pay attention

to)

v.

bintibih, intebeht, intibih

(ila).

VOCABULARY.
attention, n. intibch
attentive,
attest,
V.
;

9
li
;

pay

attention! intibih

dir bel-ak 'ala.

a muntibih.

bsadi", sada"t, sadi"

('ala)

p.p.

msadda".

attitude, n.

haiya; hala

(hali).

attorney, n. wckil da'awi; avokat.


attract, v. a. bijzub, jezebt, jzub.

anction, n.
to

mezcd

to sell

buy by August, n. eb.

by

bbi'a,

be'ut bil-mezed

bishtri, shtrait bil-mczed.

aunt, n. {paternal)
auspicious, a. sa'id.

'ammi

[maternal) khali.

Australia, Ustralia.

Austria,

Nemsa

austrian,

a.

nemsewi.

author, n. mu'ellif; ketib.


authority, n. sulta.
authorize, v.
a.

bfowwid, fowwaclt, fowwid.


imda.

autograph,

n.

autumn,

n.

al-kharif,

avarice, n. bikhl.

avaricious,
a'venge,
v.

a.

bakhil p. biikhal.
at-tar;

bekhud, akhadt

I avenged you, akhadt


'ala

bi tar-ak.

average,
avoid, V.
('an

a.

avert, v. a. bimn'a,

m'addal; on an average, men'at, mn'a. bib'ud, ba'adt, bu'ud ('an)


;

m'addal.

bibt'id, ibt'adt, bt'id

or min); bitjennib, tjcnncbt, tjcnnib ('an or min).


v. a.

azvait,

bistanzir, stanzert, stanzir; bintizir, intazert,

intizir.

awake,

v. n. bfi", fi"t, fi"


a.

bu'a, \va'it,.\vu'a; a. we'i


s'ab.

faiyi".

azvkivard,

ghashim
;

[difficult)

axe, n. ferra'a

fes p.

fus;

balta.

axle, n. m'awcl.

92

ARABIC MANUAL.

baby, n.

tifl

p.

atfal

walad
'uzben
towli.

zghir.
c. p.

baclielor, n. 'azeb p.

'azzebi.

back, n. dahr; "afa; beJimd

my

back,

wara

dahr-i.

backgammon,
backiuards,

n.

da""
a.

backivard (tardy),
ad.
ila

himil; buti.
rj'a la

wara; go back,
la

ivards and forwards,


bacon, n.

wara u

la wara; back"iddem.

lahm khanzir.
'aatil,
c.

bad,

a.

'aatil
(3i"d

aktar; redi
per.)

c.

arda;
ihtara;

to

go bad

[of fruit)
V. n.

V. n.

biyihtiri,

[of meat)

(3rd per.) biyirwih,

arwah.

badge, n. nishen p. nieshiii; 'alemi.


bag, n. kis p. kyes; shanta.

baggage,
bail,

n.

'afsh

howeyij

hmuli.

n. kefeli.
n.

bait,

tu'um.

baize, n.

jukh
a.

serj.

bake, V.

bikhbuz, khabazt, khbuz p.p. makhbuz.


[of weight)

baker, n. khabbez; ferran.


balance,
n.

mizen;
p.p.

(^y account) rasid; v.


;

a.

buzin,

wezent,

uzin

mowzun
;

to

jnake balance,

b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen.

balcony, n. tarasina

balkon

rowshen

kishk.

bald, a. ajlah p. juluh; asl'a p. sulu'.


bale,
ball,

n. n.

beli p. belet

tard p. trudi.
[dance) ballo.

tabi p. tabet;

ballast, n. sabura.

balloon, n. balun;
ballot,

mintad.
('ala).

n.

"ur'a; v. n. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a

VOCAIJULARV,
balustrade, n. drabzin (drnb/.un).
baviboo, n. khaizcran.

93

banana,
band,
n.

n,

mowzi

p.

mowz

banana

tree,

mowzi.
;

rabta p. rabtat; [of music) jow"; nowbi band, rabtat mighait.


n. v. a.

elastic

bandage,
banish,

rabta p. rabtat.
bserkil,

serkelt, serkil p.p.

mscrkcl

binfi,

nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi.

bank,

hafii p. n. bank; {river toman bank, bank al-'osmeni.


)

haffet c.p. hafefi;

Ot-

banker,

n. n.

serraf p. saiyerif.
srafi.

banking,

bankrupt,

n.

miflis;
n.
iflcs.

maksur.
walimi
p.

bankruptcy,
baptise,

banquet, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im


v. a.

walc'im.
p.p.

baptism, n.

b'ammid, 'ammedt, 'ammid m'amudiyi.


;

m'ammad.

bar, n. "adib p. "uclben

shilf p. shlufi.

barbarous,

a.

mutwahish
;

berberi.

barber, n. halla".
bare, a. {naked) 'ariyen
zlait;
;

{of land) jcrda; "ar'a.


to

bargain,
bfasil,

n.

bazar;

msewami
mwain
;

make a bargain,
p.

v. a.

fasalt, fasil;

bbezzir bezzert, bezzir.

barge, n.

maon

p.

jurm

jrumi.

bark,
V. n.

n.

{of a

tree) "ishri ("ishr); {of

a dog) "awi

howsh.

(3^ per.)

biyinbah, nabah

bihush, hesh.

barley, n. sh'ir.

anbar p. anabir. barometer, n. mizcn al-hfnva


barn,
n.

barometre.

barracks,
barred,
a.

n.

"ishli".

mshebbck

bil-hadid.

barrel, n. barmil p. baramil; (^/ ^ ^//;/) hadidit al-barudi.

94

ARABIC MANUAL.

barren, a. {of lajid) 'a"im; {of women) 'a"ir. barricade, n. sidd p. sdud {niilit.) mitras p. materis.
;

base,

a.

dun
sifl
SL.
;

(deni)
k'ab.

bottovi)

ases

p.

aseset; {of

moun-

tains)

bashful,

khajul.
;

basin, n. tusht p. tshut

lekken

basket, n. selli p. slel; clotJies

p. Iken.
,

sebet p. sbet.

bastard, n. bandu".
bat,
n.

wutwat
n.

p.

watawit.
p.

bath,

hammem

hamemim

bath-woman, belleni
batJi

bath-man, hammemji; mkebbis;


batJie,

towel,

manshfi.

V. n.

bt-hammam, t-hammemt, t-hammem.


p.

battalion, n. tabur p. twabir.


battle,
n.

wa"'a

wa"'at; m'areki

p. ma'arik.

bay, n. khalij p. khiljen. bayonet, n. singhi p. singhet


;

harbi p. harbet.

bazar, n. su" p. aswa".


be,

V.

/ was,
tJiere

bisir;

kint; he was, ken; be, kun; there will be was, sar {^oide grammar, verb 'to be').

beach, n. shatt.
beacon, n. "abuli ("abili) p. "abebil ("abe'il).

bead, n. kharazi p. kharaz; habbi p. hbub. beak, n. min"ad.

beam,

n. jisr p. jesura.
;

bean, n. {french) lubiyi

{haricot) fasulia.

bear (to produce, of the earth) v. a. (31^ per. f.) bitghill, ghalHt {endure) v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil {carry)
;
;

V. a.

behmil, hamelt, hmul;

n.

dibb

p.

dibeb.

beard, n. da"n p. du"un; lihiyi p. liha.


beardless, a. ajrudi.

bearer, n. hamil
beast, (wild) n.

ne"il.
p.

wahsh

wuhush;

{beasts in gen.) behe'im.

VOCABULARY.
beat,
V.
a.

95
{overcome)

bidrub,

darabt,

drub;
to

bighlub,

ghalabt,
indarabt.

ghlub p.p.

maghlub;

be beaten, bindirib,

beautiful, a. zarif p. zuraf; jemil

c.

ejmcl; bedi'a.

beauty, n. jemel.
because,

con. bi hais; hais aim (with pro.


to suit v.

suff.)

li

kiin.

becouie, v. n. bsir, sirt, sir;


libi"
(li).

[y^

per.) biyilba",

bed,

n.

{bedding) fershi p. fershet; bed-clothes, n. ghata;

lahaf;
p.

bed-room,

n.

udat an-nom

bed-stead, n. takht

tukhut.

bedouin, n.
bee,

bedewi

p.
;

bedu.
bee-hive,
n.

n.

nahli p. nahl
n.

"afir an-nahl.

beef,

beef, beer,
n.

lahm ba"ar; lahm mishwi.


bira.
n.

boiled beef,

lahm maslu";

roast

beeswax,
beetle,

sham'a

asfar.

n.

khinfsi p. khenefis.

beetroot, n.

shmendur (shwender).
pr.

before,

ad.

"abl

{of space)
;

amem; "iddem
beg
of,
v.

before

and
beg,

after, "abl u b'ad

con. "abl ma.


biltimis,

V. a.

bitrajja, trajjait, trajja; to

iltemest, iltimis (min.).

beggar,

n.

shahhad.

begin, v. a. bbcllish, bellesht, bellish; bibtidi, btedeyt, btidi.

beginner, n. mibtidi.

beginning, n. bdeyi.
behalf, on (of), pr. minshen.

behave, v. n. bisluk, salakt, sluk; bitsarraf, tsarraft, tsarraf.

behaviour,

n.

tesarruf; sluk;

siri

his behaviour, sirt-uh.

behind, pr. khalf; wara; bi "afa.

Belgium, Beljika; belgian,

a.

beljiki.

g6
belief,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

'iti"ad.

believe,

v. a.

bsaddi", sadda"t,
(fi

saddi";
bi).

to

believe in, v.

bu'min, ament, emin


believer, n.
bell,

or

mu'min.
menfakh.
v. n.
{^^^^

n. jaras p. jras.

bellows, n.
belly,
n.

batn.
P^r.)

belong to (to)
belongs
below, pr. taht.
belt,

bikhuss,

ken bikhuss;

it

to me, bikhuss-ni; teb'a-i.

n.

zinnar p. znenir.

bench, n.
bend,

bank

p.

bnuki

ma" 'ad khasheb.


Iwi;
v.

v. a.

bilwi,

laweyt,

n.

to

bend the head,

bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh.


benefit,
n.

menfa'a
a.

p.

menafi'a.
f.

bent (crooked)

'awaj

'owja

p.

'uj.

berth (on board ship) n. srir p. aserir (sraiyir).


berry, n. kibsh p. kebush.
beside, pr.

besides,

hadd; "arib; jenb. ad. ma'ada kamen fadlan


; ;

'an

besiege, v. a. bhasir, hasert, hasir.


best,
a.

sup. al-ahsan
V. n.

ahsan min
rahent,

al-kill.
('ala)
;

bet

[on),

brahin,

rahin

n.

rahn

p.

ruhuni.

Bethlehem, Beytlahm.
betray, v. a. bkhun, khint, khun.
betrotli
{to),

v.

a.

bitlub,
(ila)
;

talabt,

tlub
a.

(ila)

bkhattib,

khattabt, khattib
betrothal, n. khitbi.
better, a.

betrothed,

khatib.

ad. ahsan; afdaL

betting,

n.

mraheni.

between, pr. beyn.

VOCABULARY.
beyond,
jjr.

97
beyond
vicasiire,

b'ad

[of space) "at'i

fow

"al-hadcl; fow "al-"iyes.


Bible, n. {old Testament) d^t-iowrdi; {nezv Testainent)
big, a. kbir c.
bile,
/;///,
3.\-'u-\]\\.

akbar

p.

kbar

'azim.

n.

safra.

n. "a'imit hiseb;

biclct;

bind,

V.

of exchange, kimbieli shahn p. bwalis. bill of a. burbut, rabatt, urbut pp. marbut;
/;///

p.

kimroll)

lading, bolsit

{to

V. a. bliff, lefifeyt,

liff,

pp. melfuf

{of books) v. a. bjellid,

jelledt, jcllid pp.

mjellad.
ulcdit al-walad;

bird, n. tayr p. tuyur; bird-liuie, dib".


birtli,

n.

ulcdi;

the birth

of the
milad.

child,

birth-day, 'eid

mowlid

bishop, n. mitran p. matarni.

bishopric, n. abiashiyi.
/;//,

n.

{piece)

nitfi

sha"fi

{of a bridle) fekk; bit by


nitfi
nitfi.

bit,

shwayi shwayi; {piecemeal)


bite,

V.

a. a.

b'add, 'addait, 'add.

bitter,

murr.

black, a.

aswad (aswid)

f.

sovvda p. sud.

blacking, n. boya.

blacksmith, n. hadded.
blade, n. shafra p. shafrat; nasli p. naslat.

bladder,

n.

metcni
blum,

mebweli;

{iyiflated)

n.

marara.

blame,

v. a.

'atabt, 'atib

blameless, ad.

lum {used to inferiors); v. a. ba'atib, {used to equals and infer io'>'s); n. lowm; 'iteb. bila lowm.
limt,
in blank,
p.

blank,

a.

abyad;

'ala

baiyad.

blanket, n.

hram
;

hramct.

blaze, n. sh'ali

lahib.

bleach,

v.

a.

bu"sur, "asart, u"sur pp. ma"sur; bbaiyid,

baiyadt, baiyid pp. mbaiyad.


7

98
bleed, v.

ARABIC MANUAL.
n. (31^ per.) bisil, sel

min-nuh damm;

v. a.

bufsud,

fasadt, fsud.
bless,
V.
a.

bberik, berakt, berik.

blessing, n. bereki p. bereket.


blind, a.
V.

n.

'ama v. a. be'ami, 'ameyt, 'ami; b'ama, 'amit.


;

to

go

blind,

blindness, n. 'ama.
blister,

n.
n.

hara"a.
sidd p.

block,
V.
a.

sdud

block

of wood,

"it'at

khasheb

bsidd, seddeyt, sidd pp. inesdud.

blockade, n. hisar bahri.

blockhead, n. abhel
blood, n.

mebhul

belid.

damm

fidl-blooded, a.

dammawi.
ad-dimma.

bloody, a. mlattakh bi

damm;

bloodshed, n. sefk

bloom, n. tarawi.
blossom, n. zahra p. zahr (zuhur).
blot,

n. latkha.

blotting-paper, n. wa.ra"neshshesh (neshshaf).

blow,

n.

darbi;

latmi

v.

n.

binfukh,

nefakht,

nfukh

blue,

pp. menfukh. a. azra" f. zer"a p. zir"; dark blue, azra" ghami";


ligJit blue,

azra"

fetih.
c.

blunder, n. ghalta p. ghaltat


blunt, a. kell
;

p. ghalat.

mau

(mush) madi.

bhish, V. n. bikhjel, khijilt, khijel.

boar, n. khanzir berri p. khnezir berriyi.

board,

n.

lowh

p.

Iweh; sideboard, khizenit sufra.


iftikhir;

boast, n. fashr; fakhr; v. n. biftikhir, iftakhert,

bshuf, shuft hal-i, shuf hal-ak.


boaster, n. feshshar.
boat, n. feluka p. fleyik;

"arib p. "awerib.

boatman,

n.

bahri.

; ;

VOCABULARY.
bodkin, n.

99

mdckk,
and
n.

p.

mdckkct.
jifi

body, n. jism p. ajsem; {corpse)


boil,

p.

ji'ef.

V.

a.
;

[of

liqjiids)

bighli, ghaleyt, ghli pp.

mighli
V.
n.

{of solids) v.
dist p.

a. bislu", sala"t,

slu" pp. maslu";

{y^
n.

per.) biyinsili", insala".

boiler,

dsut.

boiling, a. ghali.
bold, a. jcsur.
bolster, n.
bolt,

mkhaddi
p.

wusedi.

n.

sa"ata (sa"Lita) p. sa"utat; da"r p. d"ura.


killi

bomb,
bo)id,

n.
n.

klcl.

bone, n.

scned 'admi

p.

p.

senedet; sakk 'adam ('adm).


p.

p. skuk.

bonfire, n.

"abili ("abuli)

"abebil

tenwir.

bonnet, n. birneyta p. buranit.

book,

n.

kiteb p. kutub

book-binder, mjellid; book-case,

kutubiyi; khizenit kutub; book-keeper, mhassibji; bookkeeping,

mcsk

ad-defetir

book-seller,

bey'i

kutub

bookshelf, reff p. rfuf.


boot,
n.

sirmeyi

p.

sarami

bootlace,

shrita
p.

p. shrayit

bootmaker, kinderji; topboot, jezmi


booty, n. ghanimi.

jczmet.

border, n. haftl p. haffet


bore,
V.
a.

hadd

p.

hudud; hashiyi.

bibkhush, bakhasht, bkhush pp. mebkhush {of metals) bi"dah, "adaht, "ideh; {to zueary) bit'ub,

ta'ebt, tu'ub pp.

met'ub

//

bores me, biyit'ib-ni, ta'ab-ni.

born, to

be,

v.

n.

bikhla", khili"t; bulad, walidt.


sta'art,
sta'ir.

borrow,

v. a.

bista'ir,

bosom, n.

hudn

(hidn) p. ahdan.

Bosphorus, Boghaz.
both, a. kill

wehid (wahid)
;

itncyn

f.

tintcyn.

bother, n. t'ab

si"Ii.

lOO
bottle,

ARABIC MANUAL,
n.

"annini p. "ineni.

bottom, n. asfal; "e'a ("a'a).


bojigh,
11.

boundary,
bozv,
n.

ghusn p. aghsan; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. n. hadd p. hudud; takhm p. tkhum.


p.

bouquet, n. ba"et (be"at) zuhur.

"ows

a"was; [of a
n,

necktie),
v.

'u"di ('i"di).

boiv [reverence),
inhini.

haniiyt

ras;

n. binhini,

inhanait,

bowels, n.
boiul,

am'a

ferigh; sijuk.
V^o.'&kX;

n. tasi

p. taset; kesi p.
p.

pipe
p.

^^za/,

ghaliyun.
[box on

box, n.

sandu"
kefif.

snedi"; [small)

'elbi

'eleb;

the ear)

boy, n. sabi p. subiyan;

walad

p.

uled (owlad).

boyhood, n. siba.
bracelet, n. isvvar p. asevvir;
sleti

p. sletat.

braces, n. "ishat.

brackets, n. p. hileleyn

in brackets,

beyn

hileleyn.

brackish,

a.

melih

brackish zvater, mai nielha.

bradaivl, n. berrimi.
braid, n. jedel; habk.
brain, n.

dmagh; nkh'a;
n.

sheeps' brains, nkh'a kharuf.

bramble,
branch,

'owsaj

shok.

bran, n. nkhali.
n.
n.

ghusn

p.
;

aghsan
;

fer'a

(fir'i)
;

p.

fru'a.

brand,

wasm

nishen

damgha

v.

a bhutt, hattait,

hutt wasm.
brass, n. nahas asfar.

brawl,
brave,

n.
a.

khna"a;
n. n.

toshi.

shuje'a (seje'a).

bravery,
bray,
v.

sheje'aa (seje'aa).
(31(1
;

per.)

bishenhi", shenha".

bread, n. khibz

loaf of bread, rghif khibz.

VOCABULARY.
breadth,
break,
v. n.

10

'ard.
a.

biksur,
v. a.

kesert,

ksur pp. maksur;


;

to

break
h\Ca\\\,

in pieces,

bkessir,

kessert, kessir

to be

broken,

(31^ per.) biyiiikisir, inkeser; to

break a promise,
biftar,

khalleyt, khill

bil-w'ad.
ftur;
v.

breakfast,

n.

tcr\vi"a;

n.

fatart,

ftar.

breast, n. sidr; breastplate [of a

Jiorse) sidriyi.

breath, n. nefes.
breatlie,
v. n.

bitneffes.

tneffest, tneffes.

breech-loader, n. barudi khal'a.


breed, n. jins p. ajncs; asl.
breeze, n. nesim.
bribe,
n.
;

bartil p. baratil
v.

reshwi

v.

a.

bbcrtil, bertelt,

bertil

bshuf, shuft, shuf khatir-uh.


p.

brick,

n.

"armidi
n.

"armid.
'irsen.

bride, n. 'arus p.

'araiyis.
p.

bridegroom,

'aris

bridesmaid, n. shbini p. shbinet.


bridge, n. jisr p. jesura.
bridle, n.

Ijem

p.

Ijemet

c.

p. lijim; v. a. biljum, lajamt,

Ijum (Ijom).
brief, a.

mukhtaser;
n.

briefly,

bil-ikhtisar.

brigade, n. liwa p. ehviyi.

brigand,
brim,

"att'a at-tari" p. "atta'in.


a.

bright {brilliant),
n.

lem'i.
li

haffi;
a.

brimful, melen

shiffi.

bring, v.

bjib, jibt, jib.

brink, n. haffi.
brittle,
a. a.

"ebil al-kesr.
'arid;

broad,

wes'i.

broker, n. simsar p. smasra; dcllal (dellel).


brood, n. sus p. sisan.

I02

ARABIC MANUAL.

brook, n. se"i (sa"i) p. swe"i (sawa"i).

broom,
brother,

n.

mikinsi p. mkenis

m"ashshi
p.

belleni.

broth, n. mar"a.
n.

khey (khay); akh

ikhwi

{of the same

father and mother) .sha"i"; br other -in-lazv, suhr. brown, a. asmar p. sumr. bruize, v. a. brudd, raddait, rudd p.p. mardud n. radda.
;

brush, n. firsheyi p. firsheyet; tootli-brnsh, firsheyit snen;


V. a.

bfershi, fershait (fersheyt), fershi.


n.

brnshiuood,
bucket, n.
buckle, n.

bellen.
;

dalu p. idilwi satl p. stuli. bzim p. bzimet; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil

p.p.

mbekkel.

bud^ n. zirr p. zrar.


buffalo, n.

jemus

p.

jwemis.

bug, n. ba"a p. ba".


bugle, n. nefir.
build,
V. a.

b'ammir, 'ammert,
p.
p.

'ammir,

p.p.

m'ammer;
benneyin.

bibni, benait (beneyt),

bni p.p. mibni.


;

m'emeri building, n. 'amara


builder, n.
bulb,
n.

m'ameriyi
'amarat
;

benna

p.

bina p. binaiyet.
a.

basli p. basl.
;

Bulgaria, Bilgharia
bull,

bidgarian,

bilghari.

n.

towr
n.

(tor)

p.

tiran (tuwar).

bidlet,

n.

resasa p. resas.

ghazzara p. ghazzar. bump, n. waram; [knock] sadmi sdum.


bidrusli,

v. a.

bisdum sadamt,

bunch, n. [of grapes) 'an"ud p. 'ane"id (flowers) dummi. rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. bundle, n. hizmi p. hizem
; ;

bung, n.
buoy,
n.

fellini

p.

fellin.

shmandura

p.

shmandurat; 'awwemi.

VOCABULARY.
burden,
burn,
(31^1

IO3

n.

hi

ml

p.

hmcl

(hniuli).

burial, n. defn.
v.
a.

bihru",

hara"'t,
;

huru"

p.p.

mahru";

v.

n.

per.)

biychru", hara"

biyihti'ri",

ihtara"; the fire

burns, an-nar bitish'ul, she'elit.


burst, V. n.
biyinfel'a,

{y^

per.)

biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr);

infcra.
v.
a.

bjiry

{of persons),
;

bidfun, defent, dfun, p.p.


p.p.

med-

fun
busJi,

{of ani)nals)
'illey"a p.

btumm, tammait, tumm


'illey".

matmum.

n.

business, n. shighl (shughlj p. ashghcl (ashghal).

busy,

a.

meshghul.

but, con. lekin;

wa
;

anima.

butcher, n.
butt,
V. a.

butt-end,

lahham "assab. and n. (3rd per.) biyintah, natah. n. "anda" ("inda").


;

butter, n. zibdi
butterfly,
n.

clarified butter,
p.

semm.

frashi

frashet.

button, n. zirr p. zrar; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil p.p.

mbekkel.
button-hole, n. bikli p. bikel; 'irwi p. irwet.
buttress, n. d'ami p. da'aiyim.

buy, V.

a.

bishtri,
n.

shtrait (shtreyt), shtri

p.p.

mushtera;

buying,

shraiyit.

buyer, n. mushteri; sheri.


buzz, V. n.
(3i"d

per.) biwazwiz,

wazwaz.
bi wastat.

buzzing, n. wazwazi.
by, pr. 'ind; jenb;

hadd

{instrumental) bi

104

ARABIC MANUAL.

c.
cabbage, n. melfufi p. melfuf; yakhanai p. yakhana.
cabin, n. [ship's)
cabinet,
n.

kamara; uda
;

zghiri.

khizeni p. khzeyin

cabinet council, wazara.


'

cage, n. "afas p. "afas.

Cairo, Kahira.

cake, n. ka'aki p. ka'ak; "urs p. "uras.

calamity, n. msibi p. msaiyib

belwi

p.

belwet.

calculate, v. a. bihsub, hasabt,

hsub p.p. mahsub.

calculation, n. hiseb p. hisebet.

calendar, n. riznemi d. riznemet.


calf,
n.
'ijl

p. 'ujul;
n.

[of the leg) batat

al-ijr.

caligraphy,
call,

khatt.
(li)

V.

bindah, nadaht, ndah


or
li);

v. b'aiyit, 'aiyett,

'aiyit

(ila

[to

name)
[to

v.

a.

bsemmi, semmait, semmi


v.

p.p.

msemma;
[to

call out)
v.
a.

n.

bsarrikh,

sarrakht^
zi-

sarrikh;

visit)

bzur,

zirt,

zur; [a visit) n.

yara
calm, n.

p.

ziyarat.
;

hudu

[of the sea) ghalini;

a.
;

rekiz; hedi; v. a.

bheddi, heddait
sekkin.

(heddeyt),

heddi

bsekkin, sekkent,

calumniate,

v.
,

bushi, washait, ushi

('ala).

calumniator

n.

nemmem.

nemimi. camel, n. jemel p. jmel; b'aiyir p. abe'ir; she-camel, ne"a; camel-driver, jemmel. camp, n. khiyeni; [milit:) m'asker. camphor, n. kafur.
calumny,
n.

can, n. tenaki p. tenket; v. n. {vide: to be able),

canal, n. "anayi p. i"niyi.

VOCABULARY.
cancel,
v.
a.

105
;

bbuttil,

battalt,

battil

cancelled, a.

batil.

cancer, n. saratan p. sratin.

candid,

a.

selim al-"elb

selim an niyi

mukhlis.

shama'a p. shama'at. candlestick, n. sham'aden.


candle, n.
cane, n. khaizeran
;

sugar-cane, "asab sikkcr; "asab mass;


'usi.

{zvalking stick) 'asa p.


cannibal, n. ekil

lahm
p.

al-beshr.

cannon,
cannot,

n.
v.

medf'a
n.

mdef'i.

ma
;

bi"dir,
it

ma

"cdirt;

/ cannot do
bisir.
;

it,

ma

bi"dir 'amil-uh

cannot
;

be,

ma

cap, n. ta"iyi p. tawa"i

'ar"iyi; p. 'ara"i

"ib'i p. "ibc'a.

capable, a. mu"tidir

"adir ("edir).

capacious,

a.

wes'i

fasih.

cape, n. {headland) ras; [cloak)

burnus
p.

p.

baranis.

caper, (plant) n. "abbar.


capital,
n.

{of a

country)

'aasmi

'awasim; "asabi

p.

"asabet; {of money) rismel (rismal). capittdate, v. a. bsellim, scUcmt, sellim taht shart.
capsicum,
n.
flaifli.

captive, n. esir p. lisera.


captivity, n. isr; scbi.

capture, v.
isbi p.p.

a.

bi'sur, asert, isur p.p.

ma'sur; bisbi, sebeyt,

misbi.
p.

caravan,

n. "afili
jitti

"awafil.
{/iuma}i)
jifi

carcass, n.

p. jittet;

p. ji'ef.

card, n. wara"a p. wara".

cardboard,
shiddi.

n.

kartun.
n.

cards (playing),
care {anxiety),
dir bcl-ak.
n.

p.

wara"

I'eb (I'ub)

pack of cards,

hemm;

{attention) n. e'atina; take care!

I06

ARABIC MANUAL.

careful, to be {about) v. n. be'atini, 'etenet, e'atini(fi).


careless, a.

mush
mlatafi

mbeli.
;

caress,

n.

v.

a.

bdellil,

dillelt,

dellil;

bghannij,

ghannejt, ghannij.
caretaker, n. natur al-beyt.

cargo, n. shahn

was".
"arunful.

carnation, n. "arunfli p.

carpenter,

n.

nejjar.

carpet, n. {large) bsat p. bust; {small) sejjedi p. sejjedet


c.

p.

sijjad.
n.

carriage,

'arabiyi

p.
;

'arabiyet

karrusa p. karruset;
'ateli.

(freight) n.
carrion, n.
jifi.

nowulun

(porterage) n.

carrot, n. jezera p. jezr.

carry,

v.

a.

behmil, hamelt, limul p.p. mahmul.


{small)

cart, n. {large) karro p. karrat;

tumberu

p.

tma-

bir (tunber p. tnabir).

cartridge, n. fesheki p. feshek; khartushi p. khartush.

farve {of stone) v. "ush {of zvood)


;

a.

V.

bin"ush, na"asht, n"ush p.p. mena. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur.

carving, n. na"sh; hafr.


cascade, n. shellel p. shellelet.
case,
n.

sandu"
p.

p.
;

.snedi";

{small) 'elbi p. 'eleb; {legal)


'ard

d'awa
cash,
n.

da'awi

statement of case,

al-mes'eli

in no case,

abaden. na"diyt in cash, ad. na"den


;

v.

a.

bi"bad,
p.

"abadt,

i"bad p.p.
n.

ma"bud

cash-book,

n.

defter

defetir; cash-box,

sandu"hadid.

cashier, n. .sandu"ji;

amin as-sandu".

cask, n. barmil p. baramil.'


castle,

n.
oil,

"al'a p. "il'a
n.

castor

zeyt kharw'a.

VOCABULARY.
castrate, v. n. bukhsi, khsait, khsi pp. mikhsi.

lO/

casual,
cat,

a.

'aradi.
p.

n.

bseyn

bseynet; "att

p.

"atat.

catalogue, n. jedwel p. jdewil.

catastrophe, n. nekbi p. nckbct.


catch,
V.
a.

bikmish,

kmesht, kmush;
;

bimsik,

mesakt,

msuk

p.p.

memsuk

bukhtuf, khataft, khtuf.


;

cauldron, n. [large] khal"in p. khlc"in dist p. dsut. zahra p. zahrct. cauliflower, n. "arnabita p. "arnbit
;

cause,

n.

sebeb

p.

asbeb

'illi

p.

'illel

v.

a.

bsebbib,

sebbebt, sebbib p.p. caustic, n. mikwi.


cauterise, v. a. bikwi,

msebbeb

('an).

kweyt, kwi p.p. mikwi.

caution, n. hazr

ihtiras.

cautious, a. haris.

cavalry, n. p. khaiyeli; fursan.


cave, n.
cease,
v.

maghara
n.

p.

mghaiyir.
biyikhlas, khalas; biyintihi, inteha.

[y^

per-)

cedar, n. erzi p. erz.


ceiling, p.
n.

[of masonry)

sa"f p. s"uf;

[boarded] tawan

tawanet.
v.
a.

celebrate,

bihtifil,

ihtafelt,

ihtifik

celebrated, a. mesh-hur.
celerity,
n.

sur'a; 'ajeli.
krefs.

celery, n.
cellar, n.

"abu
tin; p.p.

p.

i"biyi.

cement,
taiyin

n.

mlat;

simcnto;
;

v.

a.

btaiyin,

taiyent,
p.p.

mtaiycn

bmallit,

mallatt,

mallit

mmallet.
cemetery, n.
censure, n.

ma"bara

p.
a.

lowm

v.

m"cbir; turbi p. tiirab. blum, limt, lum p.p. melum.

centipede, n.

imm

arb'a u arbc'in.

I08
centre,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
wast
jil
;

merkez.
ajiyel;

century, n.

p.

"arn
;

p.

"urun.

ceremony,
certain,
a.

n.

[function) ihtifel
;

{behaviour) teklif.
snff.).

certainly,
certificate,

ba'ad-um {zvith pro: ad. m'alum; ha" "an ma"fura.


akid
{some)
;

n.

shehedi.
(fi).

certify, v. bish-had, shahidt


cJiaff,

n.
n.

{chopped straiv) tibn.


jenzir
p.

chaiii,

jnezir;

silsli

p.

slesil;

v.

a.

bjenzir,

jenzert, jenzir p.p. mjenzer; b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid


p.p.

m"eyyed.

chair, n. kirsi p. kerasi; rocking chair, kirsi hezzez.

chalk, n. tbashir.

chameleon,

n.

herbeyi.

chance, n. sudfi, p. sidaf; fursa p. furas.

chandelier, n. traiya p. traiyet. change, taghiyir; {of money) n. fart; v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p.

mutghaiyer;
sruf.

{to

change

money)

v.

a.

bisruf,

saraft,

channel, n. mejra p. mejeri.


chapel, n. kenisi zghiri; kabella.

chapter,

n.

fasl

p.

fusul

(/;/

the

Bible)

is-hah

p.

is-

hahat.
character, n. tab'a p. atb'a; of good char acter,m\i-Alz2\i; a bad character, his character is bad, tab'a-uh redi
;

sha"i p. ish"iya.
charcoal, n. fahm.

charge {accusation), n. tehmi; {custody) n. istilam. {alms) sada"a. charity, n. rahmi haseni
; ;

charm

{amtdet), n. hirz p. huruz.

chart, n.

kharta.

VOCABULARY.
clias))i,

IO9

n.

huwi

p.

huwct; shi"

"

p.

shu"u".

chastise, v. a. b'eddib, 'eddebt, 'cddib p.p.

m'cddcb;

b"asi.s,

"asast, "asis p.p. m"asa.s.


cJiastisement,
n.
"isiis.
c.

cheap,

a.

rkhis

arkhas
v. a.

p.

rkhas.

cheat, V. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p.

maghshush.

check,

n.

mcn'i;

bimn'a, mcn'at, mn'a p.p.

mem-

n'u; bsudd, saddait,

sudd

p.p.

masdud.
wejni
p.

check-mate,
cheek, n.

n.

met

(mat).
cJieek bone,
;

khadd, khudud;

wejnet.

cheer, v. a. bfarrih, farraht, farrih

bibsut, basatt, bsut.

cheerful, a. farhan.
cheese,
n.

jibn; a cheese, "clib jibn.


;

chonist, n. farmashyeni
saideliyi.

S2i\de\\;

chonisfs
tree,

shop,{3.rn\disK\di;

cherry, n. kcrezi p. kerez


chess,
n.

cherry
;

kerezi.
bil'ab,

sataranj

(shatranj)

to

play
p.

chess,

Tibt,

Tab
nefs
;

sataranj;
queen,
firz

chess-man,
;

hajr
;

hijar;
;

king,

shah;
;

castle, rikh

bishop, f il

knigJit, faras

pawn, bayda"
chest,
n.

p.

biyedi".

chess-board, n. ri" 'at as-sataranj.


sidr p. sduri
n.
;

{box^

sandu"

p. snedi".

chestnut,

kestaneyi p.kcstana; chestnut tree kestaneyi.

chezv, V. a.

bimdagh, madaght, mclagh


djeji
p.

p.p.
;

mamdugh.

chicken,

n.

djcjct

c.

p.

djcj

firkha p. firakh;

cliicken-pox, jidrit al-mai.


chief, n.

raiyis p. ruasa.

chiefly, ad.

child, n.

khususan; bil-akhas. walad p. uled (owlad).

childhood, n. waldeni.
chill,

n.

berd.

chilly, a.

bcrid

f.

berdi; {of persons)

msa"

'a

berdcn.

no
cliinmey, n.

ARABIC MANUAL.

dekhun
p.
;

p.

dwekhin

medkheni

[of a lamp)

"izezi p. "izezet.
cliin,

n.

da"n
n.

du"un.
a.

China, as-sin
chintz,
chisel,

cJiinese,

sini;

[porcelaiii) n.

khazaf

sini.

shit;

yemeni.

n.

zmil p. azamil.
ikhtiyar.
a.
;

choice, n.

choke, V.

[of creatures) bikhnu", khana"t,

khnu"

p.p.

makhnu"
mesdud.
cholera, n.
choose, V. a.

{of things)
asfar.
"i,

v.

a.

bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p.

hawa
bna"

ikhtart, ikhtar p.p.

na" "ait, na" mukhtar.

"i p.p.

mna""a; bukhtar,

chopper, n. satur p. swatir.


chord, n. watar p. owtar.
Christ, Yesu'a; al-mesih; 'Isa.

Christian, n. nusrani p. nasara; mesihi p. mesihiyin.


cliurcJi,

n.

kenisi p. kneyis.

cigarette, n.

sikara p. swekir; a^^r^//^

/^^/(s'^r,

biz sikara;

cigarette case, 'elbit sikara.


cinders, n.

rimed.
n.
"irfi.

cinnamon,
cipher,
n.

shifra;
p.

ra"m

p.

ar"am.

circle, n. de'iri

dwe'ir.

circulate, v. n. (3rd per.) bidur, dar.

circumstance, n. zarf p. zuruf.


cistern, n. sahrij
citizen,
n.

p. saharij

[well) bir p. biyara.

ibn beled p. uled beled.

citron,
city,
civil,

n.

n.
a.

kubbedi p. kubbed. medini p. mudn.


meleki; civil service khidmi milkiyi
;
;

{polite)

a.

mhazzab

mrubba.

1;

VOCABULARY.
civility, n.
n.

1 1

tch/.ib;
tcilab

lutf.

claim,

p.
;

talbet
v.

c.

p.

matalib; [legal claim) n.


tlub p.p. matlub
(fi);

d'avva p. da'awi
[to

a. bitlub, talabt,

pretend)
v.

v.

biddc'i,

idda'ait,

iddc'i

to

claim

[legally)

b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul d'awa.


;

claimant, n. trdib p. tullab

mudde'i.

clamour,
class, claiv,
n. n.

n.

dajji (doji);

saiha.

clap [applaud), v. bza"


sinf p. asnaf.
difr (zifr)
p.

"if,

za" "aft, za""if

(li),

adfar (azfar), dafir.


tirab.
p.

clay,

n. tin;
a.

[earth)
c.

clean,

ndif

andaf

ndaf;

v.

a.

bnaddif, naddaft,

naddif p.p. miiaddaf.


cleanliness, n. clear, a.
safi
;

nadafi.
;

wadih; zahir; [transparent) a. sih&^dii [of liquids) raiyi"; v. a. browwi", rowwa"t, rowwi" p.p.
clear sighted, nazr-uh taiyib.

mrowwa";
clerk,
n.

ketib p. kitteb.

clever, a. shatir, c. ashtar p. shuttar.


cli})ib,

V. n.

bit'amsha", t'amsha"t, t'amsha"


('ala).

('ala)

bit'ar-

bash, t'arbesht, t'arbash


climate, n.
clock,
birj

menekh.
se'a

n.

di"a"a;

clock-maker,
clock,

se'ati

clock-toxver,
clock,

as-se'a;

face of a

mina; Jiands of a
a.

'a"rab p. 'a"arib.
close,
a.

"arib p. "urab

{to {to

fasten) v.
shut) v.
a.

bsekkir, sekkcrt,

sekkir p.p. msakker;

bughlu", ghala"t,

closet,

ghlu" p.p. maghlu". n. khizeni p. khzeyin.


n.

cloth,

jukh;
;

saddle-cloth,

libbcdi;

[for

luiping)

n.

memsaha
clothe
[to

futa.
on),
v.
a.

put clothes

blabbis, labbest, labbis;

112
[to

ARABIC MANUAL.
provide
;

zvitJi

clothes)
lebis.
n.

v.

a.

biksi,

ksait,

ksi

p.p.

miksi

clothed, a.

clothes, n. p.

tyeb;
p.

keswi; bedli.

clovd, n.

ghaimi

ghiyum.
nebebit
{place

clove {spice), n. kibsh "arunfuL


club,
p.
n.

nebbut
n.

p.

of meeting)

debesi

debeset; {of cards) sbeti.


'arabaji.
n.

coachman,
coal,

fahm
sitra

hajr.

coarse, a. khishin.
coat,
n.

p.

sitrat

(sitri
;

p.

sitari);

saku

p.

saket;

overcoat, kebbiit p. kbebit


cobbler, n. sekkef.

jibbi p. jibeb.

cobweb, n. 'ankebut; sidi 'ankebut.


{of a gun) dik. cockroach, n. sarsur p. srasir.
cock, n. dik p. diyuk;
coffee, n.

"ahwi;

{in

the berry)

benn

{h'mn);

ground coffee,
to

benn mat-hun;
mill,
coffee, V. a.
coffin,

coffee boiler, ghiWeyi; duli(d61i); coffeexvL2i\\vi\2iSd.;

mat-hanit benn; coffee roaster,


tebut p. twebit.
'umli
;

roast

bhammis, hammast, hammis


v.
a.

p.p.

mhammas.
bdu"",
berden;

n. n.

coin,

bsikk, sekkeyt, sikk 'umli;

da"
cold,
{in

"ait,
n.

du""'umli.
a.

berd;

berid
;

f.

berdi

{of persons)
nizl
;

a.

the liead) n. resh


n.

{in tlie cJiest)


;

to catch cold,

V.

bibrud, baradt, brud

/ have a

cold in the head,

ana mreshshah. colic, n. maghs.


collar, n.

"abbi
n.
a.

p.

"abbet; {of harness) kiddeni.

colleague,
collect,

refi p. arfa".

V.

bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a p.p. mejmu'a.


p.

college,

n.

medresi

mederis.

; ;

VOCABULARY.
colonel,
n. niir alay.

113

colony, n.
colt,

lown
p.

p.

el wen.

n.

nuihr
n.

mhur

(mahari).

'amud p. 'awemid. co)nlf, n. musht p. mshat; v. a. bmashshit, mashshatt, mashshit p.p. mmashshat. come, V. n. biji, jit, t'a; come up, bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); co)iie doivn, binzel, nzilt, inzel; come back, birj'a, rj'at
coliDiDi,
(rj'et),

rj'a

(rje'a).

comet, n.

abu denab.
n.

comfort,
comical,

{case)
a.

raha.
;

comfortable,
a.

mlib

bi

raha

mirteh.

mucUiik.
jei.

coming, pres. part, jci; coming and going, raih u

comniand,
(umiir).

n.

amr
n.
a.

p.

awemir;

v.

a.

bi'mur, amert, emir

comma)ider,
cojumend,
v.

amir; "cyid

kumandan.
p.p.

bimdah, madaht, mdah

memduh.

comvieyidation, n.
coninierce,
co)?imission,
n.

medh

(medih).

tijara;

metjr.

n.

'umuli [allowance to an agent).


derij
c.

common,

a.

adraj

{universal)
bi

wajd (mowjud) ad. 'umumen.


(plentiful)

kitra; ghazir;

'umumi, 'am commonly,

communicate,
companion,

v. a.

bbelligh, bellaght, belligh p.p. mbellagh.

communication,
n.

n.

tebligh p. teblighat.
;

refi" p. arfa"

zmil p. zumela.
{milit:)

company,
coinpare

n.

shirki p. sheraket;

buluk

p.

bulukct.

comparatively, ad. bin-nisbi.


iivitli),

v.

a.

bi"ebil, "abelt,
;

"ebil (m'a).
luith, bil-m*'ebeli

co))iparison,

n.
ila.

m"ebeli

///

comparison

bin-nisbi

114
compass,
ii.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bikar.
n.

compassion,

shefa"a;

ra'fi.

compel

{to),

V. a.
v.
a.

bijbur, jebert, jbur p.p.

mejbur

('ala).

compensate,

wad

('ala

b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'owtJie person) to be compensated, bit'owwad, of


;

t'owwadt.
compensation, n. t'awid.
cojupetence, n. salahiyi.

competent,

a.

"adir ("edir).
v.

complain (of),
complete,
a.

bitshekka, tshekkait, tshekka (min).

complaint, n. teshekki (shekwa) p. teshekkiyet.

kemil

v.

a.

bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil

p.p.

mkemmeL
completely, ad. bil-killiyi
co^nplexion, n.
;

tamemen.

lown
a.

al-wijh.

complicate,

v.

blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek;

b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p.

m'arbas. bhenni, hennait, henni.

complication, n. irtibek.

compliment,

n. teklif p. teklifet; v. a.
a.

composed

(of),

murekkeb

(min).

co7iiprehend, v. a. bifham, fahimt,

compromise,

n.

ittife"

(ittifa")

fham msewa
;

p.p.
v.
a.

mafhum.
bsewi, sa-

weyt, sewi p.p. msewa.


compulsion, n. ijbar.
conceal,
bikhfi,
v.
a.

bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba;


v.
a.

khafait, khfi p.p. mikhfi.

concede (give),

bimnah, manaht, mnah; [allow)


(li).

v.

bismah, semaht, smah


concern,
v.
a.

bihimm, hamm; it does not conma bihimm-ni; ma biy'ani-ni ken bikhuss-ni. me, ma it did not concern concerning, pr. bkhusus; 'ala; min khusus.
{y^
per.)

cern me,

ma

bikhuss-ni;

VOCABULARY.
conccssio)i,
n.
v.

II5

imtiycz
a.

p.

imtiyczet.

conciliate,

bselim, selemt, selim.

conciliatioji,

n.

msalaha

silha.

concise, a.

mukhtascr.
v.
a.

conclude,
nhi.

bkhallis,

khallast,

khallis

binhi, nahait,

conclusion, n.

condemn,

v.

khatmi netiji p. bihkum, hakamt,


;

nete'ij.

hkum

p.p.

mahkum

('ala

of the person,
conditionally
,

ila

of the

thing),

condition, n. [state) hali;

[stipulation) shart p. shurut.

ad. 'ala shart.


v. a.

condole [with),
selli.

b'azzi,

'azzait,

'azzi

bselli,

selleyt,

condolence, n. t'aziyi.

conduct,
V.
a.

siri her conduct, n. sluk bekhud, akhadt, khud (li).


;

sirt-ha

to

lead

{to),

confectioner, n. hilwenji p. hilwcnjiyi.


confectio7iery
,

n.
n.

halawiyet.
p.

confederacy,

jumhuriyi; muhalifi
v.

muhalifet.

confer

[ivitJi),

n.

bitbahat,
;

tbahatt,
[to

tbahat

(m'a)
'ati.

bitzekir, tzekirt, tzekir (m'a)

give) b'ati, 'atait,


(bi)";

confess,

v.
(bi).

be'itirif,

'itaraft,

e'itirif

b"urr, "arrait,

"urr

confession, n. i"rar

'itiraf.

confide

[to),

v. a. bsellim, sellemt, scllim p.p.


;

msellcm

(li).

confidence, n. ti"a

emniyi.
habast, hbus (hbis) p.p. mahbus.

confidently

ad. bil-emniyi.

confine, v. a. bihbus,

cotifinn, V. a. bscbbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p.


confiscate,
v.
a.

msebbet.

bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz.

confuse, v. a. bkharbit, kharbatt, kharbit; [morally) v. a.


b'arbis,
'arbcst,
'arbis.

Il6

ARABIC MANUAL.

confusion, n. kharbata; [moral) teshwish.

congratulate,

v.

bhenni, hennait, henni

bberik, berakt,

berik

(li).

cojigratiilation, n. tebrik; tehniyi.

conjecture,

n.

takhmin;

v.

n.

bkhammin,

khamment,

khammin.
conjurer, n. mz'abir.

connect [with), v.

a.

busul, wasalt, usul


;

(usil) p.p.

mowsul (bi).

connection, n. ittisal

'ala"a

[relation) "arabi p. "araiyib.

connoisseur
conquer,
v.

n.
a.

khabir.
biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh.

conscience, n.

damir.

conscious, a. we'i (wa'i).

conscription, n. "ur'a.
conscript, n. 'asker "ur'a.

consecutively, ad. bit-teb'aiyi.


consent, n. rida;
v.
[to)

birda, irdit, irda

(fi

or

li).

consequence, n. netiji p. nete'ij.


consider, v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir
(fi
;

or

H).

consideration, n. [thought)

ta'ammul
irsaliyi.

[respect)

'itibar.

consign

(to), v. a.

bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p.


n.

msellem

(li).

consignment [of
consisting {of),

'goods),
a.

murekkeb
'azzait,

(min)

m'ellef (min.)

consolation, n. t'aziyi.
console,
v.
a.

b'azzi,

'azzi

bselli, selleyt,

selli.

conspicuous, a. zahir; wadih.

conspiracy, n.

mu'amera; hareki; kemin.


[continual) de'im.

constancy, n. sebet.
constant, a. sebit
;

Constantinople, IstambCd; al-isteni.


constantly
,

ad. de'imen

'ala

dcwam.

consternatio7i, n. khovvf;

r'abi.

VOCABULARY.
constipation,
n.

II7

"abd

kitem.

construct, v. a. b'ammir, 'ammert,


consul,
n.

'ammir

p.p.

m'ammer.

"onsul

p.

"anasil;

Consul General, "onsul

jeneral;
sulate,

Vice-Consul, "onsul zghir (wekil "onsul); con-

kunslato ("unslato).
V.
a.

consult,

bshewir, shewert, shewir.


sil
;

consumption, n. [disease)
contact,
n.
ittisal.

[food) ma"tu'iyi.

contagion, n. 'adwi.
contagious,
a.

m'edi.

contain, v. a. {-y^ pei'.) bise'a, se'a.

contaminate, v.
contemptible,
a.

a.

be'adi,
(deni)

'adait.
;

dun
;

lia"ir.

content, n. rida;

"ana'a.
"en'i.

contented, a. radi
contest,
n.

mnazera. continual, a. de'im mustmurr. continually ad. de'imen.


;

continue, v. a.

bdewim, dcwamt, dewim


(dem)
tehrib.
;

v.

n.

(3^1 per.)

bidum,

dam
n.

bitul,

trd;

bitowwil, towwal.

contraband,

contract, n. kontrato;

mu"awcli;

to

contract zvith,W3.va\\

kontrato m'a.
contradict, v.
'arid.
a.

b"e\vim, "ewamt, "ewim; b'arid, 'aradt,

contrary

[to),

ad.

mkhalif

pr.

cludd

on the contrary,

bil-'aks;

bil-khilaf.

contrive, v. a. bdebbir, debbcrt, debbir.

contrivance,

n.

tedbir

p.

tedebir; teswi; instinbat;

[in-

vention) ikhtira'a.

convalescence, n. shifa; na"i.

convenient, a. mwefi"; mnesib.

Il8

ARABIC MANUAL.

convent, n. deyr p. diyura.

convention, n. ma'ahedi.
convei'sation, n. liaki p. hakiyat.

convert,

n.

muhtidi;

v.

a.

[of

religion)

bihdi,

hadait,

hdi. p.p. mihdi;


p.p.

{of money) bhowwil, howwelt, howwil

mhowwel.
a.

convey, v.
convict,
n.

bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul (n"il) p.p. men"ul.


p.

miznib

miznibin.
;

convict

{to), V. a.

bkhatti, khattait, khatti v. bilikum, hakamt,


{' ala.

hkum p.p. malikum


conviction, n.
cook, n.
cool,
a.

of t/ie per son, \\2, of tJie punishment),


i"n'a.

hukm;
;

{belief)

ashji p. ashjiyi; v. a. bitbukh, tabakht, tbukh.

berid
V.

v.

a.

bberrid, berradt, berrid. p.p. mber-

rad;
coop, n.

n.

(31^ per.)

biyibrud, bered.

"afas p. "afas.

copper, n. nahas.

coppersmith, n. nahhas.
copying, n. nsakhi.
copy, n. niskha p. nisakh; v.
p.p.
a.

binsakh, nasakht, nsakh

mansukh.
n.

coquette,

ghannuji;

to

coquet,

v.

a.

and

n.

bgliannij,

ghannejt, ghannij."
coral,
n.

mirjen.

cord, n. maras.
core,
n.

"elb ("alb).
c.

cork, n. fellini p. fellinet

p.

fellin.

corkscrew, n. berrimi p. berrimet.


corn, n.

"amh;

{on the foot)

mismar.

corner, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "urni p. "arani.

corporal, n. on bashi
corpse, n.
jifi

a.

jesedi.
p. jitet.
c.

p. ji'ef; jitti

corpulent,

a.

smin

p.

sman; nasih

ansah.

;;

VOCABULARY.
correct, a. sahili;
p.p.

IIQ
sahhaht, sahhih
msallah.
rasil
;

mazbut;
bsallili,

v. a. bsahhili,

msahhah;
v.

sallaht, sallih p.p.


v.
a.

correspond with, {by


agree with)
n.

letter)
(31'^

brasil,

raselt,

{to

per.) bitabi",
i.

taba"

(li).

correspondence, n.

m rasil

correspondent, n. mketib; mrasil.


corridor, n. ma'addiyi;

memsha

p.

mcmeshi.

corrupt,

a.

{of persons) murtikib.

corruption, n. {bribery) fesed.


cost,

n.

s'er;

kilfi

"imi;

v.

n.

(3rd per.)

bikellif,

kcllef.

cotton, n.

"litun.

couch, n. diwcn;

ma"
n.

'ad.
bis'ul,
sa'alt,
s'ul.

cough, n.
council, n.

s'ali

v.

mejlis; administrative council, mejlis al-idara;

council
counsel,

of
n.

state,

nasiha

showra 'ad-dowli. meshura {to advise)


; ;

v.

a.

binsah,

nasaht, insah; v. bshur,

shirt, s\\\xx ^dXdi); to

take counsel

with, V.

a.

bshewir, shewert, shewir.

count, V. a. be'idd, 'addeyt, 'idd p.p.

counterfeit, v. a.

country, n.

m'adud. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzovvwer. beled p. bilden {as opposed to town) berriyi
;

countryman, ibn (p. uled) watn. couplet, n. bcyt p. abiyet.


courage,
n.

sheje'aa (seje'aa); jera'a.


a.

courageous,
courier, n.
course,
n.

shuje'a (seje'a).
(sa'i).

se'i

{of a

river)

mejra; {way) tari"

race-course,

miden; {in driving) mishwar; of course, ad. inin kill bidd ma'Tura; m'aluni. court, n. {of a sovereign) blilt; {of a house) dar p. dur.
;

court

of

justice,

mahkemi

p.

mhakim;

de'iri

p.

dwe'ir
aj-

civil court,

de'irit

al-hu"u"; criniinal court, dc'irit

I20

ARABIC MANUAL.

jeza; commercial court, mejlis at-tijara; court of ist instance, de'irit al-bedeyi; court of appeal, de'irit alisti'nuf;

courteous,

a.

court of cassation, de'irit at-temiz. adib.

courtesy, n.
courtier, n.
cousin,
n.

adab

lutf.

nedim
ibn

p.

nudema.
uncle')

{by paternal
(f.

ibn

(f.

bint)

'amm;

{by

pat.

aunt),
(f.

bint)

'ammi; {by maternal


(f.

uncle')

ibn
cover,

bint) khal

{by jnat. aunt) ibn

bint) khali.

n.

ghata

p.
;

ughtiyi;

black silk

cover
;

worn by
bghatti,

women,
covet,
V.
a.

habara

{coloured)

melaiyi

v.

a.

ghattait, ghatti p.p. mghatta.


bishtihi, shtahait.

coveteous, a.

tamma'a.
p.

covey, n. reff p. rfuf.

cow,

n.

ba"ara
n.

ba"ar.
p. jiibena.

coward,
coxcomb,
crack,

jeben

cowardice, n. jebeni.
n.

ghewi (ghawi).
biksur,
kesert, ksur p.p. maksur; v. a. sha" " p.p. mesh"u"; bifsukh, fasakh;

crab, n. salta'un (sulta'an) p. slata'in.


V.
a.

(3rd per.) bishi"",

p.p.

mafsukh;

n.

shi" " p. shu"u"; fiskh p. fsukh.

cradle, n. sur p. aserir (sraiyir).

craft, n. {trade) san'a p. sanai'ya

hirfi

(fraud)

hili.

crane, n. kirki p. kraki.

crawl,
crazy,

V.
a.

n.

bdebdib, debdebt, debdib.

mef'ij'a.
"ishta.
p. j'adet;
a.

cream,
crease,

n.

n. j'adi

v. a.

bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid.

create {cause), v.
('an)
;

bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib p.p.

msebbeb

God

creates,

Allah biyikhli", khala" p.p. makhlu".

VOCABULARY.
creation, n. {of the zoorld) khal" al-Vilam.

121

creator

{the),

al-khSli".
p.

creatures,

n.

makhlu"at.
;

credentials, n.

mektub towsiyi
'itibur

shehedi
;

p.

shehedet.
;

credit, n. {consideration)

{of money) emniyi


'aleyh
;

kre-

dito
to

debit

and
v.
a.

credit,

luh

wa

to give credit
{to believe)

{money),

bdeyyin, deyyent, deyyin;

bsaddi", .sadda"t, saddi".


creditor, n.
crescent,
cress,
crest,
n. n.

deyyen,
hilel.

p.

deyyeni (medainiyi).

irshed; {zuatercress) "urra (hurra).


[of a bird) "unbra.

n.

Crete, krit;

Cretans, ahli krit.

crier, n. (public) dellel (dellal);

mnedi.

crime, n. zcnb p. znub


criminal,
a.

jneyi p. jneyct.

jeni;

n.

mijrim.

crimscn,
cripple,

a.

"irmizi.
'ajiz

n.

p.

"ujjez;
p.

mukarsah

p.

mukarsihin.

crocodile,

n.

timseh

temcsih.

crocus, n. z'aferan.

crook, n. {shepherd's) 'asa; {of a stick) mihjeni;

'akfi.

crooked,
crop, n.

a.

'awaj

f.

'owja

p.

'uj.

mowsam

p.

mwasim.
;

cross, n. salib p. sulben

{out

of temper)

a.

z'alen

v. a.

bi"t'a (bu"t'a) "at'at, u"t'a; cross road, n. msallabi.

crow,

n.
n.

ghrab
a.

p.

ghurben.
kbir.

crowd,
crown,

jemhur
p.

crowded,

melen; mezhum.
tijcn.

n. tej

crozier, n. 'ukkaz.

crucify, v. a. bislub, salabt, slub, p.p. maslub.


cruel, a. "asi.

122
cruelty, n.

RABIC MANUAL.
"asewi.

crumb,

n.

kesra

p.

kesr.

crupper, n.

hiyasa.
n.

crusaders
crusades
crush,

[the], [the],

p. p.

as-salibiyi.

n.

liurub as-salibiyi.

V. a.

bis-ha", saha"t, is-ha" p.p.

mas-hu" bizhum,
;

zahamt, zhum.
cry, V.
11.

{to

weep) bibki, bakit, bki;


v.

v. a. {to call)

hnd\,

nadait,
(.sot)
;

nedi;
srakh.

bindah,

nadaht,

ndah

(11);

n.

sowt

crystal, n. billowr (bellur).


C7icuviber, n.
cue,

khiyara

p.

khiyar.
{hi}it)

n. {billiard)

'asa biliardo;

ishara.
p.

cuff, n. {blozv)

latmi;keff;

(j-Z/Zr/)

kimm (kumm)

kemem.

cuirass, n. dir'a p. dru'a.


culprit,
n.

mi'znib;
a.

mijrim.
felaht,

cultivate,

v.

biflah,

flah p.p.

mafluh.

cultivation,

n.

fleha (felaha).
;

cunning,

a.

dehi

muhtel
p.

a cunning rogue,

n.

hielji.

cup, n. finjen p. fnejin.

cupboard, n. khizeni
curdled,
rab.

khzeyin.

cupola, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb.


a.

curds {ctirdlea milk),


ciire,
C2irl,

n.

rowbi.
shefeyt, shfi; cured,
a. a. shift.

n.

shifa;

v.

a.

bishfi,
v.

n.

j'adi

p.

j'adet;
curly,

bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid;

bliff,

leffeyt, liff;

a,

j'adi.

currants, n. p. "ashlamish.

currency,

n.

'umli derji.
a. derji.

current, (of a stream) n. mejra; (of money) curry (a Jiorse), v. a. bhiss, hassait, hiss.

curry-comb,

n.

mhassi.

VOCABULARY.
curse,
n.

23

I'ani

p.

Tanet;

v.

a.

bil'an,

la'ant,

I'an

p.p.

mcl'un.
curtain, n. birdeyi p. birdeyet; stara p. stcyir; curtain-

rod, n. 'asa.
cusliioyi,

n.

mkhaddi;
'adi
p.

[large)
c. p.

mesned
avve'id.

p.

mescnid.

custoDi, n.

a'adet
p.

custodier, n.

zbun

zbuiict.
;

custom-house, n.
cut, V. a.

gumruk
"assait,

customs, n. p. rusumet.

b"us.s,

"uss p.p. ma".sus; bu"ta (bi"t'a)

"at'at,

u"t'a p.p. ma"tu'a.

cutting, n. teksir.
cutlass, n. seyf p. siyuf;

yatakan
c.

p.

yatakanet.

cymbal,

n.

sunj p. snuj.
p. seru.

cypress, n. serwi p. serwet

Cyprus, "Ubrus

Cypriote,

a.

"ubrusi.

D.
dagger,
daily, a.
n.

khanjer

p.

khncjir.

yowmi

(yomi); by the day (of work) yomiyi.

daisy, n. a"h\van.
da)n, n. sidd p. sdud.
da))iage,
n.

darar

v. a.

bdurr, darrait, durr p.p.


p.p.

madrur
a.

bsa"it,

sa"att,

sa"it

msa"at; damaged,

sa"at

(of goods).

Damascus, sham (shcm) Dimcshk ash-sham. damp, n. rtubi; a. riitib c. artab v. a. brattib, rattabt,
;

rattib.

dance, n. ra"s; v. n. bir"u,s, ra"a.st,

ru"u.s.

dancer,

11.

ra"ils.

danger, n. khatr.

124
dangerous,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
miikhtir, khutir.

Danube, Danub.
Dardanelles, Dardanil.
dare, v. n. bisterji, sterjeyt, sterji; btjaser, tjasert, tjaser;
btjarr'a, tjarr'at, tjarr'a.

dark,

a.

'atm

f.

'atmi;

m'atem

f.

m'atmi;

to

grow

dark,

V. n.

(3rd per.)

bit'atim, 'atamit ad-diniyi [the world).

darkness, n. 'atmi; zulmi.


darling,
a.
a. a.

'aziz;
birti,

habib.
ratait,
irti

darn,

v.

p.p. merti.
;

dash, V.

bishlah, shalaht, shlali

birmi, rmait, rmi.

date, n. (time) terikh; (fruit) h[di\

(fres Ji); tamr (dried),


blowt'i, lowt'at,

daughter,
lowt'i.

n. bint p.

benat (benet) daughter-in-law, kinni.


,

dazvdle, v. n. bmasiy'a, masiy'at, masiy'a

day,

iyem (iyam) fete-day, 'eid p. yowm sowm (yom som); day and night, ad. nahar u leyl; day by day, ad. yowm b'ad yowm; by day, fin-nahar; all day, kill an-nahar; day of judgment, n. yowm al-"iyemi (for days of the week
n.

yowm

(yom)

p.

'aiyed; fast-day,

vide
dead,

grammar),
a.

me'it p.
a.

amwat
"attel.

(mota).

deadly,
deaf,
a.

muhlik;
f.

atrash
v.
a.

tarsha.

deafen,
deal,

btarrash, tarrasht, tarrish.


n. n.

(wood)
v.
a.

snowbar; a great
(to

deal,

ad. ktiri ktir;


tejir
(bi);

bi-ziedi;
V.

deal in)

btejir,

tejert,

(of cards) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir; bfarri",


tujjar.
c.

farra"t, farri".

dealer, n. tejir p.

dear,

a.

'aziz;

(expensive) ghali
(mot).

aghla.

death, n.

mowt

VOCABULARY.
debt,
n. dcyn mediyun. p.

12$
(a
debtor)
a.

diyun;

/;/

debt

and

n.

decanter, n. kraf.
deceased,
deceit,
n.
a.

(of mosleiiis)
bghishsh,

merhum

(christians) mutwaffi.

ghishsh.
v, a.

deceive,

ghashshait,

ghishsh p.p. magh-

shush.
deceiver, n. ghashshesh.

December,

n.

kcnun al-owweh

decency, n. leya"a.
decent, a. Icyi".

decide,

v.

be'itimid,

'ctemedt, e'itimid
fikr
('ala).

('ala)

bsammim,

sammemt, sammim
decision, n.

hukm
a.

"arar.
.

declaration, n. ta"rir; tasrih.


declare, v.
b"arrir, "arrert,

"arrir.

declivity, n. nezli.

decorate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p.

mzeyyen.

decoration, n. zini.
decrease,
v. a. b"elHl, "allelt, "elHl bna""is, na""ast, na""is; V. n. {y^ per.) bi'ill, "ell; (in value) {y^ per.) biyun"us, na"as; (of disease) bikhuff, khaff; n. na".s.
;

decree, n.

amr
a.

p.

avvemir.
p.
'ujjez.

decrepit, a.

'ajiz

deduct,

V.

bitrah,

taraht,

trail

p.p.

matruh; bnczzil,

nezzelt, nezzil.

deduction, n. tenzil; is"at.


deed,
n.

'amcl p. a'mel;
hijjit

(title

deed)

hijji p.

hujej

(deed

of

sale),

bey'a.

deep, a. 'ami" (ghami") c.

aghma"

p.

ghma".

deer, n. ghazel p. ghizlen.

defamation,

n.

t'an

iftira.

126 defame,
defeat,
v. v.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bit'an, ta'ant, ta'an
a.
(fi).

ghlub p.p. maghlub; to be defeated, binghilib, inghalibt binhizim, inhazamt p.p. minhizim.
bighlub,
ghalabt,
;

defect, n.

na"s
a.

'aib

p.

'uyub.

defective, a. na"is p. nu"as.

defend,
to

v.

bihmi,
v.

hamait,

stand up for)

hmi (in a legal sense or bhami, hameyt, hami ('an).


;

defendant, n.

mudde'
ejjil

'aleyh.

defer, v. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher;


b'ejjil,

ejjelt,

p.p. m'ejjel.

deference, n. ihtiram.
defile,

n.

madi";

v.

a.

bnejjis,

nejjest,

nejjis; defiled, a.

nejis.
definite,
a.

bett; "ati'.

degree, n. dereji.
delay,
n.

'a"a;
V.

v.

a.

b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"

p.p.

m'owwa";
iftikir
(fi

n.

bit'owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa".


;

deliberate, a. himil

mihil

(to reflect) v. biftiker, iftakert,

or

li);

deliberately,

ad.

'ala

mahl-ak

(loith

pro. snff.). delicacy, n. nahafi; (weakness) du'af.


delicate, a.

delight,

n.

nahif p. nuhafa; (weak) da'if p. da'af. bast; farah; surur; v. a. {y^ per.) biyubsut,
;

basat; biferrih, farrah

delighted, a. mesrur.

delightful, a. mferrih (mufirih).

delirious

(to

be),

v.

n.

bihzi,

hazait;

bikhlut,

khalatt

fil-kelem.

deliver
(li);

(to),

v.

a.

bsellim,

sellemt, sellim p.p.

msellem

(liberate) v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu".

deliverance, n. khalas.

deluge, n. tufan (towafan).

VOCABULARY.
demand,
demolish,
n.

\2J

talab p. talbct

c.

p.

matalib; bitlub, talabt,

tlub p.p. matlub.


a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. iblis. (shcytan) p. shaiyatin shaytan demon, maghaiyir. de7i, n. maghara p.

v.

n.

denial,

n.

iiikar.
a.

Denmark, Denimark; Dane,


dense, a.

danemarkt.

smak. dentist, n. hakim snen p. hukema sncn. deny, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur p.p. munker.

smik

p.

depart, v.

n.

bsefir,

sefert,

sefir.

departure, n. sefer.

depend
Cala).

(on),

v.

n.

'{y^^

per.)

biyitwa"

"af,

twa" "af
a.

depopulate, v.
deposit,

a.

bikhrub, kharabt
v.
a.

depopulated,

kharab.

n. amcni; wadi'a; mowdu'a. deptJi, n. ghum".

bud'a, wad'at, ud'a p.p.

descend, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel.


descent, n. nezli.

describe (to), v.
a.

a.

bishrah, sharaht, shrah

(li)

described,

mazkur.
v. n. (milit:)

description, n. vvasf.
desert, n. shol
;

bihrub, harabt, hrub;

v. a.

bdeshshir, dashshert, deshshir.


deserter, n. herib.
desertion, n. harab.

deserve, v.

a. a.

bistaha"
mustehil.
;

",

staha""eyt;
p.

bistehil,

stehelt.

deserving,
design,
n.

ghaiyi

"asd

ma"asid;

(sketch)

rcsm

p.

rusLim.
desire,
n.

rughbi

v. a.

birghab, rghibt, rghab.

128
desirable, a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
marghub. mektebi beshtakta.
;

desk, n.

destroy, v.

a.

bikhrub, kharabt, khrub; bihdum, hadamt,

hdum

p.p.
n.

mahdum.
kharab; hadam.
bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p.

destruction,

detach, v.
details,
n.

a.

mafkuk.
p.p.

p. tafsilat.

detain, v. a.
detest,
V. n.
a.

b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"


bikrah, kriht p.p. makruh.
;

m'owwa".

devil,

iblis

shaytan.

devise, v. a.

bdebbir, debbert, debbir.

devotee, n. zehid.

devotion, n. 'ibedi.
dezv,
n.

nidi.
a.

dexterous,

shatir,

p.

shuttar; mehir.

dialogue, n. hadis; mukalemi.

diamond,

n.

ilmazi p. ilmaz (ilmas)

(cards) dined.

diarrhcEa, n. is-hal; jeriyan.

diary, n. yowmiyi; jurnel.


dice,
n.

zahr.

dictionary, n.
die,
V.

n.

"amus p. "awamis. bmut, mutt, mut.


;

differ (from), v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft ('an or m'a)


(3i"ci

v. n.

per.) biyifri", fara"

('an).

difference, n. far" p.

fru" (fru"at).

different, a. mukhtilif.
difficidt,
a.

s'ab

c.

as'ab.
(s'ubi).

difficulty,

n. s'obi

dig, V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur.


digest, V. a.

bihdum, hadamt, hcium


wa"ur.

p.p.

mahdum.

dignified,

a. jelil;

dignity, n. wa"ar.

VOCABULARY.
dilatory, a. buti
;

29

liimil.

diligence, ijtihad;
dilute,
V.
a.

ihtimam.

bkhaffif, khafteft, khaffif p.p. mkhaflcf.

dim,

a.

muzlim.
n.
a.

dimension,

"iyes.

diminish, v.

bna"

"is,

na"

"ast,

na"

"is

v.

n.

(3rd per.)

dine, v. n.
biftar,

biyun"us, na"as; diminished, a. na"is. {at mid-day) bitghadda, tghaddeyt, tghadda;


fatart,
ftiir;

[in

the

evening)

bit'ashsha, t'ash-

hait, t'ashsha.

dining-room,

n.

udat sufra; beyt at-towli.


"3.s\\a.;

dinner, n. {mid-day) ftur; ghada; {evening)


table),

{dinner

sufra; towlit

al-ghada.
;

dip, V. a.

bghammis, ghammast, ghammis bghutt, ghatteyt,


dughri;
direct
v. to
a.

ghutt.
direct,
a.

(to) bdull, delleyt (dellait), dull


'al

('ala);

me

the road, dull-ni

at-tari".

direction, n. tari"; derb;


p.

jeha

p. jehet; (;^rt^^;^/) idara

idarat.

directly, ad.

halan

halla".

director,
dirt,
n.

n. mudir. wasakh.
;

dirty, a. wisikh

v.

a.

bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh, p.p.

mwassakh.
disagree, {with) v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft, ikhtilif (m'a). disappear, v. n. bghib, ghibt (kint ghaiyib), ghib dis;

appeared, pres. part, ghaiyib {nsed as an adj.).


disappearance, n. ikhtifa.
disappoint, v. a. bkhaiyib, khaiyebt
;

bi"t'a (bu"t'a), "at'at

amel-i

{zvith

pro

suff.)

disappointed, pres. part, khaiyib

(used as an adj.).
disappointnient, n. khaibi.
9

130
disaster, n. msibi

ARABIC MANUAL.
p.

msaiyib.

discernment,
discharge,

n.

futni.

[send

away)

v. a.

bish-hat,
"all'i.

shahatt,

shahat,

p.p. mash-hut; b"airi, discipline, n. nazam.


disclose,
v.
a.

"all'at,

bizhir,

azhert,

zaher;

bbeyyin, beyyent,

beyyin.
discontent, n.

adem

n'da.

discontented, a. ghair radi.

discount, n. tenzil.

discourteous, a. bila adab; "alii adab.


discover, v. a. bujad, wajadt, ujad; v. biktishif, iktesheft,
ikti'shif ('ala)

p.p. mukteshef.
(fi).

discuss, v. bitzekir, tzekert, tzekir


disease,
n.

diseased, a.

marad. marid
a.

p.

murada.

disengaged,

fadi.

disgrace, n. mu'ib.
disguise,
v.

bsettir,

settert,

settir

('ala)

v.

n.

bitsettir,

tsettert, tsettir p.p.

mutsettir.

disgust, n. kirih.
dish, n. jat p. jatet.
dislocate, v. a.

bifkush, fakasht p.p. mefkush.

disloyal, a. khaiyin.

disloyalty, n. khiyeni.

dismal,

a.

mughimm
11.

{of persons) keddir.

dismiss, v. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. {see discharge),

dismissal,

'azl.

dismount, (from)
disobedient, a. 'asi

v. n.

bhowwil, howwelt, howwil


mkhalifi.

('an).

disobedience, n. 'isiyan;
;

mkhalif.

disobey, v. a. bkhalif, khaleft, khalif.

VOCABULARY.
disorder, n. 'adem tcrtib.
dispatch,
v.
a.

13!

bib'at,

ba'att, b'at;

n. tahrir

p.

tahrirat;

mektub

p.

meketib.

dispensary, n. farmashia.
disperse, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra"j to be

dispersed, v. n. bitferri", tfcrra"t.


displease,
//

v.

a.

bkeddir,

keddert, keddir p.p. mkeddir;


;

displeases

me,

bikedder-ni

to

be

displeased, v. n.

bitkeddir, tkeddert.
displeasure, n. keder.
disposition, {temper) n. tab'a.

dispute,

n.

jidal; toshi

(towshi); v. a.
;

{to

quarrel

witJi),

bkhasim, khasamt, khasim


disrespect, n.
dissolve, v. a.

bkhani", khana"t, khani",


v. n. (31^ per.)

'adem ihtiram. bdowwib, dowwabt, dowwib;

bidub, dab.
distance, n. mcsefi.
distant, a. be'id p. ba'ad.
distinct, a.

wadih; zahir; beyyin.

distinguished, a.
distress, n. di".

mumtaz.
v.
a.

distribute

[among],
('ala)
;

bferri",

ferra"t,

ferri"

p.p.

mferra"
district,
n.

bvvazz'i, wazz'ait,

wazz'i

('ala).

distribution, n. tefri".

mu"at'a.
v.
;

disturb,
p.p.

{morally)

a.

bshowwish, showwesht afkar-uh


v.

mshowwesh
(fi).

{of things)

bkliarbit,

kharbatt,

kharbit

disturbance, n. kharbata.
ditch,
ditto,
n.

khenda"

p.
;

khanadi" (khnedi"); hafra


mitl-uh {zvith pro.
suff.).

p. hafr.

ad. sherh-uh

divan, n. diwcn;

ma" 'ad.

132

ARABIC MANUAL.
ghtus.

dive, V. n. bightus, ghatast,

diver, n. ghattas p. ghattasi.

diversion, n. tesliyi.
divert, {to amuse') v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli; to be diverted,
V. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tselli
V.
a.
;

{to

change the direction of)


to be

bhowwil, howwelt, howwil.


bi"sum, "asamt, u"sum p.p. ma"sum;

divide, v. a.

divided, bin"isim, in"asamt.

dividend, n. faiyiz.
divine, a. dini;
ilahi.
;

divorce, n. tala"
to be divorced,

v. a.

btalli", talla"t, talli" p.p .mtalla";

bittalli", ttalla"t.

dizzy, a. deyikh.
do, V. a. b'amil,

'amilt,
p.

'amul ('amil)
;

it

will do, biyiswa.

doctor, n.

hakim
n.

hukema
skuk.
;

tabib p. atibba.
kelbi.
p. lu'ab.

document,

sakk

p.

dog, n. kelb p. kleb


doll,
n.

female dog,
;

'aiyibi p.

'aiyeb

Tubi

(I'ebi)

"ubbi p. "ibeb. domestic, {not wild) a. juwwi. watn beyt domicile, n. beled
dome,
n.
; ;

mesken.
donkey, himara.
;

donation, n. 'atiyi p. 'ataiya.

donkey, n. himar p. hamir;


door, n.

slie

bab (beb) p. abwab (bweb) door-keeper, n. bawweb.


n.

trap-door,

beb

sirr

dot,

nu"ta
a.

p.

nu"at.
v.
a.

double,

mda'af;

bda'if,

da'aft,

da'if p.p. mda'af;


(lit.

double-faced, bi

wejheyn wilseneyn
shukuk; shubha;

with two faces

and two
doubt, n.

tongues),
p.
v.

shekk
(fi).

bshikk, shekkait,

shikk

doubtless, ad.

bidun shubhi;

bila shekk.

VOCABULARY.
do7tgh, n. 'ajin.

133

dove,

n.

hanicmi

p.
;

hamemet

c.

p.

haniem

ring-dove,

hamem mtovvwa"
dower,
doze,
V.

turtle-dove,

hamemi
nezli
;

stetiyi.

n.

sda"; mahr; jihaz.


fi

doivn, ad. ila taht; doiun-hill,


n.

down-stairs,

taXyi.

bin'as, n'ist, n'as.

draft, n. muswaddi.

dragoman,
drag,
n.

n.

terjuman.
carriages)

[for
p.p.

shaht;
{to

v. a.
v.

bis-hab,
a.

sahabt,
jarrait,

is-hab

mes-hub;

draw)

bjurr,

jurr p.p. mejrur.

drain, n. balu'a.

draper,

n.

khurdeji; bey'a jukh; jawwakh.

draught, n. mejra hawa. draw, V. a. bsowvvir, sowwert, sowvvir p.p. msowwer. drawer, n. jarur p. jwarir; draivers, n. kalson.
drazving, n. rcsni
;

sura.
ha'il

dreadfid,

a.

mukhif;
p.

(heyil).
;

dream,
dress,

n. n.

menam
tycb
;

menamat
;

hulm

p.

ahlam.
;

keswi

v. a.

blabbis, labbest, labbis


a.

v. n.

bilbus, Ibist, ilbus p.p.


drill, n. t'alim.

melbus; dressed,
v.
a.

Icbis.

drink,
{to

[drinking)

n.
v.

shirb

bishrab, shribt, shrab;

get drunk),
to,

n. biskar, sikert.
v. n.

drive

(in

carriage)

biruh,

riht,

ruh, m'al-

'arabiyi; birkeb, rkibt, irkeb bil-karrosa.

drive, n.

drop,
u

n.
a,

mishwar; driver, nu"ta p. nu"at;

n. v.

'arabaji.
a.

birmi, rmait, rmi;

v.

n.

wa

at,

a.

dropsy,

n.

istis"a.

dr ongilt, n. "aht. drown, v. n. bighra", ghara"t (ghari"t), ughra"

v.

a.

134

ARABIC MANUAL.

bgharri", gharra"t, gharri"; drowned, pres. part. ghar"an


{used as an adj.).

drug,

n.

ijza;
n.

dawa.
;

druggist,

saideli

farmashyeni.
n.
sikri.

driun, n. tabl p. tbul; [small) dirbekki.

drunk, {intoxicated) a. sekran; drunkard, Druse, Derzi p. Druz.


dry,
a.

neshif

c.

aiishaf;

yebis;

v.

a.

bnashshif, nashs-

heft, nashshif; bycbbis, yebbest, yebbis; v. n. (3idper.)

biyinshef, nishif; biyibes, yebis;

bijiff,

jefF;

before the fire) v. a. bihmi, hamait,


dual, n.

hmi

'al

{of clothes an-nar.

mtenna (msenna).
batta p. batt; {wild duck) batt berri.
a.

duck,

n.

due

{to),

mustahi"

(li).

(dim) lown-uh kiddir. dumb, a. akhras; deaf and dumb, atrash u akhras. dtm (horse), a. ahmar f. hamra.
dull, a. belid; berid;

dung,

n.

zibl;

[of horses) fishki.

duplicate, n. niskha at-teni; in duplicate, niskhateyn.

durable,

a.

de'im.
p. baranis; dust-pan,

during, pr. middi.


dust, n.

ghabra; dust-cloak, biirnus


p.

mejrud
dwarf,
n.

mejerid; duster,

n.

duty, n. wejbet; custom duty, resm

memsaha. gumruk.

"azemi; "asir al-"ami.


;

dwelling, n. {habitation) beyt p. biyut


dye, n. sbagh; v. a. bisbagh, sabaght,

mesken
p.p.

p.

msekin.

sbagh

masbugh.

dyer, n. sabbagh.

dynasty,

n.

seleli.

dysentery, n.

zintariyi.

VOCABULARY.

35

eacJi,

a.

kill

(kull)

each

one,

kill

wchid (wahid)

each

other, ba'ad-um.

eager,

a.

raghib.

eagerness, n. rughbi.
eagle,
n.

nisr p.

nusur.
p.

ear,

n.

izn

(idn)

izneyn

(adaneyn)

ear-ring, hal"a

p. hala".

early, a. bckkir; ad. 'ala biikra

('a

biikra); to be early, v. n.
'a biakra.

bbekkir, bckkert, bekkir; early in the morning,


earn,
v.
a.

birbah, rbiht, irbah; bikseb, ksibt, kseb.


;

earnest, a. mujtihid; jad; n. r'abun

in earnest,

m\n]c6.d.

earth, n. ard.

earthenware,
earthquake,

n.

fakhkhar.
zelezil;
[a shock) hezzi.

n.

zelzeli p.

earwig,
ease,
n.

n.

abu
;

m"as.s.

suhuli

{comfort) raha.

easily,
east,
n.

ad. bis-suhijli.

mishri"; eastern,
n.

a.

shar"i.

easter,

al-fasah.
;

easy, a.
eat,

heyyin

sihl.

V. a.

bekol, akelt, kol.

eatables, n. p.

ma'kulat (me'kulet).

eating, n. akl.

ebb

{tide),

n. jezr.

ebony, n. abnus.
eccentric, a.
eclio,

gharib
{of the

p.

ghurb.
ksuf ash-shems;
{of

n.

si da.

eclipse,

n.

sun)

tJie

moon)

khsuf al-"amr.

, ;

136
economical,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
mwaffir.
(towfir).

economy,
edge,
edict,
n.

n.

tufir

haffi p.

haftet
p.

c.

p.

hafefi.
c.

n.

firman
a.

firmanat

p.

firamin.

educate, v.

brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p.

mrabba

b'allim,

'allamt, 'allim.

education, n. terbiyi.
eel,

n.

hanklis.
a.

efface, v.
effect,

bimhi, mahait, mhi.


nete'ij.
;

n. n.

netiji p.
p.

effects,

howeyij

'afsh

awe'i.

effort,

n.

himmi;

ijtihad.
c.
,

egg, n. baida (beyda) p. baidat


eggs, baid maslu"
;

poached

baid mi"li; soft-boiled baid mistwi


baid
;
;

yolk

of
;

p.

baid (beyd)

boiled

baid m"ashr; fried


baid
wliite

baid brisht; hard-boiled


sfar
;

of
;


zlal

eggshell,

"ishr

egg-cup, zarf p. zrufi

to

break

eggs (for cooking),


egg-plant,
n.

v. a.

bif'us, fa"ast, lu"us al-baid

bettinjan.

Egypt, Misr; Egyptian, a. misri. imma. or, con. imnia either

eject,

V.

a.

btall'i,

taH'at,

tall'i.

elastic,

n.

matat; mighait (mugheyt);

a. (z^^?/^)

mubhem.

elbow, n. ku'a p. akw'a.


elder, a.
elect,

akbar

fil-'umr.

V. a. bintikhib,

intakhabt, intikhib p.p. muntakhab.

election,

n. intikhab.

elegance, n. zarafi.
elegant, a. zarif p. zuraf.

element, n.

mebda
fil

p.

mabedi.
tclli

elephant, n.
elevation, n.

p.

afiyaL
'aali;

mahall

p.

tellet c.

p.

tlel

(tlal).

VOCABULARY.
elm-tree, n. bu"isa.
eloquence, n. fasaha.
eloquent,
else,
a.

37

fasih p.

fusaha.

ad. ghair; something else,


v. n.

shey

(shi)

ghair-uh.
;

embark,

binzel, nzilt, inzel fil-merkeb


(li).

v. a.

bnezzil,

nezzelt, nezzil

embarrass,
embassy, embrace,
n. v.

v.

a.

blebbik, Icbbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek.


lebeki.

embarrassment,
a.

n.

sefara.

b'ani",
a.

'ana"t, 'Sni" p.p. mu'ani".

embroider,

v.

btarriz, tarrazt, tarriz p.p.

mtarraz.

ejnbroidery, n. tutriz.

emerald,

n. v.

zmurrud.
n.
n.

emerge,

bitl'a,

tl'at,

tl'a.

emergency,
emigrant,
emigrate,

hadisi fow" al-'adi.

emetic, n. mnatti".
n.

mhejir (mhajir).
n.

v.

bhejir,

hajcrt,

hejir; v. binzah, nazaht,

nzeh
eminent,

(mill).

emigration, n. mhajera.
a.

mesh-hur; shehir.
imberatur.

emperor,
employ,

n.

empire, n. imbcratoriyi; saltani.


v. a.

bistakhdim,

stakhdamt,

stakhdim

p.p.

mustakhdam. employer, n. mustakhdim.


employment,
empress,
n.
n.

shighl (shughl)
p.

khidmi.
;

meleki

meleket

imberatura.
;

empty,

a.

fadi;

ferigh; v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi

bfer-

righ, ferraght, fcrrigh.

enamel, n. mina.
encatnp,
[on or in) v.
n.

bhill,

hallait,

liill

('ala

or

fi).

138
enclose,
v. a. {luitk

ARABIC MANUAL.
a zvall) bhowvvit, howwatt, howwit
v.

p.p.

mhowwat;
;

bhutt,

hattait

thing inside another')

bhutt

hait

howl

wast

[one

enclosed {of
[of land)

papers) wast-uh
a.

leffen

tay-uh

[ivith

pro.

siiff.)\

msowwan.
v.
a.

enclosure, n. taswini.

encourage,

bjerr'a,

jerr'at, jerr'a;

bnashshit, nash-

shatt, nashshit.

end, n. ekhir; niheyi

[of things) taraf; ras; v.


(31'^

a.

bkhallis,

khallast, khallis; v. n.
endless, ad. bila niheyi
;

per.) biyikhlus, khalas.

ma

luh ekhir,

endorse,

v.

a.

bzahhir, zahhart, zahhir.


n. jiro.

endorsement,
endure,

v. a. bihtimil,
('ala)
;

ihtamelt, ihtimil;

v.

bisbur, sabert,

sbur
bel-i

/ will not put up with him,


'adu p. a'ada.

ma

bitowwil

'aleyh.
n.

enemy,

dushmen

energetic, a. neshit (nishit).

energy, n. neshat; himmi.

engage

[to

bespeak),

v.

burbut, rabatt, urbut


;

('ala)

en-

gaged, [busy) meshghul


engagement,
engine, n.
n.

[betrothed)
;

makhtub.

shighl (shughl)

[betrothal) khitbi.

makina; engine-driver, mikinist. engineer, n. mhendis. England, Inkilterra; English, a. inklizi.


engrave,
v. n.
a.

bin"ush, na"asht, in"ush p.p. men"ush.


haffar. na".sh.

engraver,

na""ash;

engraving,
enlarge, v.

n.

enjoy {oneself), v. n. binbusit, inbasatt.


a.

bkebbir, kebbert, kebbir p.p. mkebber.


kbir ktir.

enmity,

n.

'adewi.
a.

enormous,

VOCABULARY.
enougJi
{to

39

be),

v.

n.

[y^

per.)

bikcrti,

ken

kcfi;

ad. bes.

enrich, v. a. bighni, ghanait.

entangle,

v. a.
a.

b'arbis,

'arbest,

'arbis p.p.

m'arba.s;

e7i-

tangled,
enter,
(li)
;

msherbek.
bfut,
fitt,

v.

n.

fut

(li)

bidkhul, dakhalt, dkhul

come

in

[lit.

honour

ns),

imper. tfaddaL

enterprise, n. meshru'a.

entertain, v. a. be'izum, 'azamt,


etitire,

'uzum.

a.

kemil

sahih.
;

entirely, ad.

bit-tcmcm
masarin.

bil-kcmek

entrails, n. p.

entrance, n. madkhal.
entreat, v. a. bitrajja, trajjait,
trajja.

envelop, v.

a.

bliff,

leffeyt,

liff

p.p. melfuf.

envelope, n. mughallif; zarf p. zuruf.

environs, n. p. atraf; n. howl.


etivions, a.

hasud.
;

envy, n. hasad
ep idem ic, n
epitapJi, n.
.

v.

a.

bihsud, hasadt, uhsud.

weba
kitebit
;

'al

al-"abr.
to)

equal,
til'i
;

a.

msewi

{to

be equal

v.

a.

(3"^ per.)

biyitl'a,

biyisvva, sawa.

equalise, v. a. bscwi, saweyt, sewi p.p.

msewa.

equality, n.

msewa.

equator, n. khatt al-istiwa.


equip, V. a. bjehhiz, jchhazt, jehhiz p.p. mjehhaz.

eradicate, v. a. bista'sil, ista'selt, ista'sil p.p. musta'sel.


erase, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi.
erect,
v.
a.

bibni,

bcnait,

bni

p.p.

mibni

b'ammir,

'ammcrt, 'ammir p.p. m'ammer.


err, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlitt (ghlutt), ghlat.

errand,

n.

misluvar; gharad.

140

ARABIC MANUAL.
c.

error, n. ghalta p. ghaltat


erudition,
escape,
n.

p.

ghalat.

'ilm.
v.

[from]
n.

bikhlus, khalast, khlus (min)


biflet,

bitkhallis,

tkhallast, tkhallis (min);


escort,

felett,

flut.
;

ghafr; hifz

under
bi

escort, taht al-ghafr

v.

a.

bighfur, ghafert,
especially, ad.

ughfur.
;

khususan

now' khususi.
ftah p.p.

essence,

n.

ruh.
biftah, fataht,
;

establish, v. a.
estate,
n.

maftuh.
p.p. mu'eteber.

p.

amlak
tetmin

n,

riz" p. arza".
e'iti'bir

esteem, v. a. be'itibir, 'etebert,


estimate,
p.p.
n.
;

v.

a.

btemmin, temment, temmin

mtemmen.
ad. ila akhiri.

et ccEtera,

eternal, a. abedi.
eternity, n. abediyi.

eunuch, n. tawashi. Euphrates, Frat. Europe, Urubba; European,


evacuate,
v.
a.

a.

franji.

bitruk,

tarakt,

truk;

v.

n.

binsihib, in-

sahabt (min).
evacuation, n. ikhla
even,
a.
;

terk.

sehili;

msewa;
ferd
;
;

[of numbers) n. jowz;

odd and
al-masa;

even,

jowz u

ad. hatta.

evening, n. 'ashiyi
to

in the evening,
,

min

'ashiyi

spend the evening

v.

a.

bis-her, sehirt, s-har.

event, n. hadisi p. hawadis.

ever [for), ad. de'imen. every, a. kill (kull) everybody,


;

n. kill

an-nes

everywhere,

ad.

weyn meken.
wadih
;

evidence, n. beyyeni.
evident, a.

zahir

basit.

VOCABULARY.
evil,

I4I

n. n.

shcrr;
n'aji

a.

red! p. rcdaiya; shcrrir.


na'aj
; ;

ezve,

p.

ghanimi.

exact, a.

mazbut
v.
a.

temem.
bbeligh, balaght, beligh.

exactly, ad. bit-temem.

exaggerate,

exaggeration,

n.

mbrdighi.

examination,

n.
a.

imtihan
bifhas,

fahs; cross-exa)ni7iatio7i, \sWn%di\


fhiis p.p.

examine,
example,

v.

fahast,

mafhus;
p.

cross-

examine,
n.

V.

a.

bistanti", stanta"t, stanti".

mesel

(metel)

p.

emsel

mastra

msatir

for example, metelen (meselen). excavate, v. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur.
(msetir);

excavation, n. hafra p. hafr.


exceed, v. bzid, zidt, zid
('ala).

exceedingly, ad. ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi.


excel
[in),

v.

a.

bisba", saba"t, sba"

(fi).

excellence, n.

fadl.
;

Excellency
except,
p.p.

Your), sa'adt-ak
ilia;

His
a.

sa'adt-uh.

con.

ma'ada;

v.

bistcsni, stesnait, stesni

mustesna.

exception, n. istisna.

exceptional, a. mustesna; nedir.


excess, n. ziedi (zod)
;

to excess,

bi-kitra.

excessive, a. ze'id; excessively, ad. bi-ziedi.


in exchange for, exchange {of money), n. kambio bedel v. a. [for) b'awid, 'awadt, 'awid (bi).
; ;

pr.

excite, v. a.
cited,
a.

bheyyij, heyyejt, heyyij p.p.

mheyyej

ex-

heyyij.

excitement, n. heyyijan.
exclude,
v.
a.

bikhruj,

kharajt,

khruj

bitrud,

taradt,

trud p.p. matrud.


excrenicnt,
n.

kluira.

142
excusable,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
m'azur,
;

excuse, n. 'uzr; 'itizar

v. a.

be'azur, 'azert, 'azur; excuse

me, 'azur-ni
e'itizir
(ila).

to exciisc oneself [to], v. n. be'itizir, 'etazert,

execute,

{to

kill)

v.

a.

be'idum, 'adamt, 'udum p.p. m'av.


a.

dum; {to perform) p.p. mkemmel.


execution, n. 'idam.

bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil

executioner, n. jelled.

executor

{to

will),
v. a.

n.

wasi

(wiisi)

p.

usiyi.
'ufi

exempt {from),
me'afi.

be'ifi,

'afait

('afeyt),

(min) p.p.

exemption, n. ma'afiyi.
exercise,
diers)
tall'at,

n.

temrin

{of a horse) mashshi

v.

a.

{of solbtall'i,

bmarrin,
tall'i

marrent,
ila

marrin

{of a horse)

berra.

exertion, n. jehd.

exhausted
exile,

{to

be),

v.

n.

bkill,

kelleyt;

/ was exhausted
hlikt.

with fatigue, kelleyt min at-t'ab; bihlak,


n.
serkili;
binfi,

nefi

v.

a.

bserkil,

serkelt, serkil p.p.

mserkel;
exist,
V.

nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi.


;

n.

existence, n.

{y^ per.) bikun, ken wujud.


fehish
;

biyujad, inwajad.

exorbitant,

a.

ghali ktir.

expand,
expect,
tizir

v.

n.

{y^

per.)

biyimted, imted p.p. memdijd.


ntur; bintizir, intazert, in-

expansion, n. imtided.
V.
a.

bintur,

natart,

p.p.

muntazer.
nefi

expectation, n. intizar.

expedient,

a.

mwefi".
'ajjil

expedite, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt,

p.p. m'ajjel.

expedition {milit:), n. hamli

tejridi.

VOCABULARY.
expel, V. a. bilrud, taradt, XxwA
i).p.

43

matrud.

expenses, n. p. masruf.

expensive,

a.

ghali

//

is

bikcllif ktir.

experience, n. khibra.

experienced,

a.

khabir

m'ovvwad.
expertise, n. keshef.
(3"^

experiment, n. imtihan; tijrubi.


expert, n. keshcf p. kcshcfi
;

expire

[of

a term),

v.

n.

per.)

biyikhlus

khalas;

biyintihi, intaha.

explain, v. a. bbcyyin, beyyent, beyyin; bwacldih,

wad-

daht, waddih; bfassir. fassert, fassir.


explanation, n.
explode,
v. n.
tcfsir.

(3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr)

biyinfel'a, infel'a.

explore, v. a. biktishif, iktesheft, iktfsliif bi.sta"ri, ista"rait,


;

ista"ri.

explorer, n. nuiktishif.
explosion, n. infijar.
explosives, n. p.

mewad

"abilt al-ihtira".

export, V.

a.

bsaddir, saddert, saddir p.p. msadder.

exports, n. p. sadirat.
expose, V. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf p.p. makshuf.

expression, n. haiyit al-wijh; [phrase] 'ibara.


expidsion, n. tard; ikhraj.
exquisite, a. nefis.

extend, v.

a.

btowwil, towwelt, towwil; binidd meddait,

midd

p.p.

memdud.
;

extension, n. imtided
extensive, a. wes'i.

tutwil.

exterior, n. berra.

extinguish, v.

a.

bitfi, a.

tafait,

extort [from),

v.

biblus,

tfi P-P- niutfi. balast, blus.

144
extortion, n. bals.

ARABIC MANUAL.

extra,

a.

'alewi
v.
a.

berrani.

extract,

[of teeth) bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; [of essence) bistakhn'j, stakhrajt, stakhrij p.p. mstakhrij.
al-'adi.

extraordinary, ad. fow"

extravagance,
extravagant,
extreme,
a.

n.
a.

israf;

sarf.

miisrif; sarrif.
p.

shedid

shidad.

extremely, ad. lil-ghaiyi.


extremity^ n. taraf p. atraf.
eye,
n.

'ain p.

'uyun; eye-brozv, hajib 'awenat;

p.

hwejib; eye-lash,

sh'ar 'aini; eye-lid, jifn p. ijfen; pupil of the eye,


al-'ain
;

bubu

eye-glasses,

eye-tooth,
;

neb

p.

anyeb;

eye-witness, shehid p.

shuhud

eye-sight, nazr.

F.
fable, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi.

fabric, n. hiyeki
fabricate, v.
a.

nesij.
('ami'l) p.p.

b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul

m'amul.

face, n. wijh p. wujuh; face to face, wijh bi wijh. facilitate, v. a. bsehhil, sahhelt, sahhil p.p. msahhel.
facility, n. suhuli.

facing, pr. "iddem.


fact, n. ha"i"a; in fact, bil-ha"i"a.

faction^ n. hizb p. ahzeb.

factory, kirkhani p. kirakhin.

faddy,
fade,
faint,

a.

mwaswas.
n.
(3'^fl

V.

per.)

bibukh, bekh; faded,


bitfah,

a.

beyikh.
lie

V.

n.

bighma, ghmit;
"elb-uh
(///.

tfeht;

fainted,

ghatt

'al

his heart zvas covered).

VOCABULARY.
fair,
a.

I45

kwaiyis; zarif

p. /.vuj^i\{just)''^<X\\\ {of

complexion)

lown abyad.
fairy,
n. jinniyi.

faith, n. imen.

faithful,

a.

amin.
bu"'a,

faithless, a. kczib; khaiyin.


fall,
V.

n.

wa"

'at,

\x"' 3.;

fallen, pres. part,

we"

'i

{used as an adj.); to fall out offavour, v. n. bis"ut, sa"at.


fallozi' land,
n.

bur.

false, a. kizb; {of persons) kezib.

falsify, V.

a.

bzowwir, zowvvert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer.


'aiyel ('ai'eli).

fame,

n.

sit.

family,

n.

'aiyeli p.

famine,

n. ju'a;
a.

maje'a.

famous,
fan,
n.

mesh-hur.
p.

marwaha
a.

marawih.

fanatic,

muta'assib.
n.

fanaticism,
a.

ta'assub.

mutwahhim. fanciful, wahm n. p. owham. fancy,


yi^r,
a.

be'id
n.

p.

ba'ad

c.

ab'ad;

from
v.

afar, min be'id.

fareiuell,

wude'a.

farm,

n.

'owdi;

hanut

p.

hawanitj

a.

biflah,

felaht,

flah p.p. mafluh.

farmer,
farrier,

n.
n.

fellah.

bitar p. baiatra.

fashion, n.
fast, n.
tebit

moda;
;

zey.
a.
;

sowm
(sebit)
to

(som); siam;
ad.
seri'an

seri'a c. asr'a
v.

{of colour)

bi-sur'a;

n.

bsum, sumt,
f.

sum;
fasteti

be fast {of a

z^'atch),

3rd per.

bittsabbi"

bitta"addam.
{to),

V. a.

burbut, rabatt, urbut

(bi)

p.p.

marbut.

146
fat,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
nasih
c.

ansah;
(duhn).

[of ajiimals) smin p.

sman;

n.

shahni;

beef fat,
clihni

shahm ba"ar; mutton

fat,

shahm

dani
fatal,

n.

a.

miihlik.
;

fate, n. nasib

"adr.

ma"adder. ab p. abawat; bey n. father,


fated,
a.

p.

beyit father in lazv, 'amm.


;

fatigue, n. t'ab;

v. a. {y<^ per-) biyit'ib,

ta'ab.

fatigued,

a.

t'aben.
a.

fatten, {of animals) v.

b'allif, 'alleft,

'allif

p.p. m'alluf.
ta"sir;
it

fault,

zenb p. znub; ghalta p. ghalat; your fault, zenb 'aleyk; al-ha" " 'aleyk.
n.
f.

is

favour, n. m'aruf. favourable, a. mwefi"; ma"bul; hulu


favourite, n. 'aziz;

hilwi

c.

ahla.

mahbub.
v.

fear,

n.

khowf;
n.

fez'a;

bkhaf, khift, khaf (min).

feast, n. 'azimi.

feastday,

'eid

p.

'aiyed.
c.

feather, n. rishi p. rish

p. riesh.

feature, n. tekwin p. tekawin.

February, shubat.
fee, n.
feeble,
lijra a.
(ijra).

da'if p. da'af.

feed, V. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am.


feel,
V.

bhiss,

hassait, hiss ('ala) p.p.

mahsus.

feeling, n. hasasi.
felt,
n.

libbedi.
n.

female,
fence,

inta
a.

(inta'i)

p.

anata

(anati).

feminine,
n.

mu'annas.
p.

siyej

siyejet;

to

fence

in,

v.

a.

bseyyij,

seyyejt, seyyij p.p. mseyyej.

ferment,

v.

n.

(31"'!

per.) biyikhtimir,

ikhtamar.

VOCAliULARV.
fermentation,
fern,
n. n.

147
a.

ikhtimfir

y.^w/^r//!//;/^'",

mukhti'mir.

disluir;

khinshaia.

fertile, a.

mughsib.
n.
[y^^
P*-'r-)

fester,

v.

bi'ammil, 'animal; biyidghil, da-

ghal p.p. midghil.


festival, n. 'eid p.

'aiyed.

fetch, V.
fetid, a.

a.

bjib, jibt, jib; fetcJi


;

me a

chair, jib

li

kirsi.

mintin

mijwi.
;

fetter, n. [for prisoners) jcnzir p. jnczir

{for Iiorses) iron,

"eyd
fend,
rial
n.

p.

"iyud

rope, shabha.

khisam; dushmen.

fever, n.

himmi mutfettera; ;/himmi; intermittent himmi malariyi to have fever, v. n. binhamm, inhammait; / am feverish, ana sikhanan (sakhnan).
,

fezv, a.
fib, n.

"aliL

kizbi p. kizbet
a.

barbuki.

fickle,

muta"allib.

fidelity, n.

amcni.

fidgety,
field,
n.
a.

a.

mutharrik

taiyish.

ha"al p. hu"Ld; bistan p. besatin (bsetin).


shiris
p.
; ;

fierce,
fig,
n.

'a"ur.
;

tini

fight, n. "ital

fig tree, tini. m'areki to fight with,


;
;

tin

v. a. b"atil, "atalt,

"atiL

fignrc, n.
filbert,
file,
fill,

n.

n.
V.

ra"m p. ar"am {statnre) "ami. bundu" (bindu"). mebrad v. a. bibrud, baradt, brud
;

p.p. mabriid.
;

a.

bmelli,

melleyt, mclli

btclli,

tclleyt, telli

{a

pipe) b'abbi, 'abbeyt, 'abbi p.p. m'abba.


filled,
a.

mclcn.
ghashcwi.
misfaiya (misfcyi);
v.
a.

film,
filter,

n.
n.

bsaffi,

sattait (saftcyt),

saffi

p.p. msafifa.

148
filth,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
wasakh
;

"azr.

final, a.

ekhir (akhir).

finally, ad. bil-ekhir.

finance, n. meliyi.
financial,
find,
p.p.
V.
a.

nieli.

a.

bla"

"i,

la" "ait,

la" "i
v.

bujad, wajadt, ujad

mowjud;

to

be fonnd,

n.

[y^

P^r-) biyilta"a,

ilta"a; find out, v. a. bistefhim, stafhamt, stefhim.


fine,
n.

jeza na"di
p.p.

gharami
;

v.

a.

bgharrim, gharramt,
;

gharrim

mgharram

a.

ref i'a

da"i"

[beautiful)

zarif; jemil.

finger, n. isb'i p. asab'i

forefinger, shehdi

little

finger,

khunsur.
finish,
V.
a.

bkhallis,

khallast, khallis

bikhlus, khalast,

khlus.
fir,
n.

shirbin.

fire^

n.

nar

[conflagration)
sha'il;
to

hari"a

to set
v.

on fire,
n.
;

v.

a.

bsha'il,

sha'alt,

catch fire,

(31^

per.)

biyihtiri",

ihtara";

biyishti'il,

ishta'al

biyiltihib,

iltahab.

firearms,
fireplace,

n. n.

p.

slab nariyi.
;

m6"adi
p.

mawa"id.

fireivood, n. hatab.

fireworks, n.

shghal nariyi.
(tebit)
;

firm,
first,

a.

metin; sebit

"owi

n.

[business) mahall.

a.

owwel

f.

ida

at first sight,

min owwel nazra

at first, owwelen.
fish, n.

samak
n.

p.

samaket;

v. a.

bistad, istadt, istad.

fisherman,

saiyyed (saiyyad).

fishing, n. said as-samak;

shebeki
fist,

hook,

rod, "asbit as-said;

net,

sinnara.

n.

"abda.

VOCABULARY.
fit,

149
nasib
;

a.

mncsib;
a.

v.

n.

(s^'l

per.)

bincsib,

biyiji,

ija

('ala).

fix,

V.

flag, n.

bmckkin, mckkent, mekkin fixed, bindcra; flag-stajf, 'amud al-bindcra.


;

a.

mckken.

fiame,
flannel,
flat, a.

n. n.

shu'ali p. shu'al.
flannilla.

mbaltah.

flatten, v. a.

bmahhid, mahhadt, mahhid


mella"t, melli".

p.p.

mumahhed.

flatter, v. a. bmelli",

flattery, n. temli".

flavour,
flax,
n.

n.

t'ami.

"innib.

flea, n.
flee,
fleet,
flesJi,

barghut
n.

p.

baraghit.

V. n.

bihrub, harabt, hrub.

'amara,

n.

lahm.

flexible, a. leyyin.

flight, n. harab; ferar.


yZ////,

n.

sovvwani.
V.

float,

{on)
(fi

n.

bfush,

fisht,

fush

('aki);

bc'um, 'aimt,

'uum
flood,
n.

or

'ala).
;

flock, n. "atiy'a p. "uta'an

[of birds) reff p. rfuf.

floor, n.

hamuli; seyl; tufan. ard al-beyt; marble floor,


tahin.
n.

n.

rhkam.

flour,
floiv,

n.

V.

[y^^ per.)

biyijri, jara.

flozver,

n.

zahr
p.

p.

azhar

c.

p.

znhiw; flower-pot, sha"fi

zuhur; hod
fluid,
fly, n.
n.
se'il.

hwad.
dibben
v. n.

dibbcni
fell!

p.

(31 per.) bitir,

tar.

foal,

n. n.

p.

efliyi.

foam,

raghwi.

150
fodder,
fog,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
'alaf;
'ali".

n. ghtaita.
siri
;

fold, n. tay; sheep fold,

v. a. bitwi,

tawait (taweyt),

twi p.p. mutwi.


foliage,
folloiv,
11.

owra"
a.

as-sajr.

V.

bilha", lahi"t, ilha".

follozver, n. teb'i p. atbe'a.


folly, n.

hama"a.
akl.

font, n. jurn al-m'amudiyi.

food,

n.

fool, n.

ahma"
ijr

foolish, a.
foot, n.

p. him"in (himu"). ghashim; belid.


(rijl)
;

p. ijreyn; foot-path,
;

derb

rijl

foot-rule,

mitr; "iyes
barefoot,
a.

footstep, khatwi
hafi; on foot, a.

{diskhdi; foot-stool,

skemla

meshi; at

foofs

pace, ad.

eshkin.

for, pr. minshen.

forbid, V.
force,
n.

bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. "uwi; v. a. {to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala) p.p.
a.

mejbur; bilzum, Izamt, Izuni ('ala); by force, ad. bil"uwi jebran. ford, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'a mkhada v. a. bi"t'a, "at'at,
;
; ;

u"ta.

forearm,
forehead,
foreign,

n.

dr'a p. udr'u; se'id


a.

(sa'id).

fore-going,

sebi"

(fore-mentioned) mazkur.

n. jbin; jibhi.
a.

gharib p. ghurb; Foreign Affairs, al-kharijiyi (vide minister); Foreign Office, nezarit al-kharijiyi.
n.

foreigner, n. ejnebi p. ajenib.

forenoon,

"abl ad-dohr.

foresight, n. basiri.
forest, n. hirsh p. ahrash.

1 ,,

VOCABULARY.
forfeit, n. gharruiii.

15

forge,
ting)

n.
V.

kur; bitru", tara"t, tru" p.p. matru"; {of wria.

bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer.


binsa, nesit, insa.

forgery,
forget,
V.

n.
a.

tezwir.

forgive, v.

a.

bscmih, semaht, semih p.p. masmuh. I for-

give you, bsemh-ak.

fork,

n.

firteki;

showki

pitchfork, midraiyi.

form,

n.

shikl p. shikel.
n.

formality,

teklif p. teklifat.
;

former,

a.

sebi"

formerly, ad

"ablan

tJie

former,

a.

al-owwel.
fort, n. "al'a p. "il'at.

fortify, V.
fortniglit,

a.
11.

bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan.

jim'ateyn.
sa'id
;

fortunate,

a.

p.

so'ada;

.sahib

bakht

he

is

fortune,

hazz-uh taiyib n. hazz

s'ad-uh "owi.
nasib,

forzuards, ad.

ila

"iddem.

fossils, n. p. mutahajjerat.

foul,

a.

wisikh.

foundation, n. ases p. aseset.

founder,
fountain,
scbil.

n. n.

mu'essis.
'ain
p.

'uyun;

(jet)

nofara; wayside

fozvl,
djej

n.
;

djeji p.

djejet

c.

p.

djej

foiul-house, beyt ad-

"unn

("inn).

fox,

n.

t'alab p. ta'alib.

fraction, n. kcsr.
fragile,
a.

seri'

al-'atab.
;

fragment,
fragrance,

n.
n.

"it'a

.sha'"fi.

riha.

152

ARABIC MANUAL.
a.

fragrant,

'utri.

frame,
fraud,

n.

birwaz
ikhtilas.
a.

p.

berewiz.
a.

France, Fransa; FrencJi,


n.

fransewi p. fransewiyi.

fraudulent,

mukhtelis.

freckle, n. kelef.

free, a. hurr; v.

a.

bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir.

freedom, n. hurriyi. freemason, n. fermasun.


freeze, v. n. (31^ per.) bijellid, jellad p.p. mjellid.
freigJit, n.

nowulun.
ktir; frequently, ad.
;

frequent,

a.

marrat

ktiri.

fresh,

a.

tari

taza.

Friday, nahar (yom) aj-jim'a. friend, n. habib p. ahbeb (hibeb)


sadi" p. asdi"a.

sahib

p.

as-hab

friendship, n. sada"a; mahabbi.


fright, n. khowf; fez'a.
bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a;
p.p.

frighten,
waft,

v.

a.

bkhowwif, khowfrightened,
v. n.

khowwif
;

mkhowwef;

to be

bifz'a, fiz'it

frigJitened, a. fez'an.

fringe, n. hashiyi.

frock,

n. n.

tannura

p.

tenenir; fisten p. fsetin.

frog,

dafd'a p. dfed'i.

from,
front,

pr.
n.

min
n.

'an.
tJie

wijh; wajih;"/r^/ of

house, wajhit al-beyt.

frontier,

hadd

p.

hudud.

frost, n. melleh.

froth, n. raghwi.

frown,
frugal,

n.

'abas; v. n. be'ibus, 'abast


a.

bhutt, hattait al-

'u"di; frowning,
a.

'abas.

mwaffir; mesik.

VOCABULARY.
fruit, n. fwcki (faki).

53

fruitful,
a.

a.

miighsib.
"alait ("aleyt),
i"li

fry, V. frying-pan,
fulfil,
V.

bi"li,
n.

p.p.

mi"li.

mi"lcyi

p. ma"ali.

a.

bkcmmil, kemmelt, kcmmil

p.p.

mkcmmel.

fill, a. melcn.

fun, n. tesliyi mezh. funeral, n. jenezi. funnel, n. "um'a p. "umu'a.


;

funny, fur, n.
furl,
V.

a.

mudhik; muskhin.
bitwi, tawait (taweyt), twi p.p.
n.

feru.
a.

mutwi.

furlough,
furnace,

rukhsa.
firn

n.

p.

firan.

furnisJi, v. a. bifrush,

farasht, frush p.p.

mafrush.

furniture,

n.

atet al-beyt; firsh.

fuss, n. dajji (doji).

future, n. musta"bil; in future, b'adeyn

bil-niusta"biL

G.
gain,
n.

ribh

meksib
p.

v.

a.

birbah, rbiht, irbah.

gaiter, n.
gall,

tma"

tma"at.

n. safra.

gallery, n. ruwa".
gallnut, n. jowzit 'afs p,
gallop, n. khaiyel
yil;
V. n. n. v.
;

jowz

'afs.

v.

a.

and

n.

bkhaiyil, khaiyelt, khai-

btarid, taradt, tarid.

gallo-ws,

meshna"a.
n.

gamble,

biTab,

I'ibt,

Tab bil-"imar.

154

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

gambling,

Feb al-"imar.
;

game,
gang,

n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. al'ab

{sport) said; taridi


('ala).

to

make

game
n.

of,

v.

bidhak, dahikt, dahak


p.

zumra

zumr.

gaol, n. habs; sijn.

gaoler, n. sejjen.

garden,

n.

jneyni
n.

p.

jneynet; bistan

p.

bsetin (besetin).

gardener,

jneyneti.

garlic, n. turn.

garment,
garnet, n.

n.

towb
p.

p.

tuwab;

{clothes)

tyeb.

liajr

si ran.

garrison,
garter,
gas,
n. n.

n.

hurras.

rabta.
;

ghaz
;

gas-pipe, aster

al-ghaz; gasometer, mitar

al-ghaz

gas-light,

dow min

ghaz.

gash,

n.

jurh p. juruh (juruha).

gate, n.

bwebi
v.

p.

gate-keeper, n.

bwebet (bawwabi bawweb.

p.

bawwabat).

gather,
V.
a.

gather up, a. bhowwish, howwesht, howwish blimm, lammait, Hmm p.p. melmuni; {to pluck)
;

bla"it,

]a"att, la"it p.p. mla"at.

gauze,

n.

keraishi (kereyshi).
;

gay,

a.

mzeyyen

{cJieerful) farhan.

gazelle, n. ghazel p. ghizlen.

gelatine, n. jelatina.

geld,

V.

a.

bikhsi,

khasait,

khsi

{of Jiorses) btowshin,

towshent, towshin.
gelding, n. khassi
;

tawashi.

gem,

n.

jowhera
n.
a.

p.

jewehir; (johera

p. jawahir).

gender,
general,
feri"
;

jins p. ajnes.

'umumi; 'am;

n.

mushir; general of division,


livva.

major-general, mir

VOCABULARY.
generally, ad. "uinumen
;

155

'itiyadi)'cn.

generation,

n. jil

p.

ajiyel.

generosity, n. kcrem.

generous,

-a.

kerim

p.

kurama
;

khaiyir.

genius, n. zeka (zika).


gentle, a. latif p. lutafa

leyyin

[quiet) hedi.

gentleman,
genuine,
a.

n.

khowaja

p.

khowajat.

gently, ad. bi lutf; [slowly) 'ala


sahih.
n. jighrafiyi.
n.

mahl-uh

[zvith

pro.

suff.).

geography,
geometry,

'ilm al-hindisi.

geranium,
gesture, n.
get,
V.
a.

n.

khubbezi

franjiyi.
a.

Germany, Almania; German,


ishara.
bjib,
jibt,

almani.

jib;

[acquire)
v. n.

btall'i,

tall'at,

tall'i;

bikseb,

ksibt,
v.

kseb; get up,


bitl'a,
tl'at,

b"um, "umt, "urn;


get rid
into
('ala).

get over,
bitkhallis,
of,
V. n.

n.

tl'a

('ala);

of,

v. n.

tkhallast, tkhalHs bit'owwad, t'owvvadt, t'owwad

(min); get

the zvay

ghost, n. khiycl;

Holy Ghost, ruh al-"udus.

giant, n. jobber (jebbar).

Gibraltar, jebeltari".
giddiness, n.

dowkha
;

(dokha).
is

giddy,

a.

deyikh

lie

giddy, ras-uh taiyish.

gift, n. hediyi.

gifted, a. shatir p. shuttar.


gild, V. a.
gilt,
a.

bdahhib, dahhabt, dahhib p.p. mdahhab. mdahhab; mutli bid-dahab.


n.

gimlet, n. berrimi.

ginger,
girdle,

jenzebil.

gipsy, n. nuri p. nawar.


n.

zinnar p. znenir.

156
girl,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bint p. benat (benet).
n.

girth,

hizem
hill

p.

hizemet; tighten, loosen the girths,


it

shidd,

al-hizemet.

give, V. a. b'ati, 'atait, 'ati; give

me,

'ati-ni

yeh

(yah).

gizzard,
glad,
a.

n.

"ansa.
to be

mesrur;

glad,

v.

n.

binbusit, inbasatt.

gladness, n. surur.
glance, n. nazra, lahza.
glass, n. "izaz ("izez)
;

(for drinking )'k.\hhy\-,'k.2LS\-, (field)


lam'a.

nadur; nadara.
glitter, V. n.

{y^

per.) biyilm'a,

globe, n. kura; {of a lamp) kloba p. klobat.

gloomy,

a.

muzlim

[of persons)

mkedder.

glory, n. mejd.
gloss, n. lima'an,

glove, n. keff p. kfuf

a pair of gloves, jowzi

kfuf.

glow-worm,

n.

serej

al-leyl.

glue, n. ghiri; glue-pot, bri"al-ghiri.

gnat, n. sikket p. swetki.

gnaw,
go,
V.

V.

a.

(3rd per.)
riht,

biyun"ur, na"ar.

n.

bruh,
to

ruh

going, pres. part, raih;


yesir;
it

it

is

going

Jiappen,

bedd-uh
;

is

not going to
raih
yesir

happen,

ma

bisir

there

is

going

to

be,

go raih yekun; go up, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a down, binzel, nzilt, inzel go out, bidhar, dahart, dhar. bil-mesas. goad, n. mesas; v. a. bidrub, darabt
('ala);
;

goat,

n.
;

'anzi
ra'i.
;

p.

'anzat;

m'aziyi

p.

ma'azi; goat-herd,

ma'az

God, allah
allah la

God preserve
yismah
(la

ya"addir)

allah;
ul-illah.

God

willing,

God forbid, minshen sake, God's for inshallah; tJiank God, al-hamd
you, allah yahfz-ak
;

VOCABULARY.
gold, n. dahab.

157

goldsmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh.

gong,
good,

n.
a.

na"us.

mlih

p.

mlah

taiyib
;

c.

atyab; jcyyid

c.

ahsan.

good-bye, ad. m'as-salemi

khatir-kum.

gooodness,

n.

judi.
;

goods, n. p. badaiy'i
goose, n,
gospel, n.

bda'a.

wazzi p. wazz.
injil.

gossip, n. 'alk.

gourd,
^c*;//,

n.

"ar'aa p. "ar'aat.
mfesil.
;

n.

da'i al
v.
a.

govern,

bihkum, hakamt, hkum

{adnmiister) v.

a.

bdebbir, debbert, debbir.

goverment,
halliyi.

n.

hukumi;

local

government,

hukumi ma-

governor,
(weli).

n.

hakim; mutsarrif; governor general, wali

grace, n. zurf.

gradually, ad. bitedrij.


grain,
n.

habbi
n.

p.

hbub.

grammar,

nahu.
bint.

granary, n. hasil; beyiki p. beweyik. grand-daughter, n. hafidi; bint bint p. ulcd


grand-father,
n.

jidd p. jdud.
;

grand-mother, n. sitt p. sittat (sittet) imm imm. grandson, n. haf id ibn ibn p. died ibn.
;

grant,
grapes,

v.

a.

bijib, jibt, jib.

srranted, a.
n.
,

msellem.
p.

'inib ('inab);
(p.

green grapes,

v\..\\v\'ix\m.;bunc]i

of
grass,

n.

'an"ud

'ane"id) 'inib.

n.

hashish.

158
grass-hopper,
grateful,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL
n.

jundub
;

p. jnedib.

memnun

shekur.

grater, n. mabrashi.
gratis, ad. belesh,; bila mesari.

gratitude, n. shukr.

grave,

n.

"abr

p.

"ubur.

gravel, n. p. bahs.

gravy,
graze,
grease,

n.
v. n.

mar"a.
n.
(31"^

per.) biyir'a,

re'i
;

(ra'i).

shahm; dihni (duhn) dhan p.p. madhun. greasy, a. mid hi n.


great,
Greece,
a.

v.

a.

bidhan, dahant,

kbir

c,

beled
;

akbar p. kbar; 'azim p. 'azam. al-yunan (al-arwam) Greek, a. yunani;


;
;

Greek clmrch, kenisit ar-rum Greek katolik; Greek ortJiodox, rum ortodoks.
greedy,
green,
a. a.

rumi

catholic,

rum

shirih;

majfu'a; mfejj'an.
f.

akhdar

khadra

p.

khudr.

green-grocer, n. khudarji.
greens, n. khudra.

grey,

a.

rimedi.
(slai"i).

grey-Jiound, n. kelb slu"i

gridiron, n. msabb'a.
grief, n. grieve,
V.

ghamm
v.
a.

hizn.

bkeddir,

keddert,

keddir;
it

to

be grieved,

n.

binghamm,
a.

inghammait;

grieves

me,

bigh-

umm-ni.
grind,
v.

bit-han, tahant, t-han p.p.

mat-hun

bijrush,

jarasht, jrush p.p. majrush.

grindstone, n. jelkh.

groan,

n.

'anin;

v.

n.

bi'in,

'anait ('aneyt),

'in.

grocer, n. 'attar.

VOCABULARY.
groom,
seyt),
n.
se'is
(.sa'is)

59

p.

siyes; v.

a.

bhiss^

hassait (has-

hiss p.p.

mahsus; bsus,

sust, sus;

btemmir, tcm-

mert, tcmiiiir.

ground,

n.

ard.
n.

ground-floor,

taba"i tahtcni.
batil;

groundless,
luh
asl.

a.

ad.

bila ascs

ii is

groundless,

ma

group,
grozi.',

n.

{persons) jema'a; sirbi; {ino)iey) surra.

V. n.

[persons)

bikbcr,
up^

kebirt;
a.

{plants) {y<^ per.)


(rashid);

biyinmi,
srrown,
a.

nimmi; groivn
midrik.

reshid

fidl-

grumble,
V.

n.

{at) v. bitdemmir, tdcmmert, tdcmmir (min) bit"am"am, ta"am"amt.

guarantee,

n.

kefeli

{person) kefil.

guard, n. haris p. hurras; v. a. bihrus, harast, hrus p.p. mahrus. guardian, n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi.
guess, V.
a.

bihzur, hczirt, hzur.

guest, n. daif (deyf) p. diyuf.

guide,

n.

delil

guide-book,

delil

sefer;

v.

a.

{to)

bdull,

dellait (delleyt), dull (ala).

guild, n. rabta.
guilt, n. zenb.

guilty, a. miznib

mijrim.
;

guitar, n. "itar; 'ud


gulf,
n.
n. n.

tanbur.

khalij

p. khiljen.

gum,
gun,

simgh (samgh); {of


barudi
;

teeth)

nirit as-snen.

bund"iyi
harbi.

p.

bnedi"; {double-barrelled)

n. jift

p. jifuti.
n. n.

gunboat,

mcrkeb
n.

gunner,

topji p. topjiyi.

gunpoivder,

barud.

l6o

ARABIC MANUAL.

gut, n. misran p. masarin.


glitter,
n.

mizreb
n.

p.

mezerib; gutter-pipe, "astal ("aster)


al

al-mizreb.

gyvinasiuui,

marsah (mala'ab)
jimnastik.

jimnastik.

gymnastics,

n.

H.
habit, n.
liail,

'adi

p.

a'adet
(bered);

c.

p. v.
;

'awe'id.
n.

n.

barad

{y^

per.)

biyinzel,

nizil

bered; hailstone, baradi


hair, n. sh'ara p. sh'ar;

Jiail-storm,

zakhat bered.

cameTs hair, wabr aj-jemel.

hair-dresser, [barber] n. halla".

hairy,
half,

a.

mish'arani.

n.
;

nuss;

in

halves,

bin-nuss;

half-price, nuss at-

temen
halt,
V.

half-way, nuss ad-derb.

hall, n. dehliz;
n.

memsha.
iV'ift,

bu"af,
;

iV'af;

bwa"

"if,

wa""aft, wa""if.

halter, n. rasan
haifi,

ma"wad.
p.
;

n.

janbun.
n.

hamlet,

mezra'a

mezer'i.

hammer,

shekush {large) matra"a; v. a. bitru", tara"t, tru"; bdu"", da" "ait, du" " p.p. mad"u". hammock, n. mejruha (marjuha). right-hand, id al-yemin hand, n. id p. ideyn (daiyat)
n.
;

left-hand, id ash-shimel.

hand-cuff, n. "eyd p. "iyud

hadid.
;

handfid,

n.

[one
n.

handkerchief,

hand) kemshi [both, hands) mahremi p. maharim.


;

hafni.

handle, n. meski

"abda.
c.

handsome,

a.

jemil

ejmel.

VOCABULARY.
liandwriting, n. khatt p. khutut.

l6l

hang, {up)
Jiappcn, V.

V.

a.

b'alli",

'alla"t,

'alii"

p.p.

ma'alla"

v. n.

(ilown) bit'alla", t'alla"t.


n.

(31^ per.)

bisir,

sar;

biyijri, jara.

happiness, n. kcyf; surur;

Ikitjx.

happy,
harass,

^-

mabsut; farhan.
a.

v.

bit'ub, ta'cbt, tc'ib (tu'ub) p.p. met'ub.

harbour,
hard,
a.

n.

mina
c.

p.

mien.
{difficult)

"asi

a"asa; yebis;

s'ab

f.

s'ubi

c.

as'ab; Iiard up, ma'asur; mutdaiyi".


Jiardcn, v. n. (3"! per.)
Jiardly, ad. bil-kedd
;

bijift",

jcff;

biyi".sa,

"isi.

bi .s'ubi (s'obi).
a.

Jiard mouthed {of a horse),


Jiardship, n.

ras-uh "asi

(ti"il).

mesha"

"a.

"owi p. "avvaiya. arnab p. aranib. hareni, n. harim p. hurum.


hardy,
Jiare,
a.

n.

harni, n. clarar; aziyi


tJiere is

there

is

no harm,

ma

biseyl

(//'/.

no question),
a.
a.

harniful,

mdurr; mu'zi.
ghair (mush) mdurr.

harmless,
harness,
('ala)
;

n.

ta"m

al-'arabiyi;

v.

bshidd, sheddait, shidd

V. a. {^put the

horses

to)

bikdun, kedent, kdun p.p.

makduri.
harp, harsh,
n.
a,

kanun.
"asi; jefi; khishn.

harvest, n. hisad.
has/i,
n.

yakhni.

hasp, n. sukr (sikr).


haste,
n.
'ajeli;

make
a.

haste,

v.

n.

browwij,
hasten,
v.

rowwajt,
a.
b'ajjil,

rowwij;
'ajjelt,

bist'ajil,
'ajjil;

st'ajelt,

st'ajil;

hasty,

'ajul.
11

; i

62
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
birneyta
a.

Jiat,

p.

buranit.
f.)

hatch, V.
V. n.

[y^^ per.

bitfa" "is, fa""esit; to be hatched,

(3^^^

per.

f.)

bitif'us, fa'"esit.

hatchet, n. ferra'a; fes; balta.


hate, V. a.
liatred,
n.

bibghud, baghadt, bghucl. bughda.

haughtiness, n. kibriya.

haughty, a. mutkebbir. hatd down, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt,


Jiave,
V.

nezzil.
etc.

liave etc.
have').

li

'ind-i,

'ind-ak

[vide

grammar

verb

'to

hawk,

n.

baz

p.

bezet.

hay, n. hashish yebis.

dabeb (dabab). madabdbi. hazy, he, pro. hu (hui).


haze, n.
a.

head,

at the head of, fi ras f n. ras p. ru'us (rus) owwel; "iddem; head to foot, min ras-uh li "adem-uh head over heels, sha"labi ma"labi (H k'ab rijleyh)
;

heads or
headstrong,
heal, V. n.
JiealtJi,

tails,

tura

ow

na"shi.
a) ras-i

headache, (/

liave,
a.

I had
;

biyuj'a-ni, waj'a-ni.

'anid

ras-uh "owi.
biyibra, biri.

{y^
nasih

per-) bitib, tab;


;

n. sihha (sahha)
a.
;

his health, suhht-uh.


;

healthy,

suhht-uh taiyib
p.

[of place)

hawa-h

taiyib.

heap, n.
hear,
heart,
v.

kumi (komi)
a.

kuam.

bism'a, sma'at, sm'a p.p. masmia'a.

n.

"alb ("elb) p. "ulub; fuad; [at cards) kubba;


'al

by heart, ad. ghaiban;


lieat, n.

ghaib.
a.

harara

showb

(shob) v.

bsakhkhin, sakhkhant,

sakhkhin p.p. msakhkhan. heathen, n. wateni p. wateniyi.

VOCAHULARY.
licavoi,
n.
a.

163

scma.
ti"il
c.

heavy,

at"al p. ta"al.

hedge, n. siycj p. siycjct.


Iiedgehog,
n.

"linfuz p. "anafiz ("unfud, p. "anafid)

ke-

bebit shok.
heel,
n.

k'ab

p.

ka'ab

heel rope, shkcl p. shkelet.

height, n.
heir,
hell,

'ulu;

[of stature) tul;

"ami.

n.

weris p. wurra.s (warasi).

n.

jchennam.
n.

Iielinet,

khuzi p. khuaz.
;

help,

n.

mse'adi

v.

a.
;

bse'id, se'adt, se'id

it

cannot be
Jielped,

Jielped,

mush

fil-id

the

matter could not be

hal-mes'eli
helpless, a.
liein,

ma

ba'"it

fil-id.

'ajiz

p.

'ujjez.

n.

hashiyi.

hemlock, n. showkeran.

hemorrhoid,
hei)ip,
lien,

n.

basur

p.

bwesir.

n.

"innib.
p.

n.

djeji

djcjct c.p. djcj.


raih.

hence, ad.

her, [pro.
Jierb,

min howii; JiencefortJi, min halla" u suff.) ha (aj.

n.

'ushb p. 'asheb.
"atiy'a p. "uta'an.

lierd,

n.

here, ad.

hown
a.

here

and

there,
;

hown

u hown.

hereditary,
Jieresy,

wurti (urati)

bil-irs.

n.

harta"a.

heretic, a.

hartu"i p. harat"a.
;

hermit, n. ncsik p. nussak


Jiero,

zehid

p.

zuhad.

n.

batal p. abtal.

herself, pro. zet-ha.


hesitate, v.
n.

bitwa"

"af,

twa""aft, t\v'a""af; bitrcddad,

treddadt, treddad.

164
hesitation,
hicciip,
n.
11.

ARABIC MANUAL.
tcreddud.

hazzu"a (hazza").
khabbi
p.p.

hide, V. a. bkhabbi, khabbait,

mkhabba.

hiding-place, n.
JiigJi,

mikhbeyi.
a'ala;
liigJi-Jiandcd, a.
;

a.

'aali
(

c.

mustebidd.

Highness
hill,

Your), simu-ak

His

simu-uh.

highzvay, n. sikki sultaniyi.


n. telli,
n.

p.

tellet c.p. tlel

(tlal).

hilt,

"abcla.
(h).

him, (pro. suff.) uh


himself, pro. zet-uh.

hinder, v.
p.p.

a.

bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; bsudd, saddait, sudd

masdud.
n.

hindoo, n. hindi p. hunud.


Jiinge,

mfassali p. mfassalat.

hint, n. ishara.

hire, n. ujra (ijra);


ejjir;

kira; [let on hire) v. a. b'ejjir, ejjert,


kri;

bikri,

kerait,

[take on hire) v. a. biste'jir,

ste'jert, ste'jir;

bistikri, stekrait, stikri.

hirer, n. muste'jir.
his,

(pro. suff.)

uh

(h).

history, n. tarikh (terikh).


Jiit,

V.

a.

bidrub, darabt, drub p.p. m.didv\xh; [not

to

miss)

bsib, sibt, sib.

hither, ad. ila hitherto, ad.


li

hown. hadd al-wa"t.


ref'at,
;

hoe, n. mejrafi,
hoist,
Jiold,

V.

a.

birf'a,

irfa p.p.
v.
a.

marfu'a.

n.

"ar al-merkeb
v.
a.

bimsik, mesakt,

msuk
to

p.p.

memsuk;
out,
V.
n.

[contain) y<^ per. bise'a, se'a;

hold

b"ewim "ewamt, "cwim.

VOCABULARY.
Jiole,

65

n.

jura
p.

p.

juar;

tu"ub

p.

tu"ubi

(ti"ib);

{small)

bukhsh

bkhushi.

holiday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed; t'atil; btali; rukhsa; to take a

V.

bbattil, battalt.
[to

Holiness

Your Your ghibtt-uh. {Metropolitan), Yonr


the

Pope),

"adest-uh. {Patriarch),

"adesit-kum His ghibtat-kum His siedit-kum; His


, ;

sicdt-uh.

Holland, Hulanda; Dutch,


liolloio, a.

a.

hulandi.
v.
a.

mjowwif; mjowwar; jowwif p.p. mjowwaf.

bjowwif, jowweft,

holsters, n. "ubur.

home,

m"addas. {house) beyt p. biyut; {country) watn hone, n. msenn. honest, a. amin p. limena; honesty, n. ameni.
holy, a.
n.

beled.

honey, n. 'asel

Jioneycomb, "urs

'asel.

honorary,
Jionour,
n.

a.

ikrami.
[respect)
{to

sheref;

'ird

improbity)

namus;
v. a.
v.

v. a.

bukrim, akramt, krim;


rif,

do the honour)
zvill

bshern.

sherreft,

sherrif;

{to

have the honour)


;

bit-

you do me the lionour of coming to see me, btshern'f-ni / liad the lionour of going to see him, ana tsherraft li "ind-uh; in Jwnour of, minshen; li cjl-uh [ivitJi pro. sujf.). honourable, a. musta"im.
sherrif,

tsherraft.

tshcrrif

hood, n. {of a cloak) "ubu'a; {of a carriage) kebbut.


hoof, n. hafir p. hawcfir.

hook,

n.

shenkel

p. shnekil

killabi

p.

klelib

hook and

eye, bikli

wa

'irwi.

hoop, n.
hope, n.

tiira.

amcl

p. ilmel

v.

n.

bit'ariimel, t'immelt.

; ;

66
[it
is),

ARABIC MANUAL.
fih raja (amel).

hopeful
hopeless

[it

is),

ma

fih raja (amel).

hops, n. p. hashishit ad-dinar.

horizon, n. uf".

horn, n. "arn p. "urun.


hornet, n.

debbur
hisan
kehil;
;

p.

dbebir.

horrible, a. mukhif; ha'il.

horse,

n.

p.

uhsni

c.

p.

kheyl
p.
;

dabbi

p.

dawab
fahl

{blood)
p.

{pack)

kedish
tawashi

kidsh;

{stallion)
f.

fuluil

{gelding)

{bay)

ahmar
;

{bay
f.

witli
;

black

legs)

ahmar mharra"
kestanewi
azra"
f.
;

{black)

hamra adham

dahma
f.

{dark
sha"ra;
;

cliestmtt)

(light chestnut)

ash"ar

{grey)

zer"a;

{iron grey)

azra" hadidi

{light grey) azra" wadili; {dappled grey)


f.

mba"

"aj

{grey zvith black points) akhdar

khadra
khaiyal

{reddish grey)
stockings)
(khaiyel).
horse-cloth, n.

mawaradi

[wJiite)

hamemi
'al

{zvith tvliite
;

mhanjal; on liorseback,

al-hisan

kuben (kuban).
khaiyel p. khaiyeli.
;

horseman,

n.

horse-shoe, n. n'ali p. na'al (n'al)


hospitable, a.

nadwi
is

kerim

p.

kurama

he

p.

nadwet.

beyt-uh maftuh.

hospital, n. khastakhani.
hospitality, n. diyafi.
host,
n.

sahib

al-beyt;
f.

hostess,

sahbit

al-beytj

{among

Bedonins) m'azzib
hostage, n. rahn
hostile,
a.

m'azzbi.

p.

ruhuni.

khusm
n.

p.

akhsam.
c.

hostilities,
liot,

harb.
(shob)

a.

showb
n.

ashwab

sukhn

harr

to be hot,

V.

n.

bshowwib, showwebt.
lukanda.

hotel,

VOCABULARY.
Jiour,
n.
n.
;

67

se'a p. se'at.

house,
hariit

beyt
v.
a.

p.

biyut;

{large house [Beirut]) hara p.

bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin.


('ai'eli).

household, n. 'aiycH p. 'aiyel


Jiozv,

ad. kif; Jioivever,

m'a
(3"!

zclik; lioiv inauy,

kam;

Jioxv

tnuchy
hotvl,
11.

"add
'awi
;

csh.
V.

n.

per.)

bi'owi,

'owa; biyinbah,

nabah.
Jiulk,
n.

jism al-merkeb.
besheri.

/luiuan, a. insani;
Jiuiiiajuty,
n.

insaniyi; he is
;

humane,

fih insaniyi.

liuvible, a.

mutwad'i

humility, n. tawad'u.

huip [of a camel), n. hadabbi (hadbi). humpback, a. ahdab.

Hungary, bcled mejer; Hungarian,


hunger,
n. jiVa.
n.
a.

a.

mcjcri.

hungry,
liunt,
V.

jiVan; to be Jmngry, v. n. bju'a, je'ut.


bistad, istadt,
istad.

liunter, n.

saiyyed (saiyyad).
said.

hunting,

n.

hurricane, n. zowba'a (zoba'a).


Jiurry,
n.
'ajeli;
v.
;

n.
v.

bist'ajil,
a.

st'ajelt,

st'ajil;

browwij,
bwajj'i,

rowwajt, rowwij
hurt,
V.
a.

b'ajjil,

'ajjclt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel.

bdurr,
to

darrait,

durr
v.

p.p.
n.

madrur

wajj'at,
to Iiurt,

wajj'i;
V.
n.

be
per.)
p.

hurt,

bindarr,

indarrait;

(y^
f.

biyuj'a, waj'a (wij'e),


rjcl.

husband,

n.

zowj

(joz)

hush, [imper.) bus


Iiusk,
liut,

husi.

n.

"ishri

p.

"ishr ("ushur).
;

n.

kukh

p.

akwakh

{for silkxvorms) khuss p. khsas.

hyacinth, n. khazemi p. khazam.

hyoia, n. dab'a p. db'a.

68
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
ternimi.
ri'a.

hjiiui,

hypocrisy, n.
Iiypocrite,
n.

mra'i.

I.

/,

pro. ana. w'al p. wa'al.

ibex, n.
ice,

n. jlid;

snow

ice,

telj

viannfactiired ice,\y\Avci2^r^Q\.;

ices,

buza; dondurma.
afkar.
;

idea, n. fikr p.
identical,
a.

bi zet-uh

bi nefs-uh

i(ivit]i

pro.

suff.).

idiom, n. istilah,
idiot,
idle,

n.
a.

ablah;

a.

m'atuh; belid.
kesela.

keslen

p.

idleness, n. kesel.
idol,

n.

weten (waten)
wateni
p.

p.

owten; sunm

p.

asnam.

idolater, n.

wateniyi.

idolatry, n. 'ibedit al-asnam.


if,

con. izaken

inken

[luith pres,

tense)

iza

low

[zvitk

past),

ignorance, n. jeheli.
ignorant,
ill,

a. jehil, p. juhhel; mghaffaL marid p. murada; sakhin (sakhnan) to fall ill, V. n. bimrad, maridt; biskhun, sakhant. haram. illegal, a. ghair sher'i illegitimate, a. bandu". illiterate, a. ghair (mush) mu'allem; miXu mrabba. illness, n. marad. illuminate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen; bnowwir, nowwert, nowwir p.p. mnowvver.
a.
; ;

VOCABULARY.
illuin'niatioii,

169

n.
a.

tcnwir;

zini.

illustrate,

v.

bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. m.sowwer.

illustration,
illustrious,

n.
a.

rcsm
shehir.

p.

rusum; sura

p. suar.

image,

n.

timsel p. temesil.
n.
a.

imagination,

owham

tesowwur.

imagine,

v.

bitsovvwir, tsowwert, tsowwir,

imitate, v. a. bi"cllid, "clledt, "cllid p.p. m'cllcd.


iviitation,
n.
,

ta"lid.

immediately

ad.

"awcm

fil-hal.

immense,
imminent, immodest,

a.

kbir p. kbar; wes'i.


"arib p. "urab.
a.

a.

immoderate,
a.

miifrit.

"alii

al-haiya.
;

immunity,
impartial,

n.
a.

ma'clfiyi
'adil.

'afu

imtiyez.

impartiality, n. ha" "

'adl.

impassable,

a.

mesdud.
"illit

impatience, n.
impatient,
a.

as-sabr
;

nar.
;

nirani
(nar).

"alii as-sabr

lie

is

impatient, tab'a-

uh hazi"a
impede, v.
imperfect,
a.

bsidd, seddcyt, sidd p.p. mesdud.

a.

na"is p. nu"as.

imperceptible, a. ghair (mush)

mahsus.

imperial,

a.

mulukaniyi.
wi"ih.

impertinence, n. wa"aha.
i])ipertinent,
a.
a.

implicate,

v.

bdakhkhil,
fi
;

dakhkhalt, dakhkhil;
m"arish.

iinpli-

cated

in,

luh dukhl
a.

a.

import,

V.

bijlub, jalabt, jlub p.p. majlub.

importance, n. ehemiyi.

important,

a.

muhimm

c.

ahamm.

I/O

ARABIC MANUAL.

imports, n. p. waridat.

importunate,
impossible,
sible,
a.

a.

lajiij;

ti"il.

ghair
;

(mush,

mau) mumkin;

it

is

impos-

la

yumkin
,

ma

bisir.

impossibility

n.
v.

'adcm imkan (imken).


a.

impose

{on),

bghishsh,

ghashshait,

ghishsh

p.p.

maghshush.
impostor, n.

mzowwir; kezzeb.
a.

impression, n. te'esir.

imprison,

v.

bilibus, habast,
n.

hbus

p.p.

mahbus.

imprisonment,
improbable,
a.

habsi.

ghair (mush) muhtimiL


bhassin,

improper,
improve,
V.

a.

ghair (mush) leyi".


a.

v.

hassant,

hassin
;

p.p.
(31^

mhassan
per.)
bisir,

n.

bithassan,

tahassant,

tahassan

sar fih tahsin.

improvement,
imprudence,

n. n.

tahsin; nejeh (nejah).

hama"a; jehcH.
p.

imprudent,
impunity,

a. jehil

juhhel;

ahma"

p.

him"in (himu").

n.

berrat; witJi impunity, bila "isas.

impure,
in,

a,

pr. fi;

maghshush; mush khahs. bi dekhil; juwwa; rtWir/


;

z';^

^;';//,

juwwa u
(ta);

berra;
in so

indoors,

fil-beyt;

in

order

to {that),

hatta

far

as,

inability,

"add ma. n. 'ajz; 'adem imken.


be 'id
p.

inaccessible, a.

ba'ad.

inaccurate,

a.

ghair (mush) mazbut.


a.

inadmissible,

ghair (mush)

ma"buL
intibeh.

inattention, n. ghiflet;

'adem

incapable,

a.
,

'ajiz
'ajz.

p.

'ujjez.

incapacity

n.

incense, n.

bakhur.

VOCABULARY.
i)icessa)it,
a.

171

dc'im.
hadisi p. hawadis.

incident, n.

inclination, n.

meyl.

include, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhall, dakhkhil.

included, ad.
incognito, a.

min aj-jumli;
mutnekkir.

i)icluding, ad. bi

ma

fih.

income, n. madkhul; dukhl (dakhl).


incompreliensible, a. ghair (mush)
inconsistent, a.

mafhum.

'adim as-scbet.
kilfi
;

inconvenience, n.

ti"l.

inconvenient, a. ghair (mush) mwefi"; ti"H.


incorrect, a. ghair (musli) sahih.

increase,
bizid,

n.

zod

v.

a.

bzid,

zidt,

zid

v.

n.

{y^

pci*-)

zad.
{it is),

incredible

ma
;

biyitsadda".
lie
(it)

incurable,
falij

a.

'addal

is

incurable,

ma

luh

dawa

la ta'aHj.

indebted

{of debt),
to

a.

mediyun

{obligation)

memnun

/ am indebted

you, ana (mediyun) memnun-ak.

indecent, a. razil p. arzal.

indeed, ad. bil-ha"i"a.

indefatigable
indefinite, a.

{lie

is),

ma

bikill

min

at-t'ab.

mubhem.
;

indenmify,
('ala

b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'owwad of tJie person) / will indemnify you for the loss, b'owwid 'aleyk al-khisara.
v. a.
i.sti"lal.

indonnity, n. t'awid.
independence, n.
independent,
a.

musta"il.

index, n. fihris (fahras).

India, beled al-hind; Indian,

a.

hindi p. hunud.

indiarubber, n. mighait; {eraser) mahaiyi.

1/2

ARABIC MANUAL.
a.

indifferent {careless),
rent,

ghair (mush) mbeli,

it

is indiffe-

mitl ba'ad-uh.
n.

indigestion,

'usr

hadm

su

haclm
sar
li

to

have

v.

n.

bintikhim, intakhamt;
indigo, n.
nil.

bisir,

takhmi.

indirect, a. ghair

(mush) dughri.

indirectly, ad. bil-wasta.

indiscretion,

n.

hama"a.

indisposed, a. ghair (mush)


indistinct, a.

mabsut

am

ma

H keyf.

sa"im
a.

ghair (mush) wadili.

individual, n. zalemi p. zilam.

industrious,

mujtchid.
(lazim).
;

industry, n. ijtihad.
inevitable, a. lezim

inexperienced,
(ghirr).

a.

ghashim

ghair (mush)

m'owwad ghurr
;

infancy, n. tufuliyi.
infant, n.
tifl

p.

atfal.

infantry, n. baiyada (biyeda).


infection, n. 'adwi.

infectious, a. m'edi.

inferior, a.
infidelity,

adna; owta.
khiyeni.
p.

n.

infirm,

a.

'ajiz

'ujjez.

infliLence,

n.
a.

nufuz; satwi.
nefiz; sahib nufuz.

influential,

influenza, n.

nezH
v.

sidriyi.
a.

inform

(of),

bkhabbir,
(fi)
;

khabbert,

b'arrif,

'arraft,

'arrif

inform me of

tvJiat

khabbir ('an); happened

yesterday,

'arrif-ni
n.

filH

sar imbereh.

information,

m'ahimiyi.

ingratitude, n. inkar aj-jemil.

VOCABULARY.
inhabit, v. biskun, sekent
(fi)
;

1/3

p.p.

meskun.
n.

inhabitant,

n.

ahl

al

bclcd

inhabitants,

p.

sukkcn

ahali (ahcli).
inherit,
v.
a.

buras (burat), warist (waritt) p.p.


'irs

mowrus

(mowrut).
inheritance, n.
injure,
(bi'zi),

p.

miras (mawaris).
darrait,
zi.

v.

a.

bdurr,

durr

p.p.

madrur;

bu'/.i

azait (azeyt),
;

injury, n. darar
injustice,
n.

aziyi.

zulm.
inkpot,

ink,

n. hibr;
a.

inlaid,

[zvith

daweyi (dawaiyi). mother of pearl') mta'am

{^^vitJi

jezvels)

mrass'a,
inn,
n.

lukanda; khan.

innocence, n. bera'a.
innocent, a. bcri p. ibriya.

inquire

[about),

v.

bist'alim,

st'alamt, st'rdim ('an); bis-

takhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an).


insane, a.

mejnun.
khatt
p.

insanity, n. jnun.
inscription, n. kitebi
insect,
;

khutut.

n.

debbebi

p.

debbebct.
ad. bila ha.sasi.

insecure, a. ghair (mush) amin.


insensible, a. fe"id al-hasasi
insert, v. a.
shi,
;

bidkhil, adkhalt, idkhil; [of tvriting) bhash-

hashshait, hashshi p.p. mhashsha.

inside, ad.
insist (on),

juwwa; dckhil
v.
;

inside out,

'al

al-"clb.

bharrij, harrajt, harrij

('ala).

insolence, n. scfaha
insolent, a. sefih
;

wa"aha.

wi"ih.

insolvent, a. miflis.
inspect, v. a. bifhas,

fahast, fhas.

i74
inspection, n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
fahs
;

teftish. fahis.

inspector, n. mufettish;

instalment, n. "ist p. a"sat (u"suta).


instance,
n.

meteli p. metel (mesel)

for

instance,

mese-

len (metelen).
instant, n. lahza.

instead of, pr. bedel


instruct,
la
in.

con. bedel ma.


'allamt,
'allim;

v.

a.

b'allim,

bla""in, la" "ant,

instruction, n. t'alim p. t'alimet; tel"in.

instrument, n.
insult,
n.

ali

(eli)

p.

alet c. p. awe'il; 'iddi p. 'ided.

iheni.

insurance, n. sikurta.
insure, v. a.

bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker.


'asi

insurgent, n.

p.

'usat;

te'ir

p.

te'irin.

insurrection, n. fitni; tovvra.


integrity, n. isti"ami.
intellect,

n.

'a"l.

intelligence,
intelligent,

n.
a.

zeka
zeki
n.

(zika)
;

fahm.
p. 'a"ilin

(ziki)

'a"il

('u"ala).

intemperance,

ifrat;

shirih.

intend, v. n. bu"sud,
intention, n.

"asadt; binwi, nwait (nweyt).


;

"asd

intentional, a.

ma"asid ma"sud.
p.

niyi.

intentionally, ad.

bil-"asd.
v. n.

intercede

(for),

bitwassat,
(ila).

twassatt, twassat

(ila);

bitsheff'a, tsheff'at, tsheff'a

intercept, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, lijuz p.p.

mahjuz.
[liking)
li

intercession, n. wesata; shefa'a.


interest,
n.

[money]
;

faiyiz;

[bias]

gharacl;
i)i,

meyl;

riighbi

(righbi)
in,
a.

interested

/ Jiave an mutgharrid

interest
(fi).

salih f i

VOCABULARY.
interesting, a.

75

mufid;
v.

Icziz;
n.

mlih

p.

mlah.
tdakhalt,
(bitdekhil),

interfere

{ivith),
fi.

bitdfikhal,

(tdekhalt)

interference, n. mudakhili (nidckhili).


interior,
n.

dekhil.

interminable, ad. bila nihcyi.


i)itertial,

a.

dekhili

juwwcni.

international, a. dowli (ducli).


interpret, v. a. bterjim, tcrjcmt, terjini.

interpretation, n. tcrjemi.

interpreter, n.

terjuman

p.

tarajmin.

interval, n. (place) mesefi; {time)


fi

middi;

i)i

the interval',

esna.
n.

intervietv,

mwajilia; m"abcli.
bila wesiyi.

intestate, ad.
intestine, n.

misran
dekhil

p.

masarin.

intimate, a. khususi.
/V^/t*,

pr.

fi;

fi.

intolerable, a. ghair

(mush) muhtimil.

intoxicated, a. sekran.
intoxication, n. sukr.

intrigue,

n.

fesad

p.

mfesid

dcsisi

p.

desa'is;
('ala);

v.

n.

{against)

bmc"dih,
('ala).

me"diht,

me"dih
ma"adih.

bifsud,

fesadt, fsud

intriguer, n, mufsid;

mi"dah
b'arrif,
(ila);

p.

introduce

{to),

v.

a.

'arraft,

'arrif (fi);
v.
a.

b"addim,
bmeshshi,

"addamt,
intrust
{to),

"addim
v.
a.

[of

things)

meshshait, meshshi.
bud'a, wad'at, ud'a
(li'ind).

inundation, n. tufan; hamiali; seyl.


invent, v. a. bikhtir'i,

ikhtar'at, ikhtir'i.

invention, n. ikhtira'a.

1/6

ARABIC MANUAL.

inventory, n. "a'imi p. "awe'im.


invest
{in),

v.

a.

bhutt, hatlait, hutt

(fi).

investigate, v. a. bifhas, fahast,

fhas p.p. mafhus.

investigation, n. fahs.
invisible, a.

ghair (mush) menzur.


'azimi p. 'aze'im.
a.

invitation, n.
invite,
[to)

v.

be'izum, 'azamt, 'uziim

(li)

p.p.

m'azum.

involioitaty, ad.

imvards, ad.

ila

bidun "asd. juwwa.


n.

iron, n. hadid;

(flat iron)

mikvvi; v.

a.

bikwi,

kaweyt

(kweyt), kwi p.p. mikvvi.


ironiyig-wojuan, n. kuweyi.

irregular,

a.

ghair (mush) muntazim.

irresolute, a.

mutereddid

da'if al-'azm.

irrigate, v. a. bis"i, sa"ait, s"i.

irrigation, n. sa"i.
island,
isolate,
n. jeziri
v.
a.

p. jeze'ir.

bifruz,

farazt,

fruz p.p.

mafruz.
bitl'a,

issue,

n.

netiji;
tl'a;

hasil; v. n. bidhar, dahart, dhar;


a.

tl'at,
it,

V.

bsaddir, saddert saddir.

pro.

hu
n.

(hui); pro. siiff.

uh

(h).

Italy, ItaHa;
itcli,

Italian, a. itahyeni.
per.)

V.

(31-d

biyir'a, re'i.

itching, n, hakki.
iteins,

n.

p.

tafsilat

mufredat

item, n. [of

an account)

def'a p. def'at; nifdi p. nifed.


itinerary, n. ivory, n.
ivy,
n.
'aj,

yowmiyi.

'amsha".

VOCABULARY.

1/7

J.
jackal,
n.

wawi

p.

wawiyi.
;

jacket, n. jaketa;

sitri

bantu.
pot, kibbeyi tatli.

Jajfa, Yafta.

jam,

n.

tatli

hulu;

murabba; jam
Japanese,

jfanuary, kennun

at-teni.
;

Japan, belcd al-Yaban


jar,
n.

a.

yabani.
p.

{large)
p.

jarra

p.

jrar; khabi (khcbi)

khvvebi;

"idri

"idr;

{small),

hu"

dweyk

p.

dweykat; (for

table use) shcrbi (n'ara).

jasper,

n.

yasb.
;

jaundice, n. ri"an

sfaira.

jaiv, n. fekk p. fukuk;

jaw

bone,

hanuk

p.

hanek.

jealous,

a.

hasud.

jealousy, n. hasad.

Jericho, ariha.

Jerusalem, "uds; urushlim.


jessamine, n. yasmin.
jest,
n.

mezh; hazl

v.

n.

bimzah, mczaht, mzah.

Jesuit, yesu'i p. yesu'iyi.

Jesus, yesu'a. 'Isa.


jet,
n.

silen

(of water)

fis"iyi

nofcra.

jetty, n.

rasif.
;

yahudi p. yahud Jewish, a. yahudi. jewel, n. jowhcra (johcra) p. jewehir (jawahir).


Jezv,
jeiveller,
n.

jowhcrji.

jeivelry, n. p.

mjowherat; imitation

mjowherat

kizbi.

job, n. shughl (shighl) p. ashghel.

jockey, n. khaiyel.

jocular,

a.

rawcndi.

178
join
(to),

ARABIC MANUAL.
V.
a.

busul,

wasalt,

usul

(usil)

p.p.

mowsul,

(bi);

bdumm, dammait, dumm


n.

(ila).

joint,
jolt,

mafsal

p.

mafasil; (of business) mushterek.

khadda; v. a. {y^ per.) bikhudd, khadcl. Jordaji, nahr al-urdun. jouDial, n. yowmiyi. muresil. jonrnalist, n. mkctib
11.
;

journey,

n.

sefer,
;

p.

asfar; khatra,

jovial, a. farhan

mesrur.

joy, n. farah; surur.

judge,

n.

"adi p. "uda; ne'ib (na'ib).


n.

judgment,
judicial,
a.

hukm.
'a"il.

sher'i.

judicious,

a.

jug,

n.

bri" p. beri" (eberi").

juggler, n. mz'abir.
juice, n. 'asir;

zum.

juicy, a.

mewi.
n. bnutt, nattait,
v.

Jidy, tammuz. jump, n. fezzi v. "umuz; (over)


;

nutt
fizz

bi"muz, "amazt,

bfizz,

fezzait,

('ala).

junction, n. mel"a; mujtem'a.

June, hazeran.
juniper, n. sindrus.
just, a. 'adil; just so, ad. bit-temem.
justice, n.
'adl;
'adeli.
v.

justify

(oneself),

bberrir
a.

zet-i,

berreyt

zet-i,

berrir

zet-ak; (confirm) v.

bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit; /

am

justly, ad. bil-'adl

justified in doing so, ha" "-i 'amil heyk. bil-ha" ".


;

VOCABULARY.

79

K.
kavass,
bedlit n. "uwwas p. "ovvvvasa; uniform of al-"uwwas; loose jacket with hanging sleeves, demir p. dwemir; kebbut; jacket without sleeves, kubran p. embroidered jacket, dcmir ma"assab vest kvveberin
,

witJi

sleeves,

mintian
zinnar

p.

mnetin
p.

embroidery,
gaiter,

"asab
p.

loose

trousers,

shirvval

sheravvil;

tma"

tma"at; sash,
trabish;
tassel,

p. znenir; fez (cap) terbush p.

sherrabi

p.

sherarib;

sword,

seyf p.

siyuf; plated stvord, seyf mfaddad; sword-belt, bind p. bnud as-scyf; shirt, "amis p. "umsan.
keel,
n.

"a'dit al-merkeb.

keen, a. "aris; kheri" p.


keep,
V.
a.

bba"

"i,

ba""eyt,
(observe)
v.

khawari"; 'asif p. 'awasif. ba""i; bkhalli, khallait,


behfaz hafazt,
hfaz
;

(khalleyt)

khalli;

p.p.

mahfuz
V.
a.

keep accounts,
v.

bimsik, mesakt hiseb

keep

on doing,

n.

bdamm, dammait
tuntur-ni;

'amil; keep waiting,

b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"; / will not keep you

xuaititig,

ma

bitruk-ak
("owl-i).

(otie's

ivord) v.

ma

bikhrum

fi"61-i

keeper, n. haris p. hurras.

keepsake, n. tezkar.
keg, n. barmil zghir.
kernel, n. "elb ("alb) p. "ulub.
kettle, n.

bri" p. beri".

key, n. mifteli (miftah) p. mfetih

(mefatih)

key hole, n.

tu"ub
kick,
rfis.

(ti"ib)

al-beb (al-mifteh).
v.
a.

n.

labta;

bilbat,

labatt,

Ibut; birfus, refest,

kid, n. jidi p. jdaiya;

kid gloves, kfuf

jild.

l80

ARABIC MANUAL.

kidney, n. kelwi p. kleywi.


kill,

V. a. bi"tul,
"itil.

"atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"'tul

lie

ivas

killed,

kiln,

n. n.

atun.
jins
p.

kind,

ajnes;
a.

now'

(no')

p.

anw'a; shikl p.
liitafa.

shikel (ashkal);

sahib m'aruf; latif p.

kindness, n.

lutf.

king, n. melik p.

muluk

(cards)

rai.

kingdom, n. memleki p. memalik. kiss, n. bowsi (bosi) p. bowset; v.


kit,

a.

bbus,

bist,

bus.

n.

p.

howeyij.
;

kitchen, n.

matbakh p. matabikh stove, uja" p. uja"at; m6"adi; bars of the grate, msabb'a; chimney, medkheni
;

(of iron) dekhun

oven, firn

cupboard, khizeni

shelf, reff p. rfuf; sink, balu'a; table, towli p. towlet

kitchen utensils, n. p. awe'i (nahas) al-matbakh.


kite,

n.
;

taiyara
n,

yara
kitten,

to fly a (bird) shuha.


;

btaiyir, taiyert, taiyir tai-

n.

bissi

"atta zghiri.

knapsack, n. jerabandiyi.
knave, (cards)
fi.

fershakh.

knead,

v.

a.

be'ujun, 'ajant, 'ujun.


n.

kneading-pan,

m'ajen.
;

knee, n. rikbi p. rikeb (rikeb)

knee deep,

li

rikbi; knee-

cap, sabunit ar-rikbi


kneel, v.
n.

on one's knees, 'ala n'keb (rikeb).


table knife, sikkin at-towli
pen-kiiife,

birk'a, rak'at, irk'a.


p.

knife,

n.

sikkin

skekin
;

clasp-knife,

mitwi

mus

'uwaisiyi

knife-

sharpener,

msenn;

small

knife,

sikkin

zghir;

large

knife, sikkin kbir.


knit, V. a.
kjiitting,
n.

bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil bis-sinnara.

shighl (shughl) sinnara.

VOCABULARY.
knob, n. meski
;

l8l

tififehat

al-bcb.
"ait,

knock, V.
V.
a.

a.

bdu"", da"

du""; knock down or


m'a"ad.

over,

birmi, rmait, rmi; bibtah, bataht, btah,


;

knot, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad

knotted, a.

knot

{to),

V.
a.

a.

know,
V.
a.

V.

be"'ud, 'a"adt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif p.p. m'aruf; make knozvn,
'arraft,
'arrif;

b'arrif,

become hioivn,

[y^

P^r-)

biyinti'shir,

intashar; bishi'a, sha'a.

knowingly, ad. bil-"asd.


knowledge,
n.

'ilm

m'arifi.

knuckle, n. 'i"dit (p. 'u"ad) al-usb'a.

L.
label,
n,

unwen
n.

('ilwan).

laboratory,

mahall al-kimia.
;

labour, n. shughl (shighl)

kedd
fa'ali.

t'ab.

labourer, n.
lace, n.

fe'il

(fa'il)
;

p.

mkeshkesh

dantella; gold

silver
lack, n.

shrit

dahab

("asab);

shrit fidda.
v.

"illi;

(3rd per.)

bi'uz;

ma

fih.

lad, n. sabi p. subiyan.

ladder, n. sillum p. selelim.

lading
ladle,

(bill of),
n.

n.

bolsit shahn.

marghafi.
b"assir, "assert, "assir

lady, n. sitt p. sittet (sittat).

lag (behind),
a.

v.

n.

/^^^/w^ ^^//z;/^,

m"as.sir.
n.

lair,

maghara.
kharuf
p.

lake, n. bhaira (bheyra) p. bhairat.


la}>ib,

n.

khirfen

(sniall)

"ar"ur

p.

"ara"ir.

l82
lame,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
'araj
f.

'arja p. 'urj

to be

lame,

v.

n.

be'uruj,
;

'arajt;

the horse is lame, al-hisan

'amm

bey'uruj

lame
('ala).

excuse, 'uzr kezib.

lament, v. bnuh, niht, nub


lamentation, n. menaha.

('ala)

bibki, bakit, bki

lamp,
lance,

n.

"andil

p.

"anadil;

dow; lamp-glass,
a.

"izezit

"andil.
n.

rumh

p.

rmali;

v.

bibd'a, bad'at, bd'a (bi-

drub-uh neshter).
lancet, n.

neshter

mibd'a

rishi.
;

land,

n.

ard

(property) riz" p. arza"


'al

viilk,

p.

amlak

on land, ad.

al-berr; (arable) ^x<iv(\2.^\x\ydL; (pasture)


;

mer'a;

(waste) ard mahmuli

(wooded) ard mshejjer;

(nnwooded)
ard miri
khass.
;

ard

sallikh

(baiyad);
;

Government land,
private land, milk

public land, ard meshe'a

landing-place, n. mina; (wooden) s"ala.

landlord, n. sahib al-beyt.

landmark, landowner,
language,
languid,
lantern,

n. n.

takhm

p.

tkhum.
dakhli.

sahib al-milk.

lane, n. zariib p. zwerib;


n.

lughgha.
'aiyyen.
;

a.

da'if p. da'af;

n.

(glass) fanus p. fwenis

(paper) fanar p.

fa-

narat; (magic) fanus sehri.


lap, n.

hudn
V.

(hidn).

lapse,

n.

[y^

per-) bifut, fat;

tJie

time has lapsed, fat

(mada) al-wa"t.
lard, n.

dehn al-khanzir.
c.

larder, n. khizeni.
large, a. kbir

akbar

p.

kbar.

lark, n. "unbra.

VOCABULARY.
last,
a.
;

83

ckhir (akhir); (preceding) madi n. (slioemaker s) sidden (sindcn); v. n. {y^ per.) bitowwil, towwal

bidum,
ckhir
kilmi.
latch,
late,

dam
s'er;

(dem);
last

at last,

ad.

akhiran;

last price,

time,

ekhir

marra;

last ivord, ckhir

n.
a.

sa"ata (sa"Lita).
(defunct) mutwaffi
V.
;

late,

n.

bitia" "as,

tla" "ast,

(of inoslenis) merhuni to be tla""as; bit'owwa",


;

t'owwa"t, t'owwa"; yoii are too ktir; lately, ad. mu'akhiren.


latli,

late,

t'owvva"t (tla" "ast)

n. n.

lowh

(loh)

khashcb

p.

Ivveh.

lathe,

makhrata.
n.
n.
'arcl.

lather, n. raghwit as-sabijn.


latitude,
latrines,

kenif;

shcshmi; beyt al-mai; beyt al-fada;

beyt al-khala.
latter, a.

teni.

latterly, ad.
lattice,

mu'akhiren.
(duhki)
v.

n. sh'ariyi.

laugh,

n.

dihki
V.

n.

bidhak,

dahikt,

dahak;

laugh

at,
a.

bidhak

'ala.

laughable,

muclhik.

laugJiing-stock, n.

maskhara.

laughter, n. dihk.
launc/i,
V.
a.

bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil fil-balir.

laundress, n. ghasseH.
laurel, n. ghar.

lava, n.

mewad

burkaniyi.

lavender, n. lawanda.
lazv,
n.

(sacred)

shcriy'a

p.

sheraiy'a;

(civil)

nazam;

destur.
lazo-court, n.

mahkenii

p.

mhakim

{vide court).

184
lawful,
laivn,
n.
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
jeyiz.

khadra; merj p. mruj. lawsuit, n. d'awa p. da'awi. lawyer, n. wekil da'awi avokat.
;

laxative, n. mis-hil; sherbi,


lay,
V.
a.

bhutt,

hattait,
f.)

hutt

[a table)

bhutt as-sufra;

{eggs) V. n. (3id per.

bitbid, badet.

layer, n. taba"a; saf (sef) p. sefet; in layers, saf saf.


lazy, a. keslen p. kesela.
lead, n. resas. lead, V. a.

b"ud, "udt, "ud

btill,
;

tallait,

till;

/ led

Jiim

"udt-uh bi id-uh (precede) v. n. bit"addam, t"addemt, t"addam ('ala) v. a. bisba", saba"t, sba"; [conduct) to, v. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). leader, n. "eyid ("a'id) p. "uwed. leading, a. owwel.
by
the hand,
;

leading-article, n. ma"ali iftitahiyi.


leaf,
n.

wara"a

p.

wara" (owra").

leak, n.

shi""; (in a roof) delf; v. n. (3i'd per.) (vessel) biyizrub, zarab; birowwih, rowwah; (roof) biyidlif,
dalaf.
n.

lean,

habr;
tikki

a.

da'if p. da'af;
bistinid,

v.

n.

[on)

bittiki,

teka.

kait,

('ala);

stenedt, stinid ('ala); v.


('ala)
;

{against) bisnud, senedt,

snud

leant the ladder

against the wall, senedt as-sillum


leap,
n.

'al

al-hait.
bi-

fezzi;

v.

n.

[over) bfizz,
('ala)-

fezzait, fizz ('ala);

"muz, "amazt, "umuz


leap-year, n. sini
learn, v. a.
t'allam.

kebis.
n.
b'arif,
'arift,

and

'arif;

bit'allam, t'allamt,

learned, a. 'alim p. 'ulema.

learning, n. 'ilm

m'arifi.

VOCABULARY.
lease,
leasJi,

85

n.

ijar al-bcyt.

n. habli.
;

least {the), al-a/.ghar

at least, a "allama.

leather,

n.

jild

p.

jlud;

untanned
a.

jild

ftir;

Russian

jild

miskobi.
;

leave, n. izn

rukhsa;
starkhis;
fi

v.

bitruk, tarakt, truk; bkhalli,

khallait

(khallcyt),

khalli;

take leave,

v. n.

bistarkhis,

starkhast,
izn
so,
;

[of servants)

bitlub,

talabt,

tlub
to

on

leave,

(bi)

rukhsa

yon had no leave

do

ma ken

lak izn t'amil haik.


;

leaven, n. khamiri

leavened, a. khamir.

leavings, n. p. fadlat.

Lebanon, Libnan; Lebanese,


lecture, n. khitbi p.
khittlb.

a.

libncni.

ledge, n. haffi p.

hafefi.
;

ledger, n. defter p. defetir


leecli,

istez p. asatiz.

n.
n.

'ala"a.
rasi

lees, left,

(rasib)

n.

shimel;

[of zvine) 'akr; {coffee) the left, 'ash-shimel; to


;

tifl.

left

handed,

'israwi.
leg, n.
ijr

back
legal,

a.

p.
,

ijreyn

[of animals) front-leg, id p. ideyn

ijr.

legacy, n. wusiyi.
sher'i.

legation, n. sefara.

legend, n. kharafi p. kharafat.


legible,
a.

mi"ri

waclih.
a.

leisure,

n.

fadawi; leisurely,

mute'cnni.
p.

lemon, n. laimuni (leymuni)


leJHonade, n.

hamda

laimun hamud.

leymunada.
'irt,

lend, V. a. be'ir,
letigth,
n.

e"ir;

bu'Vud, "aradt, u"rud.


'ala tul-uh.

tul; at full length,

86
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
btowwil, towwalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal.
sihl;

lengthen, v.

lengthwise, ad. bi-tul.


lenient, a. leyyiii;
lent,
lentil,

leniently, ad.

bi lutf.

n. n.

sowm
n.

(som) al-kbir.

'adasi p. 'adas.

leper,

abras p. burs;
bin-na"i.s;

mejdum

p.

mjeddemin; ahl
less,

al-

hadiri.
less,

ad.

a"el;

more or

aktar

ow
illi

a"el
'ata-k

he gave yeh.
lessee,

me

less

than you, 'ata-ni a"el miii

n.
v.

muste'jir.
a.

lessen,

bi"ellil,

"allelt,

"ellil.

lesson, n. lessor, n.
let

ders p. durus; meteli p. mete'il.


mu'jir.
V.

[allozv),
in,

bismah, semaht, smah

(li)

zvill

not let
b'ejjir,

you
let

ma
v.

bismah-lak tefut; [of houses)

v.

a.

ejjert,

ejjir;

xvill let

you

my

hoiise, b'ejjir-ak beyt-i;

alone,

bkhalli, khalleyt, khalli

wahd-uh

let

go,

V. a.

bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir; bseyyib, seyyebt,


;

seyyib
V.
a.

let in,

v. a.

bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit


tall'i
;

let out,

btall'i,

tall'at,

let

me

{him) pass, khalli-ni

letter,

yumru"), meketib; {of alphabet) harf p. letter-bag, kis meketib.


(khalli-h
n.

umru"

mektub

p.

liuruf;

lettuce,
level,
a.

n.

khassi p. khasset
;

c. p.
f.

khass.
suvvi
f.

sehili

msewa;

jelis

jelsi;

swiyi

v. a.

bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa.


lever, n.
'atili

lexicon, n.
liar,
n.

mukhl. "amus p. "awamis.


;

kezzeb; mnefi".
n.

liberal, a.

liberality,

kerim p. kurama; sakhi. kerem.

VOCABULARY.
liberate,
liberty,
v.
a.

8/

bitlu", tala"t,

tlu"; bharrir, harrcrt, harrir.

n.

hurriyi.

library, n. mcktebi p. meketib.


license,
lick,

n.
a.

rukhsa; izn

[disorder) rezeli.

V.

bilhas, lahast, Ihas p.p.

melhus;
v.
n.

n.

lahsi.

lid, n. ghata p. ughtiyi.

he,

n.

kizbi

p.

kizbet;

barbuki

bikzub,

kzibt,

kzub.
lie

down,
dozvn,

v.

n.

bncm
part,

(bnam),
1.

nimt,

ncm
;

(nam); lying
n.

pros.

neyim

neyimi

v.

bitla" "ah,

tla" "aht, tla" "ah.

lieutenant, n.
life,

mulezim (muklzim).
haiya
(hiya);

n.

'umr;

by

the

life

of

my

father,

bi haiyit bey-i (ab-i).


lifeless (as if dead),
lift,

ka in-nuh mc'it.
a.
;

V.

a.

birfa, refat, iiTa; bshil, shilt, shil.

light,

n.

dow; nur;
c.

khafif
v.
a.

c.

akhaf
bsha'il,

p.

khifaf;

{of

colour) fetih
p.p.

aftah

bdowvvi, dowweyt,
a.

dowwi
sha'il

mdowwa;

{a fire)
(sha'ali)

v.
;

sha'alt,

lighted, a.

she'ili

co)ne to light, v. n. (3rd per.)

biyizhar, zahar; biyinjili, injela; biban, ban.


lighten, v. a. bkhafflf, khafifeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef; {of
bitibri", bera"it (kcnet tibri").

lightning) (3rd per.


lightning, n.
like,
a.

f.)

ber"
p.

flash of
;

bcr"a.
;

ashbah ad. mitl bait (habbeyt), hibb p.p. mahbub.


shebih
a.

v.

a.

bhibb, hab-

likely,

muhtimil.
n.

likeness,
lilac,
lily,

mshebeha.
p.

n. n.

zenzelakht.

zanba"a

zanba".
(fruit) laimun
\\\x\\x;

limb, n. 'adu p. 'uda.


lime, n. (tree) zezafiin
;

(cement )\i\\s,.

r88
liviit,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

hadd p. hudud; v. a. bhaddid, haddedt, hadp.p. mahdud; tlie time is liviited, al-wa"t daiyi". limp, V. n. bekhud, akhadt min ijr-i.
did
line,

n.

safif

p.

sfuf;

[of writing) satr p. stur; straight


;

lijie,

khatt

musta"im (dughri)

v.

a.

bbattin, battant,

battin p.p. mbattan.


linen, n. kitten
;

[underclothing) tyeb tahteniyi.

liniment, n. duhun.
lining, n. btani.
lint,

n.

neseli

ketit.
;

link,

n.

zaredi p. zarad

linseed, n.

bezr kitten;
'atabi.

hala"a
oil,

p.

hal"at

c. p.

hala".

zeyt har; cruslied

bezr

kitten
lintel,

med"u".
seb'a p. sbe'a; asad p. usud.
shififi

n. n.

lion,
lip,

n.

p.

shifef

(shifef)

upper,

lozver

lip,

shiffi

fu"aniyi, tahteniyi.
liquid, n. se'il p. sewe'il.

liquidate [debts), v. a. bsaffi, saffeyt, saffi p.p.


liquorice,
as-sus.
list,

msafifa.

n.

sus; root

of

'ur" as-sus; juice

of

rub

n.

"a'imi p. "awe'im.
[to),

listen

v.

bisgha,

saghait,

sgha

(li)

listening, pres.

part, saghi.
literally,

ad. harfiyan.

lithograpJiy, n. tab'a-i-hajr.
litigant,
litter,

n.

sahib d'awa.
;

n.

takhtirewen
a.

(for

animals)

fershi;

zibl;

in

litter,

m'affashi.
nitfi;
little

little [a), n.

shwayi; {time) burha;


by
little,

a.

zghir

c.

azghar
he

p.
live,

zghar;
V.

shwayi, shwayi.
;

n.

be'ish,

'isht,

'ish

live on,

v.

be'ish 'ala

VOCABULARY.
lives

89
ila

from

hand
ma'aishi

to

mouth,
i>ieans

be'yish

min

id-uli

timm-uh.
livelihood, n.
liver,
n.
n.
;

of

asbcb al-ma'ash.

kibid.

livery,

bedli makhsusa.

hardown p. haradin. load, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli); v. a. bhammil, hammelt, hammil p.p. mhammcl {a ship) bish-han, shahant, [a gun) bdikk, dekkait, dikk shahan p.p. mash-him p.p. madkuk.
lizard, n.
;

loaf,

n.

{bread) rghif p. irghfi

{sugar) ras ("alib) sikker.


p.

loan,

n.

{money)

"ird

("irda)

"urud

{things) 'aiyeri

('aiyari).

local, a.

mahalliyi.
glial
p.

lock,

n.

ghalct;

v. a.

bi"ful,

"afelt,

"iful

("ifilj

p.p. ma"ful. locket, n. kirdan; snoberiyi

medalion.

locomotive, n.
locust,

makina.
p. jerad.

n. jeradi
V.
a.

lodge,
bitt,

bbeyyit,
(fi);

beyyett,
nzilt,
;

beyyit;
(fi).

v.

11.

{at)

bibat,

bat

binzel,

inzel

lodger, n. nezil p. nuzela

daif (deyf) p. diyuf.

lodging, n. mcnzil; beyt.


loft,

n.

'aaliyi
V.

taiyara; hay loft, tebben.

loiter,

long,

a.

bit'owwa", t'ow\va"t, t'owwa", long ago, min zemen ta^vil c. atwal p. tuwal
n.
;

for a long time, middi


longitude,
look,
(f i)

tawili.

n. tul.
;

n.
;

nazra; lamha

look at, v. bittall'a, ttall'at, ttall'a


;

wir,

look for, V. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala) bdowdowwert, dowwir ('ala) look after, v. bdir bel-i,
; ;

dirt bel-i, dir bel-ak ('ala)

look into, v.

a.

bshuf, shuft,

190
shuf;
V.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bunzur,
nazert,

nzur
mitl;
;

(fi);

look

like,

v.

n,
a.

bbeyyin,
bihsub,
bir

beyycnt, beyyin
hasabt, hsub
mitl;

look

upon

as,

v.

mitl

be'itibir,

'etebert, e'iti-

look lierel

ttall'a

hon; look out! u'a;


;

dahr-ak; dir bel-ak; look sharp I rowwij


looking-glass, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri.
loose,
a.

intibih.

rakhu

f.

rakhwi

c.

arkha.
hill p.p.

loosen, V. a. bhill, halleyt,


irkhi.
lop,
V.
a.

mahlul; birkhi, rkhait,

bifr'a,

fer'at, fr'a p.p.

mafru'a; bsheffi, sheffeyt,

sheffi.

loquacious, a. ktir al-haki; ktir al-ghalibi.


lord, n. rebb.

Lordsprayer,
lose,

n.

as-sala ar-ribbaniyi.
;

V. a. bdaiy'i, daiy'at, daiy'i


{tJie

{money') bikhser, khsirt,

khsar;
(/ lose
khil"-i.
loser,
loss,
lot,

way)

v.

n.

btih (btuh), tiht 'an ad-derb;


(3i"<i

my

temper)

v. n.

per.)

biyitl'a khil"-i, tili'a

n.

khasran.
khisara; sell at a
loss,

n.
n.

v. a. bbi'a,

be'ut bi khisara.

sirbi; jumli;
V.

[chance] nasib.

lots [to cast),

birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a.

lottery,

n.

"ur'a.
c.

loud, a. 'aali
louse,
love,
n. n.

a'ala. p.
;

"amli

"ami.
v.
a.

p.p.

ghuram mahabbi; mahbub; fall in love


love with her,

bhibb, habbeyt, hibb


v. a. be'ashi", 'ashi"t;

zuitli,

he
low,

is in

hui

mughram

fi-ha; 'ashi"-ha.

loved, a. habib; lover, n.


a.

muhibb; habib.
(diin) c.

wati
a.

c.

owta; deni
;

adna.
;

lower,

tahteni

v.

a.
;

bnezzil,

nezzelt, nezzil

bdelli,

dellait (delleyt),

delli

lower the price, nezzil as-'ser.

VOCABULARY.
loyal, a. tai'ya.

191

loyalty, n. ta'a.

lozenge, n. habbi p. hbub.

bakht; tof 1" hazz; bad luck, nahs. lucky, a. mvvafifa" hazz-uh kbir. lucrative, a. mufid; ma'ash-uh mlih.
luck, n.
;

ludicrous, a.

mudhik.
'afsh;

luggage,

n.

hovveyij
f.

hmuli.

lukezvariii, a. fetir

fetii.

luinp,

n.
a.

kebshCd

p.

kbeshil.

lunar,
lunatic,

"ameriyi.
a.

mejnun;

{cracked)

mef'u'a;

[light-headed)

mesh'ur.
luncheon, n. ftur.
lungs, n. riyi.
luscious, a. hulu
lustre,
n.
f.

hilwi

c.

ahla.

lima'an.
a.

luxurious,

mutrafih.

luxury,
/;';v,

n.

rifeh.

n.

'ud p. 'awed.

M.
mace, n. "ishr jowz at-tib; {club) 'asa p.
'usi.

machine,

n.

makina;
(zz/V/t'

eli

(ali)

p.

cict (alet) c.

p.

awe'il

seiving-macJiine, elit khiyata.

mad,

a.

mejnun
n. n. n.

lunatic),

madness,

jcnun.
sitt-na

madonna,
magazine,

meriam
dud.

(al-'adra).

neshera
p.

(ni'shra).

maggot,

n.

dudi

192
fnagic, n. sehr
;

ARABIC MANUAL.
a.

sehri.

magician,

n.

sehir; sahhar.

magistrate, n. "adi p. "uda; na'ib (ne'ib).

magnet,

n.

maghnatis.
a.

magnetise, v.
magnificence,

(3^^ per.)

bimaghnit, maghnat.
a.
jelil.

n. jeleli;

magnificent,

magpie,

n.

kak

("a") p. "i"an.
;

Mahomet,
lim p.
viaid, n.

Muhammed

seyyid-na [our lord)


;

Muhammed

resul-ullah {the prophet

of God) Mahometan, n. musmusulmin (islam), Mahometanism, islam. servant, san'i p. sunbint p. benet (benat)
;

n'a;

[black) jeriyi p. jeweri.


n. kizbrit

maiden-hair (fern),
mail,
n.

al-bir.

dir'a;

(post) bosta.

mainspring,

n. {of

a watch), zunberak
v.
a. b'ul,
'ilt;

as-se'a.
(bi)
;

maintain [support), cannot maintain


maintenance,
majestic,
n.

v.

b"um, "umt

my

family,

ma

bi"dir

b"um

bi 'aiyilt-i.

"ut;

"iyam bin-nefa"a.
jeleli.

maize, n. dara (dura).


a.

jelil;

majesty, n.

His [Her) Majesty,


beligh.

jelelt-uh, jelelt-ha.

major,

n.

bin bashi
n. sinn
a.

a.

[of age) mi'drik

majority,

al-bulugh; the majority, al-akteriyi.


'amilt,
a.

make,

v.'

b'amil,
of,
v.

'amul

('amil)

p.p.

m'amul

the

best

bihtimil,

ihtamelt,

ihtimil;

light of, V. bistakhiff, stakhaffait, stikhiff (fi);

mobhadready, v. a. ney, V. n. birbah, rbiht, irbah; dir,. haddert, haddir; bwadclib, waddabt, waddib p.p. a speech, v. n. bukhtub, khatabt, mwaddab;

khtub ked
;

zvay
;

sure, v. a. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid p.p. m'ek[for), v. bwass'a, wass'at,

wass'i

(li)

one's

way,

v.

n.

binjah, nejaht, injeh

fi

dunia.

VOCAHULARV.malaria,
Diale,
n.
n.

I93

malaria.
p.

zckr

zukur.

malice, n. hi"d.

malicious,

a.

ha"ud.
nida" "a.
a.

mallet, n. hatura;

Malta, malta; Maltese,

malti.

man, n. manage,
sewi.

rijjel

p.

rjel.

v.

a.

bdebbir, dcbbert, debbir; bscwi, sawcyt.

management

n.

idara.

manager, n. p. mudera. mane, n. m'arafiyi. mange, n. jarab; mangy, a. jarben.

mudir

vianger, n. ma'alaf.

mangle, v. a. (31^ per.) biyimezzi", mezza". ma)ihood, n. rujuliyi.

mankind,
manly,
a.

n.

al-bcshr.

rijjel.

manna, n. menn. manner, n. shikl p. shikel tari"a. maimers, n. p. adab n. husn suluk.
; ;

mana:uvre,
harbiyi.

n.

tedrib

p.

tedribat

[military)

mnowerat

mantle,

n.

manufactory,
manufacture,

meshlah p. mcshclih; "aba p. 'ibi. n. m'amel p. ma'amel; fabrika.


n.
n.

'amel; shughl (shighl).

manufacturer,

sahib m'amel; kirkhanji.

manure,

n.

zibl.

manuscript,

n.

khatt yed.
p.

many,
map,

a.

ktir

ktar

ma7iy times, marrat

ktiri

inany

coloured,
n.

mlowwan.

kharta.

194
marble,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.

rkham

mermer.
n.

March, adar; [military) mare, n. faras p. kheyl.


margin,
marine,
n.

meshiyi.

hashiyi.
n.

marigold,
a.

bakhur meriam.

bahri.

mark,
rik
titl'a

n.

'alemi p. 'alemat;

marka;
the

v. a. b'allim, 'allamt,

'allim p.p.

m'allam
id-uh
the

[commercial) bmerrik, merrakt, merto

p.p.
bi

mmarrak; up

mark,

leyi" lish-shighl;
a.

al-maslaha;

mark, a. wide of market, n. su" p. aswa" (swa"). Maronite, maruni p. muwarni Maronite church,
;

near the mark, mukhti.

musib;

al-kenisit

al-maruniyi.

marriage,

n.

jewez (zewej);

jizi

(zija)

ceremony of
marriageable,

fi

iklil

p.

jizet

(zijet);

service, salat al-iklil.

sinn
;

aj -jewez.

marrozv,
;

n.

nkh'a

marroiv-bone,

n.

'admi

p.

'adam

('adm) vegetable-marrow, n. kusa. marry, v. n. bitjowwaz, tjowwazt, tjowwaz p.p. mjowwaz; give in marriage, v. a. bjowwiz, jowwazt, jow-

wiz;
kellil.

[perform
n.

the

ceremony)

v.

a.

bkellil,

kellelt,

marsh,
martyr,

bata".
n.

martingale,
n.

kurfsan.
p.

shehid
n.
a.

shuheda.
'ajib.

martyrdom,
marvellous,
masculine,
a. a.

shehedi.

gharib

mzekker.
bihlus, halest, hlis p.p. mahlus; bihrus, ba-

mash,
rest,

V.

hris p.p.
n.

mahrus.

mask,

wijh 'aiyeri; maskhara p. msekhir.

VOCABULARY.
mason, n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi. masonry, n. hejara.
mass,
p.
n.

95

[things) kunii (komi)

p.

kuam;

[people]

jemhur

jemahir.
n.

massacre,
mast,
n.

mezbaha (medbaha).
p.

sari
n.

sawari.

master,
tavvat;

[superior]

ma'allim

{of a trade] usta p. us-

v. bitghallib, tghallabt, tghallib ('ala).


;

masterpiece, n. da"it shighl


1)1

shighl al-ma'allim.

as tic, n. 'ara".
n.

mat,

hasiri p.
n.

husr.

match,
[pair)
('ala).

[lucifer]
(joz)

shahaitta
p.

p.
v.

shahat;

kebrit;

wal'a;

jowz

ajwcz;

[y^ per.) biwefi", wafa"


jukh; [biiilding]V&-

material,
resta;

n. "imash ("imesh); lawezim al-bina.

[cloth]

matlie7)iatician,

n.

riyacli.

mathematics,
the matter,

n.

p.

ar-riyadiyet.
is

matter, n. maslaha p. masalih; mes'eli; "adiyi; zvliat

shu
;

al-mes'eli;

wliat
is

is

the

matter zvith

you,

shu bek
fi

ma

lak

there

nothing the matter,


biseyL

ma

shi

it

does not matter,

ma

mattress, n. fresh p. firsh.

mature,

a.

reshid (rashid).
n.

mausoleum,

ma"am
i

p.

ma"amat.

May,

iyar; nuwar.
(ni).

me, pro. suff.

meadotv, n. merj p. mruj. meal, n. [ground grain] tahin

[repast] akl.

dun; [stingy] bakhil p. bukhala; khasis; [average] m'addal; v. n. [y^ per.) y'ani it means, m'ana-uh. meaning, n. m'ana.
mean,
a.
;

196
means,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.

imken (imkan); "udra; by


fi
;

;;/^;w ^/, bi

wastat

Dieanzvhile [in the),

hal-fursa; fil-wa"t zet-uh.

measles, n. hasbi

himeri.
p.
;

measure,

n.

"iyes

"iyeset
[zoeight)

tape

mitr

p.

amtar

[of capacity)
p.

keyl
tari"a

wazn

[proceeding) tedbir
a.

tedebir;

full measure,
bi"is,
"ist,

kemil; short

na"is; above

ad. fow"
a.

al-'adi; zvhat does it


"is;

shu

"iyes-uh;
al-"iyes;
;

v.

measure bekhud, akhadt


uzin p.p keyyil p.p

khud

[by

weight)

buzin,

wezent,

mowzun

[by

capacity)

bkeyyil,

keyyelt,

mkeyyel.
meat, n. lahm.

Mecca, mekki.
medal,
n.

nishen
v.

p.

nieshin

medalion.

meddle
halt)

[in),

n.

bitdakhal (bitdekhal), tdakhalt (tdek(fi).

m'a; bitahashshir, tahashshart, tahashshir


11.

meddler,

hishri

fuduli.
p. edwiyi.

medicine, n.

dawa

mediocrity, n. hali mutwassta.


meditate, v. bit'ammel, t'ammelt, t'ammel
(fi).

meditation, n. ta'ammul.

Mediterranean
medlar,
meek,
meet,
a.

sea, al-bahr al-mutwassit.

n.

z'arura p. z'arur.
{by chance) v. a. bisduf,

wadiy'a.
a.

v.

bla"i,

la"ait,

la"i

sadaft;

where shall
n.

zue

meeting,

ijtima'a;

meet? weyn minitla"a. mula"a; meeting place, mahall

ijtima'a; [rivers) mel"a.

melancJioly, n.

sweda; sovvdewi; msodan.

mellow,
melody,

a.

mistwi.
a.

melodious,
n.

mutribi.
p.

lahn

alhan.

VOCABULARY.
meloji,
n.

97

battikh asfar,
(3rd

{water-melon)

battikh

akhdar;

{sweet scented) shenimcni; "aun.


melt,
V.

n.

per.)

bidub, dab;

v.

a.

bdowwib, dow-

wabt, dowwib

p.p.
;

mdowwab.

member,

'adu ikrami. honorary ta"rir. memorandum, n. mzekkeri memory, n. zakra; my memory, zakirt-i in memory
n.

'adu

of,

tezkar

li.

menace,

n.
;

tahdid;
v.

wa'id;

v.

a.

bitaheddad, taheddedt,
(ila).

taheddcd mend, v. a.
mended,
bibri,

bitwa'ad, twa'adt, tvva'ad


sallaht,
sallih

bsallih,
per.)

p.p.

msallah;

to

be

(s^d

biyitsallah,

tsallah;

{of pens) v. a.

bcrait, bri p.p. mibri.


{to),

mention

v.
it

a.

bizkur, zakert, zkur p.p.


zakert-illuh ych.

mezkur

(li);

/ mentioned
merchandise,

to liini, p.

n.

bda'a (badaiy'i).

mercJiant, n. tejir p. tujjar.

merciful,

a.

merciless, a.

rahum; shefu". mush (mau) rahum;


zaiba".
;

ad. bila rahmi.

mercury,
mercy,
merit,
n.

n.

rahmi

shefa"a.

merely, ad.
n.
a.

bes; fa"at.
v.
a.

istih"a";

bistaha"

",

staha" "eyt, stihi"".


irtibek;

merry,
mess,

farhan.
'aj"a;

n.

lakhbata;
a.

{dirt)

wasakh
{fig-)

{fig.)

lebeki; in a mess,

m'aju";

murtibik.
bib'at,

message,

n.

khaber;
n.
se'i

to

sold a
mirsel.

ba'att H

khaber.
messenger^
metal, n.
(sa'i)
;

m'aden
n.

p.

ma'aden.

metaphor,

mejaz.

meteor, n. shehab p. shuhub.

198
method,
n,

ARABIC MANUAL.
tari"a.
n.

metre

{verse),

beyt

p.

abiyet.

metropolitan, n. mitran p. matarni.


7)iew, V. n.

(31^ per.)

binowwi,

nowwa

w^^e^^';;^, a.

nowwi.

microscope, n. mikroskob.

mid-day,
middle,

n. n.

dohr.

wast;

in

the middle of, pr.

fi

Vv^ast

middle-

man,

dellel;

simsar;
a.

middle course, tari"


fis-sinn.

mutwassit;

middle-aged,

mutwassit
leyl.

mid-night, n.

nuss

mid-way,
midwife, migrate,
mild,

n.

nuss ad-derb.
deyi.
n.

n.
v.

[nomads) birhal, rahalt, rhal.

migration,
a.

n.

mhajera
lutafa

{nomads)
leyyin.

rahil.

latif p.

mildezv, n. 'afn
mile,
n.

('ufuni).

mil p. amyal.
a.

military,

'askeri.

milk,

n.

halib; fresh

mighli;

hot
,

sour
mill, n.

halib

taza;

halib

sukhn;

cold

boiled
,

halib

halib

berid

lebn.
p.

tahun

twahin; hand

jarushi p. jwerish;

;;'//-

stone, hajr (p. hijjar)

tahun; mill-zvhcel, ferash at-tahun.

miller, n. tahhan.
millet, [vide maize).

million, n.

meliyun
a.

p.

mleyin

millionaire, sahib meliyun.


"ellid

mimic,

v.

bi"ellid, 'elledt,

p.p. m"elled.

minaret, n. medni p. mawadin.


mince, v.
a.

bifrum, faramt, frum p.p. mafrum.


;

mind,

n.

'a"l

v.

[pay

attention

to)

bintibih, intebeht,
(li);

intibih

(ila);

[care about)
a.

binhamm, inhammait

[interest)

v.

[y^

per.)

bihimm,

hamm

I doni mind.

VOCABULARY.

199
v.

ma

bihimm-ni; make up ones mind,


('ala)
;

n.

bc'itimid,

'ctamcdt

mind

one's business, v. bdir, dirt bcl-i


v.

'ala shighl-i;

speak one's mind,

behki, hakeytfikr-i;

never mind,
mine,
n.

ma

biseyl, la bcs.
;

m'aden p. ma'aden Ighum p.p. melghum.


n.

v.

a.

bili,dium,

laghamt,

miner,

m'adcnji.
a.

mineral,

and

n.

m'adcni

p.

ma'aden;

m'adeniyi.
minister,
n.

wczir,

p.

wuzera

prime


, ;

ivater,

mai

sadr'azam
{interior),

{foreign affairs),

nazir

(nezir)

al-kharijiyi;
;

al-ma'arif {marine), al-harbiyi; {public tvorks), al-bahriyi; an-nef'a; {pious foundations), al-ow"af; {commerce), az-zabta.
'adliyi
;

ad-dakhliyi; {finance),

al-meliyi

{justice),

al-

{public iustruction),
{ivar),

at-tijara;
n.

{police),

minor,
mint,

"asir p. "ussar.

n.

{plant) n'an'a; {for coining) darb khani; sikki.


n.

minute,

da"i"a

p.

da"ayi".
muri.

miracle, n. 'ajibi p. 'ajeyib.

mirror,
VI is chief,

n.
n.

mcrcyi (maraiyi)
chirar
;

p.

aziyi.
;

misconduct, n. su
misdeed,
n.

siri

siri

rediyi.

zcnb
a.

p.

znub.
{bad) shi"i.

miser, n. bakhil n. bukhala; shahih.

miserable,

meskin
msibi

misery, n. sha"evvi;

fu"r.
p.

misfortune,
miss,
V.
a.

n.

msaiyib.
fut
;

bifut,

fitt,

bfowwit,
fatit-ni

fowwatt,
al-fursa;

fowwit

/ missed

the

opportunity,

dont miss

the opportunity, la tfowwit al-fursa; {aini) v. n. bukhti,


khatait, khti.

200
mission,
diniyi.
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
sefara
;

{religions)

risali

irsaliyi

ba'ati

missionary,

n.

"asis p. "usus; mursel p. murselin.

mist, n. ghtaita.

mistake,

n.

ghalta p. ghaltat
v.

c.

p.

ghalat

khata

make

mistake,

n.

bighlat

(bughlat),

ghlutt

(ghlitt),

ghlat.

mistress, n. ma'allimi;

my

mistress, ma'allimt-i.

misnnder standing,
mitigate, v.
a.

n.

su fahm.

bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p.

mkhaffef.

mitre, n. tej p. tijen.

mix,

V.

a.

bukhlut, khalatt, khlut p.p. makhlut; [drugs)

bimzij, mazajt,

mzuj
;

p.p.

mcmzuj.

mixed,

a.

memzuj

makhlut.
('aneyt), 'in.

mixture, n. mezij. moat,

moan [moaning), n. 'anin v. n. bi'in, 'anait n. khenda" p. khanadi" (khnedi"). mob [the), al-owbash (obash).
;

mockery,

n.

dihki (duhki).
[fig-)

model, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel;

"idvvi.

moderate, a. mu'tidil.
moderation,
n.
'itidel.

modern,
modest,
moist,
a.

a.
a.

jdid p. ji'dad.

mahshum
riitib.

modesty,

n.

hishmi.

moisten, v.

a.

brattib, rattabt, rattib p.p. mrattab.

moisture, n. rtubi.
)>tole,

n.

khuld

p.

menajiz.
(bi'zi),

molest, V. a. bu'zi

azeyt

(azait),

zi.

moment, monarch,

n. lahza. n.

melik

p.
p.

muluk;
diyura.

sultan.

monastery, n. deyr

VOCABULARY.
Monday, nahar (yowm) al-itncyn.
money,
n.

201

mesilri (misriyat);
p.

m'ameli;

market, bursa;

changer, serraf
n.

saiyerif.

mongrel,

bandu".

monk, n. rahib p. ruhben. monkey, n. s'aden p. sa'adin.


monopolise, v.
a.

bihsur, hasert, hsur p.p. mahsur.


;

monopoly,

n.

hasr

al-yed al-wahdi.
p.

wuhush. Montenegro, ]e.he:\ aswad Montenegrin, min jebel aswad. month, n. shehr p. shuhur (ish-hur); monthly, a. shehri.
monster, n.
;

wahsh

moon,

monument, n. asar p. asar (cter hilel; n. "amer; neiv


/////

V.

p.

atar).

light,

dow

al-"amer;

bedr.

moor,

a.

burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut.

moorings,
morals,
n.

n.
p.

marbat.
adeb.
ad. aktar; moreover, ad. aidan.

more,

a.

and
n.

morning,
tJiis

bukra;

subh;
'a

in

the

morning,

'a

bukra;
a.

morning, al-yovvm

bukra.

Morocco, marakesh;
gharbi,

Moor, mughrabi; Moorish,

ma-

morsel, n. sha"fi.

mortal,

a.

me'it; {deadly) "attel.

mortar,

n.

mortgage,
mortgagee,

n.

{of copper) hewin (hawin); {stone) jurn. rahn; v. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun.
n.

murtehin.

mort(ras[or, n. rahin.

mosaic, n. tenzil.
Diosque, n. jem'i p. jawem'i;

mesjid
;

p.

mesejid.

mosquito,

n.

berghashi

p.

berghash

neniusi p. neinus;

mosquito-net, nemusiyi.

202
vioss,
n.
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
khazz,

most,

and
'itti

ad.

al-aktar; aktar

min

al-kull (kill);

for

the viost part, al-aghlab.

moth,

n.

p.

'itt;

to

be

motheaten,

v.

n.

[y^ per.)

bi'attit,

'attet p.p.

m'attit.

motlier, n.

imm

p.
;

immet;
in

motion, n. hareki

motion,
;

motive, n. sebeb p. asbeb

'ammi. mutaharrik meshi. gharad.


motlier-in-laiv,
a.
;

motto, n. kelimi; 'ibara.

mould,

n.
a.

tirab; [shape) "elib ("alib) p. "awalib.


m'affin; to

mouldy,
'affan.

go mouldy,

v.

n. (3id per.) bi'afifin,

moult,

V.

a.

(3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah

biyibdal, bedel;

the bird moults, at-tayr biyishlah rish-uh.

mound,
mount,

n.
V.

telli

p. tlel.
tl'at,

n.

bitl'a,

tl'a

('ala)

[an

animal)] v.

a.

birkeb, rkibt, irkeb.

mountain,

n. jebel,
a.

p. jibel;

range of

silslit jibel.

mounted,

rekib.
v.

mourn
dait,

(for),

behzan, hzint, hzan


;

('ala)

bhidd, had-

hidd
n.

('ala)

wear mourning,
;

v.

bilbijs, Ibist, ilbus

hided.

mourning,
mouse-trap,

hided; hizn
p.

in

lebis hided.

mouse, n. fara
n.
n.

firan c. p. far.
far.

masiyadit

moustache,

sherib p. shwerib.
p.

mouth,

n.

timm (tumm)

itman

fimm (fumm)

p.

af-

weh; buz.
viouthful, n. lu"mi.

mouthpiece, n. biz.

move,

V.

a.

[put

in

motion^

bharrik,
;

harrakt,

harrik

bmeshshi,

meshshait,

meshshi

[transport) bin"ul, na-

VOCABULARY.
"alt,

203
shilt,

n"ul

move aivay,
taharrakt,

v.

a.

bshil,

shil;

v.

n.

bitaharrak,
durt, dur.
Dioiv,
V.
a.

taharrak;

move

about,

bdur,

bhishsh,

hashshait,
p.p.

hishsh

p.p.

mahshush

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz

mejzuz,
aktar
ktar.

Mr, Mrs, al-khowaja; much, a. and ad. ktir


mud,
n.

as-sitt.
c.

p.

wahl.
n.
a.

muddle,

'aj"a; {fig-) irtcbek [vide mess),

muddy,

muhil
n.

wehil.

Diug, n. kuz p. akwaz.

mulberry,

shemi;
mule,
n.

tuti
tree,

p.
tuti.

tut;

[zuhite]

tut hezez

[black) tut

baghl

p.

bghal; she-mule, baghli

kicking mule,

baghl shmus.
muleteer, [mule-driver) n. mkeri p. mkcriyi
multiply,
V.
a.
.

"ati'rji.

drub
arb'a.

p.p.

number by another), bidrub, darabt, madrub (f I) multiply J by 4, drub tleti fi


[a
;

multiplication, n. darb.

mumps,

n.

abu ka'ib
,

(k'ab).
;

municipality
belediyi.

n.

bclediyi

President

of

raiyis

al-

murder, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"tul; a murdered man, "atil. murderer, n. "etil ("atil) p. "litela. viurmur, n. ta"um"um; v. n. bitdemmir, tdemmert.
muscle, n. 'adali p. 'adalet.

museum,

n.

dcr at-tuhaf.
n.

musJiroom,

futr;

khibz al-"a".
[of a band), nubetji.

music, n. musika; [vocal) ghina; [church) tertil; psaltika

musician, musiki

204
Diiisk,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
misk.
;

muslin, n. shesh

muslina.
(iji).

must, I must go [come), ana lezim ruh

mustard,
musty,
mute,
a.
[to

n.

khardal.

m'affin.
be) v.

n.

biskut,

sakatt,

skut (vide

silent);

a.

akhras.

mutineer, n.

'asi

p.

'usat.

mutiny,
mutton,

n. n.
a.

'isiyan.

lahm

dani.
;

mutual,

mutbedil

mushterek.

muzzle [of a gun), buz al-barudi. my, pro. suff. i (ni).

myrrh,
myrtle,
felas).

n.

murr.
rihan
;

n.

as;

myrtle berries,

habb

al-as (han-

myself, pro.

zet-i.
a.

mysterious, [mystic)

sirri;

'ajib.

mystery, [mysticis)n)

n.

sirr p.

asrar.

N.
nail,
p.
n.

mismar
'ariyen
;

p.

mesemir; [of the finger)


;

difr (zifr)

adfar (azfar).
a.

naked,

zlait

stark naked, bi
;

zult.

name, n. ism p. asemi (esami)

v.

a.

[to

give a name
[to

to)

bsemmi, sammait, semmi


bizkur, zakert, zkur; in the

p.p.

msemma;
of,

mention)

name

bi

ism.

namely, ad. y'ani; ay.

namesake,

n.

smi.

VOCABULARY.
)iap,

205

n.

[of cloth)

zuglibera;
v.

{close)

to

take a

nap,

n.

bnam

(bncm),

nown (nom) ghatta; iiinit, nam (nemj

ghatta.

napkin,

n.

futa p. fuat.

narcissus, n. narjis.
narcotic, n.

narrozv,

a.

mkhadder; mnowvvim. daiyi"' adya" narroiu-niinded, c.


; ;

'a"l-uh

daiyi" ("asir).
nasty,
a.

wisikh

nation, n.

ummi
n.

p.

mush (man) murdi; mush mhh. umam.


;

national, a. watani.
nationality,
'lyit-uh.

jinsiyi

tab'iyi

his

jinsiyit-uh; tab-

native, a. watani; native-land, n. watn.

nativity [feast

of the), 'eid al-milad. natural {naturally), a. and ad. tabt'i.


a.

naturalise, v.

bjennis, jennest, jennis; to be naturalised,

bitjennas, tjennast, tjennas.


naturalisation, n. tejnis.

nature, n. tabi'a.

nausea,
"irift

n.

"irf;

to

be

nauseated

{zoit/i),

w.

n.

be"raf,

(min).
a.

naval,

bahri.

nave, n. sahn.
navel, n. surra.

navigation, n. sefer (seyr) al-bahr.

'amara al-bahriyi. Nazareth, an-nasra.


navy,
near,
n.

"arib p. "urab a. pr. hadd "arib; jenb; "irb: "iddem; nearly, ad. "arib; ta"riban.
;
;

neat, a.

ndif
a.

p.

ndaf.

necessary,

lezini;

daruri

//

is

lezim;

it

is

not

206

ARABIC MANUAL.
lezim;
n.

mush (mau)
ad. daruri.
necessity, n.

lezim p. lawezim
t/iere is

necessarily,

luzum; darura;

no

ma

fi

luzum.

neck, n. ra"bi; necktie, n. rabtit ra"bi ("amtit ra"bi).

necklace, n. 'a"id p. 'u"udi.


need, n. ihtiyej
needle,
n.
;

v.

a.

b'uz,

'izt;
,

bihtej, ihtajt.

ibrij

knitting

sinnara;

eye

of a

needle,

ti"ib al-ibri; needle-ivork, shighl al-ibri.

negation, n. inkar.
neglect, v. a.

negligence, n.
negligent, a.

behmil, hamelt, hmil p.p. mahmul. ihmel.

mutahemil.
;

negro, n. 'abd p. 'abid

zenji p. znuj.

neigh [neighing],

n. sahil; v. n. (3i-d per.) biyus-hul, sahal.

neiglibour, n. jar p. jiran. neigJiboiirhood, n. jiri;

neither

my
wa
;

jirt-i.

nor, con. la

la.

nephezv, n. ibn

akh (khey)

ibn ukht (ikht).

nerve, n. 'asab p. 'asab.

nervous,
nest,
n.

a.

basses.
p.

'ishsh

'ushush

('ashesh)

nest-egg,

moda'a

fil-"inn.
net,

n.

shebeki
n.

p.

shbek.

nettle,

"urrais.

neuter, a. la

mzekker wa

la

mu'annas.

nentral, a. mutahaiyid.
neutrality, n. hiyyedi.

never,
zelik.

ad.

abaden

mnowb (mnob)

nevertlieless,

m'a

neiv, a. jdid p. ji'dad; neiu

fashion, zey jdid; modajdidi.

Nezvfoundland, ard
news,
n.

aj-jdidi.

khabcr

p.

(akhber); good news, n. beshara.

VOCABULARY.
neivspaper, n. jurncl p. jurnclct; gazctta; jcridi.
next, a. teni;

20/

"admi.
ricsh.
P<-'''-)

Niagra
nib,
n.

[falls of), shclclct niagra.


rishi
v.
a.

p.

nibble,
nice,
a.

{y^

biyi"rut,

"arat.

zarif p.

zuraf; mlih p.

mkih

kwaiyis.

niche,

n.

ta"a.
n.

nickname,
niece,
n.

tilbi"a

libi'\
;

bint
leyl
tul

akh (khcy)
p. liycli
;
;

bint ukht (ikht).


fil-leyl;

night,

n.

by night,

all night,

kill

al-leyl;
leyli

al-leyl

tJie

thousand and one nights,

alf

leyli.

nightgozvn, n. tycb

an-nowm.

nightingale, n. bulbul p. blcbil.

nightmare,
nimble,
nipple,

n.

kabus (kcbus).
herik.

Nile, nahr an-nil.


a.

neshit (nishit)

n.

hilmi p. hilem.

nitre, n. natrun.

no, ad. la;

nobody [no-one) hada; I saiv nobody,


where,
wi'la

ma shuft

hada;

710

bi

matrah.

noble, a. sherif.
nobility, n. shcref.

nod, n. haniyi.
noise,
n.

dajji (doji);

'ayta;

make a

noise, b'amil, 'amilt,

'amul dajji; bdowwij, dowwajt, dowwij.


noisy, a.
bulit.
nijri p.

noDiad, n.

nawar; bedewi

p.

bcdu

rahil p. ruhhul.

nojninally, ad. bil-ism.

nonsense, n. hels
to

kelem
n.

fcrigh

// is

nonsense, bila

talk

m'ana

;.

V.

bihlus, halcst, hlis.

noon, n. ad-dohr.

2o8

ARABIC MANUAL.
;

noose, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad

rtinning noose, 'i"di shuta.

normal,

a.

tabi'i.
a.

north, n. shimel (shimal); northern,

shimeli.

Norway, noruj
nose, n.

Norivegian,
inf.

a.

noruji.

minkhar,
n.

nosebag [of a horse),


nostril,
not,

n.

kis sh'ir; kis tibn.

khaishum
la;
;

p.

khieshim.
all,

ad.

ma;

not at

abaden

not one,

ma

hada;

not quite, lissa


notable, a.
note,
n.

b'ad ma.
notables, n. p. 'aiyen.

mesh-hur;
p.
p.

tezkeri

tezekir;

{observation)

vinsic)

nota

notat

notes
v.
a.

book, defter
p.p.

mfekkera;

mulahaza {of of a piano, sillum; note b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid


;

m"eyyed.
is

nothing, n. shey (shi); there nothing,

nothing,
shi
;

ma
ma

fi

shi; it will
;

ma biyistif id come to good for nothing, ma biyinfa


better than nothing,
notice,
n.
;

biruh di'an
;

it

is

shi

biyiswa shi

ahsan min belesh. khaber; v. a. [observe) blahaz, lahazt, v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, lahaz give notice [about) khabbir ('an); give notice [to), v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht,
e'alen;
;

nebbih
notoriety,

('ala);

it

is zvortli noticing,

biyistahi" " az-zikr;

short notice, middi "asiri.


n.

shuhra; notorious,

a.

mesh-hur.

noun, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi).


nourish, v.
a.

bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am p.p. mta'ama.

nourisluncnt, n. t'am.
novelty, n. shey jdidi. November, teshrin at-teni.
novice, n. [religious) mibtidi; a,

ghurr
then,
fi

(ghirr)

now, ad. halla"


7iever,

issa

now and
nowadays,

ahiyenen

ghashun. noiv or
;

wa

ilia

fa la;

hal-iyem.

VOCABULARY.
nudge,
n.

209

dcfshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush.

nuisance, n. shcy (shi) muz'ij, miit'ib.


null, a.

batil (battalj

}iull

and
;

void,

la

y'unicl

fill.

numb, a. khadran. number, n. 'aded

p.

'adcd

v.

a.

bncmmir, nammert,

nemmir

p.p.

mnammer.
;

numbered, ad. taht numcro.


fiumberless, ad. bila 'aded
bila

numra.
ktir.

numeral,

n.
a.

ra"m

p.

numerous,
nun,
n.

ktir p.

ar"am. ktar; 'aded-uh

rahbi p. rahbet.
;

nurse, n. mrabbiyi
;////,

ivet-mirse, murda'a.
p.

n.

{hazel)

bind"a
;

bindu";

tree,

bind"a;

[pi-

stachio] fistu"

{cocoa)

narjil; jozit
p.

hind

p.

joz hind.

nutmeg,
brashi.
nutshell,

n.

jowzit tib

jowz

tib

nutmeg grater, ma-

n.

"ishri p. "ishr.

o.
oak, n. sindiani p. sindian
oar, n.
oasis,
n.

balluta p. balliit.

mi"daf
n.

p.

ma'"adif.

oath,
V.

waha p. wahat. yemin p. aiyemin


halaft,
hliif
;

hulfan

to

take

an oath,
to, v. a.

n.

bihluf,

to

administer an oath

bhallif,

hallcft,

hallif.

oats,

n. shufcn.

obedience, n. ta'a.
obedient, a. tai'ya p. tai'yin.
obey, V. a.

and

n.

bti'a,

tc'at,

ti'a.

; ,

2IO
object,
(shi);

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.
V.

"asd;
n.
[to]

gharad
there

ghaiyi no

{any tiling seen)

shey

be'itirid,
;

'itaradt, e'itirid ('ala).


is

objection,

obligation, n.

ma fi men'i (man'i). under an to, v. bkun, kint memnun-uh (lull) or taht memnuniyit-uh. oblige, V. a. [to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala); {pnt anyone
n.
'itirad
,

memnuniyi

to

be

under an

obligation)

bij'al,
;

ja'alt,

ja'al-uh

bsaiyir, saiyert-uh

memnun

obliged [grateful)

memnun a. mem-

nun; mutshekkir.
oblong, a. mustatil.
obscene,
a.

sef ih

rizil

(razil)

p.

arzal

obscene language,

kelem sefih

(rizilj.

observation, n. mulahaza.
observe, v. a blahaz, lahazt, lahaz; [keep) behfaz, hafazt,
hfaz.
obstacle, n.

men'i (man'i)
'anid
;

p.

mwen'i.

obstinate,

a.

ras-uh yebis.

obstruct, v. a. bimn'a, men'at,


obtain,
('ala).

mn'a

p.p.
v.

memnu'a.
bihsul,

v.

a.

bhassil,

hassalt,

hassil;

hasalt

obtainable, a.

mowjud.
a.

obviate {a difficulty), v.
obvious, a. wadih.
occasion,
n.

bzil,

zilt,

zil

al-men'i.

fursa; to avail oneself of, v. n, bintihiz, in-

tahazt, intihiz al-fursa.


occasionally, ad. ahiyenen.

Occident, n. al-gharb.

occupant, n. sekin p. sukken.


occupation, n. shighl (shughl),
[niilit.) ihtilel;

army of
to

be

jeysh
occupy,

al-ihtilel.

V.

a.

bshaghhhil,
v.

shaghghalt,

shaglighil;

occupied [with),

n. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil (fi);

VOCABULARY.
to
(f i)

ocaipy
;

oneself {with)
V.
a.

v.

n.

bitsella, tselleyt,
hallait,
hill
(f i).
;

tsella

{milit.)

{a place)
(f.

bhill,

occur, V. n.
(f.

(3rcl

per.) bisir
(f.

bitsir),
;

sar

(f.

saret)
to

biyi"a

biti"a),
ija

wri"a

wa"at)

it
fi

occurs

my

mind,

biyiji,

(biyiikhtur, khatir)
p.

bel-i.

occjtrrence, n. hadisi

hawadis.

ocean the,

n.

al-muhit.

o'clock {luhat o'clock is itr),

"add esh

as-se'a; shu as-se'a

{vide

grammar,

time).

October, teshrin al-owwel.

odd,

a.

gharib; 'ajib; {not even) ferd.


n.

odour,

riha p. rweyih.

off (far), a. be'id.


offence, n. {insult) iheni
;

{crime)

zenb

{anger) ghaiz.

offend, V. a.

bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt), ghiz.


; ;

offensive, a. {obnoxious)

muhin (mhin) {foul) kerih {displeasing) mukeddir; offensive and defensive alliance, ma'ahedit hujum u dife'a.
n.

offer,

talab

p.

matalib;

v.

a.

{to)

b'urud,

'aradt,

'uriid

('ala).

off-hand, a. toshi,
office,

n.

{post),

wazifi

p. wazaiyif;

ma'muriyi; {commer-

cial)

hall;

p. mketib; {room) de'iri p. dwe'ir; magover)iment offices, dwe'ir al-hukumi; mahall ash-

mekteb

shughl.
officer,
official,

n.
n.

zabit p. zubbat.

ma'mur

p.

ma'murin;

a.

resmi

officially,

ad.

resmiyen.
joften,
oil,

ad. ktir; marrat ktiii.


{olive)

n.

zeyt;
a.

{linseed)

zeyt

har;

{castor)

zeyt

kharw'a;
oil clotJi,

v.

bzeyyit, zeyyett, zeyyit p.p. mzeyyet.

n.

mshemm'a.

212
oil colour,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
lown
zeyti.

ointment, n. duhun.
oke,
old,

n.
a.

6"a

p.

o"at {400 drams).


p.
;

"adim
fis-sinn

"udm;

'ati"
n.

p.

'uta;

(z>z

age) ikhtiyar;

ta'in

old age,
;

sheykhukha; old fashion,


bint;

moda "adimi
'ajeyiz.

old maid,

old zvoman,

'ajuz

p.

oleander, n.
olive, n.

difli.
;

zeytuni p. zeytun
'aijji.

[tree)

zeytuni.

omelette, n.

omen,

n.

{good) 'alemi taiyibi; {bad)


;

fel

redi.

omission, n. ihmel
omit, V. a. bfut,
on, pr. 'ala;

sehu.
fut; bitruk, tarakt, truk p.p.
of,

fitt,

matruk.
'alashen,

on account
'al

bi

sebeb

minshen

on all fours,
teni
;

al-arb'a; on the other hand,

minjeha

071

no account, abaden,
; ;

once, n.

marra; at once, ad. halan "awem once for all, marra; once more, marra teni; once upon a time, bes
fi

zemen al-"adim.
;

oneself, pro. zet-uh

nefs-uh (^ith pro.


;

suff.).

onion, n. basli p. basl

{spring) basl akhdar.

only, ad. fa"at; bes; a.

wehid-uh

{zvitJi

pro.

suff.).

onyx,
open,

n. jaz'a.
a.

maftuh

/;/

the

open air,
".

fil-fela;

v.

a.

biftah,

fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh.

opening, n. ti"ib (tu"ub); shi"


openly, ad. jehran (jiharan).

operation, n. 'ameliyi.
opinion, n. rai p. raiyat.

opium,

n.

afiyun

opponent, n.

khusm

opium smoker, sherib afiyun. p. akhsam.

opportunity, n. fursa.

VOCABULARY.
oppose, V. a.

bdadd, daddcdt, dadd.


;

opposite, pr. "ibel

a.

m"ebil.
zalamt,
('ala).

opposition,

n.

m"awcmi.
a.

oppress,

V.

bizlum,

zlum

p.p.

mazluni;

v.

bibghi, baghait, ibghi


oppression, n.

zulum am.

bagha.
;

oppressor, n. zalim p. zullem


or, con.

baghi

p.

bugha.

ovv
n.

orange,

[sweet)

burd"ani

burd"ani;
lainiLin

{blood)

burd"an (bird"an); [tree) mawaradi; [seville) sfeyr (sfayr);


p.

bisfayr

(abu sfayr); {bitter) narenji p. narcnj;

{inandarin) yusuf Efifendi.


orator, n. khatib p. khutaba.

orchard,
order,
n.

n.

bistan p. bcsatin (bsetin).


p.

amr

awemir; {arrangement)
(nishan)
p.

tertib
;

nazam;
a.

{decoration)

nishen
;

nieshin
a.

{commercial)
v.

talebiyi; talab

iyi

good order,
emir
to be

mazbut;
v.

{combitlub,

mand)
wassi

bi'mur,

amert,

(umiir);

{goods)

talabt, tlub;
('ala).

{anything

made),

bwassi, wassait,

ordinary,

a.

'itiyadi

('atiycdi)

'aadi.

ordinarily, ad. 'adeten.

organ,

n.

lirghun.

Orient, n. al-mishri"; ash-shar".


oriental, a. shar"i.

origin, n.

mebda
asli.

asl.

origi)ial, a.

ornament,
orphan,
n.

n.

zini.

yctim
n. n.

p.

aitem.

orphanage,

der al-aitem.
hija.

orthography,

ostensible, a. zahir;

wadih.

214
ostricli,
otJier,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

na'ami.
ad. ghair; othertvise, ad.

and
a.

wa

ilia;

the other

day, ems; hidik al-yom.

Ottoman,
ought,
a.

'osmeni ('osmani); Ottoman empire, al-mem-

leket al-'osmaniyi.

/ ought to do [ought not) lezim (mush or mau lezim) 'amil / ought not to have done it, ma ken lezim 'amil-uh.
lezim;
;

our, pro. suff. na.


ourselves, pro. zet-na.
out,
ila
fi

ad.

berra;

outside,

kherijen;

min berra
;

outwards,

out of doors, berrat al-beyt ghair mahall-uh; fi ghair wa"t-uh.

berra;

out of place,

outpost, n. haris p. hurras.

outrage, n. fehshi p. fawehish


oval, a, baidi
;

[indignity) iheni.

bi shikl al-baida.

oven, n. tennur; [kitchen) firn.


over,
pr.

fow"
over

(fo")

'ala;

all over, a. kill-uh [zvith pro.


a.

suff.);

and

above,

'alewi ('alawi); over again,


v. (3i'd per.)

teni

marra; overhead, fow" ar-ras; [ended)


n.

khalas; inteha.
overcoat,

[European)
kbebit
;

saku

p.

saket

bantu
('ala)

[native)

kebbut
overlook,

p.

tit"ili.

[inspect) v.

bnazir, nazert, nazir


('an).

[excuse)

bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr


overseer,
(kholi).
n.

nazir

p.

nuzzar;

[on

farm)

khowli

oversight,
overturtt,

n.
v.

sehu.
a.

and
a.

n.

bi"Iub, "alabt, i"lub p.p. ma"lub.

bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. owe, I owe {owed) you money, ill-ak (ken ill-ak) 'ind-i mesari you owe [owed) me money, ill-i (ken ill-i)
overwhelm,
v.
;

VOCABULARY.
'ind-ak
ill-ak

21
oivc

mcsari

liozv

much do I
to,

you? "add csh

'ind-i.

Giving, a.

matlub
p.

oiving

pr.

biscbeb.

owl, n.

bumi
a.
(f i)
;

bum.
melakt
;

own,
ill-i

V.

bimlik,

{admit)

v.
(f 1)
;

be'itirif,

'itaraft,

e'itirif

b"urr,

"arrait,

"urr

oiK.'n

a house,

beyt.
n.

owner,
ox, n.
oyster,

mcllck; sahib
p.

p.

as-hab.

towr (tor) n. mhara;

tiran

(tuwar).
n.

oyster-shell,

sadafi p. sadaf.

P.
pace, n. sur'a; {step) feshkha.

pacify,

V.

a.

bheddi,

hcddait

(hcddeyt),

heddi

p.p.

mliedda.
pack,

bdubb, dabbeyt, dubb bundles) bihzum, hazamt, hzum p.p.


V.
a.

p.p.

madbub;

[in

\\\;i\\7x\m

{of cards),

n.

shiddi.
n.

package,

rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm.


n.

packhorse,

kedish
n.
n.

p.

kidsh.

packing needle, packing thread,


pack-saddle,
jlel

mselli.

khitan massis.

n.

{camel) hedeji p. hcdejet; {mule or donkey),

p. jlelet.
n.

pad

{padding),

hashwi;
"uful

v. a. bihshi,

hashait, hshi p.p.

mihshi; b"uttin, "attant, "uttin p.p. m"uttan.


padlock, n.
"ifl

p.

("ifal).

page, n. wijh

p.

wujuh.
owjc'a.

pail, n. satl p. stuli; {of a ivell) dalu p. idihvi.


pai)i,

{pains) n. waj'a p.

2l6
painful,
paint,
V.
a.
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
muj'i.

n.

[oil)

[a picture)

boya; dihan {tu ater- colour) lown al-mai; bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msow;

wer; {a house) bidhan, dahant, dhan p.p. madhun.


paint-brush, n. firsheyit dihan (boya).
painter, n. dahhan; [artist) msowwir.

painting,

n.

teswir;

in

oil,

in

zuater-colour,

teswir

biz-zeyt, bil-mai.

pair, n. jowz (joz) p. jewez (ijwaz). palace, n. "asr p. "usur; n. p. blat.


palate, n. sa"f al-hal".
pale,
a.

asfar p. sufr.

Palestine, Falastin.

paling, n, taswini p. tasawin.


pall, n.

ghata an-n'ash.
nakhli
p.

palm, [tree) sejerit belah; hand) kefif p. kfuf. Palmyra, Tidmur.


paltry,
a.

nakhl;

[of

the

deni.

pan,
p.

n.

[copper),

lekken

p.

Iken

[earthenware) m'ajen

ma'ajin.
n.

pane,
pant,

[of glass),
seriji

lowh

(loh)
;

"izez ("izaz).

pannier, n.
V.

p. sreyij

zenbili (zenbeli) p. znebil.

n.

(3rd per.)

biyilhat, lahat.

pantaloons,

n.

shirwal p. sherawil.

panther,

n.

fahd.

pantry,

n. n.

paper,

beyt al-muni. wara"a p. wara" (owra"); zvriting paper, wara"


[milit.)

kitebi.

parade,

n.

'ard al-'asker; t'alim.

parade-ground,
paradise,
n.

n.

sahat al-'askeriyi.

jinni; ferdows.

VOCABULARY.
paragraph,
parallel,
a.

n.

jumli

p.

jumcl.

mawezi.
a.

paralysed,

mafluj.
fclij.

paralysis, n.

parasol, n. shcmsiyi.
parcel, n. rizmi p. rizmct
c.

p.

rizm.

parchment,
pardon,
n.

n.

ri" ".

afu;

semeh

v.

be'ifi,

'afeyt,

'ufi

('an);

to

beg some one's pardon, bitlub, talabt, tlub al-'afu min; / beg your pardon, la twakhid-ni (twakhiz-ni) {when asking for sometJiing said to be repeated), n'am;
;

bitrajj'a-k.

pare,

v.

a.

b"eshshir,

"eshshert,

"eshshir

p.p.

m"esh-

sher.

parent, n. welid; parents, weldeyn.

parliament,
parrot,
part,
n.

n.

jeme'i al-'aiyen

barlamento.

dirra.

parsley, n. ba"dunis.
n.

"ism

p.

part of
partial,
a.

min

a"sam (a"sem) jiz' p. "ibel; for my part, min


;

ajeza; on the
jiht-i;

partly

ba'ad-uh haik, ba'ad-uh haik.


mutgharrid.
a.

particular,
cular,
'al

muda""i";

n.

tafsil

p. tafsilat;

in parti-

al-khusus.

partner,

n.

sherik p. shureka.
n.

partnership,

shirki

sheraki.

partridge,

n.

hajel p. hijel.

party,
p.

n.

[association)
;

hizb

p.

ahzeb; [assemblage)
marrait,
or

fir"a

fura"

[entertainment) sahra.
v.

pass,

[through)

n.

bmurr,
(fi
;

murr
let

(fi);

[by)
v.
a.

bimru",

mara"t,

mru"

min);

pass,

bmarra", marra'"t, marri"

n.

[mountain) tari" aj-jebel.

2l8
p(7ssage,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
zarub
p.

zwerib;

{of a

house)

ma'addiyi;

[of troops) 'ubur.

passenger,
passion,
n.

n.

rekib p. rukkeb.
gliaiz;
{love)

{anger)

hawa; ruling passion,

meleki.
a. hadd {of love) 'ash"an. passport, n. bazaburt.

passionate,

past,

a.
^

madi.
nisha;

paste

n.

diamonds, ilmas kizzeb.

pastime, n. tesliyi.
pastry, n. m'ajjenet.
pasture, n. mer'a; {protected land) hi'mi.

patch,
p.p.

n.

ru"a'a p. ru"a';

v.

a.

bra""i', ra" "a't, ra"

"i'

mra""a'.
a.

paternal,

abewi.
;

path, n. tari" p. tiiru"


patience, n. sabr.

derb

p.

drub.

patient, a. sabur; ruh-uh tawili.

patriarch,
patriot, n.

n.

batrak
n.

p.

batarki.

patriarchate,

batrak-khani.
li

muhibb
dowra
hami.
n.
v.

watn-uh.

patriotic, a. watani.

patrol, n.

(dora)

v.

a.

and

n.

bdur, durt, dur.

patron,

n.

patronage,
patronise,

himeyi.
a.

bihmi, hamait, hmi.


mballat.

pattern, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir).

pave,

V.

a.

bballit,
n.

ballatt, ballit p.p.

pavement,

blat.
;

pavillion, n.

khaimi p. khiyem shedir p. shewedir. paw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar), pawn, V. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun.

VOCABULARY.
pawn-broker,
pay,
n.
n.

219

murtchin.

{salary)
dfa'at,

ma'ash

{u>ages)

ujra

(ijra);

v.

a.

{to)

bidf'a,
V.

dfa
p.

(li)

p.p. madfu'a; /<?/ the penalty

n.

bit"as.sas, ta"a.ssast.
n.

payment,

defa

defat.
{cliick)

pea, n. {green) bczella;


peace, n. sulh.
peacJi, n.

hummus.
{'dAxx^'')

dirra"ni (dirre"a) p. dirra"in

peacJi-tree,

dirra"ni (dirre"a).

peacock, n. taus p. tawawis; pea-lien, djejit taus.

peak {mountain),
pear,
n.

n.

ras jebel p. rus.


injasj pear-tree, injasa; prickly-pear,

injasa

p.

sabr (subber).
pearl, n. lulu
;

mother of pearl, 'ur"


p.

lulu.

peasant, n. fellah p. fellahin.


pebble, n.

bahsa
a.

bahs.
to,

peculiar,

gharib; peculiar
a.

khass bi; makhsus

fi.

pecuniary,

meli.
;

peddler, n. dawvvar
pedigree, n.
peel, n.
hir,
seleli.

sirrah.

"ishr; orange peel, "ishr al-burd"an; v.

a.

b"esh-

"eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"eshsher.


{tent)

peg, n.

wated

p.

owtad

{liat)

shenkel

p. shnekil.

pelican, n. baja'a p. baj'a.


pell-mell, a.

msha"lab.
p.

pen,

n.

"alam

"ilam

pen-knife, "alam trash

pen-case,

davveyi (dawaiyi).
penalty, n. "isas p. "isasat.
pencil, n.

"alam

resas.
jeziri.'

peninsula, n. shibi

penitence, n. tovvbi (tobi).


penniless, a. tafran
;

mi'flis.

220

ARABIC MANUAL.

pension, n. ma'ash ta"a'ud.


pensiotier, n. muta"a'id.

penury,
pepper,
fulfill

n.

fu"r.

people, n. nes; sh'ab.


n.
fulfill;
;

pepper-corn,

abyad
n.
a.

black

habb
aswid.

fiilful;

white

fulful

peppermint,
perceive, v.

"urs n'an'a.
bshuf, shuft, shuf.
;

per

cent,

fil-miyi

^'/o

khamsi
"at'i.

fil-miyi.

perception, n. shu'ur.

peremptory,
perfect,
a.

a.

mshedded

kemil.

perfidy, n. khiyeni.

perform,
n.

v.

a.

btemmim, temmemt, temmim;

[duty) v.

b"um,
n.

"unit,

"um

bi wejbet.
;

perfume,
'attir

riha 'utriyi p. rweyih


ila

p.p. m'attar; bhutt


;

v.

a.

b'attir,

'attert,

riha.

perhaps, ad. yumkin


peril, n. khatr; at

belki (berki); con.

rubbama.

yonr

peril, 'ala mes'uliyit-ak.

period, n. middi.
periodically, ad. kill middi u middi.

perish, v. n. bihlak, hlikt; biftus,

fatist.

permanent,
permissible,

a. a.

de'im.
jeyiz; [by religion^ halal.
izn;

permission,

n.

rukhsa;
v.

with yonr permission {said


;

on rising

to leave),

bi izn-ak

bistarkhis

smah-li.
(li).

permit,
perplex,

n.

rukhsa;
a.

bismah, semaht, smah


;

perpendicular,
v.
a.

"a'im

'amijdi.

blebbik,

lebbekt,

lebbik

p.p.

mlebbek;

bshowwish, showwesht, showwish afkar-uh.


perquisite, n. berrani.

persecute, v.

a.

bidtahid, idtahadt, idtahid p.p. mucltahad.

VOCABULARY.
persecution, n. idtihad.

22

perseverance,
persevere,
v.

n.

scbet;

mdcwami.
('ala);

bdcwim, dewamt, dcwim


('ala).

bwazib,

wazabt, wazib

persevering, ruh-uh tawili. Persia, beled al-ajem; Persian,


persist, v. bluhh, lahhait, lihh

a.

'ajemi.

(fi).

persistance, n. ilhah.

person, n. shakhs p. ashkhas; zalemi p. zihlm. personal, a. shakhsi; personally, bizet-uh {ivitli pro.
perspiration, n. 'ara"
;

stiff .).

in

a.

'ar"an.

perspire, v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t).

persuade,
pestle,

v.

a.

be"ann'u, "ann'at, "ann'a.

persuasion, n. i"n'a.
n.

mda" "a.
n.

petitioji,

'ardhal
n.

m'arud.

petitioner,

mustedd'i;

m"addim

al-'ard.

petrified

{to

become), v. n. [y^ per.) biyitahcjjar, tahajjar

p.p. mutahajjer.

petroleum,
petticoat,

n.

zcyt ghaz.
p.

n.

tannura
n.
felsefi.

tcncnir.

philosopher, n. felosuf.

philosophy,

phlegm,

n.

balgham.

pJiosphorns, n. fosfor.

photograph, n. sura p. suar; v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir, p.p. msowwer to have ones photograph taken,
;

bsowwir

hal-i.

photograpJier, n.

msowwir shems.
teswir shems.

photography,
pick,
V.
a.

n.

physician, n. tabib p. atibba.


[flowers),
bla"it, la'att,
la"'it

p.p.

mla"at;

222
pick Up,
V.
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.

blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum na" "ait, na" "i p.p. mna" "a. pick pickaxe, n. menkush p. menakish. pickle, n. [anything preserved in vinegar) mkhallel v. a.
out,

bna"

"i,

bikbus, kebest, kbis mkhallel

zve %v ill pickle onions,

pick-pocket, n.

mnikbis mkhallel basl. harami p. haramiyi.

picnic, n. seyran.

picture, n.
piece,
ta'a;

resm
;

p.

rusum

sura p.

suar.
piece, n.

n. sha"fi

"it'a;

[of works) by the

ma"ap.p.

[of cloth)

pierce, v. a.

towb (tob). {make a hole in) bit"ub,

te"ebt,

tu"ub

met"ub.
piety, n. ta"wa.

pig,

n.

khanzir

p.

khnezir;

sticking

khannus

p.

khnenis.
pigeon, n.

hamemi

p.

hamemet
biyut.
p.

c.

p.

hamem.

pigeon-hole, n. beyt p.
pile,
n.

kumi (komi)
n.

kuam.
zeyir
{to
{to

pilgrim,

{Christian)

p.

zuwar;
hajj hajj
;

[to

Jerusalem)
the pil-

mu"disi
pilgrimage,

p.

ma"adsij
n.

ziyara

Mecca) Mecca)
hijj.

p. hujjej.
to

make

grimage, bhijj, hajjait, pill, n. habbi p. hbub.


pillage,
p.p.
11.

nehib

selb

v. a.

binhab, nahabt, nhab (nhub)

pillar,

pillow,
pilot,

menhub. n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 11. mkhaddi.


"alauz; delil.
p.

n.

pimple, n. habbi
pin, n.

hbub.

debbus

p.

debebis; hair pin, debbus sh'ar.

pince-nez, n. 'awenat; kuzluk.

VOCABULARY.
pincers, n.

223

kammeshi.
v.
a.

pinch, n. "arsa;
pine, n.

bu"rus, "arast, "urus.


p.

snowbara (snobara)

snowbar; pine-tree, snow-

bara.

pink,
pious,
pipe,

n.
a.

and
ta"i

a.

"ariinfli

p.

"arunful.

(ti"i).

n.

"astal p. "asatil; anbiibi p. anabib; [mtisic) zep.

mer
sura
;

izmura;

mijwiz; {tobacco) shubu"; {long) ma;

{Jinbble-bubble) arkili

parts of the
"alb
("elb);

'arkili'

tcp,

"ub'a;

pan,
;

ras;

feeder,

tube,

narbish

(nabrish)

month-piece, biz.

pirate, n, "ursan bahr.


pistol,
n.

tabaiija p. tabanjet; ferd

p.

frudi.

pit, n.

hafra p. hafr; jura p. juar.


n.
zift;

pitch,
V.

v.

a.

bzeflit,

zeftett,

zefitit
;

p.p. mzeftet;
bzitt,

a.

zitt;

[throw)

bishlah,
v.
a.

shalaht,

shlah

zetteyt,

tent,

binsub, nasabt, nsub khaimi.

pitcher, n. jarra p. jrar.


pith, n. libb; {of
pitiless, a.

an argument) zebed.
v.
(lit
:

"asi

bila shefa"a.

pity,

n.

shefa"a;

bishfa", shfi"t, shfa"


ive

('ala)

it

is

pity,

dey'an-uh

have
p.
;

lost it)

ya khisara.
bhutt, hattait,

placard, n. e'alen
place, n.

(e'ilan)
p.

e'alenet.

matrah
the

matarih
v.

mahall

v. a.

hutt; to take place

n.

(3r'l

per.) bisir, sar; biyihdus,

hadas;
(saret)

affair
;

zvill

take place
of,
f1

[took place),

bitsir
('an);

al-hadisi
;

in

place

ad.

bedel

min

'awad 'an
plague,
plain,
n.
n.

out of place,

mush
a.

mahall-uh.
[ngly) bish'i

ta'un.
sehil
p.

suhul;

wadih

jelli;

f.

bish'a; plainly, ad. sarihan.


plaintiff, n.

mudde'i (mudda'i).

224
plait,
n. jdili

ARABIC MANUAL.
p.

jede'il;

dfiri

p.

dfaiyir;

v, a.

bijdul,

jedelt, jdul p.p. mejdul.


pla)i,
n.

tedbir p. tedebir; {drawing) resm.


[level)

plane, n.

sat-h

[tool)

minhat;

fara.

plane-tree, n. dilbi p. dilb.

planet, n. nejmi p. njum.

plank,
plant,
rast,

n. n.

defif p.

dfuf;
p.

lowh

(loh) p.
;

Iweh.
v.
a.

nebet
n.

nebetet; gharsi

bughrus, gha-

ghrus p.p. maghrus.


jefsin (jebsin); v. a. [with lime) bjeffsin,
jefif-

plaster,

sant, jeffsin p.p. mjefifsan; {xvith clay) btaiyin, taiyent,

mtaiyen. sahn p. suhun table-plate, aweni platform, n. mastabi p. masatib.


taiyin p.p.
plate, n.
;

fiddiyi.

play, n. I'eb (I'ub)

v.

n.

[at)

bil'ab, I'ibt,

[an instrument) v. a.
'ala)
;

bdu"

",

da"

"ait,

Tab (bi or fi) du" " [and with

[a

part)

v.

a.

bshakhkhis, shakhkhast, shakh-

khis.

playfelloiv, n. refi" p. rfe" (arfa").

plaything, n. I'ebi
pleasant,
taiyib

(I'ubi)

p.

lu'ab.

plea, n. hijji p. hujej.


a.
;

mlih

p.

mlah

latif p.

lutafa.
[at),

please, v. a. bibsut, basatt, bsut; to be pleased,


busit, inbasatt (min); it pleases, (pleased)
;;/^,

bin-

bi'ajib-ni,

'ajab-ni; if

yon

please, 'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak; do as

yon

please, stif il.


a.

pleased,

mesrur; mabsut.

pleasure, n. surur; farah.


pledge, n. rahn p. ruhuni (rhun).

plenipotentiary

n. sefir

p.

sufera.

plentiful, a. ktir p. ktar.

plenty, n. kitra; in plenty, bi kitra.

VOCABULARY.
plot,
n.

225
deft" arcl

rabita

(rabta);
'aniiil

[of ground)
rabita.
a.

p.

dfuf;

v.

b'amil, 'amilt,

plough,
rut;

n.

mihrat;
fclaht,
n.

v.

bihrut, haratt, brut p.p.


p.p.

mah-

biflah,

flah

mafluh.

ploughshare,

sikki.

J>luck, V. a. [feathers] bintuf,

nataft, ntuf p.p. mentuf.

J>lug,
iplui,

n.

sdedi
n.

v. a.

bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud.


(kliokha)
p.

kliowkha
rish.

khowkh

plum-tree,

khowkha.
jpluniage, n.

^plumb-line, n. fedin p.
Iplu7np, a.

fwedin.

smin

p.
;

itlunder, n. nehbi

sman. ghanimi

v.

a.

binhab, nahabt, nhub

(nhab) p.p. menhub.


ft>lural,

n.

jem'a.
[coat)
n.

'docket,

n.

seyli

p.

syel

[trousers) jeybi p.
n.

jyeb

pocket-book,

kitcb

\Q.yh'\;

pocket-money,

kharjiyi;

masruf jeybi.
"yod,

n.
n.

"ishri

p.

"ishr.

"^oem,

"asidi p. "asaiyid.
she'ir p. shii'ara.
she'ri
(shu'ri).

wet,

n.
a.

'oetic,

'oetry,
'oint,

n.
n.

sh'er (sh'ur);
p.

nazm.
[object)
v. a.

nu"ta
;

nu"at;

ma"sad

{iveapon) ras

[of

viezv) rai

to

point out,

bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin.

ointed, a.
oison,
n.

mrowwas.
;

p.p.

semm p. sumum v. a. bsimm, sammait, simm mesmum; bsemmim, semmemt, semmim.


msimm.
n.

oisonous, a.
''Poland,
^I'e,

Bolonia; Pole,

Boloni.
'arish;

n.

'amud

p.

'awemid; [of a carriage)

{geo-

graphical) "utb.
15

226
police,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bolis;

[policeman) zabtiyi.

policy, n. siyesi.

polish,
p.p.
polite,

n.

lima'an

sa"!; v. a.

blamm'i, limm'at, lamm'i

mlamm'a;
a.

bis"ul, sa"alt, s"ul p.p. mas"ul.

latif;

adib.
lutf.

politeness, n.

adab;

political, a. siyesiyi.
politics,
n.

siyesi

bolitikiya.

pollute, V. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis p.p. mnejjes.

pomegranate,

n.

rummeni
fakhfakha.

p.

rummen

tree,

rummeni

pomp, n. pompous,
fakha.

hafli;
a.

mfakhfakh; pompous language, kelem fakh

pond, pony,
poor,

n.

birki p. burak.
a.
ti"il

ponderous,
n.
a.

p.

ta"al.

hisan zghir.

meskin

fa''ir;

poorly,

a.

deblen.

Pope, Baba.
poplar, n. howra (hora) p. liowr. poppy, n. khishkhashi p. khishkhash

seed,

bezr khish

khash.

popular,
populous,

a.

mahbub.
;

population, n. p. sukken
a.

aheli.

'amer; ktir as-sukken.


sini.

porcelain, n.

porch

(portico), n.

rwe"

p.

r\ve"at.

porcupine, n. "unfudi p. "anafid.

pore {of the skin), n. mesam aj-jild pork, n. lahm al-khanzir. port, n. mina, p. mien; bunt.
portable, a. khafif p. khifaf.

p.

mesamat.

Porte (the Sublime), al-bab (beb)

al-'aali.

VOCABULARY.
porter, n. 'attel p.
'attcli
;

22/
p.

hammcl
;

hammeli.

porterage,

n.

'atcli.
jiz'

portion, n. "ism p. a".sam

p.

ajcza.

portmanteau,

n.

shanta.

portrait, n. sura p. suar.

Port Said, Bort


position, n.
positive, a.

Sa'id.
a.

Portugal, Bortughal; Portuguese,


;

bortughali.

mcrkez p. merakiz mahall p. mahallet. akid m'ekkcd; positively, ad. bi te'ckid.


;

possess, V. a. bimlik, mclakt.

possession,
ble)

n.

{immovable) milk (mulk)

p.

amlak; [mova-

n.

p.

mowJLidet.

possible, a.
possibility,

mumkin
n.

/V

/or

yumkin.

possibly, ad.
/t?^/,

imkcn (imkan). belki; mumkin.


bosta
;

n.

{letters)
p.

{situation) wazifi

merkez

[tiui-

ber)

'amud
n.
a.

'awemid.

posthumous, b'ad al-mowt.


post-office,

bostakhani; post master, mudir al-bosta.


b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher.
"idr;

postpone, V.

postscript (to a letter), n. sahh.


pot,
n.

"idri p.

hu"

p.

h"a"; dweyk

p.

dweykat;

(for preserving fruit

etc.)

martaban

coffee-pot, dolit

"ahwi.
potash, n.
"ili.

potato, n. batata.
potter, n. fakhuri.

pottery, n. fakhkhar.

pouch,

n. jrab.
n.

poultice,

labkha; lez"a.
[coin)
lira;

pound,

n.

[zueight)

libra

[i^o

drams),

v.

a.

bdu"", da"

"ait,

du"

"

p.p. med"Lr'.

228

ARABIC MANUAL.
[out), v.

pour

V.
a.

a.

bsubb,

sabbait,

subb

p.p.

masbub;

{away)
poverty,

n.

bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. fu"r; sha"ewi.


;

powder, n. budra power, n. "udra

(anything pulverised) mezhun. ("idra) "uwi; (power of attorney) we;

keli; to do all in one's

power,

v. b'amil, 'amilt

jehd-i;

burkud mejhud-i.
powerfid,
powerless,
a.
a.

"owi.
da'if p. da'af.

Powers
practise,

(the Great), ad-diiwel al-'azimi.

practice, n.
v.

mumaresi
bmeris,

tamrin
merest,

pratika.

meris

(f i)

b'amil,

'amilt

pratika
praise, n.

(fi).

medh
v.
a.

v. a.

bimdah, madaht, mdah

p.p.

memduh.

prank,

n.

sheytani.
arid n. bsalli, sallait, salli
p.
(ila).

pray

{to),

prayer,
preach,

n. sala
v. n.

salawat

prayer-book, kiteb as-sala.

bu'iz,

vva'azt, wa'az.

preacher,

n.

wa'iz

keriz.

precaution, n. ihtiyat p, ihtiyatat. precedent, n. seb"a p. sewebi".


precious,
a.

temin; precious stone, hajr kerim.

precipice, n. warta.

preface, n.

ma"addemi.
a.

prefer,

v.

bfaddil, faddalt, faddil.


na"il; hibli
;

pregnant,

a.

{of animals) ma'asheri.

premature, "abl \va"t-uh. premitim, n. baj.


preparation,
'ededet.
n.

istihdar

p.

istihdarat;

ist'eded

p.

ist-

prepare,

v.

a.

bhaddir,

haddert, haddir
p.p.

p.p.

mhaddar;

bwaddib, waddabt, waddib

mwaddab.

, ;

VOCABULARY.
prescription, n. rcshcta p. rcshctet; wasfi.

229

presence,

n.

hadra; hatlur; in the presejice

of,

fi

hiulur;

presence of mind, n. ta'a""ul; Jiaving presence of mind, a. muta'a""il; wa'i.


present, n. hediyi p. hedaiya; ikramiyi; {tense) al-hal
;

a.

b"addim, "addamt, "addim (ila) bihdi, hedeyt, hdi (ila) / presented it to him, "addamt-ill-uh yeh; hedeyt-ill-uh yeh; to present arms, V. bekhud, akhadt, khud salam (salem) the soldiers presented arins, al-'asker akhad salam; at present, ad.
hadir;
v.
a.
{to)
;
;

halla";
sently,

fil-hal;

for the present, lil-wa"t al-hadir; prev.


a.

ad; b'ad shwayi.


n.

preserve,

(jam) murabba;

behfaz, hafazt, hfaz

p.p. mahfuz.

president, n. raiyis p. ruasa.


press,
V.
a.

be'usur, 'asert, 'asur p.p. m'asur; {on) v. a.

bikbus, kebest, kbis p.p. makbus. presume (imagine), v. n. bzunn, zannait; tsowwert (fi); (be presumptuous) (3rd per.)

bitsowwir,
biyidde'i.

presumption,
presu)nptuous,

n.
a.

zunn; takhmiii; (boldness) idde'a. muddc'i (mudda'i).

pretence, n. tazahur.

pretend, v. n. bitzahir, tzahert, tzahir.

pretender, n. mudde'i.
pretension, n. idde'a.
pretext, n.
hijji

p.

hiijej

hili

p.

hiel.
c.

pretty, a. kwaiyis; zarif p. zurafj jemil

ejmel.

prevent, v.

bimn'a, men'at^ mn'a p.p. memnu'a; //re'vented him from going, men'at-uh yaruh.
a. a.

previous,

sebi"; previously, sebi"an; "ablan.

prey, n.

ferisi;
cliiri

bird of
p.

kesir p. kawesir; beast

of

wahsh

wuhush

clawari.

230
price, n.
priceless,

ARABIC MANUAL.

temen
[it

p.

atmen

s'er p. as'ar.

is)

ma

biyi"a 'aleyh temen.

prick,

y.

a.

binkez, nakezt, nkuz p.p.

mankuz

(binghaz,

naghazt, nghuz).
pride, n. kibriya.
priest, n. khuri p.

khawarni.
(chief) raiyis;

prince, n. emir; princess, emira.


principal,
asl
;

n.

(money) rismel (rismal)


n.

a.

the principal thing, as-shey ar-raiyisi.


,

principality

imara.
p.

principle, n.
priiit,
V.
a.

(maxim) "anon

"awanin.
matbu'a:

bitb'a, tab'at, tb'a p.p.

printer, n. tabb'a.

printing-press, n. matb'a p. matab'i.

prison, n. habs

sijn.

prisoner, n.

mahbus
wehdi.
khususi.
;

p.

mahbusin.

privacy,
private,

n.
a.

privately, ad. sirran

'al

inferad.

privilege, n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet.

prize, n. jeyizi p. jewe'iz.

probable,

a.

arjah; probably, al-arjah.


n.

procession,

mowkib;

(bridal) jelwi; (religious) ziyeh.


;

proc2ire, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil

v. bihsul,

hasalt
;

('ala).

produce,

n.

(of the earth) hasil; mahsulat; ghalli


sebbebt, sebbib;
;

v.

a.

(cause) bsebbib,

bintij,

natajt, intij
(3rd per.)

(show) bikhruj, kharajt, khruj


f.

(of the earth)

bitghill, ghallet.

professio7i, n. [occupation) san'a p. sanaiy'a; shighl (shughl).

professor, n. ma'allim
profit,
n.

mederris; isted.
'i
;

menf 'a
V.

p.

menaf

fe'idi

p. fwe'id, to sell at

a profit,

bbi'a,

be'ut bi ribh.

VOCABULARY.
profitable,
a.

23

nef'i

mufid.

profound,
progress,

a.

ghami".
nejch (nejah); ta"addun?.
a.

n.

prohibit, v.

bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a.


a.

prohibited (by religion),


prohibition, n. mcn'a.
project, n.

haram

{by laiv)

memnu'a.

murad
a.

ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"a.sid.

prolong,

V. n.

btowwil, towvvalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal.


v. a. bu'id, wa'adt, ww'id p. mawa'id mow'ud; zve promised to do it, wa'ad-na
;

promise,
(wu'ud)

w'ad
p.p.

n'amil-uh.

promote,

v.

a.

bra"

"i,

ra" "ait

(ra" "cyt),

ra"

"i

p.p.

mra""a;
pronounce,

to be

promoted, bitra"
;

"a, tra" "ait, (tra" "eyt)

proDiotion, n. tera" "i


v. a.
n.

ter"iyi.
lafazt,

bilfuz,
lafz.

Ifuz p.p.

melfuz.

pronunciation,

proof,

burhan p. berahin. f roper, a. mwcfi"; mncsib.


n. n.

property,

(landed) milk (mulk)

p.

amlak;

riz" p. arza";

(money) mal p. amwal. prophecy, n. nebuwi.


prophet,
proposal,
n. n.

nebi p. enbiya.
talab p. matalib.
v.

propose
(rai)
;

(suggest),

b"addim, "addamt, "addim

fikr

(intend) v. n. bu"sud, "asadt.


n.

proprietor,

mcllek; sahib mulk.


bishtiki,

prose, n. nesr.
prosecute,
v.

shtakait (shtekeyt),

shtiki

('ala);

bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i ('ala).

prosecutor, n. mushtiki.
prospect, n. amel p. amel; (viezv)
prostitute,
11.

manzar; nazara.

zaniyi.

232
prostitution^ n. zina.

ARABIC MANUAL.

protect, V. a. bihmi, hamait,

hmi

p.p.

mehmi.

protection, n. himeyi.

protector, n.

mhami.
bsebbit, sebbett,

proud,
prove,

a.

mutkebbir.
sebbit p.p.
p.p.

V. a.

bberhin, berhent, berhin

('ala)

msebbet; mberhan.

v.

proverb,
provide,

n.
v.

mesel (metel)
a.

p. emsel (emtel). b"addim, "addamt, "addim

/ provided
lawezim-

him
uh;

luith all
V.
a.

he required, "addamt-ill-uh
(ivith

kill

provisions)

bmowvvin,

mowwent,

mowwin.
provided
that, con.
'ala shart

ami.

providence, n. 'aneyi.
province, n. wilaiyi p. wilaiyet.
provisions, n.

muni
v.

zakhra

(zkhiri).

provoke,
rik,

V.

a.

{vex)

bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt); (excite) bhar-

harrakt;

bfowwir, fowwert damm-uh; bitahar(fi).

rash, taharrasht

prudence,

n.
a.

fi'itni.

prudent,

fiitin.

prune,

v.

a.

bsheffi, sheffeyt, sheffi p.p.


;

msheffa

(of the

vine only) bshahhil, shahhalt, shahhil

bizbur, zabert,

zbur p.p. mezbur

pruning,

n.

tesh-hil.

psalm,
public,

n.
n.

mezmur
[tJie')

p.

mezemir.
a.

an-nes; aj-jemhur;

'umumi;

in public,

bil-maftuh; jiharan (jehran).


publisJi, V. a. binshur,

neshert, nshur p.p. menshur.

pudding,

n. V.
a.

hulu
a.

hilwiyet (halawiyet).

pujf
pull,

out,
V.

binfukh, nefakht, nfukh p.p. menfukh.


sahabt,
is-hab;
bjurr,
jarrait, jurr;

bis-hab,

[down] bihdum, hadamt, hdum; bhabbit, habbatt, habbit.

VOCABULARV.
pulley, n. bakera.
pulpit, n.

233

menber
nabd

p.

mencbir.
;

pulse, n.

(nabt)

to

feel the

bdiss, dassait, diss

an-nabt.
pumice-stone, n. khaffen.

pump,

n.

tlumba (trumbi)
n.

v.

a.

bshaghghil, shaghghalt,

shaghghil at-trumbi.

pumpkin,
punctual,

"ar'aa p. "ar'aat.

pwi, n. towriya.
a.
,

mazbut
n.

fil-\va"t (fiz-zcman).

punctuality
pu7ictually
,

zabt (dabt) fiz-zeman.


fi

ad.
a.

wa"t-uh.
"asast, "asis p.p.

punish,

V.

b"asis,

m"asas; (of

chil-

dren) brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba. punishment, n. "isas; (children) terbiyi.
pv.pil,
n. n.

telmiz p. telemiz.
jeru p. ijriyit al-kelb.
n.

puppy,

purchase,

mushtera;
mushteri
mat-har.

v.

a.

bishtri,

shtrait,

shtri p.p.

mushtera.
purchaser,
pure,
a.

n.

p.

mushteriyi; sheri.

khalis.
n.

purgatory,
purge,
purify,
purple,
n.

mus-hil

(mis-hil)

sherbi

v.

to

take

bekhud, akhadt, khud mis-hil


V.
a.

(sherbi).

a.

btahhir, tahhcrt, tahhir p.p. mtahhar.

urjuwen.

purport,
purpose,

n.
n.

madmun
"asd
;

fahwa.
;

ghaiyi

on purpose, ad. "asdan.


bilha", lahi"t, ilha".

purse, n. jizden p. jizdenet; msarr p. msarrat.

pursue,

V. a.
n.

btarid, taradt, tarid

pursuer,

mutarid.

pursuit, n. mtaradi.

234
push,
put,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
defshi; v.
a.

bidfush, defesht, dfush p.p.

med-

fush.
V.
a.

bhutt,

hattait,

hutt

shilt,

sliil;

sammid;
V. a.
bitfi,

by
in

{ money},

v. a.
a.

away, v. a. bshil, bsammid, sammadt,


rettebt,

order,

v.

brettib,

p.p. mretteb; bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa;


b'ejjil,

ejjelt,

ejjil

p.p. m'ejjel;

tafait

(tafeyt),

tf i

p.p. mutfi

V. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel ('ind

or

fi)

up {at an any one

rettib
off,

out, {fire) v. a.

hotel)

up, v. a.

bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil.

putrefy,
pntrid,
puzzle,

v.
a.

n.

(31^ per.)

biyirwih, arwah.

mirwih.
irtebek; (game) hazzura (hizzera); v.
'arbis.
a.

n.

b'ar-

bis, 'arbest,

pyra^nid, n. haram p. ahram.

Qquack (doctor),
quackery,
n.

n.

dejjel.

dejl; tidjil.
n. n.

quadrangle,

quadruped,
quadruple,

mrabb'a. zawet al-arb'a; dabbi


arb'at ad'af.
firri.
;

p.

dawab (daweb).

n.

quail, n. firreyi p.
qualification,
qualified, a.
n.

ehliyi

sifa

p.

silat.

musta'id. (persons)
sifa

quality,

n.

p.

sifat;

(things),

jins

p.

ajnes.

quantity, n.

kemmiyi.
n.

quarantine,

karantina.

VOCABULARY.
quarrel,
n.

235
'ilcji;

khna"a;
'alij.

toslii

(towshi);
;

v.

a.

[with]

bkhani", khana"t, khani"


b'alij,

bkhasim, khasamt, khasini;


ma"ari.
;

'alajt,

quarry
quarter,

(stone), n.
n.

ma'Ta

p.

rub'a; (of a tozvn) hai

hara;

tJie

Christian

(Moslem) quarter, hai an-nasara (al-musulmin).


quatrain,
n.

rubai'ya p. rubai'yat.

quay, n. bunt.
queen, n. meleki p. meleket; [cards) bint.

queer,

a.

gharib

{in

the head) m'atuh.


;

quell, V. a.

bsckkin, sckkent, sekkin

to

be quelled, v. n.

behda,
quench,
to be
v.

hidit, hida.
a.

(fire)
(3"^1

bitfi,

tafait

(tafeyt),

tfi

p.p. mutfi;

quenched,

per.) biyintifi, intafa; {thirst) birwi,

rawait, rwi 'atash.


question,
n.

mes'eli

p.

mese'il; su'el p. su'elet; {affair)

"adiyi p. "adaiya.
quibble, n.

rewaghan;

v.

n.

brugh, rught.

quick,

a.

'ajul;

seri'a c. asr'a.

quickly, ad. bil-'ajeli;

"awcm.

quicksand,

n.

rami rakhu.
be quiet, v. (2nd per. imper.) hida.

quicksilver, n. zaiba".
quiet, a.

hedi

quietly, ad. 'ala

mahl-uh
lihf.

{zvith

pro.

suff.).

quill-pen,
quilt,
n.

n.

rishi

p. ricsh.

lahaf p.

quince, n. sferjcH p. sferjclct c.p. sferjil.

quinine, n. kina.
quit,
V.
a.

bitruk, tarakt, truk.

quite, ad. quits,


a.

bit-temem bil-kilHyi. mutsewin; khalisin; p.


;

zoe

are

quits,

iiahn

mutsewin.

236
quiz,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
maskhara;
v.

bitmaskhar,

tmaskhart,

tnias-

khar

('ala).

quotation, n. i"tibes p. i"tibeset.


quote, V. a. bi"tibis, i"tabast, i"tibis p.p.

mu"tebes.

R.
rabbi, n.
rabbit, n.

khakham;
arnab
p.

chief

khakham

bashi.

aranib.
ovvlad (uled)

rabble, n.

owbash (obash)

Baba Hasan.

rabies, n. keleb.

race,

race horse, hisan n. sbe" (seba") [lineage) seleli seba" (sbe"); race course, mermah; miden.
; ;

racing, n. as-sbe" (as-seba").


radical,
a.

asli.
fijli

radish, n.
raft,
n.

p.

fijil.

towf

p.

atwaf; [of inflated skins) kelek.


khira".
retit;
lie

rafter, n. rumiyi p. rwemi.

rag,

n.

khir"a
a.

p.

ragged,

muri'tt;

is

ragged, tyeb-uh muritti

(retiti).

rail [of raikvay), n. khatt.


railing, n. drabzin (drabzun) p. drabzunat.

railway [railroad),
rain, n. shiti;

n.
;

sikkit al-hadid.
v. n. (31'^ per.
f.)

matar

bitshetti, shettit;

bitmattir, mattarit.
rainboiu, n.

"ows "adah.
irf'a

raise, v. a. birf'a, ref'at,

p.p. marfu'a.

raisin, n. zbibi

p.

zbib.

rake, n. musht; mejrafi.

ram,

n.

kebsh

p.

akbesh (kebush).

VOCABULARY.
ramble,
v.

237

n.

bdur, durt, dur.


al-barudi.

ramrod,
rancid,

n.
a.

mdekk
miznikh.
hi"d.

rancour,

n.
{at),

random

ad. bila "asd


;

bila

fikr.

range, n.

mada

mesefi

at long (short) range, 'ala

mada

be'id ("arib).

rank (degree),
ransack,
v.
a.

n.

rutbi; dcreji; {milit.) saff p. sfuf.


fettish ktir;
{jnilit.)

bfcttish, fettesht,

bin-

hab, nahabt, nhab

p.p.
a.

menhub.
bifdi,

ransom,
mifdi.

n.

fidiyi;

v.

fcdait

(fedeyt),

fdi

p.p.

rape, n. fadah (fatah).

rapid,

a.

seri'a.

rare, a. ncdir; rarely, ad. ncdiren.


rascal, a. muhtel; khabis; n. ibn

haram.

rash, n. [eruption) tafra;


rat, n.

a.

'ajul.

jirdown
n.

p. jeradin.

rate, n. (speed) sur'a;


ratification,

(exchange)
sada"t,

s'er.

musada"a.
bsadi",

ratify,

v.

a.

sadi"

('ala)

p.p.

musada"

'aleyh.
rattle,
n.

tantani
toy)
n.

v.

a.

and

n.
;

btantin, tantant, tantin

{childs'

khashkhashi

death rattle, kharrara.

raven, n. ghrab p. ghurben.


ravine, n. wedi p. widian.
raiv, a. (uncooked) ney;

(unprepared) khami.

ray, n. sha'a.
raze, v. a. bihlu", hala"t, hlu".

razor, n.
reacJi,
v.

mus
a.

(hala"a) p.

mwes.
tult, tul
;

(grasp) btul,
wusil;

[arrive) v. n. (3i-dper.)
(///.-

biyusal,

zvithin reach, bi"dir tal-uh

/ can

238
reach
it);

ARABIC MANUAL.
out of reach,
not

ma
it)

bitusal id-i ill-ha


;

(///;

my

Jiand does
ar-rizmi
biyintal,
tal

arrive at
;

the parcel reached vie,

wuslit-ni
intal

to
it

be within reach, v. n. (31^ per.)


is

m'a;

out of

my

reacJi,

ma

biyin-

m'a-i.
a.

read, v.

bu"ra, "arait ("areyt), "ra.


'al

readily, ad.

ar-ras wal-'ain.
;

reading,
jurnel.

n.

"araiyi

reading the papers,

"araiyit

aj-

ready,

a.

hadir;
p.p.

waddib
money,
real,
a.

make ready, v. a. bwaddib, waddabt, mwaddab; get ready, v. n. bhaddir, hada.

dert hal-i, haddir hal-ak; ready made,


n.

hadir

ready

na"diyi.

ha"i"i; real property, n.

mulk

(milk) p. amlak;

really, ad. fe'elen.

reap, v.

a.

buhsud, hasadt, hsud p.p. mahsud.


v.

reaper, n. hassad.
rear, n. mukhir; {bring up) [of a horse)
'ala rijleyh.
v.
a.

brabbi, rabbait, rabbi;


"if),

n.

{y^ per.) biyij"af (biwa"

wa" "af

reason, n. [sense) 'a"l; [cause) sebeb p. asbeb; by reason


of,

bi

sebeb.

reasonable, a.
rebel,
n.
'asi

ma"ul
p.

[moderate) mu'tidik

'usat.

rebellion, n.

'isiyan.
n.

rebound,

v.

[y^^ per.) bituj,


'al

taj

the ball rebounds on

the ground, at-tabi bittuj

al-ard.

rebuild, v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid al-bina.

rebuke,
recall,

v.

a.

bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh;


brejj'i, rajj'at,
rejj'i;

n.

towbikh.
bitzekkir,

v.

a.

[remejiiber)

tezekkert, tezekkir.
recede, v. n. birj'a,
rj'at
(rj'et),

rj'a (rje'a).

VOCABULARY.
receipt,
receive,
n.
v.
;

239

wasl p. vvusulet.
n.
(3"(1

per.)

{lit:

it
;

readies
v.
a.

uie)

biyusal-ni,

wusil-ni

biyurid-li,
;

warad-li

[uioney)

bi"bad,

"abadt, i"bad
recent, a. jdid;

{visits)

bista"bil, sta"belt, sta"bil.

hadis.
"a.siri
;

recently, ad.

min middi

mu'akhiren.

reception, n.

isti"bcl; reception day,

yowm

isti"bel.

recess, n. ta"a.
recite,
v.
a.

bu"ra,

"arait,

"ra;

zvill recite

it

to

you,

bu"rri lak yeh.


reckless, a. taiyish;
'ajul.

reckon, v.

a.

bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub.


'arift, 'arif j

recognise, v. a. b'arif,

{admit), bsellim, sellemt,

sellim
recollect,

(fi).

v.

biftan, ftunt,
v.

ftan

(fi).

recommend,
Jiini

bwassi, wassait, wassi


fih.

(f i)

/ reconimended

to

you, wa.ssait-ak
n.

reconnnendation,

towsiyi; letter of

mektub

towsiyi.

recompense,

n.

jeza; mkefa.
salaht, salih
,

reconcile, {to) v. a. bsalih,

m'a;

to be recon-

ciled

to,

V,

n.

bitsalah, tsalaht

tsalah m'a;

recon-

ciled thejn to one another,


reconciliation, n. msalaha.

salaht-hum m'a ba'ad-hum.

record, v.
recover, v.
hassalt,

a.
a.

b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m"eyyed.


{get back) bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bhassil,
;

hassil

{health)

v.

n.

bsuhh, sahhait,

suhh;

bishfa, shefit.

recovery, n.
recruit, n.

shi'fa.

'asker "ur'a.
f.

red, a.

ahmar

hamra

p.

hunir.

redress, n. tardiyi.

Red

Sea, al-bahr al-ahmar.

240

ARABIC MANUAL.
bna"
"is,

reduce, v. a. bkhafifid, khaft'adt, khaffid;

na"

"ast,

na""is;
reductioji,
7-eed,

b"ellil,
n.

"allelt,

"ellil.

takhfif.

n.

"asabi p. "asabat.

reef, n.
reel,

sakhra
kerker

p.
p.

skhur

{of a sail) taiyi.


;

n.

kerakir

refer,

[to)

v.

a.

bhowwil,

reel of cotton, bekeret khitan. howwelt, howwil (ila); braj'i,


Jihn to you, ba'att ill-ak

raj'at,

raj'i;

/ referred
to
v.

yeh;

/ will refer
reflect [think),

you, braj'ak.
biftikir,

iftakert, iftikir (f i)

[light) v. n.

[y^
light,

per.),

biy'ekus,

'akas;

the

mirror

reflected the

al-mereyi 'akaset ad-dow.


n.

reflection,

fikr;

[light]

'aks.

reform,
refresh

n.

islah p. islahat.
v.
a.

[revive),

bin'ish,

na'asht,

ne'ish;

brattib,

rattabt, rattib; to be refreshed, bint'ish, inta'asht.

refreshing,
refuge,
tiji

a.

mun'ish.
to

n.

melja;

take

v.

n.

biltiji,

iltajeyt,

il-

(ila).

refugee, n. multiji.

refund,
(ridd).

v.

a.

brudd

(bridd),

raddait

(reddeyt),

rudd

refusal, n. rafad.
refuse,
v. a.

burfud,

rafadt,
('ala).

urfud;

refuse

to

answer,

bridd, reddeyt, ridd

regard,
bir;
shuf.

n.

'itibar;
at)

v.

a.

[esteem) be'itibir, 'etebert,

e'iti-

[look

bunzur,

nazert,

nzur;

bshuf,

shuft,

regent, n. ne'ib (na'ib) melek.


regirnent, n. alay p. alaiyat.

region, n. jeha p. jihet.


register, n.
sijill

p.

sijillet;

defter p. defetir;

v.

a.

b"ey-

VOCABULARY.
yid,
sejjil;

24
;

"eyyedt,
{letters)
n.

"eyyid

p.p.

m"eyyed
;

bscjjil,

sejjelt,

bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker.


(penitence)
'ala.

regret,

asaf

nedcmi

v.

bit'assaf, t'assaft

(bit'essaf,

t'esseft)
a.

mukeddir. regular, a. muntazini; "anuni. regularly, ad. haseb al-"an6n. regulation, n. "anon p. "awanin.
regrettable,

reign,
V.
a.

n.

(government) mulk (period) 'ahd reign over, bihkum, hakamt, hkum v. bimluk, melekt,
; ;

mluk
istowla

('ala);

[inflnence)

v.

n.

(3rd

per.)

biyistowli,

'ala;
'al

terror reigned over the people,


an-nes.
sru'a.

istowla

al-khowf
rein,
n.

sir'a

p.

reinforce, v. a. binjud, nejedt, njud.

reinforcement,
relate,
{to)

n.
a.

nejdi p. nejdet.

v.

behki, hakait (hakeyt) hki

ila;

/ related
{on

hitn a story,

hakeyt
n.

ill-uh

hikcyi.
p.

relation

{relative),

"arabi
p.
a.

"araiyib

(ahl);

the

mother's side) nesib


release,
n.

ansiba.
bitlu",
tala"'t,

khalas;

v.

tin"; bdeshshir,

deshshert, deshshir.
reliance, n.
relic,

ittikal;

istinad.

n. zkhiri

(dkhiri) p. zakhai}'ir.
is'af;

relief, n.

mse'adi;
bis'ef,

bas-relief,
se'if.

na"sh

beriz.

relieve, v. a.

sa'aft,

religion,

n.

din (diyeni) p. adicn.

religious, a. dini.
relish,
n.

t'ami;

lizzi,

reluctance, n. nufur.

rely

{on),

v.

n.

bistinid,
('ala).

stenedt,

stinid

('ala);

bittikil,

ittakelt,

ittikil

16

242
remain,
v.

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

bib"a,
n.

bi"it,

ib"a;
dull.

bwa"

"if,

wa"

"aft,

wa""if;
remainder,

V.

bdull, dalleyt,

n.

be"i (ba"iyi).

remark,
remedy,

n.

remarkable,
n.

mulahaza. a. mustahi" " az-zikr.


'ilaj

('ilej)

p.

'ilajet;

v. a.

b'alij,

'alajt,

'alij.

remember, v. a. bitzekkir, tezekkert, tezekkir. remembrance, n. tezekkur. remind, (any one of), v. a. bzekkir, zekkert, zekkir
fi;

bfattin, fattant, fattin


'itirad

ff.

remonstrance, n.
remote,

p. 'itiradat.

remorse, n. towbikh ad-damir; nedemi.


a.

be'id p. ba'ad.
na"li;
a.

removal,

n. v.

(from
[to

office)
;

'azl.

remove,

bshil, shilt, shil

(put or take out) bdahhir,

dahhart,
V. V.
a. a.

dahhir;
n.

displace
na"alt,
'uzul
;

and
to

to

change houses)
;

and

bin"ul,
'azalt,

n'ul (n"il)

[from

office)

be'azil,

be

removed,

bin'izil,

in'azalt.

render,

[cause

to

be)

v.

a.

bsaiyir, saiyert, saiyir; bij'al,

ja'alt, ja'al.

rendezvous,

n.

multa"a.
bitruk, tarakt, truk.

renew,

v.

a.

bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid, p.p. mjedded.


a.

renounce, v.

renown,
rent,
n.

n.

shuhra.
ujra (ijra);
[tear) shi"".
a.

kiri;

repair, [repairs) n. taslih p. taslihat; v.


sallih
it

bsallih, sallaht,

p.p.

msallah;
be'ufi,

bsewi,

saweyt, sewi p.p.

msewa

must
v.

be repaired, lezim taslih-uh.


a.

repay,

wafeyt,

ufi.

repeat, v. a. bkerrir, kerrert, kerrir p.p. mkerrer.

repeatedly, ad. tekraran.

VOCABULARY.
repent, v. n. btub, tibt, tub.

243

repentance, n. tovvbi (tobi).

repentant,
repetition,

a.

teyib.

n.

muraj'a; tckrar.

replace, v. a. bridd, reddeyt, ridd ila matrah-uh.

reply, n. jevveb p.

jewebet
'amilt,
;

v. a. [to]

bjewib, jewabt, jcwib.

report,
tala";

n. V.

ta"rir p. ta"rirat; {rumour) ishe'a; {Jireanns)

b'amil,

'amul ta"rir;

v. to

a.

bkhabbir,
it,

khabbert, khabbir ('an)

zvill

report

you about
irteh.
;

bkhabbir-ak 'ann-uh.
repose, n. raha; v. n. birteh (birtah),
irtaht,

represent {explain),

v.

a.

bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin


('an).

{as

an agent)

v.

bitwekkel, twakkelt, twakkel


n.

representations,

p.

beyyenet; m'arudat.
('ala).

representative, n. mutawekkil.
repress, v. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub

reprieve, n. mihli.

reprimand,
reprisals, n.

n.

towbikh v. akhd at-tar.


;

a.

bkeddir, keddert, keddir.

reproach,

n.

lovv^m.
a.

reprove, v.
reptile,
n.

bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh.


p.

hashra

hashrat.
republican,
a.

republic, n. jumhuriyi;

jumhuriyi.

repudiate, v.

a.

binkur, nakert, nkur.


nufur; kcraha.

repugnance,

n.

reputation, n.

sit.

request, n. iltimes; v. biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min).

require, v.

a.

b"uz, 'izt; bihtcj,

ihtajt.

rescue, n. khalas; v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; to the

rescue! 'ala mse'adi.


research, n. tcftish
;

fahs.

resemblance, n. nishebeha.

244
rse))ible,

ARABIC MANUAL.
v.
a.

bishbih, shebeht.
;

reserve,

n.

ihtiyat
;

{discretion) ihtiraz

{milit.)

redif

tJi

reserve, a. ze'id

v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz p.p.


;

mahfuz.

reserved,

a.

muhtiriz

ras-uh

ti"il.

reservoir, n.
reside
[in),

howz (howd).
v.
n.

biskun,

sekent,

skun

(fi)

bisti"im,

sta"amt
resideyit, n.

(fi).

residence, n.

mesken

p.

msekin.

sekin p. sukken.

resign, v. bista'fi, sta'fait, sta'fi (min).

resignation, n. iste'fa; (patience) sabr.

resigned, a. sabur.

simgh (samgh). a. b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim. resistance, n. m"a\vemi. sahib 'azm. resolute, a. 'azum
resin, n.
resist, v.
;

resolution,

n.

'azm.

resolve [on), v. be'izum, 'azamt,


resources, n. wesili p. wese'il.

'uzum

('ala).

respect, n. ihtiram v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim.

respectable, a.
respectful, a.

muhterem mu'eteber. mahshum; muhtishim.


;

responsible, a.
responsibility,
rest,
V.

mes'ul.
n.

mes'uliyi.

n. n.

raha; [remainder) kemeli; be"i (ba"iyi).

nud,

Tanem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam(; [on) bistinid, v. n. senedt, snud ('ala)
;

v.

a.

bis-

stenedt,

stinid ('ala).
restless, a.

'adim ar-raha.

result, n. netiji p. nete'ij.

resurrection, n. "iyemi
retail,
n.

day of
;

bey'a bil-muferra"

to sell

yowm
,

al-"iyemi.

bbi'a bil-muferra".

VOCABULARY.
retain, v. a. bib"i, ba"cyt, ba"i
;

245
"i,

bba"

ba" "eyt, ba"


rj'a.

"i.

retreat, n. ruj'u

(rej'it);

v.

n.

birj'a,

rj'at,

retribution, n. mjeza.

return,
V.
a.

n.

ruj'u;

v.

n.

birj'a,

rj'at

(rj'cyt),

rj'a

(rje'a);

brajj'i,

rajj'at,

rajj'a;

bridd, reddeyt,

ridd.

reveal, v. a. bikshuf,

kesheft, kshuf.

revenge, n. inti"am.
revenue, n.
reviezv

madkhul; dukhl,
n. t'alini
;

(dakhl).

{milit:),

'ard al-'asker;

yu"lama;

v.

a.

b'urud, 'aradt, 'urud; b'amil yu"lama.


revolt, V.
n.

bc'asa, 'asait

('asit),

'asa.

revolution, n. {turn)

dowra;

[rising)

towra

(tora); harcki.

revolve, v. n. {y^^ per.) bidur, dar.

revolver, n. rivolver.

reward,

n.

mkcfa

{tip)

hihven

v.

a.

bkefi, kefait,

kefi.

rhemnatisjn, n. waj'a al-mafasil.


rJiuharh, n.
rJiyuie,
rib,

rawend.
p.

n.

"afiyi.

n.

cjil'a

adl'a.

ribbon, n. shrita p. shraiyit.


rice,
riclif

n.
a.

riz.

ghani
n.
11.

p.
;

aghniya; zenghin.
serur.

riches,

ghina

riddle,
ride,
v.

hazzura (hizzera).
birkeb, rkibt, irkeb [and ivith
;

a.

'ala).

rider, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli

rekib.

ridge,

n.

dahr
n.

aj-jebel.
;

ridicule,

maskhara
'ala
;

hazu

v.

{laugh at) bitmaskhar,


(f 1).

tmaskhart
ridiculous, a.

[despise)

bistehzi, stehzeyt

mudhik;

ad. bila m'ana.

riding, n. rukub.
rifle,

n.

barudi msheshkhani p. bavvarid.

246
7-iglit,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.
;

sawab
rigid, a.

yemin to musib a.
;

the right,
[in

'al

yemin;
;

[truth)

ha"";
right,

order)

mazbut

you are

al-ha" "

m'a-ak

(inti

musib).

mtwattir (mwettir).
haF'a
haK'at c.p. hala"; [of a chain) zaradi zarad;
[signet)

rind, n. "ishri p. "ishr.

ring,
p.

n.

p.

zaradet;
;

c.p.

khatim

p.
;

khawatim

(khawetim) [engagement) khatim al-khitbi bdu"", da" "ait, du" " aj-jaras.
ringlet, n.
riot,
n.

v. a. [a bell)

khusli p. khusl.

fitni.

ripe, a.
rise,
V.

nadij
n.

mistwi.

b"um, "umt, "um; bitl'a, tl'at; tl'a. risk, n. khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir mnazir. rival, n. khusm p. akhsam rivalry, n. mseba"a; mnazera. river, n. nahr p. nhura (unhur).
;

(fi).

rivet, n. kharzi p. kharzet; rabta p. rabtat; v. a. bikhruz,

kharazt, khruz p.p. makhruz.


riveting, n. tekhriz.
rivulet, n. se"i p. sawe"i.

road,

n.

derb

p.
a.

drub; tari"

p. turu";

sikki p. sikek.

roan

[horse),

mba" "aj
n.

(azra" mba""aj).

roar [of laughter),


rod,
V.
a.

"ah"aha.
sru";

roast, V. a. bishwi, shaweyt,

bisru",

sara"t,

shwi p.p. mishwi. [on the road) bsheUih,


seri" p. surra".

shellaht, shelHh p.p. mshellah.

robber, n. harami p. haramiyi

robbery, n. sir"a; selb.


robe,
n.

bedh.

robust, a.

"owi

p.

"awaiya.
a.

rock, n. sakhra p. skhur; v.

bhizz, hazzait, hizz.

VOCABULARY.
rocket, n.

247

sahm
khabis.
n.

nari; sarukh.

rogue,

a.

roguery,
roll,

khubs; mekr.
;

"ai'mi [list] v. a. bliff, leffeyt, lift" p.p. melfuf; [of bread) bru"", ra" "eyt, ra" " v. n. [along) bdahrij, dahrajt, dahrij.
n.
lefifi;
;

roller,

n.

mahdeli

p.

mahadil.

rollingpin, n.

showbek p. shvvebik. Rome, Rumi; Roman, a. rumani Ro})ian


;

c/nirch,:\.\-\i&n\s\t

ar-rumaniyi.
roof, n. sath p. stuh.

room,
root,

n. n.

uda

p.

uwad
i"l'a.

[space)
;

matrah

fus-ha.
v.
a.

shirsh p. shurush

{of a matter) asl; {up)

bi'Ta, "al'at,

rope, n. habl p. hibal (hibcl).

rosary,
rose, n.

n.

mesbaha

wardi

rose-water,
al-ward.
rot,

p. mesebih. wardet rose-colour, a. wardi c.p. ward p. ma'ward ma'zahr attar of roses, 'utr
; ; ;

V. n. {y^ per-) [of zvood) bisowwis, sowwas, p.p. msowwis; [vegetables) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. mihtiri mihri.
;

rotation

[in),

ad. bin-nowbi (nobi); bid-dovvr (dor).


;

rough,

a.

ghaliz p. ghiilaza

khishin

[sea)

heyyij

{road)

we'ir.

roughness,

n.

wa'ar; khushuni
;

ghala:^a.
de'ir
;

round,

a.

mdowwer

p.

'ala
;

howl (hawal)
dijr;

all

round,
V.

'ala de'ir ('ad-de'ir)

der min

turn round,

n.

bdur, durt, dur hawal.

route, n. tari" p. turu".


rozv,
n.
[line)
saff"

p.

sfuf;

in rozcs, bis-saft";
;

n.

[distur-

bance, khna"a; toshi (towshi)


[a boat)

[noise) dajji (doji); v. a.

b"addif, "addaft, "addif.

248
royal,
a. V.

ARABIC MANUAL.
meleki (muluki).
a.

rub,

bimsah,

masaht,

msah;

bifruk,
;

ferikt,

fruk;

bimhi, mahait, mhi p.p. mimhi hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk.


[put)

{scratch)

bhikk,

rubbish, n. {sweepings) knesi


rtiby,
n.

zbeli

{nonsense) dun.

ya"uti p. ya"ut.
n.

rudder,
rude,
a.

deffat al-merkeb.
;

fazz; sef ih
n.

bila

rudiments,

p.

usul;

merba. mabedi.
sherrir p. ashrar.

ruffian, n. ibn

haram;
f.

rug, n. {carpet) sejjedi; {covering)

hram

p.

hramet.

rugged,

a.

we'ir

we'ri.

ruin, n. khirbi p. khara'ib; v. a. bikhrub, kharabt,


b'attil,

khrub;

'attalt,

'attil.

kharab (kharban). ride, n. "anon p. "awanin; v. a. {lines) bsattir, sattart, sattir; {govern) bihkum, hakamt, hkum. ruler, n. {governor) hakim {for lines) mastra p. msatir
ruined,
a.
;

(msetir).

rumour,
run,
V.

n. n.

ishe'a.

birkud, rakadt, urkud

{a race) bsebi", seba"t,

sebi";

{away)
;

bihrub,

harabt,

hrub;

{after)

bilha",

lahi"t, ilha"

{risk) bkhatir, khatert, khatir.

running,
rupture,
rural,
a.

n.
n.

rakad.
khilef;

kksumi; {hernia)

fta".

berri.

rusk, n. ghurabiyi.

Russia, Rusiya; miskob; Russian,


rust, n.
si'di
;

a.

miskobi.

v.

n.

(3rd

per.) bisaddi, sadda.

rusty, a. msaddi.

VOCABULARY.

249

s.
sabre, n. seyf p. siyuf.
sack, n. kis p. kyes.

sacred,

a.

m"addas.
n.

sacrifice,
V. a.

[religious)

"urbcn

[fig.)

clahiyi

p.

dahaiya;
bdahhi,

[an animal) bidbah, dabaht, dbah;

[fig.)

dahhait, dahhi.
sad, a.
saddle,

mkedder.
n.
serj.

p.

suruj

[native)

'iddi
'al

p.

'ided

horse, v. a. bshidd, shcddait, shidd


safe, a. selim; n.

al-hisan.

sandu" hadid.
;

safely, ad. m'as-salemi

bil-amen.

safety, n. salcmi.

saffron, n. z'aferan.

said (preceding),
sail,

a.

mazkur.
bahriyi.

n.

"al'a p. "ulu'a.

sailor, n. bahri p.
saint, n.

"addis p. "adisin; [before a name) mar; [Moslem)

well.

sake (for the sake of], pr. minshen. salad, n. salata; salad oil, zeyt as-salata.
salary, n. ma'ash
sale,
n.
;

mehiyi.
sale,

bey'a; for
n.
n.
ri".

lil-bey'a.

saliva,

sahnon,
salt, n.

somon.
a.

milh; salt-cellar, memlaha;

melih

f.

mclha.
'ala;

saltpetre, n. milh al-barud.


salute,
n.

[milit.)

salam (salem) v. bsellim, sellemt, sellim bekhud, akhadt, khud salem.


; ;

salvation, salemi

[eternal) khalas.

250
sa}iic,

ARABIC MANUAL.
a.

'ain;

nefs;
;

zet
:

{zuith

pro.

siiff.);

all the same,

mitl ba'ad-uh at
tJie

sawa
p.

all the

same

to vie, la far" 'ind-i


fi
;

same
n.

time, fil-wa"t zet-uh;

nefs al-wa"t.

sample,
'ainet.

mastra

msatir (msetir)

[of grain) 'aini p.

sanction, n. msadi"a.

sand, n. rami; sand-storm, zowba'a (zoba'a).


sandal, n. n'ali p. n'al.

sandal wood,
sanguinary,
sanguine,
sanitary,
a. a.
;

n.

sandal.

sane, a. selim al-'a"l; sahib al-'a"l.


a.

damawi.
mwefi"
lis-sihha
;

wesi".

as-sihha

sahhi

cordon, kordon

ojfice,

nezarit

doctor, tabib as-sihha.

sap, n. 'asir an-nebet.

sapling, n. nasbi p.

nasb.

sapphire, n. hajr as-safir.

sarcasm,

n.

istihza.
n.

sarcophagus,
Satan, n.
satcliel,

naus
(blis).

p.

newewis.

sash, n. zinnar p. znenir.


iblis

n.

mahfaza

p.

mahafiz.

satiated, [to be) v. n. bishb'a, shb'eyt, shb'a.


satin, n.
atlas.
n.
a.

satisfaction,

rida.

satisfactory,
satisfied, a.

murdi.

radi.

satisfy, v. a. birdi, rdait, rdi; to be satisfied, v. n. birda,


irdit,

irda
v.

(fi

or

bi);

birtidi,

irtadeyt, irtidi.
bill

saturate,

a.

bbill, bellait (belleyt)

p.p. meblul.

sauce, n. salsa;

Saturday, nahar (yowm) mar"a.

as-sebt.

[
VOCABULARY.
saucepan,
n.

25

tanjara p. tanajir.

saucer, n. sahn zghir p. suhun.

sausage,

n.
a.

ma"ani (na"ani).
bcrberi
;

savage,
save,
V.

wahshi.
khallast, khallis; {life) bncjji, nej-

a.

bkhallis,
nejji;

jait (nejjcyt),

[economise] bwaffir, waffert, waftir.


;

savings, n. p. towf irct

fadlat.

savoury,

a.

leziz.

saw,

n.

minshar
n.

p.

mcneshir.
"ul ("il); behki, hakait

sawdust,

nishara.
("ilt),

say, V. a. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult

(hakeyt), hki.

saying, n. mesel (metel) p. cmsel (emtel).


scab, n.
"ishri p. "ishr ("ishur).
n. n.

scabbard,
scaffold,

"irab p. "irabet.

meshna"a.
bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru".
p.

scaffolding, n. sa"ali.
scald,
scale,
V.
a.

n.

mizen

miczin (mowazin);

(one side

of the

balance) keffi; [proportion] "iyes; [of a fish) "ishri; to

adjust the weights, b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen.


scalp,
n.

"ishrit ar-ras.
'ilr.

scandal, n.

scar, n. eter jurh. scarce, a. nedir;


"alil

al-wujiid.

scarcely, ad. bil-kedd.


scarcity, n. "illit al-wujud.

scarecroiv, n. fizze'a p. fizzc'at; khiyel p. khiyelct.


scarlet,
a.

"irrnizi.

scatter, v. a.
scent,
n.

bferri", fcrra"t, ferri" p.p.


;

mferra".

riha p. rwcyih
n.

scent bottle, "anninit riha.

schenie,

tcdbir p. tcdcbir.

252

ARABIC MANUAL.

scholar, n. telmiz p. telemiz.


school,
resi
;

n.

medresi
)iiaster,

p.

mederis;

felloiv, refi" fil-med-

ma'allim medresi.
'ulum; [branch of) fenn p. finun.

science, n.

'ilm p.

scissors, n.
scold,
V. a.

m"ass p. m"a.ssat. bwabbikh, wabbakht, vvabbikh.


a.

scolding, n. towbikh.

scorch,

V.

wat;

to

be

bshowwit, showwatt, showwit p.p. mshowscorched, v. n. [y^ per.) bishut, shat;

scorching, n. shwit.
scorpion, n. a"rabi p. a"arib (a"erib).

scoundrel, n. sherrir p. ashrar.


scout, n. delil
;

[niilit.)

ra'id

al'asker.

scrape, v. a. bhikk, hakkait, hikk p.p.


scratch,
v.
;

a.

mahkuk. bikhdush, khadasht, khdush p.p. makhpei"-)

dush
scream,
screw,

[of a cat) {y^


n.

bikharmish, kharmash.
n.

saiha (seyha)
stara.

v.

bsih, suht, sih.

screen, n.
n.

birghi

p.

beraghi;

v.

a.

bifruk,

ferikt,

fruk;

screiv-driver, mafrak.
scrub, v. a. bimsah, masaht, msah.
scruple,

tereddud ihtiraz. scrupulous, a. mutereddid fi; [having scruples) scull, n. mi"daf zghir p. ma"adif zghiri.
n.
;

m\.\\\iix\z{\.

sadpture,

n.

na"sh

p.

n"ush.

scum,
sea,
n.

n.

raghvvi.

bahr.

seal, n.

khatm p. khtumi; v. a. bikhtum, khatamt, khtum makhtum. p.p. sealing-wax, n. .sham'a ahmar (aswid).
seam,
search,
n.

derz
v.

p.

druz.
fettesht, fettish (f i)
;

bfettish,

bdowwir, dow-

VOCABULARY.
wert,

253
'ala.

dowwir

(fi);

search for, bfcttish, (bdowwir)

season, n. fasl p. fusul.

seasoning, n. hashwi.
seat, n.

ma" 'ad

p.

ma"a'id.

seaweed, n. 'ishbi bahriyi.


second, n. {time) teniyi [vide niDnerals).

second/land,
secret,
sect,

a.

musta'mel.
asrar;
tawa'if;
p. p.
a.

n.

sirr p.

sirri.

n. ta'ifi
n.

p.

milli

p. milel.

section,

"ism

a"sam (a"sem).
limena;

secure, a.

amin
n.

madmun.

sedifnent, n.
sedition,

rasib.
'isiyan.
'asi.

seditions, a.
see,

V.
n.

a.

bshuf, shuft, shuf; bi"sh'a, "ish'eyt, i"she'a.


p.

seed^ seek,

bezr

bzurat.
;

V.

bfcttish, fettesht, fettish ('ala)


(fi).
(3i"<i

bdowwir, dowwert,
biyizhar, zaher.

dowwir
seem, v. n.
seize, v.
a.

per.) bibcyyin,

beyyen

bizbat, zabatt, izbat.

seldom, ad. nediren.


select,

V.

a.

bna""i,

na"

"ait,

na"

"i

bukhtar,

ikhtart,

ikhtar.
self,

pro. zet; hal

nefs [xvith pro. suff.); vide

grammar

p.

17 reflexive pronouns,
to be, n. v.

selfish,

(3rd per.)

bihibb zet-uh,

selfishness,
sell,

mahabbit

az-zet.

V.

a.

bbi'a,

be'ut, bi'a.

seller,

n.

bey'i p.
a.

bey 'an.
b'at.

send, V.

bib'at, ba'att,

senior, a. akhbar.
sense, n. 'a"l
;

{meaning) m'ana; the senses,

n. p.

al-hawess.

254

ARABIC MANUAL.

senseless {lifeless), a. fe"id al-hiss; ad. bila hassiyi; [jiiea-

ningless) ad. kilmi bila m'ana.


sensible, a.
'a"il,

sensitive, a. hasses.

sentence, n.

(phrase) jumli p. jumel; (judicial)

hukm

p.

ahkam.
sentinel,
n.
a.

ghafer

p.
;

ghaferat.
separately,

separate,

munfiisil

wahd-uh wahd-uh.

separation, n. mfara"a.

September,

ailul.

sequester, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz.

seraglio, n. {edifice) seraiyi

[ladies of)

hurmi

p.

harim.

sergeant, n. showush.
serious,
a.

[things)

muhimm

c.

ahamm

[persons) razin;

seriously, ad. bi jedd.

sermon,
servant,

n.

wa'az; kirezi.
c.

serpent, n. haiyi p. haiyat


n.
ijir
f.

p. haiyaiya.
f.

ijiri;

khadim

khadmi

p.

khuddem

(khiddem
serve, v. a.

p.

khiddemin).
sirbi.

bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum.


a.

Servia, beled as-Sirb; Servian,


service, n.
set,

khidmi
p.

p.

khidemet.
v.
a.

n.

ta"m

tu"um (tu"umi);

bhutt,

hattait,

hutt.
settle, V. a. [a

question) bisruf, saraft, sruf; bsewi, saweyt,


fasalt, fsul (fsel); [conditions) \i^ix\\,

sewi; [price) bufsul,


rasab.

sharatt, sherit; v. n. [of wine)


yirsib),

[y^

per.)

biyursub

(bi-

several, a. ba'ad [zuiih pro. sujf.).


severe, a. shedid p. shidad
;

sarim.

sew,

V. a.

bkhaiyyit, khaiyyatt, khaiyyit p.p. mkhaiyyat.

sewer, n. balu'aj siya".

f
sex, n. jins
p.

VOCABULARY.
ajnes.
(retten)
(zul).
;

255

shabby,

a.

retit

beli.

shade, n. fei;

zil

shadow,
shake,

n.

khiycl p.
bhizz,
p.p.

khiyelet.
n.

shaft [of a carriage),


V.
a.

'arish.

hzzzait,

hizz

{of clothes)

bnuffid,

nafifadt,

nufifid

mnaftad.

shallow,

a.

fcyish (faiyish).
'aib.

shame,

n.

shavieless, ad. bila haiya.

shape, n. shikl p. shikel. share, n.

sahm

p.

as-hem; hissa

p.

hi'sas.

shareholder, n. sahib sahm.

shark,
sharp,

n.
a.

kelb bahr.

madi

hadd.

sharpest, v. a. bsinn, scnnait, sinn p.p.

mesnun.
ila

sharpener
shave,
v.

{steel),

n.

msenn.
hala"t,

bihlu",
hli'"li
;

hlu"

(hli")

p.p.

mahlu";
;

shave me,
shaved,
a.

/ shaved

lihn,

hala"t

ill-uh

clean

hali".

shawl,

n.

shel p. shelet.

she, pro. hiyi.

shear, v.
shears, n.
sheatJi,
n.

a.

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p.

mejzuz.

mjezz.
"irab p. "irabet.
a.

sheathe, v.
shed,
(311^

bhutt, hattait, hutt fil-"irab.


;

n.

si"ifi

v.

a.

{blood)

bisfuk, scfckt. sfuk; {skin)

per.) biyishlah,
n.

shalah.
p.

sheep,

ghanam
sharshaf
reft' p.

aghnem

sJieep

dog,

kelb

al-

ghanam.
sheet,
n.
n. p.

sharashif; {paper) tarhiyi p. tarahi.

shelf,

rfuf.

256
sliell,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

sadafi p. sadaf; {bomb) "unbli p. "anebil ("un-

bera
shelter,

p.
n.

"anebir)

shell fish, n. sadaf.


to

ma'wa;
ila.

take shelter, v. n. bita'awa, ta'a-

weyt, ta'awa
shepherd, n.
shield,
ra'i

p.

rai'yan.

n. turs p.
(3i"d

atras. per.) biyilm'a,


p.

shine, v. n.

lam'a.

ship, n.

merkeb
n.

merakib.

shipwreck,
shirt,
n.

inkisar
p.

"amis
subbat
red)
baitir

"umsan
rjift.

merkeb. "amis kowi.


;

shiver, v. n. birjif,
shoe,
n.

p.

sababit; [peasant's)
p.

mdas

p.

mdaset;
bbaitir,

[long

zarbul
p.p.

zarabil

v.

a.

[horse)

baitart,

mbaitar;

(bbeytir, beytart, beytir

p.p. mbeytar).

shoemaker,
shoot,
V.
a.

n.

kinderji.

b"owwis, "owwast, "owwis.

shop, n. dikken p. dekekin.

shopkeeper, n. sahib dikken.


shore, n. shatt.
short, a. "asir p. "asar
c.

a"sar.

shorten, v.
shortly,

a.

b"assir, "assert, "assir p.p. m'assar.


bil-ikhtisar;
al-hasil;

ad.

[presently) b'ad "alii;

b'ad shwayi.
shortsighted,
shot,
n.
a.

"asir an-nazr.

[lead)

khirdu";

[discharge)

darb

p.

drubi

"ovvwas.
shoulder, n. kitf p. aktef. 'ayta; v. shout, n. saiha (seyha)
;

n.

bsih, suht, sih


to

[to)

b'aiyit,

'aiyett,

'aiyit

{\\di);zve

shouted

him,

'aiyet-

na-luh.
shovel, n.

mejrud

p.

mejerid.

f
s/i07C',

VOCABUI-ARV.
n.
firji;

257
v.
a.
[to]

{exhibition)

ma'rad

bfcrrji,

fcrr-

jait,

ferrji

('ala).

sJiower, n. zakhkhar.

shreivd,

a.

shatir p. shuttar.

shrine, n.

mazar
n.
(31^1

p.

mazarat

shrink,

v. n.

per.) bighibb,

ma'Tim p. ma"amat. ghabb; bidubb, dabb.

shroud,
shrub,
shut, V.

kefen p. ekfcn.
sejcra zghiri.
{close)

n.
a.

bughlu", ghala"t, ghlu" p.p. maghlu";

(fasten) bsekkir, sekkert, sekkir p.p. msakker.


shutter, n. dcrfi p. derfet. shy,
a.

khaJLil;

v.

n.

{of

horse)

{y^

per.)

biyijfal,

jifil.

sick,

to he,
V.

v. n.

n. bistcfrigh,

stafraght, stefragh

to be

sea

sick,

bdukh, dukht.
p.

sickle,

n.
n.

menjil

mnejil.

side,

jeneb
hisar.

p.

jeneb (jenib

p.

jewenib);

right side

{of material) wijh;


siege, n.
sieve,
n.

wrong
p.

side,

"afa.

{coarse)

ghirbel

gharabil; {fine) mi'nkhul gharbil

p.

mnekhil.
sift,

V.

a.

bgharbil,

gharbelt,

p.p.

mgharbel

binkhul, nakhalt, nkhul p.p. menkhul.


sifter,
n.

sigh, n.
sight,
n.

mi nkhul. tcnahhud;
nazr;

v.

n.

bitnahhad, tnahhadt, tnahhad.


firji;

sight-seeing,

long-sighted,

a.

be'id

an-nazr.
sig)i,

n.

'alemi p. 'alemet; v.

a.

bimdi, maclait (madeyt)^

mdi

p.p.

mamdi.
ishara.
11.

signal, n.

signature,
signet,
n.

imda

p.

imdawet.

khatim

p.

khawatim (khawetim).
17

258
silence,
silent,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n,

sukiit; v. a. bsekkit, sekkett, sekkit.


v.
;

to be,
f.

n.

biskut, sakatt, skut; be silent, [imper.)

skut

skiti
;

khras; sidd timm-ak.


;

silk, n, harir

silk-factory, n. kirkhanit harir

m'amel

harir.

silkiuonn, n. dudit al-"azz p.


sdly,
silver,
a.

dud

al-"azz.

ahma"
fid da.

p.

him"in

(liimu").

n.

silversmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh.

similar,

a.

mitl

shebih

p.
;

ashbah.
simply, bes
;

simple, a. basit p. biisata


si7i,

fa"at.

n.

khatiyi p. khataiya; zenb p. znub; v. n. bukhti,

khatait, khti.
since, pr.

min

ad. b'ad

con. b'ad

ma; limma.

sincere, a. mukhlis.

sincerity, n. ikhlas.

sinew, n. 'asab p. 'asab; (fig.) "uwi. sing, V. a. bghanni, ghannait, ghanni


brettil,
rettelt,
rettil.

[sacred music),

singer, n.
singiyig, n.

mughanni.
ghina
ferd;
;

[sacred] tertil.

single,

a.

[unmarried]
a.

'azeb;

singly,

kill

wehid

wahd-uh.
singular, n. mufred
sink,
V.
;

gharib.

n. bigliru", ghri"t,

ghra"

v.

a.

bgharri", ghar-

ra"t, gharri".
sinless,
a.

beri p. I'briya.
mi'jrim.

sinner, n. miznib;
sir,
n.

sid-i {lit.
n. n.

my

lord],

sirocco,

shlu".

simp,
sister,
silfi.

sharab.
ikht
(ukht) p. khaiyet; sha"i"a; sister-in-law,

n.

VOCABULARY.
sit,

259

V.

n.

bu"

'ud,

"a'atlt,

u"

'ud.

sitting {of a court), n. jclsi.


situation, n.
size,

n.
n.

mcrkcz. "add; [bulk) hajm.


shelli
n.
(shilli)

skein,

p.

shlcl.

skeleton,

heykcl
mehir.

p. hiyekil.

skezver, n. sikhslaek p. siakhshek;


skilful, a.
skill,

sikh p. siyakh.

n.

mahara.
jild
p.

skin,

n.

jlud;

v.

a.

bislakh, salakht, slakh p.p.

maslukh.
skirt,
n.

tannura
n.

p.

tenenir.

skittles,

maliajj.
p.

skull, n. JLimjmi

jemejim.

sky, the, n. aj-jow.


slack, a.

rakhu
a.

f.

rakhwi.

slacken, v.

brakhkhi, rakhkhait, rakhkhi p.p. mirkhi.


derij.

slang, n.

kelem

slap, n. latmi.
slate,

n.

lowh hajr;
p.p.

slate pencil,

"alam

hajr.

slaughter, n.

dbah
slave, n.

medbaha (mezbaha); v. a. bidbah, dabaht, medbuh; slaughter house, n. meslakh.

'abd p. 'abid; female

jeriyi

p.

jeweri.

slavery, n. 'ubudiyi.
sleep,
n.

nowm
to be,

(nom)
v,
;

v.

n.

bnem

(bnam),

nimt,

ncm

(nam); asleep, pres. part, neyim.


sleepless,
n.

bi"la", "ili"t; ad. bila

nowm.

sleepy, a. n'asen
sleeve, n.

sleeping, n.
p.
c.

menami.

kimm (kumm)
sha"fi.

kemem.
arf'a.

slender, a. refi'a p. rfa'a


slice,

n.

sling,

n.

mi'Ta.

260
slip,

ARABIC MANUAL.
V. n. bizla",

zli"t, zla";

n. {of

a plant) shetli feskha


;

slipper,

[of the pen) zellit "alam. shahata. 11.


bishrut, sharatt, shurut.

slippery, to be, v. n. {y^ per.) bizelli".


slit,

n.

khiz";
n.

v.

a.

slope,

nezli.
;

slow,

to be slow, v. n. (3rd per. f.) of a watch, a. buti bitta'akhkhir (bitta'assir) as-se'a; slowly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh shwayi shwayi; to be slow in, v. n. {zi'ith pro. stiff.);

bitda" "ar, tda" "art, tda" "ar

f i kitebi

(meshi) in zvriting,

walking
sluggard,
sluice,

etc.

slowness, n. mehli.
a.

belid; keslen p. kesela.

n.
n.

slush,
sly,
a.

sukr p. skura. wahl.


hielji.
c.

muhtel;
a.

small,

zghir p. zghar

azghar sup. al-azghar.

sniallncss, n.

zughr; [meanness) denewi.


jidri.

smallpox, n.

smart,

a.

[intelligent)
v.

ziki

nishit;

[spruce)

ghandur;

n.

alem; waj'a;
smash,
n.

n.

[i^^ per.)
v.
a.

biyuj'a, waj'a.

dajji
to

(doji);

biksur,
n.

kesert,
per.)

ksur p.p.
biyinkisir,

maksur;
inkeser.

be

smashed,
a.

v.

(3i-<i

smear
takh
riha

[with),
(fi).

v.

blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. mlat-

smell, n.

[y^
smile,

smith,

smoke,

riha rediyi good bad shimm; v. n. shemmait, v. a. bshimm, taiyibi per.) ill-uh riha, ken luh riha. n. tebessum; v. n. bitbessam, tbessamt, tbessam. n. hadded. n. dukhkhan; v. n. (3"! per.) of a chimney, biriha
p.

rweyih

VOCABULARY.
dakhkhin, dakhkhan;
shrab (tutun);
v.
ii.

26

v.

a.

[of tobacco) bishrab, shribt,

bdakhkhin, dakhkhant, dakhkhin.


mili.s.

smoky,
smooth,

a.
a.

mdakhkhin.
nc'ini (na'im);

smoothly, ad. bis-suhuli.


smotJier, v. a. bikhnu", kliana"t,

khnu"

p.p.

makhnu".

smuggle,

V.

a.

bhcrrib, hcrrabt, hcrrib p.p. mhcrrab.


tehrib.

smuggling,
snail,
n.

n.

Smyrna, Izmir.
bezza"a; halazun.
snake, n. haiyi p. haiyat cp. haiyaiya.
snare, n. sherek; masiyadi; fikhkh (fakhkh).
sneeze, v. n.

bu'atus, 'atast, 'utus.

snipe, n. shikbi p. shikkub.

snore, v, n. bishkhur, shakhart, shkhur.


snoiu, n. telj
;

v.

n.

(31"^

per.

f.)

bititHj,

talijit.

snowdrift,
snuff, n.

n.

kumi
;

telj.
;

'atus

sniff-box, 'elbit 'atus


'atus.

to

take smff, v.

a.

bshimm, shemmait, shimm


so,

ad. haik (hcyk); is


so

it

not so:
a.

mush haik (mauheyk);


f.

and

so

{of persons)

fulan

fulani

[of things),

ad. keza

wa

keza; so that, con. hatta


na"a't, n"a'.

(ta).

soak, V. a. bin"a',

soap, n. sabun.
sober, a. sahi.
sociable, a.
society,
n.

an is.
jcm'iyi.
kelset;
jrabi p. jrabet; pair

sock,

n.

kelsi

p.

of

socks,

jowz
socket,

kelset.
n.

tejuif.
"ili.

soda, n.

sofa, n. diwen.

; ;

262
soft,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
rikhis; ne'im (na'im); leyyin.
V. a.

soften,

{by

%vater)

btarri,

tarrait,

tarri;

[by fire)

bleyyin, leyyent, leyyin.


softly, ad.
soil,

bi

hudu.
v.
a.

n.

tirab;

bwassikh, wassakht,
v.

wassikh p.p.

mvvassakh;
solace,
n.

to be soiled,

n.

bitwassakh, twassakht.

tesliyi.

solder,

n.

Iham;

v.

a.

bilhum,

lahamt,

Ihum

p.p.

melhum.
soldier, n.
sole,
a.

'askeri p. 'asker; [private) nefer p. anfar.


;

wahid

n.
;

[of the foot) asfal


n'alit

(sifl)

ai-"adam; [of
;

boot)

n'ali

as-sirmeyi

p.

n'al

solely,

ad.

fa"at; bes.

solemn,
solicit,

a.

ihtifeli.

V.

biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min).

solid, a.

metin.

solitude, n.

wehdi.
bhill, hallait,
hill

sohition, n. hall.
solve, V. a.

p.p.

mahlul.
sometimes, ahiyenen
somehoiv, kif ma ken

solvent, a.

sagh; "edir
ba'ad
;

'al

al-wafa.

some,

a.

so^nebody,

somezvhere,

fi

meken
benin

fi

wehid matrah

sotnething, shi.
son,
n.
;

ibn
07ily

p.

(benun)

son-in-lazv,

suhr

p.

as-

har

son, ibn wahid.


;

song, n. ghinniyi
soon, ad. b'ad

{sacred)
;

tertil.

"alii

sooner or later, b'ad ktir

ow

"alii

too soon, bekkir; as soon as,


soot,

metama.

n.

shahhar.
V.
a.

soothe,

blatif,

lataft,

latif;

[of pain) bsekkin, sek-

kent, sckkin.
sordid, a. tarn ma 'a.

VOCABULARY.
sore,
n.

263

jurh

p.

juruh; sore back, [of a horse), dahr-uh


v. n.
(31-^

m'a"ur;
sorry,
a.

to be sore,
;

per.)

biyuj'a, waj'a.

sorrozc, n. hizn

i)i

sorrow, haznan.
to

z'aleii;

be sorry,

v.
;

n.

bit'essaf,

t'esseft,

(bit'assaf, t'assaft) p.p.

mut'essif

sort, n. sinf p. asnaf;

now'

(no') p.

ana z'alen, kint z'alen. anw'a; v. a. (arrano^e)

brettib,
soul,
n.

rettebt, rettib p.p.


;

mrctteb.

nefs

ruh.
a.

sound, n. sowt; hiss;


soup, n.
sour,
a.

[healthy) sagh.

showrba

(shorba).

hamud

f.

hamda.
southern,
a.

source, n. {zvatcr) neb'a p. nbu'a; [origin) masdar.

south, n. "ubli ("ibli)

jcnubi.

souvenir, n. tezkar.
sovereign, n. melik p. muluk; [Turkey) sultan.
soiv,
V.
a.

bizr'a,

zar'at,

zr'a p.p.

mazru'a.

space, n. fus-ha.

spacious,

a.

fasih;
p.

wes'i.

spade,

n.

merr

murur

rafsh

p.

rufush

[of cards)

bestuni.

Spain, Isbania; Spanish,


span, n. shibr p. ashbar.

a.

isbaniyuli.

spare, v. [do zuithout) bistaghni, staghnait, staghni ('an);


a.

ze'id (za'id); spare copy, niskha ze'idi.


n.

spark,

sharara p. sharar.
'asfur p.
'asafir.
;

sparkle, v. n. (3^^ per.) biyilm'a, lam'a.

sparrow,

n.

speak, V. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki

bitkellam, tkel-

lamt, tkellam.
spear, n. rimih p.
special, a. khususi.
species,
n.

rmah.
p.

now'

(no')

anw'a.

264

ARABIC MANUAL.

Specimen, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir).


speck, n. latkha.
spectacle, n. firji;

manzar; mash-had.
n.

spectacles,

n.

kuzkik;

p.

'awenat.

spectator, n. mutferrij.

speech, n. khitab.
speed, n. sur'a;
spell,
V.
a.

'ajeli;

speedily, bi sur'a; seri'an.

bitahejja, tahejjait, tahejja.

spelling, n. hija.

spend,
(3i<i

V.

a.

bisruf, saraft, sruf p.p.

masruf;

to be spent,

per.) biyinsarif, iiisaraf.


n.

spice,

bahar

p.

baharat; tib

p.

atyab.

spider, n. 'ankebut p. 'anekib.


spill,

V. a.

bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub.

spin, V. a. bighzul, ghazelt, ghzul (ghzil) p.p.

maghzuL

spinach, n. sbenikh.
spindle, n.

maghziL
ruh p. arwah; out of spirits, ma luh keyf. shish p. shiyesh; sikh p. siyakh;

spinning-wheel, n. dulab (duleb) al-ghazL


spirit, n.
spit, V.

n.

{^for roasting)

n. n.

bibzLi", baza"t, bzu".

spite,

spittle,

n.

hi"d; in spite of, ghasb 'an; raghman 'an. bze".

splendid, n. fekhir.
splint,
n.

jbar p. jbarat;

to

put

in splints,

v.

a.

bjebbir,

jebbert, jebbir p.p. mjebber.


split,

n.

shi"";
u
.

V.

a.

bshi"

",

sha" "ait (sha" "eyt), shi""


nz'a;
b'attil,
'attalt,
'attil;

p.p.
spoil,
V.
n.

mesh
V.
a.
(31'd

binz'a,

nez'at,

per.) biyintiz'i, intez'a; spoilt, a.

manzu'a.

spoke, n. [of a wheel) 'arda p. 'awarid.

sponge, n.

sfinji

p.

sfinj.

VOCABULARY.
Spoon, n.

265

mara"a
n.

p.

ma'ali".
;

sport, n. [fun) I'eb (I'ub)

[shooting) said.

sportsman,
spot,
n.

saiyycd (saiyyad).
p.

mowd'a
(///.

mvvad'i.

spout,

n.

[of a jng)

zcllumi

[of a fojintain)

sab'a p.

asb'a

lion).
a.

sprain, n. radda; sud'a; v.

brudd, raddait, p.p. marp.p.

dud;
spread,

bisd'a, -sad'at p.p. masdu'a.


v.
a.

bmidd, meddait, midd


nshur;
bifrush,

memdiid

[out)

binshur,

neshert,

farasht,

frush

p.p.

mafrush.
spring, n. [season) ar-rabi'a; [zuater) 'ain p. 'uyun.
sprinkle, v. a.

sprout, n. nebti

brushsh, reshshait, rushsh p.p. marshush. firkh; v. n. (3rd per.) bferrikh, fcrrakh;
;

biyinbut, nabat.
spur,
n.

spurious,

mihmcz p. mahamiz. a. mzowwer.


n. v.

spy, n. jesus p. jewesis.

squadron,
squander,
square,
a.

'amara.
a.

bbeddir, beddert, beddir.


n.

mrabb'a;

[open place) saha; the municipal

square, sahat al-belediyi.


squeeze, v. a. be'usur, 'asert, 'asur p.p. m'a.sur.
squib,
n.
fitteshi.
a.

squinteyed,

ahwel.
;

squirrel, n. "ar"adLin p. "ara"din


stab, n. t'ani
stability,
n.

sinjcbi p. sinjebet.

p.

t'anct.

scbct.
p.

stable,

n. n.

yakhur

yakhurat; istabl
;

p.

istablet.

stack,

kdis p. kidscn

v.

a.

bkeddis, kcddest, keddis

p.p. mkeddc-s.

stag, n. aiyyel p. aiye'il.

266
Stage,
11.

ARABIC MANUAL.
[theatre)

mersah
v.
a.

{jourjiey) mhatta.

stagnafit, a. rakid (ra"id).


stain,
n.

latkha;

blattikh,

lattakht,

lattikh

p.p.

mlattakh.
staircase, n. derej
p.

diraj
;

spiral

lulab p. Iwelib.

rahn p. ruhun. stake, n. p. yebis stale bread, khibz yebis stale, a. beyit [y^ per.) [of a horse) bibowwil, bowwal.

wated

owtad
;

[at play)

v.

n.

stalk, n. se"

(sa")

p.

si"an.

stall {for cattle), n.


stallion,
n.
v.

ma'alaf.

fahl p. fuhiil.
n.

stammer,
stamp,
bul;
n.
V.
V.

btemtim, temtemt, temtim.


[postage) bul; wara"it bul p.

damgha;
a.

wara"

bidmagh, damaght, dmagh


bu"af,
u"ift,

stand,

n.

u"af;

p.p. madmugh. stand up, b"um, "umt

("imt) "urn.

standard, n. [flag) baira" (beyra"). star, n. nejmi p. njuni; shooting star,


starch,
n.

iiezi".

nisha; v.

a.

bneshshi, neshshait, neshshi p.p.

mneshsha.
start, V.
n.
v.

bibti'di,

btedeyt,

bti'di.

starve,

n.

bmut, mutt min


n.

aj-ju'a;

v. a.

bmowwit,
;

mowwatt, mowwit min


state
[condition),
ihtifel.

aj-ju'a.

hal;

the

state

of affairs

al-ahwal;

[pomp)
station, n.

statement, n. khaber p. akhber.

mhatta.

stationary, a. wa"if.
stationery, n. p.
statistics,

lawezim

al-kitebi.

n.

p. 'idadiyet; ta"wim.

statue,

n.

timsel p. temesil.

stature, n. "ami.

VOCABULARY.
Stay,
let

267

V.

n.

bib"a,
v.
a.

bi"it,
"i,

ib"a;

stay,

bba"

bu"'ud, "a'adt, u"'ud; ba" "eyt, ba""i; v. n. bdull,

dalleyt, dull.

steady, a. rasikh
steal,
V. n.
a.

scbit.

bisru", sara"t, sru" p.p. masru".

steam,

bukhar.
n.

steamer,
steel,

n.

waburat; (babor p. baborat). buled; [for striking fire) "addaha.


p.

wabur

steep, a. {downhill)
steer,
v.
a.

msallat

{uphill) we"fi.

bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir.


[of stairs)
dereji
p.

stench, n. riha keriha.


step, n.

khatwi;

derajet; steps, n.

sillum; dercj.
stern, n. {of

a ship) mukhir al-merkeb;


krarji.

a.

sarim; "asi.

stew, n. yakhni. steward, n. wekil kharj


stick,
n.

'asa

p.

'usi;

[small)
p.p.

"adib

p.
;

"udben
v. n.

v.

a.

blazzi"',

lazza"t,
lizi".
;

lazzi"

mlazza"

(31^ per.)

biyilza"

sticky, a. dibi"
stiff,

mdebbi".

a.

[solid) jcniid;
a. a.

stifle, V,

{hard) silib; "asi. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu".


ad.

stifling,
still,

ti"il.
;

a.

hedi
n.

kamcn
'a"sa;

b'ad

m'a
(31^

zclik.

stillness,

sukun; hudu.
v. n.

sting,

n.

Ics'aa;

per.)

biyils'a,

les'a;

biy'a"as, 'a"as; [of a wasp) biyu"rus, "aras.


stingy, a. bakhil p. biikhal.
stink, n.

natni; v. n. [y^ per.) biyintin, natan.


n.

stipulate, v.
stir,
V.
a.

bishturit, shlaratt, shturit.

bharrik,

harrakt,

harrik;

v.

n.

bitaharrak,

taharrakt, taharrak.

268

ARABIC MANUAL.

stirrup, n. rikebi p. rikebet.


stock, n.
{floiver)

mentura

p.

mentur; [of a gun) "anda"

al-barudi.
stocking, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrabet.
stoker, n.

wa"
n.

"ad.

stomach,
stone,
n.

me'di.
p.

hajr

hijar;

{of fruit)

bezri
;

p.

bezr; stone
zxey^'di.

cement, hajriyi; {for floors) 'adasi


stony, a. mehjir.
stool,

{for roofs)

n.

skemli.
n.
n.

stoop, V.
stop,
V.

bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh.


bib"a,
bi"it,

ib"a;

v.

a.

and

n.

bwa"

"if,

wa"
store,

"aft,

wa""if; {prevent) bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; stop


{provision)

up, V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p.


n.

house, hasil;

mesdud. muni; {quantity) kemmiyi; store makhzen; {for grain) beyiki p. beweyik;

store room, beyt al-muni.


stork, n. lu"lu" p. la"ali".

storm,
story,

n. n.

'asifi

lower
stout, a. stove,
n.

zowba'a (zoba'a) {at sea) now. fu"ani; 'ulwi {of a house) taba"a; upper tahteni ardiyi {tale) hikeyi teller of stories,
p.

'awasif

hakawati.
jesim; smin
p.

sman.
line,

uja" p. uja"at.
a.

straight,

dughri; in a straight

rasan; 'ala khatt

musta"im.
straightforzvard,
a.

musta"im.
bsafifi,

strain, v. a. {clarify)

safifait,

saffi

p.p. msaffa.

strainer, n. misfeyi (misfaiyi).

strange,

a.

gharib

p.

ghureba

stranger,

n.

gharib

p.

ghurb.
strangle,
v.
a.

bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu".

VOCABULARY.
Strap, n. seyr p. siyura.

269

straw,
stream,
street,

n.

"cshsh
n.

chopped

strazv, tibn.

strawberry,
n. n.

tut franji (frez).

se"i p. sawc"!.
;

tari" p. tiiru" (tur"at)

z"a"

p.

z"a."at.

strength, n.

"uwi.
a. b"o\v\vi, "owweyt, "owwi. bmidd, mcddait, midd p.p. niemdud.

strengthen, v.
stretch, v. a.
strict, a.

shedid
a.

p. .shidad

sarim; strictly, ad. bi ted"i".

strike,

v.

bidrub,

darabt,

drub;

{tents)

bi'Ta, "al'at,

i'Ta al-khaimi.
string, n. khait massis; v. a. {beads,

papers

etc.)

bshikk,

shckkeyt, shikk p.p. meshkuk. strip, n. sha""a p. shi"a"; v. a. {naked)


'arri
;

b'arri,

'arrait,

stripped,
{the

a.

'ariyen

{rob) v. a. bshellih, shcllaht,

shellih;

leaves

of
;

trees)

bjimm, jemmeyt, jimm


mejzuz.

p.p.
stripe,
stroll,

mejmum;
n. n.
a.

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p.


p.

"alam

i"h"im
v.
n.

striped, a.

ma"allam.

kczdara;

bkezdir, kezdert, kezdir.


p.

strong,

met in
n.

shedid

shidad; "owi p. "awaiya.

strop, n.

{of a razor) "aish.

struggle,

khna"a;

v. v.

{fight zvith) bita'arak, ta'arakt,


n.

{of animals) stubborn, a. 'anid.


stucco, n. jefsin

m'a;

[y^

pei'.)

bikhabbit, khabbat.

(jeb.sin).

student, n. telmiz p. tclemiz.

study, n. ders; v.
stuff, n. {material)

a.

bidrus, darast, ch'us.


v.
a.

"imesh ("imash);
td'atirt

bihshi, hashait,

hshi p.p. mihshi.


stumble,
v. n.

bitd'atir,

{of a liorse) (3>d per.)

biyit'as, te'is.

stnudding block,

n.

hajr 'atcra.

270 Stump {of a


stupid, a.
style,
tree),

ARABIC INIANUAL.
n. p.

"urmiyi

p.

"arami.
belid.

ahma"

him"in (himu");

n.

subject,

n.

zey; [of zvriting) nefes. 'mowdu'a; {of a state)


v.
a.

r'aiyi

p.

ra'aiya

teb'a.

subscribe,

bishtirik,

shtarakt,

shtirik;

biktitib, ik-

tatebt, iktitib.

subscription, n. iktiteb; ishtirak,

substance, n. maddi.
substantive, n. ism p.
substitute, n.

isma (esami or asemi).


a.

bedel;

v.

mebdul

(bi);

{for) bibdul, bedelt, bdul p.p.


a. bistebdil,

one thing for another, v.

stebdelt, stebdil.
subtract, v. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh.

subtraction, n. tarh.
succeed,
v.

n.

binjah,

nejaht,

injah;

{come after)

v. a.

bekhlaf, khalaft, khluf.


success, n. tofi";

nejah.

successful, a. mwaffa".

successor, n. khalaf p. khiilefa.


sucJi as,
a.

mitl-uh

{i.vith

pro.

suff.).

snck,

V.
".

a.

bmuss,

massait,

muss;

bmu"", ma" "ait,

mu"
sudden,
suet,
n.

sucking, n. mass.
a.

baghti; faje'i;

j-z^^a'^/z/j/,

ad. baghteten; faj'aten.

shahm.

Suez, Sues; Suez canal, kanat as-sues. suffer, V. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimiL
suffering, n.
sufficient,
a.

alem
kefi;

'azeb.

to

be

,
of

v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi (biyikfi)

ken
sugar,

kefi.

n.

sikker; loaf

ras sikker; liunp

sikker

VOCABULARY.
she"af
;

27
(na'im)
;

moist
;

sikkcr

nc'im
'ati

sugar cane,

"asab mass

"asab sikker.
'atait

suggest, V. b'ati,

('atcyt),

rai

(fikr).

suggestion, n. rai; fikr p. afkar.


suicide,
nefs-i
suit, n.
a.
;

n.

"atl

nefs;

intihar;

to

commit

v.

bi"tul

bintihir, intahart.

V.

{of clothes) ta"m p. tu"umi; bcdli p. bedlet; [y^ per.) biwcfi", wafa" {and with 'ala) bincsib,
;

nasib;

it

suits me, bivvcfi"-ni (bincsib-ni).

suitable, a.

mwcfi"; mnesib.
kebrit.

suitor, n. talib p. tullab.

sulphur,

n.

Sultan, sultan.

sum,

{money) meblagh p. mebeligh {arithmetic) 'amcl {sum total) al-mejmu'a. p. a'mel ('ameliyi)
n,
; ;

summer,
summit,

the,

n.

as-saif;

to

pass the

v.

n.

bsaiyyif,
saifiyi.

saiyyeft, saiyyif;
n.

summer

residence, n.

mahall

ras aj-jebel.

summon, summons,

v. a. n.

bistahdir, stahdart, stahdir.

buslit (buslaiyit) ihdar;

wara"it jelb.

sun, n. shems; sun rise, shuru" (tlu'a) ash-shems; suu set, ghiyeb (ghurub) ash-shems (al-mughrib). Sunday, nahar (yowm) al-had. sunstroke, n. darbat shems.
sup, V. n. bit'ashsha, t'ashshait, t'ashsha.

superfluous,

a.

fadli

ze'id.

superintendent, n. nazir p. nuzzar; wekil p. wukela.

supper, n. 'asha.
suppose, V. n. bzunn, zannait, zunn.
{conceal)
bikhfi,

suppress,

v. a.

khafait,

khfi; {restrain)

bimn'a,

men'at,

mn'a;

{calm)

bhammid,

hammadt^

hammid.

272
sure, a. akid
;

ARABIC MANUAL.
m'ekkid
;

/ aui

sure,

ana mut'ekkid.

surface, n. sath; wijh p. wujuh.

surgeon, n. jerrah.

surname,

n.

la"ab p. aP'ab.
;

surplus, n. fadli

zod.
;

surprice, n. dehshi

v.

a.

bidhish, dahesht;
;

{to

take un-

azoares) bibghat, baghatt, bghat


bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt, t'ajjeb p.p.

to be

surprised, v. n.

mut'ajjib.
sellemt, sellim p.p.

surrender,

n.

teslim;

v. a.

bsellim,

msellem.
surround,
v. a.

bhowwit, howvvatt, howwit


jiri
;

surroiindings, n.

liis

p.p.

mhowwat.

jirt-uh.
(f i)
;

suspect, V. bishtibih, ishtabaht, ishtibih


nait,

bzunn, zan-

zunn
a.

(fi)

p.p.

maznun

fih.

suspicion, n. shiibha.

suspicious^

(causing suspicion^

meshbuh

[entertaining

suspicion) zannan.

swallow,

n.

snuni;

hejeji;

v.

a.

bibl'a, bel'at,

bl'a p.p.

meblu'a.

swamp,
szvan, n.

n.

bata".
p.

ghurnu"
n.

gharani".

swear,
sweat,

v.

bihluf (bihlif) halaft, hluf; bi"sim, "asamt,

i"sim.
n.

'ara";
;

v.

n.

be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t).

Sweden, Esuj
sweep,
V.
a.

Sivede, esuji.

bkennis,
ahla

kennest,

kennis p.p.

mkennas;

b"ishsh, "ashsheyt, "ishsh.


sweet,
a.

hiilu

c.

f.

hihvi

sweets, n. p. halawiyat.

sweetheart, n. habibi.
swell, V. n.

swelling, n.
szvift,
a.

buram, warimt. waram p. owram.

seri'a.

VOCAIiULARV.
swim,
V.

273

n. n.

bisbah, sabaht, sbah.

swindle,

ghish;

v.

a.

bt,^hish,

ghashait,

ghish

p.p.

maghshush.
swine,
siving,
n. n.

khanzir

p.

khnczir.
p.

marjuha; 'anzu"a
v.

'anezi";

v.

a.

bmcrjih,

mcrjaht, mcrjih;

n.

bitmerjah, tmerjaht.
a.

Switzerland, Swi.sera; Siviss,


szuollen, a.

swisrani.

werim
n.

vvcrmcn.
{vide to faint),
p.

swoon,

V.

bighma, ghmit
p. siyuf;

sword,
syllable,

n.

seyf
n.

husem

husemet.

sycamore,
n.

symbol, n.

jimmezi p. jmaiyiz. ma"t'a p. ma"at'i. ramz p. rumuz.


alemi
;

symptom,

n.

{of disease) 'arad p. a'rad.

syntax, n. 'ilm an-nahu.


Syria, Suria; Syriayi,
syriiige, n.
a.

suri.
;

{medical) hi"ni p. luf 'n


v.
a.

garden
p.

trumbi

mreshshi;
system, n.

{medical) bih"un, ha"ant, hu"un.


p.

nazam

nazamct; tari"a

turn".

table,
tablet,
tact,
tail,

n. n.

towii p. towlet

table-cloth,

ghata towli.

lowh
;

(loh)

p.

Iweh.
sahib z6".

n.
n.

z6"

man of
p.

tact,
;

danab

adneb

deyl

p.

dyal.

tailor, n.

khaiyyat.

take, V. a.
shilt,

bekhud, akhadt, khud (khod)

shil;

azi'ay, bshil,

off^,

bishlah, shalaht, shlah.

tale,

n.

hikej'i
n.

p.

hikaiya; "issa p. "isas.

talent,

mowhebi.
18

274
talk,
n.

ARABIC jNIANUAL.
haki;
v.

n.

behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkeljarasht;


'allakt;

1am, tkellamt, tkellam; talk nonsense, bihruf, haraft.


talkative,
to
be,

v.

n.

bijrush,

b'allik,

tall,

a talkative person, a. 'allak. a. tawil p. tuwal c. atwal.

tallow, n.
tally

shahm.
v.
n.

[with),

(3^1

per.)

bitabi",

taba"

(m'a

or

'ala).

talon, n. difr (zifr)

p. adfar (azfar).
c.

tamarisk,
tame,

n.

turfaiya p. turfaiyet
n.

p.

turfi.

tambourine,
a.

deff p.

dfuf.

elif;

tan, V. a.

tangle, n.

juwwi. bidbugh, dabaght, dbugh p.p. madbugh. sherbeki; in a tangle, msherbek.


;

tank, n. birki p. burak

bahra;

howd

(hod) p. ahwad.

tanner, n.

debbegh (debbagh).

tanyard, n. debbegha. tap, n. khanafiyi.


tape,
n. shrit.
11.

taper,

sham'a.
n.

tapeworm,

dudi 'arida; dudi wahidi.

tar, n, "atran. tarantula, n. rtaila (kirteyli) p. rtailat.

tares, n.

zewen.
'alem.
ta'rifi.

target, n. nishen;
tariff,
n.

tarnished,

a.

mwassakh.

task, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; 'amel p. a'mel. turra. tassel, n. sherrabi p. sherarib
;

taste,

n. t'ami taste,

v.

a.

bzu" (bdiV), zu"t


b'aiyyir,

(di"t),

zu" (du");

good

n. z6".
a.

taunt, n. tai'yir v.

'aiyyert, 'aiyyir.

VOCABULARY.
tax,
n.

275
niiri
;

resm

p.

rusumct;

Iuxl's,

mal

v. a.

bckhud,

akhadt, khud (khod) rcsm


tea,
n.

(niinj.
ti"il;

shay; strong
cup,
finjen
p.

shay

zveak

shay khafif;

tea

fnejin; tea leaves, vvara" ash-shay;

tea pot, bri" shay.


teach, V. a.

b'allim,

'allamt, 'allim.
f.

teacher,
tear,
n.

n.

ma'alHin

ma'alHrni; mederris
tears,
v.

f.

mcderissi.

dam'a p. dmu'a; shed damin'at, damm'i.


{rent), n.

n.

bdamm'i,
khaza"t,

tear

khiz";

shi"";

v.

a.

bikhzu",

khzu" p.p. makzu"; bkhazzi", khazza"t, khazzi"' p.p. mkhazza"; bshi", sha""eyt, shi"" p.p. mesh"u"
bimzLi", meza"t,
tease,
v.
a.

mzu"
za'alt,

p.p.

memzu".
b'azzib,
'azzebt,
'azzib

biz'cl,

zu'ul;

p.p. m'azzab. tedious, a. mut'ib; mumill.

telegrajn, n. tilaghraf.

telegraph,
laghraf;

v.

bdu"", da" "ait (da" "eyt) du"" (di" ") tipole, 'amud office, beyt at-tilaghraf;

at-tilaghraf;

zvire,

shrit at-tilaghraf.

telegraphist, n. tilaghrafji.
telescope, n.
tell,

nazzara (naddara).
("ilt),

V.

bi"ul (bi"il), "ult

"ul

("il)

ila.

temper, n. khul"; tab'a p. atb'a; bad temper n.

hama";
;
;

khul"; good tempered, atb'a-uh leyyini


;

tab'a-uh mlih

bad tempered, atb'a-uh shirsi khur'uh daiyi" tempered, a. hami"; sahib khul". temperature, n. mizen al-harara.
temple, n. heykel p. hiyekil.

hot

temporary,
tempt, V.
a.

a.

m\va""at.
tijrubi p. tejerib.

bjcrrib, jerrabt, jerrib.


n.

temptation,

2/6
tenacious, a. 'anid
tenant,
n.
;

ARABIC MANUAL.
mutmessik,

muste'jir.

tendency, n. meyl.
tender, [offer) n. talab p. talbet cp. matalib
tent, n.
a.

rikhis; tari.

khaimi
fetir
f.

p.

khiyem (khiyem).
;

tepid, a.

fetri.

term, n. [delay) middi

mihli; [condition) shart p. shurut;


;

what are your


V. a.

terms, esh matlub-ak

make terms

luith,

bsherit (bsharit) sharatt, sherit (sharit).

terrace, n. sath p. stuh.


terrible, a. heyil (ha'il);
terrified,
a.

mukhif.
fezz'a;

khaiyif.
a.

terrify,

v.

bfezz'a,

fezz'at,

bkhowwif, khow-

waft, khowwif.
territory, n. ard.

terror, n. fez'a; khowf.


test,

n.

imtihan

v.

a.

bimtihin, imtahant, imtihin.


;

testament, n. wasiyi p. owsiyi

Old Testament, at-towra;

Neiu Testament,
tether, n. twali
text, n.
v.

al-injil.

testimony, n. shehedi.
;

a.

burbut, rabatt
;

'al

at-twali.

metn
V.
a.
;

khulasa

[of the bible)

mowdu'a.
thank yon, kettir
[lit.

than, con. min.

thank,

bishkur,

shakert,
sellim

shkur;

khair-ak

eywah
haidak
f.

daiyat-ak
(hidik); con.

may God
in

preserve yonr hands),


that,

pro.

haidik

ann;

order

that, hatta (ta).

thaw,
thee,

V.

n.

31^ per. bidub, dab.

theatre, n. tiyatro.

pro. snff. ak
n.

f.

ik.

theft,

sir"a.

; ;

VOCABULARY.
them, {their), pro. suff.
then, ad.

277

hum

(um).

themselves, pro. zct-lium.

b'adeyn

sum.

thence, ad.

min hownik.
hownik
zelik;
n.

theory, n. htliya p. hi'liyat.


there, ad.

(hovvniki); thereabouts,

\.^.''v\hdin;

there-

fore,

li

bina'-in-'aleyh.

thermometer,
they,
thick,

mizen al-harara
f.

termometre.
c.

pro.
a.

hum
smik

hinni

these,
c.

pro. howdi.

p.
c.

smak
p.

asmak; tkhin
seri"
p.

athkan; {of
luss
p.

liquids) khatir
thief,
n.

akhtar; [not clear) m'akur.

haram

haramiyi;

surra";

lusus.

thigh, n. fakhad p. fkhad.

thimble, n. kishtbcn p. kcshetbin.


thi)i,

a.

[of persons) nahif p. nfhafa; [lean) da'if


[of paper) ra"i";
[slender)
refi'a

c.

ad'af

p.

cla'af;

c.

arf a

[liquids)

khafif p. khifaf.
(shi)

thing, n.

shey
V.

p.

cshiya

tilings, n. p.

awa'i

(avve'i)

ighrad.
tliink
[of),

biftikir,

iftakcrt,

iftikir

(fi);

v.

n.

bzunn,

zannait, zunn.
thirst,
n.

'atash.

thirsty, a. 'atshcn.
this,

pro. haida
n.

f.

haidi

(hai).

thistle,

hasaki

p.

hasak.

thither, ad. ila hownik.

thorn, n. showki (shoki) p.

showk

(shok).

thoroughbred,
those,

a.

asil;

nejib; [of a horse) kehil.

pro. haidolik.
f.

thou, pro. inta


tliouglit,

inti.

n.

fikr

p.

afkar.

2/8

ARABIC MANUAL.

thoughtful, n. sahib fikr; [considerate] sahib m'aruf.


thoughtless, a. taiyish.

thrash,

v.

a.

[grain) bidrus, darast, drus; {beat) bidrub,

darabt, drub. thread, n. khait, khitan.


threat, n. tahdid p. tahdidat.

threaten, v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, tahedded.

threshingfioor, n. baider (beyder) p. biyedir.


threshold, n. 'atabi p. 'ateb.
throat, n, hal"
;

zel'um.
p.

throne,

n.

'arsh

'urush

the patriarch's throne, kirsi

al-batrak.

through, pr.

fi;

throughout, min al-owwel


shalaht,

il

al-ekhir.

throw,
Ihush
tlirusli,

V.
;

a.

bishlah,

shlah

bilhush,

lahasht,

birmi, rmait (rmeyt), rmi.


n.

simni

p.
p. v.

thumb,

n.

behim
;

simnet (simmun). bvvehim; my thumb, behm-i.


n.

thunder, n. r'ad
tliunderbolt,
n.

(31^ per.

f.)

bitira'id, ra'adet.

za"a.

Tliursday, n. nahar (yowm) al-khamis.


tlius,
tliy,

ad. haik (heyk).


ik.
f.

pro, sujf. ak f. thyself, pro. zet-ak


tick, n.

zet-ik.

"radi p. "rad.
n.

ticket,
tickle,

vvara"a p. owra" (wara").


a.

V.

bzekzik, zekzekt, zekzik.

tide,

n,

medd.
muretteb.
a.

tidy, a.
tie,

burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut; be'"ud, 'a"adt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud.
V.

tie

a knot,

tier,

n.

taba"a.

tiger, n.

nimr

p.

nimura.

VOCABULARY.
tight, a.

279

shcdid

p.

shidad.

tighten, v. a. bshidd, shcddait, shidd p.p. meshdiid.


tile,

n.

"armidi

p.

"armid
;

(glazed) "ishani.

timber, n. khasheb
time,
n.

a piece of
;

khashbi.

wa"t

zeman

to
;

be in time

for

(catch), v. a.

bhassil, hassalt, hassil

in time (timely), fi wa"t-uh.

timid, a. jeben.
tin,

n.

tenek.
;

tin-opener, n. [key) mifteh


tinder, n. sufen.
tinker, n. sankari.
tinsel,
///,

{knife) sikkin.

n.

shrit "assab.

n.

ras; taraf.
a.

tipsy,

sekran.
ad. 'ala ras asabi'-uh.

tiptoe, on,
tire,

V.

a.

[y^ per.)
a.

biyit'ib,

ta'ab.

tired, a. t'aben.

tiresome,

mut'ib.

tissue paper, n. wara"lcff.


title,

n.

la"ab p. al"ab.
n.

title

deed, n. sakk p. skuk; wara"it tabu p. owra".

tittle tattle,

la"sh;

'alk.

toast,

n.

khibz
sirr

mhammas;
;

v.

(a health) bishrab, shribt,

shrab
tobacco,

(tvitli

pro. suff.).

n.

tutuii

dukhkhan
(al-yom).
p. asab'i. ni'a

(for the hubble bubble)

tinbak.
to-day, ad.
toe,

al-yowm
rijl
(ijr)

n.

isb'a

together, ad.
toil,

sawa;
;

ba'ad-hum.

n.

kedd
n.

t'ab.

token,
toll,

'alcmi.
;

n.

baj

rcsm

baj.

280
tomato,
11.

ARABIC MANUAL.
banadura.
p.

tomb,

n.

"abr

"ubur.
; ;

to-morrow, ad. bukra ghadi b'ad bukra; b'ad ghadi.


tongs, n. mel"at.

the

day after to-morroiv,

tongue, n. lisen p. lisenet.


tool,

n. ali
a.

p.

alet cp. awe'il


ktir.

(eli

p.

elet).

too-little,

"alii

too-mucJi, a. ktir; ad. bi ziedi.


tootJi,

n.

(front)

sinn

p.

snen;
i'Ta

(back)

dirs

p.
to

diras;

toothache,
teeth,
V.

waj'a
a.

dirs;

tooth-pick,

miswek;

dratu
to

bi'Ta,

"al'at,

p.p.

ma"lu'a;

stop

teeth, V. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi.


top,

n.

ras.

topsy-turvy, ad. fu"ani tahteni.


torrent, n. seyl p. siyul.
tortoise,
n.
zilhfi

p.

zlehif.
v.
a.

torture,

n.

'azeb;

b'azzib,

'azzebt,

'azzib

p.p.

m'azzab.
toss, V.
a.

bzitt,

zetteyt,

zitt;

v.

a.

bilhush,

lahasht,

Ihush.
total,

n.

mejmu'a;
a.

totally,

ad. bil-killiyi

bij-jumli.

totter, V. n. [y^ per.) biyihtez, ihtaz.

touch,

V.

bid"ur,

da"art,

d"ur p.p. med"ur; bmiss,

massait, miss; bilmus, lamast, Imiis.


touchstone, n.

magnatis.

touchy, a.

hami"; sahib khul".


"asi; yebis.

tough,
tour,

a.

n.

dowra

(dura)

make a
p.

tour,

v.

n.

bdur, durt,

dur.
tourist, n. seyih (saiyih)

suweh (suwah).

tow, n. mesha"a;

v. a. bjurr, jarrait, jurr.

VOCABULARY.
toivards, pr. ila;
tozvel,

28

sowb.
p.

n. n.

manshfi
birj p.

mncshif.

tozoer,

abraj.

town, n. {large) medini p. mudn; {small) bclecl. ibn beled. tozonsvian, n. ahl al-bcled fellow
;

toy,

n.

I'ebi

p.

lu'ab.
(eter)
p.

trace,

n.

asar

asar

(atar);

{harness) jirrara p.

jirarat.

track, n. {road) derb;

{trace) asar

(eter).

tract (of land), n. "it 'at ard.


trade, n. tijara; metjr.
traffic,

n.

{movement) 'ubur; {trade)


;

tijara.

train, n. tren

babor; {of

cattle Is)

"itar p. "itarat; v. a.
{exercise)

btabb'i,
rin,

tabb'at, tabb'i p.p. mtabb'a;

bmar-

marrent, marrin p.p. mmarrin. traitor, n. khaiyin p. khaiyinin.


transact,
{business),
v.
a.

b'amil,

'amilt,

'amul ('amcl)

ash-shighl.

transfer

v.

a.

bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul p.p. men"ul.

translate, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim.

translation, n. terjenii.

translator, n. terjuman.

transparent,
transport,

a.

sheffaf.
a.

v.

bin"ul,

na"alt,

n"ul

p.p.

men"ul;

n.

(freight) nowulun.
trap, n. masiyadi.

trappings (of a horse),


traveller,
n.

n.

selebend.

travel, v. n. bsefir, scfert, sefir.

mscfir p. msefirin; seyih (saiyih) p.

suweh

(suwah).
tray, n. seniyi (sniyi) p. swcni.

treachery (treason),

n.

khiycni.

282
tread,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
d'asi
;

v.

n.
'ala)

{to

tread

on),

v.

a.

bid'as, da'ast,

da'as {and with


treadle, n. dosi.

p.p.

mad' us.

treasure, n. kenz p. kunuz.

treasurer, n.

amin as-sandu".
('amel).

treasury, n. khazini.
treat,
v.
a.

b'amil, 'amilt, 'annul

treatment, n. m'ameli.
treaty, n. ma'ahedi.
tree,

n.

shajara (sejara) p. ashjar.


n.

trellis,

sh'ariyi.
birjif,
rjift,

tremble, v. n.
trench, n.

rjef.

khenda"

p.

khnedi".

tress (of hair), n. jdili p. jede'il.


trial,

n.

mahakemi;

{test)

imtihan; tijrubi; on

trial, 'ala

tijrubi.

triangle, n. mtellet.
tribe,
n.

"abili p.

"abe'il;

'ashiri

p.

'ashe'ir;

{of Israel),

sibt p. asbat beni Israel.

tribunal, n.
tribute,
trick,

mahkemi
p.

p.

mhakim

mejlis.

n. jeziyi.
hili

n.

hiel

to

play a trick on
'ala.
trifle,

v.

b'amil,

'amilt,
trifle,

'amul ('amel)
shi zehid
;

hili is

n.

it

a mere

ma

biyihriz.

trigger, n. zunberak.
trinket, n. hiliyi p. hila.
trip, n.

khatra; sefra.

tripod, n. tlet rijleyn.


Tripoli,

Trablus
n.

ash-shem;

{in

Barbary)

Trablus

al-

gharb.

triumph,
troop, n.

nasr

triimiplial arch,

"ows an-nasr.
'asker.

zumra

p.

zumr;

troops, n. p. jnud;

VOCABULARY.
trot,

2 S3

n.

rahf; v. n. (31^ per.) biyirhuf, rahaf.

trouble, n. t'ab; (grief) hizn; to take trouble, v. bc'atini,

'etenet, c'atini (fi);

to

give trouble,
"il

v. a.

bit'ub, ta'ebt,

tu'ub; bte""il, ta""elt, tc"

('ala).

troublesome,

a.

mut'ib.

jurn p. jran. trousers, n, bantalon.


trough,
n.

trousseau, n. sda"; jihaz.


trowel, n.

mara"a
;

lozi.

truce, n. hidni.

true, a. sahih

truly, ad.

ha" "an.

trumpet, n. nefir; bu" p. abwa".

trumps,

n.

atu.
;

trunk, n. [of a tree) sc" (sa") p. su" (si"an) p. snedi".


trust,
V. bittikil,

{box)

sandu"

ittakelt, ittikil

('ala);
;

busi", wasa"t(fi);
'al

b'emmin, emmcnt, emmin truth, n. sid"; ha" ".


try, V. a.
tub,
n.

(ila)

on trust,

amcni.

bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib.

tusht p. tshut; m'ajen p. ma'ajin.

tube, n.

anbubi

p.

anabib.
at-tleti.
;

Tuesday, nahar (yowm)


tuft,
n.

(of hair) khusli p. khusl tug, n. babor (wabor) jerrar. //////, n. khizemi p. khizem.
tumble,
'atar.
V.

(plumage) "unbra.

n.

bu"'a,

wa"

'at,

u"'a;

[slip)

be'ater, 'atert,

tumbler,

n. n.

(glass) kibbeyi.

tumour,
tune,

p. owram. naghmi; v. a. bduzin, dozant, a. mdozan. tunic, n. "amis p. "umsan. n.

waram

doziii;

in tune,

284
tunnel, n. tunnell
;

ARABIC MANUAL.
"abu.
leftet.

turban, n.
tu7'f,

leffi

p.

n.

n'as.
;

Turkey, Turkiya
turkish, turki.

beled al-'osmalli

Turk, Turk

p.

atrak

turkey, n. dik habesh; turkey-hen, djejit habesh p. djej

habesh.
turn, n.
wir,

dowra

(dura); v. n. bdur, durt, dur; v.

a.

dowwert,
bhid,
p.p.

dowwir;
v.
a.

(rj'et),

rj'a (rje'a);

V.

n.

hidt,
;

hid;

sidd
p.p.

mesdud

maftuh;
;

i"lub


v.

bdowrj'at

back,

v.

n.

birj'a,

brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a;


off,

aside,

v.
a.

a.

bsidd, seddeyt,
fataht,

on,

v.
a.

biftah,

ftah

over,

a}id n.
;

bi"lub,
v. n.
biltifit,

"alabt,
{become),
iltefett,
fetlit

out, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i


bisir,

{y^

pel*-)

sar;

round,
fetli
;

v.

n.

turning round, n. derwish; turning point,


iltifit;

turning dervishes,
in

n.

madar;

turn, ad. bid-

dowr

(dor)

bin-nowbi
p.
lift.

(nobi).

turnip, n.

lifti

turpentine, n. zeyt tirbentina.


turquoise, n. firuz.
turtle-dove, n. tirghalli p. tirghall.
tutor, n. ma'allim.

tweezers, n. mel"ut sh'ara (shoki).


twice, n.

marrateyn.
shefa".
"it

twig, n. tarbun p. trabin.


twilight, n.
twifi,

n.

sha"
a.

towm

p.

towm
tni

(torn).

twine, n. khait massis.


twist,
V.

bitni,

teneyt,
maftul.

p.p. mitni

(cord) biftul,

fatalt,

ftul p.p.

two-edged, bi haddeyn.

VOCABULARY.
tyranny, n. ziilum; jowr.
tyrant,
n.

285

zalim

p.

zullcm.

u.
udder,
n.
dirri.
n.

jigliness,

bshe'a; "ubh.
f.

ugly, a. bish'i
ulcer,
n.

bish'a; "abih.

"arha.
;

ultimate, a. niheyi
iiltiinatujH,
n.

ekhir.

belagh resmi.

tivibrella,

n.

shemsiyi p. shemesi.
p.

umpire,

n.

hakam
a.

muhakkemin.
;

unanijHous,

muttefi"

unanimously, ad.
;

bil-ittifa".

unarmed,

p.p.

ma

msellah

ad. bila sleh.

unazvares, ad. 'ala ghafli.

unbecoming
unbind,
v.

a.

(of dress)
bhill,
lull

ma

lebi"; (i)nproper}

ma

leyi".

unbeliever, n. kefir p. kafara.


a.

halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul.

unbounded,
unburied,

ma
;

hadd.

p.p. ghair

(ma) medfun
p.p.

(animals') ghair (ma)

matmum
uficertain,

ad-bila defn.

a.

ghair m'ekked

ma mesbut

{of tem-

per)
uncivil,

a. a.

muta"allib; /
khishin
;

am

uncertain, ana murteb.

fazz.

uncivilised, a.

mutawahhish.

uncle, n. (paternal)

'amm

p.

'amem ('amam)

(maternal)

khal p. khweli.
unclean,
a.

wisikh.
a.

uncomfortable,

mut'ib.

286
uncovivwn,
iktarast
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
nedir.
a.

unconcerned,

ghair miktiris;

to be

v.

ma

biktiris,

(fi).

unconditional, ad. bila shart.

uncover, v.

a.

bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf (kshef) p.p. makshuf.

U7icidtivated, (land), n. bur.

uncut,

a.

sahih;

p.p.

ma ma"sum;

{of grass) p.p.

ma

mahshush.
undecided,
U7ider, pr.
a.

muteredded.

taht.

underground, ad. taht al-ard. underliand, ad. min taht H taht.


underneatJi, pr. taht.

undersigned, n. al-mumdi; al-wad'i ism-uh.

understand,
undertake,

v. v.

a.

bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum.


("imt), "urn (bi).

b"um, "umt
n.

undertaking,
undesirable,

meshru'a.
ghair meshkur.

a.

undo, (vide unbind, untie),

undoubtedly
bi'Ta,

ad. bidun shubhi (shekk).


v.
a.

undress (oneself),
"al'at,

bishlah,

shalaht, shlah at-tyeb;


[another)
v.
a.

i'Ta

at-tyeb;

bshelHh,

shellaht, shelHh at-tyeb; bi"airi, "all'at, "all'i at-tyeb.

uneasy,

a.

meshghul

al-bel; fikr-uh

mush (mau) murteh.

unequal, mush (mau) "add ba'ad-hum.


uneven,

mush (mau)

sehiH.

unexampled,
unexpected,

ma
a.

hih metil (mesil).

ghair muntazar.

unfair a. mush (mau) 'adil. unfavourable, a. ma'akis. unfinislied, a. mush (mau) khaHs.
7infit,

a.

mush (mau)

leyi".

VOCABULARY.

2 87

unforseen,

unfold (unfurl), v. a. binshur, ncshert, nshur p.p. mcnshur. a. ghair muntazar.


unfortunate,
a.

ta'is;

"alii

al-bakht.

unfurnislicd, p.p.

ma

mafrush.
;

ungrateful,

a.

jehid (jahid)

nekir aj-jemil.

unhappy,

a.

maghmum.
v.
a.

unharness,
fikk p.p.

bshellih, shcllaht, shellih; bfikk, fckkait,

mafkuk.
a.

unhealthy,

mclurr (mdirr) bi sihha


bedli resmiyi.
'ala

ha\va-h

'aatil.

unifonn,

n.

uniformly, ad.
unlniportant,
a.
,

nesa" wehid.

ghair

muhimm.

unintentionally

ad. bila "asd.


a.

uninterrupted,

de'im; p.p.

ma

min"ut'a.

uninterruptedly, (at one go), ad. ferd sahabi.


uninvited, ad. bila 'azimi.

union, n. itihad.
united, a. muttehid;

United States of America,

2\-\x\\-2i\yQt

al-muttahidi.
universal,
a.

'umumi.

universe, the, n. al-kown (kon).


university, n. medresit 'umumiyi.
unjust, a.

unkind,

a.

unlazvful,

mush (mau) 'adil. "asi mush (mau) hanuni. a. mush (mau) jeyiz.
;

unleavened,

a.

ftir.
;

unless, con. iza


jinlike,
a.

ma; low

la.

mukhtilif.

unlimited, p.p.

ma mahdud.
;

unload,

v.

a.
;

bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ('an)

bhutt, hattait,

hutt ('an)

{of ships) bferrigh, ferraght, ferrigh ("an).

unlocked, p.p.

ma

ma"ful;

ma mda" "r.

288
unlucky,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
"alil
a. a.

al-hazz.
f.

unmarried,
unnatural,
unnecessary,
unofficial, a.

'azeb

'azba

[of priests) betul.

ghair
a.

tabi'i.

mush (mau) lezim


bfaddi,
faddait,

(daruri).

ghair resmi.
faddi;
bferrigh, ferraght,

unpack,

v.

a.

ferrigh.

unpaid, p.p.
unpleasant,
unprejtidiced,
unprofitable,

ma
a.
a.

madfu'a.

mush (mau) murdi.


'adil.

a.

unreasonable,

mush (mau) mufid (nef'i). a. mush (mau) m'a"ul.

unripe, a. fejj; p.p.

ma

mistwi.

unsafe,

a.

khutir; muktir.
a. mush (mau) murdi. mush (mau) leyi".

unsatisfactory,

unseemly,

'a.

unshod,

a.

hafi p.p.

mhaffa.
;

unsound,
unsteady,

a.
a.

m'aiyub

mush (mau)

sagh.

ghair sebit.

unsuitable, a.

mush (mau) mwefi".


mafkuk.

untidy,
untie,
witil,
V.

a.
a.

ghair muretteb (mhendam).


bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p.

con. hatta

untimely, ad.

untouched,
untrained,

a.

ma; ilia. mush fi wa"t-uh. sahih; p.p. ma memsuk; ma med"ur.

a.

jeleb; p.p.

ma

mtabb'a.

untried, p.p.

ma

mjerrab.

untrue,

a.

ghair sahih.

iintruth, n. kizbi.

untrtithful, a. kezzeb.

tmusual,
unwell,

a.

gharib.

a.

mush (mau) mabsut;

'aiyyen.

VOCABULARY.
luizuilling,
a.

289

mush

(mfiu)

radian (radi).

unwillingly, ad.

<,dia.sb

'aii-nuh.

unwise,

a. jehil a.

p. juhhel.

nntoorthy,
;//

mush (mau)
kharj

Icyi" (ahl).
;

lie for ), work, mush (mau) kharj al-maslaha.

to

(fit

al-maslaha

is

not

tip

to

the

uphill, ad. ila

fow";

fi

trd'a. n.

uphold (an
upon, pr.
upper,
a.

opi)iion),

v.

bwcfi", \vafa"t 'ala

fd^r-uh.

'ala.

fu"ani
the,
the,

'uhvi.

upper luDid,
uppermost,
upright,
upset,
V. a.
a.

n.

al-ghalib.
al-a'ala.
jelis.

n.

wc"if; dughri;
bi"lub,

"alabt,

i"lub;

[liquids)

bkibb, keb-

beyt, kibb; (fig.) {y^ per.) bi'akker, 'akker; the news upset me, al-khaber 'akkcr-ni.

upside dozen, ad. fu"ani tahteni.


upstairs, ad. fow".
Jirge,
V.
a.
('ala).

bhitt,

hattait,

hitt;

v.

bharrij,

harrajt,

harrij
7irgent,
uri)ie,

a.

dirik

f.

dirki

mulihh.

n.

bowl.
ist'emcl.
fe'idi
;

us,

pro. suff. na.


;

usage, n. 'adi
use,

nefa musta'mel
n.

v.

a.

bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil p.p.


use,
a.

to

be
up,

of
v.

v.

n.

(3rd

per.)

biyiswa;
khallis;

biyinf'a;

use

bkhallis,

khallast,

bfaddi, faddait,
useful, a. mufid.
useless,

facldi.

ad. bila fe'idi


a.

'abcs.
;

usual,

'itiyadi

('atiyedi)

usually, ad.

ghaliben.

usury,

n.

riba

faiyiz.
19

290
Utensil,
n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
we'a (wa'a)
a.

p. awe'i.
;

utmost, the,

al-aktar

to

do o)us

utjuost,

v.

a.

b'amil,

'amilt jehd-i; do

your utmost, 'amul

('amel) jehd-ak.

V.
vacancy,
vacant,
vacate,
n.
a.

fragh
;

mahall ferigh.
faddait,

fadi
a.

ferigh.

v.

bfaddi,

faddi

bferrigh,

ferraght,

ferrigh.

vaccinate, v. a. bta'im, ta'amt, ta'im.

vaccination, n. tat'im.

vagabond,
vague,
vain,
a.
a.

a.

battal.

mubhem.
;

she'if (sha'if) hal-uh

mu'ijib bi nefs-uh; in vain,

ad. batilan; 'abes.


valid, a. sher'i
valley, n.
;

sahih.
p.

wedi
a.

widian.

valuable,
value,
n.

temin.
;

temen

v.

a.

btemmin, temment, tenimin

p.p.

mtemmen.
valve, n. birghi.

vanish, v. n. [y^ per-) bizul, zal.


vanity, n. butl.

vapour,

n.

bukhar.
;

variable, a. muta"allib

mutaghaiyir.
mukhtilif.

variety, n. p. shikel; anw'a.

various,

a.

mutnoww'i

varnish, n. vernish.

vary,

v.

a.

bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir;

v.

n.

bitghaiyir,

tghaiyert.

VOCABULARY.
vase, n. we'a (vva'a) p. awe'i.
vast, a. fasih
;

29

wes'i.
;

"abu p. u"bwi vaulted, a. me"bi.


vault, n.
veal, n.

{tomb) "abr p. "ubur.

lahm

'ijl.

vegetables {vegetatio7i), n. khudra.


veil,

n.

mendil

p.

menedil; xvonians zvhite

veil,

izar p.

yizr.
veiled, p.p.
z'^/;/,

miyezzer; mghatta.
p.
'iru".

n.

'ir"

vellii))i,

n.

ri" ".

velvet, n.

venerable,

makhmal. a. muhtcram
a.

wa"ur.

venerate, v.

behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim.

vengeance, n. inti"am.
venison, n.

lahm

said.

venom,

n.

semm.
a.

venomous,

msimm; sam.
bhowwi, howwait, howwi
p.p.

ventilate, v. a.

mhowwa.

ventilation, n. tehwiyi.

ventilator, n. nefida p. nawefid.

venture,

n.

{cliance)

sudfi p. sidaf; fursa p. furas; (risk)


v.

khatr; mukhatera;
Venus, zahra
;

bkhatir, khatert, khatir

(fi).

veranda,

n.

{Queen of Beauty) melekit al-husn. rwe" p. rwe"at.


bil-lisen.

verb, n. f'el p. af'al.

verbal, a. shifchi

verbatim, ad. harfi bi harf.


verdigris, n. jinzar.
verification,
n.

tah"i".

verify, v. a. bha""i", ha" "a"t, ha" "i".

vermin,

n.

p.

hashrat.

292
verse, n.

ARABIC MANUAL.
bcyt
p.

abiyet.

very, ad. ktir.


vespers, n. salat al-ghurub.
vessel,
vest,
n.
n.

we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i "amis 'adi (tahteni).


dehliz.

[sliip)

merkeb

p.

merakib.

vestibule, n.

vestige, n. eter (asar) p. atar (asar); resm.

vestment, n. bedli p. bedlet;

liilli

p.

hilel.
;

veterinary surgeon,
vex, V.
a.

n.

beytar

p.

beyatara

tabib al-kheyl.

bkeddir, keddert, keddir.

vexation, n. keder.
vibration, n. ihtizez.
vibrate, v. n. {3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtez.

vicar, n. ne'ib (na'ib); wekil.


vice,
n.

rezeli
n.

p.

reze'il

{tool)

melzemi.

viceroy,

wali (weli).
(rizil)

vicious, a. razil

p.

arz^l.

victim, n. ferisi.
victor, n. ghalib p. ghalibun.

victory, n. ghaleba

nasr.

victuals, n.p. me'kulet.

view,

n.

manzar
tterraj

p.
'ala.

manazir

{opinion)

rai

v.

bitferrij,

tferrajt,
vigil,
n.

beramun.
nebih.

vigilance, n. intibeh.
vigilant, a.

vigour, n. "uwi; neshat.


vigorous,
vile,
a. a.

"owi

p.

awaiya; neshit
di'a

(ni'shit^.

razil

(rizil).

village, n.

dai'a (dey'a) p.

villager, n. fellah p. fellahin.


villain, a. shcrrir;

khabis

VOCABULARY.
villainy, n. sherr.

293

vindictive, a.
vine,
n.

ha"ud.
p.

'arishi

'arai'ish

(ursh); daliyi p. tlauali.

vinegar, n. khall.

vineyard, n. kcrni
vintage, n. "itaf.
violate
{a

p.

kurum.
v.
a.

promise),
;

bin"ud, na"adt, nu"ud kelem


;

p.p.
V.
a.

men"ud

bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab kelem


f.

{ravish)

bifdah, fadaht, p.p.

mafduha.

violence, n. shiddi;
violent,
violet,
a.
shi'ris.

"uwi.

n. n.

bncfsaji p. bnefsaj

colour,

lown

bnefsaji.

violin,

kamenja.

viper, n. af'a p. afe'i.

virgin, n. bikr p. abkar; 'adra p. 'adara; the holy virgin.


al-betul.

virtue, n. fadili.

virtuous,
visible,
visit,
a.

a.

fadil p.

afadil.

wadih;

zahir.
v.
a.

n.

ziyara p. ziyarat;

bzur,

zirt,

zur; visit a

sick person, v. bshi" ", sha""eyt, shi"" ('ala).

visiting-card, n. \vara"a p. wara".


visitor,
n.

zeyir

p.

zuwwar;

[guest)

daif

(deyf)

p.

diyuf.
vitriol,
n. n.
zaj.

vizier,

wczir
n.

p.

wuzera.
p.

vocabulary,
voice, n.

"amis

"awamis.

sowt

p. aswat.

void, a. khali.

volcano, n. burkcn p. berakin; jebcl nar.


volley,
n.
n.

tala".

volume,

mjellad

p.

mjelladet; (mass) mi"dar.

294

ARABIC MANUAL.
;

iwluntarily, ad. bil-ikhtiyar

tow'an

wa

ikhtiyaran.

voluntary, a. ikhtiyari.
volunteer, n. mutatow'i.

vomit, V.
vote, n.

a.

braj'i,

raj'at,
v.

raj'a;
n.

bintu", nata"t, ntu".

sowt

p.

aswat;

bsowwit, sowwatt, sowwit.

voiv,

n.

nezr; v. n. binzur, nazert, nzur.

vowel, n. hareki p. hareket.

voyage, n. sefer p. asfar.


vulgar,
a.

derij

{low)
p.

dun

a vulgar zuoman, mara dun.

vulture, n.

a"ab

u"ben.

w.
wad,
V. n.
a.

(cardboard) kartun (karton);


n.

(felt)

karton libbed

bihshi, hashait, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi.

wadding,
wager,
wages,
n. n.

hashwi.
ruhuni.

wafer, n. birsheni p. birshen. rahn


ujra
p.
(I'jra);

ma'ash.

waggon,

n.

karro p. karrat; tiimberu p. tmabir. (tunber

p. tnabir.

wainscot, n. hala"a.
waist, n. wast; khasr.

waistcoat, n. sidriyi p. sidari.

wait, V. n. bisbur, sabert, sbur; wait for, v.


intazert,
intizir;

a.

bintizir,

bintur,

natart,
;

ntur;

am

waiting

for you,
{serve),
v.

ana muntizir-ak ana natir-ak; zvait iipon a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum.

^vaiter,

n. sufraji.

VOCABULARY.

295

wake, V. n. bfi", fi"t, fi"; v. a. bfcyyi", feyya"t fcyyi"; bwa' 'i, wa' 'ait, wa' '1. mishwar; v. n. bimshi, mshit, tualk, n. shimm al-hawa mshi; zvalk about, v. a. bmeshshi, mcshshait. mcshshi.
;

walking,
tvall,

n.

meshi.
n.

walkingstick,
n.

'asa p.

'usi.

[of a

house)

hait p. hitan; {of a toiun) sur p.

as war (swar).
wallet, n. kis p. kyes; leathern zuallet, jirab.
zvalnut, n. jowzi p. jowz; walnut-tree, jowzi.

wander,

v.

n.

bjul,
;

jilt,

jul;
a.

bdur, durt, dur.


bihtej, ihtajt;
b'uz,
'izt.

zoant, n. ihtiyej

'azi;

v.
;

war, n. harb p. hurub t/iey are at war, 'amm biyitaharabu; beyn-hum harb; to declare war, bish-hur,
shahert, sh-hur al-harb.

ward,

n.

"asir p. "ussar.

w'arder, n. sejjen.

wardrobe,
warehouse,
wares,
n.
a.
;

n.

khizenit tyeb.

n.

makhzen

p.

makhazin.

bda'a

p. badaiy'i.
;

warm,

sukhn msakhkhan. warmth, n. defa.


ivarning,
n.

{of the body ) dcfien; (places) defi c. adfa (^c^i?^/^ bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, sakhkhin p.p. v. a.

zvarn, v. n. bnebbih, ncbbeht; ncbbih.

tenbih.

warship,
xvart,

n.

merkeb harbi
tawalil.
v.

p.

merakib harbiyi.
bghassil, ghasselt, ghassil;

n. teluli p. the^ n.
n.

wash,
V.

al-ghasil;

a.

bightisil,

ightaselt,

ightisil;

wash grain,

v.

a.

bsowwil, sowwelt, sowwil p.p. msowwal, waslierziwman, n. ghasseli.

; ; ,

296
ivasJi-Jiouse,

ARABIC MANUAL.
n.

bcyt al-ghasil,

zoashing, the, n. al-baiyad.


zuasp, n. zur"ta (zul"ta) p. zara"it.

waste, n. israf; b'aza"a; v.

a. bib'azi",

b'aza"t, b'azi" p.p.

mb'aza";
bitluf,

{money)

bideddir,

beddert,
{time)

beddir; {thmgs)
brovvwih, rowra"ib;

teleft,

tluf p.p.

metluf;

vvaht,

rowwih;
n.

bdaiy'i, daiy'at al-wa"t.


p.

zuatch,

se'a

se'at;

v.

a.

bra"ib,

ra"abt,

watchful,

(guard) bihrus, harast, hrus. a. muntibih.


n. haris
sirr

watchman,
water,

p.

hurras.

zvatchtvord, n.
n. mai';

al-leyl.

mai mai jeriyi; stagnant running mai hilvvi mai li shirb; fresh rakdi; drinking mai mai" berdi tepid mai melha cold salt ghaliyi mai boiling mai sukhni hot fetri
,
,

of water, 'ain p. 'uyun; neb'a; bibowwil, bowwelt, bowwil. zvatercolour, n. lown mai.
spring
zuaterfall, n. shellel (sheleli).

to

pass

watering-pot, n. reshsheshi

mreshshi.

waterproof,
zuaterworks,

n. n.

mshemm'a.
kombaniyit al-mai.
p.

wave,

n.
v.

mowji
n.

amvvej.

waver,

bitreddad, treddadt.

zvax, n. sham'a.

way,

n.

derb

p.

drub; tari" p. turu"

in

my way,

bi

derb-i.

we, pro. nahn (nahna).

weak,

a.

da'if

p.

da'af

c.

ad'af;

'aiyyen;

the

weak,

du'afa.

VOCABULARY.
weaken,
"uvvi.
v.
a.

297
bi"cllil,

bda'if,

da'aft,

da'if;

"allclt,

"ellil

weakness,
zvealtli,

n.

du'af.
scrvvi.

n.

ghina;

ivean, v. a.

biftum, fatamt, ftumi p.p. maftum.

zveaning, n. ftami.
tveapon, n. sleh (slah) p. esliha; a iveapon, "it'a sleh.

wear,

v.

a.

bilbus,

Ibist,

ilbiis;

wear

out,

v.

a.

bihri,

herait p.p. mihri; v. n.


mihtiri.
zvearisonie, a. mut'ib.

{y^

per.) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p.

weary,

a.

t'aben
n.

v.

a.

{y^

per-) biyit'ib, ta'ab.

weather,

ta"s.

tueathercock, n. duleb (dulab)

hawa

p.

dwelib.

bhaiyyik, haiyyekt, haiyyik p.p. mhaiyyak. we^ (spiders), n. ncsij al-'ankebut; beyt ar-rtaila.

weave,

v.

a.

weddijig, n. 'urs p. 'aras.

wedge,

n.

sfin p.
,

asefin.
al-arb'a.

Wednesday

nahar (yowm)

tveed, n. 'ushb ('ishb) berri p. zueek, n. jim'a p. jim'a.

asheb berriyi.

weep,
so

V.

n.

bibki,

bakit, bki.

zveigh, V. a. buzin, wezent, uzin p.p.

mowzun;

it

weigJis

and

so,

wazn-uh keza wa keza.


;

weight, n.

wazn
bir
p.

{0/ a scale) 'iyar p. 'iyarat.

ice/come, ad. ahla u sahla; yoti are welcome, anast.


zvcll,

n.

biyara;
;

a.

mabsut; ad. taiyib; mlih


v.

well done, ad. aferim


ta'afa;

get well,

n.

bit'afa,

ta'afeyt,

bsuhh, sahhait, suhh.


a.

well-bred,
tuell-off,
a.

asil;

kahail (kahcyl).

meysur.
n.

zoest,

the,

al-gharb

western,

a.

gharbi.

298
wet,
a.

ARABIC MANUAL.
mbellel;
v.
a.

bbiil,

bellait

(belleyt),

bill

p.p.

meblul;
whale,
n.

to be zvet, binbell,

inbelleyt; bitbellel, tbellelt.

hut

p.

hiten.

zvharf, n. bunt; zvharfage dues, ardiyi.


zvhat, pro. esh; shu; zvhatever,
zvheat, n.

eshma; mahma.

"amh;

hinta.

wheatmeal, n. tahin. wheel, n. duleb (dulab)


wheel-barrow,
11.

p.

dawelib

water-wheel, na'ura.

'ajilit

id.

tvhen, ad. aimtin; aimta (eymta); con.

halma

wa"t

illi
;

whenever, ay wa"t
;

limma; 'indama; wa"t illi.


;

where, ad.

weyn
;

feyn
;

[ivhither)

liweyn (leyn)
;

{whence)

mineyn (min weyn) li kon hais (heys)


not,

tvhereabouts,
;

weyn feyn whereas, wherever, weyn ma whether or


; ;

iza

ow

la

keyf
esh
illi
;

ma

wliich,

inter,

pro.

ken 'ala kull shu ay which


; ;
;

hal. one,

ay wehid

eni; relat. pro.

(halli);

whicliever,

illi

(halli).

while, con.

whip,

n.

limma; beynama. "amshi kirbesh.


;

whirlpool, n.

dowwara; derdur.
zowba'a (zoba'a). bwashwish, washwashi v. a.
;

whirkvind,
whisper,
whistle,
n.

n.

washwasht,
n.

washwish [and with


n.

ila).

sufaira

(sufeyra)

p.

swefir;

v.

bsowfir,

sowfert, sowfir; bsaffir, saffert, safQr,

whistling, n. white,
a.

safifir.
f.

abyad

baida (beyda).
a.

whitezvash, n. tarsh; v.

butrush, tarasht, trush.


;

who (whom),
illi

inter,

pro.

min

(ivhose)

li

min

relat. pro.

(halli);
n.

zvhoever, kill min; eymin.


al-kill
;

whole, the,

a.

sahih

kemil.

wholesale, n.

bey 'a bij-jumH.

VOCABULARY.
lijJiolcsome,
a.

299

suhhi.
n.

ivhooping cough,

sheh"a.

why, ad.
zuick,
n.

Icsh.
ftili

p.

fte'il.

wicked,
wide,

a.

sherrir.
n.

wickerwork,
a.

khaizeran
wes'i.

a.

mkhaizeran.

'arid;
a.

widen,

v.

bwass'a, wass'at, wass'i p.p. mwass'a.

widow,
zvife,

n.

armeli p. aramil; widower, armel.


'ard.
;

luidth, n.
n.

mara; zowji; {inoslcjii) hurmi bint 'amm-i hurmt-i.


;

my

zvife,

mert-i

wig,

n,

sh'ar 'aiyeri.
berri;

zvild, a.

wild

beast,

n.

wahsh

p.

wuhush.

wilderness, n. shol.
wilful, a. 'anid.
will, n. khatir; iradi
;

{testament) wasiyi ^. 6\y?;\y\;


;

make a

will, V. bwassi, wassait, wassi

b'aniil, 'amilt,

'amul wasiyi.

willing, a. radi; raiyid;

God

willing,

inshallah.

zvillozu, n. sufsafi p. sufsaf;

zveeping zvillow, sufsaf mist-hi.


;

zvin,

V.

a.

birbah, rbiht, irbah

v.

n.

bfuz,

fizt,

fuz.

witid,

n.

hawa
v.
a.

p.

ehwiyi
roll)

(strong wind) rih


leffeyt,
lifif

p.

rich

(riah);

(to

blifif,

p.p.

melfuf;

(a watch) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir p.p.


windfall, n. la"iyi.
zuinditig, a.

mdowwer.

ma'arwaj

zoindings (of road or river) leftet

u 'owjat.
zvindow, n. shubbek p. shbcbik.
zi'ine,

n.

imbid
n.

zuineglass,
zvi)icpress,

khamr. "adah p. "deh ("dah); kes


;

p.

keset.

zving, n.

m'asera p. ma'asir. jcnih (jinih) p. jwenih.


n.

300
zvink, n.
at,

ARABIC MANUAL. ghamaz; v. n. bighmuz, ghamazt, ghmuz zvink (overlook) bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr 'an.
; ;

zinnner, n. ribhan

ghalib p. ghalibun.

luinnozu, v. a. bderri, derreyt, derri p.p. mderra.

luinnoiving shovel, n. midraiyi.


zointer,
n.

shita; to spend the winter, v. n. bshetti, shettlie

teyt, shetti;
zoipe,
V.
a.

bimsah,

season of ivinter, n. shltwiyi. masaht, msah {dry) bnashshif,


;

nashshaft, nashshif.
zoire, n. shrit.

zvisdoni, n.
zvise,
a.

hikmi.

'a"il.

zuish,

n.

iradi;

v.

a.

and

n.

brid,

ridt,

rid;

v.

n.

bit-

menna, tmennait, tmeniia.


zuit,

n.

zeka

(zika).

zuith,

pr. m'a.

zuithdrazu, v. a. bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bis-hab, sahabt,


is-hab.
zoither,
v.

n.

(31^

per.)
;

biyidbal,

dibil;

biyibes,

yibis;

zvithered,
zuitliers,
zvitliin,

debblen
kitf.

yebis.

n.
n.

juvvwa; pr. dekhil.

zvithout, pr.
n.

bidun; bila (bela); con. bidun ma;

[outside)

berra; pr. kherij.


a.

zvithstand, v.
zvitness,
zvitty,
a.

b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim.


p.

n.

shehid

shuhud.

zeki

(ziki).

vuolf,

n.

dib p. diyeb.

zjuoman, n.
zjuonib,

n.

mara p. niswen rahm p. arham.


a.

hurmi

p.

harim.

zuonder, n. 'ajab; zuonder at, v. n. bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt (min).

zvonderful,

'ajib.

VOCABULARY.
ilw'nt,

30

zvo'nt,

ma
wood
zvool,

biyiswa;

ma ma

bcdd-i (bidd-ij;
biyinfa.

ma

brid

it

wo'tit do,

ivoody n. (for building)


cock,
n.

khasheb; (for fuel) hatab.


djej

djcjit arc! p.

ard.

wooden, min khasheb.


n. n.

suf p. aswaf.

word,

kelem; word for word, kilmi wehdi al-hasil; word of command, amr p. awemir to give 07ie sword, V. n. bu'id, wa'adt, wu'id (wu'ud) to keep one sword, V. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz al-w'ad to break one's zvord,
kilmi
p.

kilmet

c.p.

kilmi

bi

kilmi;

/;/

zi'ord,

bi

V.

a.

biksur, kesert al-w'ad.


n.

work,

shighl

(shughl);

hard

zvork,

shighl
;

shtaghalt, shtighil

work of art, shighl da"i"; sha""; kedd; v. n. bishtighil, at work, meshghul; fi shighl.
p.
fa'ali.

zvorkma)i, n.

fe'il

(fa'il)

workshop,
world,
the, n.

n.
n.

dikken
p.
be,

p.
;

dekekin.

al-'alam

ad-dunia
(31^^

(ad-di'niyi).

worm,

dudi

dud;
v. n.

susi p. sus.

zvormeaten, to

per. bisowwis,

sowwas

p.p.

msowwis. worry, n. t'ab; "ala"


worse,
a.

v. a.

bdajjir, dajjcrt, dajjir.

irda

the tvorst, al-arda.

ivorship, n. 'ibcdi.
wortli, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; ivhat is
it zcortJi
.-

shu biyiswa; "add esh "imt-uh.


worthless, ad. bila "imi.

worthwhile,

to be,

v.

n.
;

{y^ pei'O biyihriz.


ahl.

worthy,

a.

mustahi" "
jurh
p.

zvonld that, inshallah.

wound,

n.

juruh

(juruha);

v.

a.

bijrah, jeraht,

jrah p.p. mcjruh; to be wounded, binjerah, injcraht.

302

ARABIC MANUAL.

luoven (stuffs), n. p. mensujet.

zurap (up),
ivrappcr,
n.

V.

a.

blift",

lefifeyt,

liff

p.p. melfuf.

lefefi

p.

lefe'if;

ghlef (ghlaf).

tvreath, n.

iklil

p.
v. v.

ekelil.
n.

wrecked,

to be,

{y^

per.) biyinkisir, inkesar.


sar'i

wrestle {with),

n.

bsar'i, sar'at,

(m'a).

ivrestling, n. msara'a.

zvretched,

a.

ta'is;

meskin.

zurmkle, n. j'adi p. j'adet. wrinkled, p.p. mja'ad.


lurist,
n.

resigh, p. arsegh.
a.

write, V.

biktub, katabt, ktub p.p. maktub.

zvriter, n. ketib.

zuriting, n. kitebi.

wrong,

n.
;

darar p. adrar;

v. a.

bdurr, darrait, durr, p.p.


;

madrur to be wronged, bindarr, indarrait a. mukhti yon are zijrong, al-ha"" 'aleyk; inti mukhti; // is zvrong, haram; mush jeyiz; this is zvrong, haidi ghalat.

Y.
yacht, n. yakht.

yard,

n. [court)
n. ghazl.

dar

p.

dur; [jiieasure) zer'

pik (27 inches).

yarn,
vazun year,

(yazvning),

n.

mtewabi
'am
day,
p.

v.

n.

btewab, tewabt,
nezv year, sini

tewab.
n.
si'ni

p. snin

'awam; the
;

jdidi;

nezu

years

ras as-sini

last year, sint alsini

madi; 'am al-owwel; year by year, yearly, a. senewi; ad. senewiyen.


yeast, n. khamiri.

b'ad

sini.

VOCABULARY.
yellow,
yes,
a,

303

asfar

f.

safra p. sufr.
;

ad.

(superior to inferior), ey

eywah
;

(inferior to

superior,

and

yesterday, ad.

more politely) n'am ey n'am. imbereh tJie day before yesterday, owwelt
also
;

imberch.
yet, ad, b'ad
yield,
v. n.
;

not yet, lissa ma.

bikhd'a,

khad'at,

khd'a

bsellim,

sellemt,

sellim p.p.

mscllem.

yoti,

yoke (for oxen), n. nir p. niyara. pro. intum; you (your) pro.

suff.

kum;
n.

polite

form

of address, hadrat-ak.
yonng,
jeru
a.

zghir p. zghar
I'jriyi;

fiti

f.

fitiyi

[of an animal)

p.

young man, shebb


p. sabaiya.

p.

shibben

j'^/^^

ivoman, sabiyi
youth,
n.

yourself, (yourselves), pro. zet-kum.

ftuwa; aiycm as-siba.

z.
Zanzibar, zenjcbar.
zeal,
n.

ghiri.

zealous, a. ghaiyur.
zenith,
n.

owj.

zero, n.
zest,

sifr.

n. shehiyi.
a,

zigzag,
zinc,
n.

ma'arwaj.
signs of the zodiac, s\-hwxi\].

tutia.
;

zodiac, n. minta"at al-buruj


zone, n.

minta"a.

PART III. DIALOGUES.

DIALOGUES.
(THESE SENTENCES ARE IN THE DAMASCUS DIALECT).

Ordinary phrases.

inukaleuiet.

Good morning; goodnight,

nahr-ak sa'id; leylt-ak

sa'idi.

(nahr-ak sa'id mbarek).

How

are

you? goodbye.
that,

keyf hal-ak;
izn-ak)
;

khatir-ak

(bi

m'as-salemi.

Excuse me, give me


it

la t\vakhiz-ni,

haida

il-li 'ati-

is

mine.

ni yah.

cannot understand you, you speak too fast.

'ammel tist'ajil u ma li 'ammel i"dir ifham minnak.


inkan bt'amil m'aruf t'id
"ilt-uh.
illi

Please repeat what you said, Please speak slowly.

'amel m'aruf hki


ak.

'ala

mahl-

Can you French ?


Write
not

talk

English,

bt'arif tihki inklizi, franscwi.

it down please. What do you mean I do


?

ktib-ha 'amel m'aruf.

shu m"anat-ak,

ma

li

fahman

know what you

say.

shu 'ammel t"ui.

3o8

ARABIC MANUAL.
well
;

Very

thank you.

am

ktir

mlih
ktir

kettir khair-ak

much

obliged to you.

ana

memnun-ak;
'a Itaf-ak) lit:

(ana

ghari"t

I am

drozvned in your kindness.

Never
I

mind,

it

does

not

ma
ana

biseyl.

matter.

am very sorry you are going (that you went). Please tell me your name.
Where do you live? What o'clock is it
?

ktir z'alen 'ala

rewah-ak

(illi

ruht).

btahubb tkeUif khatir-ak wa


t"il-li

shu ism-ak.
as-se'a.

weyn

(feyn) sekin.

"add esh
sham.
dir bel-ak
'ala

When

do you leave for Damascus Take care driver; go slowly;


?

eymta bidd-ak

ttsherrif lish-

go

faster

stop.

ya 'arabaji; mshi mahl-ak (su" shwayi


st'ajil;
'a

shwayi);

wa"

"if.

Turn

to the right, to the left.


;

'a

yemin-ak,
la

shimal-ak.
irj'a.

Go on

wait here

till I
1 1

return.

su"; ntur hon hatta


rj'a

Return for me p. m.

at

o'clock

'and-i se'a

hid'ash

How
Tell

far is

it

min 'ashiyi. "add esh biyibe'id min hon.


see
"ul-luh yiji yishuf-ni al-yom.

him
her

to

come and

me
Tell

to-day.

not to

buy the
you that
to
tell

(f.)

"uli-la la tishtri aj-jurnel.

newspaper.
I

told
I

them to was out.


tell
?

tell

"ilt-il-lum ta y"ulu-lak in-ni

kintberrat al-beyt (ghaiyib).

Did they

you
to

"alu-lak ta t"ul-li heyk.

me
I

that

told

the

tailor

make

"ilit

lil-khaiyyat

y'amil-li

me

a coat.

saku.

DIALOGUES.
She told the groom not
ride the horse.
to

309

"alet lis-sa'is in-nuh la yir-

keb
"al

al-hisan.

He

you were going to church and not to the


said

in-nak

raih
lis-su".

lil-kenisi

wa mau
ana
z'alen

bazaars.
I

am

sorry

he

has

gone
to

(zi'ilt)

illi

rah

away.
I

(sehr).

am

glad he has

come

ana inbasatt

illi

ija yishuf-ni.

see me.
I

wanted to see you yesterday.

kint bidd-i ishuf-ak imberch.

Tell
to

her to

tell

the
I

cook the meat him last night.


I

cook gave

"ul-la t"ul lil-ashji ta yishwi

(yitbukh) al-lahm

illi

'atait'as-

uh yah imberch min


hiyi.

beat him well because he did not come when I


called

darabt-uh ktir
illi

li

kun wa"t

nadaht

il-luh

ma

ija.

him.

dismissed

my

servant be-

"al'at
li

(shahatt)

khiddcm-i

cause he would
If

not do what I told him. you do not do what I tell you I shall have to look for some one else. did not let him go on the journey.

ma
lak

kun illi "ilt-il-luh yah kan y'amil-uh.

iza kint

ma
yah

bt'amil

illi

bi"'il-

bfettish

"ala

ghair-ak.

ma
ana
mil

khallait-uh yiscfir.

am

very late

must go

t'owwa"t

ktir

lazim

home at once. You ought not'


I

ruh 'al-beyt halla".

to have done so without my leave. saw the soldiers coming

kan lazim tsawi hc\-k


al-'asker jei

bila izn-i.

shuft

min

al-

from the barracks.

"ishli".

3IO
I

ARABIC MANUAL.
sma'at
al-'asker

heard the military band


playing in the street.
I

'ammel
shem-

idu" "al-musika fid-derb.

When
I

entered the house

wa"t
wa"t
illi

illi

fitt

lil-beyt

smelt a disgusting smell.


as you have finished work I gave you,

mait riha keriha.


illi

As soon
the
tell

btkhallis ash-shighl

'atait-ak

yah

"il-li.

me. Directly you arrive go and


see him.
I

owwel
da"

ma

btusal

ruh

li

'and-uh u shiif-uh.
sidr-i

can no longer bear him.

min-nuh

(min

ihtimel-uh).

Close the door which leads


into the garden.
I

sekkir al-bab halli biyinfud


lij-jneyni.

should have been glad to

have seen you yesterday. hoped you would have I come last week. He was well the last time I saw him. As soon as he comes send him to me. I recollected it w^hen it was
too
late.

low kint shuft-ak imbereh kint ibkun mabsut.


t'immelt
fi

in-nak

kint

btiji

jim'at al-madi.

ekhir hatta

marra
yiji

shuft-uh

kan

taiyib.
b'at-li

yah.

ftunt

fih

wa

lakin

mada

al-wa"t.

Travelling by train.

sefer fil-babor.
ija

Has the
arrived

train
?

from Beirut
the

al-babor min beyrut.

Please

tell

me when
train

Damascus
It will

arrives.
late to-

probably be

m'ardf "il-li eymta babor ash-sham byiji. biyit' al-yom al-ghalib


'amel

day.

owwa".

DIALOGUES.

311
bisafir lish-

When
for

docs the train leave

cymta al-babor
shani.
kill

Damascus

Every mornini^

at 7 a.

ni.

yom

'ala

bukra

sc'a

scb'a "abl ad-dohr.

Where
I

is

the station master


to speak to
?

fcyn mudir al-mhatta bidd-i


ihki

want

himr

m'a-uh.
bidd-ak.

Where is my place How many places do you


require
I
?

feyn matrah-i.

kam matrah
ana wahd-i.

am
to

alone.

want a

first-class

ticket

bidd-i i"t'a bil-brimo

li

ila

want a second
for

class ticket

bidd-i

wara'Mt sekondo

my

servant.

khadim-i.

What
I

luggage will you take


in the carriage
?

shu m'a-ak hmuli


m'a-i

('afshj.

with you
will take

my bag with me and you can put the rest


in the

shanta

wa

al-ba"i

btahutt-uh m'a

al-'afsh.

luggage van.

Please register

my

luggage.
?

'amel m'aruf sokur-li hmiult-i.

Where do we

stop for lunch

feyn

biwa"

"if al-babor

lil-

ghada.

What
Is

is
?

the

name
first

of this

shu ism hal-mhatta.


hai

station
this

your
?

visit

to

owwc! marra
ana
jit
li

jit lis-suria.

Syria

have been in Beirut before but I have never visited the Lebanon. The view is very fine.
No,
I

la,

bey rut "abl


lissa

hal-marra

lakin

ma

ruht lil-libnan.
al

manzar hulu
di'a)
ktir.

(jemil) (be-

Where

is

Mt. Hermoii

fcyn jebel ash-sheykh.

312

ARABIC MANUAL.
do we reach Mallaka ? 12 and leave

When

eymta
mnusal

mniisal lil-m'alla"a.
se'a

We
at

arrive at
12.30.

tn'ash franjiyi

(ad-dohr)

wa mnimshi

b'ad

Will you go to Baalbek?

ad-dohr nuss se'a. btruh la ba'albek.

What

is

the cost of a car-

riage to Baalbek from the


station
1 ?

"add esh biakhadii 'al-'arabiyi min al-mhatta la


ba'albek.

5 I

francs

it

is

too much,
12.

khamst 'ashar frank


ktir

will give

you

haida ana b'ati-k tn'ash bes.


;

will leave

my

luggage at

ana

bitruk

hmult-i

fil-

the station.

mhatta.

How many
Please
drive

hours
to

does

it

kam
bek
'amel

se'a

min hon
li

li

ba'al-

take to drive to Baalbek?


the
hotel

bil-karrosa.

m'aruf su

lokanda

Palmyra. Take the luggage to my room.

Tidmur.

khod
nesit

al-'afsh la udat-i.

You have

forgotten

my box,
it.

sandii"i

ruh

dowwir
ba'albek

please go and fetch

'aleyh 'amel m'aruf.

We

spend the night Baalbek and return at next day to Mallaka, in


will

minnam
u

al-leyli bi

mnirja

teni

yom
nilha"

lil-

m'alla"a

hatta

al-

order to catch the train


to

babor lish-sham.
al-karrosa hadra inkan bidd-

Damascus.
carriage
is

The
you

ready,

if

train

want to catch the we must start at


(in

ak

tilha"

at-tren

lazim

mnirkab halla" (b'ad nuss


se'a).

once

half an hour).

Please bring

me

the

bill.

'amel

m'aruf

jib-li

"a'imit

al-hisab.

Can you give me change


for a lira?

bti"dir tisrif

li

lira.

DIALOGUES.

313
(t'(ns\\a"tj

You
for
I

arc too early (too late)

bekkirt
at-tren.

ktir

'a

the train.
for three

want a carriage
persons.

bidd'i

karrosa

tis'a

tlet

ashkhas
hutt
al-'afsh

Put the luggage in the carriage, be quick.

bil-karrosa,

st'ajil.

Arrival at

tJic

Jiotel.

al-zvushl lil-lokanda.
is

Can you
I

tell

me which
?

bti"dir

tkhabber-ni eni

lo-

the best hotel

want a sitting-room and two bed-rooms. What do you charge a day for the three rooms? Twelve francs a day each
person, including meals.
will dine in my own room, Let us have dinner immediately wx want to go to bed early. Light the fire in the sittingroom. I want a hot (cold) bath.

kanda ahsan. bidd-i matrah lil-isti"bal wa matraheyn lil-menami. "add esh bidd-ak 'ala haltlet matarih kuU yom.
bidd-i
kull

itn'ashar

frank

'ala

wahid kuU
fill

yom
udt-i.

bi

ma
I

al-akl.

ana bitghadda
bidd-na
sha'il

bi

khalli-na nitghadda

"awam

nam

bekkir.

an-nar

bi

udat

al-

ma" 'ad. bidd-i ham mam sukhn


rid).

(be-

If

you take the rooms by


the

arkhas

iza

kint

btakluid

month

it

will

be

al-uwad

bi shahri\-i.

cheaper.

The bed

is damp, please change the sheets.

al-fershi rutbi

inkan bt'amil
ash-sha-

m'aruf
rashif.

tghaiyir

314
Call

ARABIC MANUAL.

me

at

five o'clock to-

fe}')'i"ni

se'a

khamsi

'ala

morrow morning, we want


to visit the bazaars.
I

bukra
fis-su".

bidd-na ruh
teni

ndur
(hram

want another

pillow, (an-

bidd-i
teni).

mkhaddi

other blanket).
I

want a candle, hot water,


a towel, a lamp.

bidd-i

sham'a, mai sukhni,

manshfi, dow.
di" "aj-jaras.
lamm'atil-li
li

Ring the bell. Have you cleaned my boots, bring them to me.
]Vith a

saramit-i,

jib

yaha.

dragoman.
?

vi\i at-terjnuian.

Are you a dragoman

terjuman

inti

(terjuman ha-

drat-ak).

What do you
I

charge a day

"add
kull

esh

btakhud min-ni

yom.

charge 6 francs a day.

bidd-i kull

yom

sitti

frankat.

Do you man
?

recommend
he
is

this

shu

bt'arif

'an haz-zalemi,

mlih.

Yes
I I

sir,

honest and

n'am ya
shatir.

sid-i

hui

amin u

intelligent.
shall

remain here a week.


to visit the bazaars,

want
the
walls

ana bidd-i ib"a hon jim'a. bidd-i dur fis-sia" wa ruh


'aj-jawem'i

mosques,

the

town
for

wa
li

shiif

as-

and
in

to

go

drive

the

neighbourinto

bil swar wa karrosa hawal al-beled.

dijr

dura

hood.

Damascus
three
Christian,

is

divided

ash-sham
harat

ma"sumi
hara

li

tlet

quarters,

Moslem,

lil-islam

and Jewish.

hara

lin-nasara

wa wa hara

lil-yahud.

DIALOGUES.

315

The

Christian

and Jewish
of

harat

an-nasara wal-yahud

quarters are very dirty.

The

streets

Damascus

wiskha ktir. z"a"at ash-sham daiy"a u


m'atmi.
al-"ara

are narrow and dark.

The The
It

citadel

stands at the

hakimi
al-amwi
luh
'ala

bi

"afa as-

back of the bazaars.

swa".
is

Omeiyad

mosque

aj-jem'i

bidall tul

open aril day. is approached by a door


leading out of the booksellers'

an-nahar maftuh.
biyinfeth
illi

min

al-bab

bitull

su" bcy'an

bazaar.

al-kiitub.
bi

In the centre of the court-

wast ad-dar an-nofara.

yard

is

the fountain.

The mosque
narets.

has three miof the bride,

aj-jem'i fih tlct

mawadin.
al-

The minaret
minaret.

al-wahdi ism-ha mednit


'arus
'isa

of Jesus and the western

wa wa

at-teniyi
at-telti

mednit

al-medni

al-gharbiyi.

We

want

to

climb

the

bidd-na

nitl'a
fi

lil-medni al-

western minaret, there is a fine view from the


top.

gharbiyi

min fo" man-

zar zarif ktir.

We
of

will drive to the gates

bidd-na
ferraj

nitl'a

bil-karrOsa

li

the

God and we meydan on

shall see

bawwabt
bi

allah

wa mnit'al

the way.

derb-na

al-

Saladin's

tomb is a handsome building near the


great mosque.
a
cele-

midan. fi "abr zarif

li

salah ad-din

"iddam
fi

aj-jem'i al-amwi.

The Sinanieh has


brated minaret.

medni mcsh-hura
as-sinani\'i.

bij-jemi

3i6

ARABIC MANUAL.
de-

The Khan Asad Pasha


serves a
visit.

khan as'ad basha


al-firji.

biyistihi"

"

What

is

that building,

hill,

shu hal-'amara,

hat-tell, haz-

street,

house

z"a", hal-beyt.

You must be

here at 8 to-

bukra
niyi

'ala

bukra

se'a

tme-

morrow morning.
Very good,
punctual.
sir,
I

franjiyi

lazim tkun

hon.
will

be

'ala ras-i

ya

sidi

bukra

se'a

tmeniyi
'and-ak.

tamam

bkun

Where

is

the silversmiths',

feyn su" as-siyagh, assrujiyi,


su

saddlers' sweet, shoe-makers' bazaar


?

"al-halawiyat,

al-kin-

derjiyi.

Where
Is this

is

the straight street?

feyn z"a" al-musta"im.


biyinrah

the
?

way to the eastern


is

min

hon

li

bab

gate

ash-shar"i.

The

lepers' hospital

out-

khastakhanit
feyn

al-ma'atalin

side the eastern gate.

berrat bab ash-shar"i.

Where
pital
?

is

the English hos-

khastakhanit
al-"assa'.

al-inkli-

ziyi.

On

the Aleppo road.


,

'ala tari"

N.B. (Kassa
Please take

the naine

of
bitrajja-k
ila

a fountain on this road).

me
the

to the Brit-

in-nak takhud-ni
al-inkliz,
lil-

ish Consulate, the railway

kunslato

station,

post-office,

mhatta
lil-bosta,

at-tren
la

(as-sikki),

the telegraph-office.
there an English church

mahall

at-

tilaghraf.
Is
fi

honi kenisi inkliziyi.


feyn beyt al-hakim.

here

Can you

tell

me where

the

bt'arif

doctor lives?

lUALOGUES.

J'/

Whose house is this Knock at the door, s^'o Go straight up the hill. The Russian Consulate
?

in.

H min hal-be)-t. du""al-bab u fut


tl'a

ftfaddal).

dughri

il

al-jebel.

is

kunslato Rusiya hakimi bcrrat al-beled.

outside the town.

Bosta tea
Post-

vialuill at-

and

Tclcgrapli-office.

tilagliraf.

When
for

does the post leave

eymta

al-bosta

bitsafir

li

England
post

Inkilterra.
dail}'

The

leaves

for

kull }'om

fi

bosta

ila

bcyuit.

Beirut.

Letters

reach

England

in

al-mektub bidd-uh
'ashert
li

hikai\-it
yu.sal

about ten days.

iyam hatta
bitusal

Inkilterra.

When
Once
Please

does
a week.

the

English

eymta
inkliz.

bostat

al-

mail arrive.

kull
this
letter

register

kellif khatir-ak

jum'a marra. sokur


'at-ni fih

li

hal-

and give me a receipt. Give me twelve 20 para stamps (i piastre stamps) and five 2 piastre stamps.

mektub wa
'ati-ni

itn'ashar

buli

wash min

shiyat al-"emeri (min shial-"irsh) wa khamsi min bta'at "irsheyn. khud hal-meketib 'al-bosta

yat

Take these

letters

to

the

post and stamp them.

wa
s'el
li

hutt 'aleyhum al-bul.

Ask whether
arrived.

the post has

izakan

I'jit

al-bosta.

Are there any

letters

for

fi

il-li

shi

meketib.

me

3i8
Please

ARABIC MANUAL.
send
this

telegram

cli""'il-li

dakhl-ak
li

hat-tila-

to Beirut.

ghraf

beyrut.
bil-inklizi.

Can

telegraph in English?
is

be"dir du" "-uh

What

the cost per word

"add esh

bitkellif al-kilmi.

Presenting a

letter

of
to" dim mektiib tbsiyi.

introduction.
Is
it

far

to

the
r

house

of

be'id beyt al-khowaja fulan.

Mr No sir,

so and so
it

will

take three

la

minutes in a carriage. Drive to Mrs so and so's


house.

ya sid-i bidd-uh da"ayi" bil-karrosa.


li

tlet

khud-ni

beyt

as-sitt fulani.

Go and

fetch

carriage,

ruh jib karrosa

wa na"

"i-ha

choose a good one.


Close the carriage,
it is

tkun mliha.
cold.

sekkir
berd.

al-karrosa

ad-diniyi

C)pen the carriage,


Is

it is

hot.

ftah al-karrosa

fi

shob.
biyilta"a
fulani

Mr
and

so

and so (Mrs so

al-khowaja
fi

fulan

so) at

home?
out.
?

beyt-uh
ila

(as-sitt

bitilta"a fil-beyt.

No

sir,

he
will

is

la

tili'a

berra (ghaiyib).

When

he return

eymta

byirj'a.

Not before dinner (mid-day). Give him this letter and my card and tell him I
will
call
a.

ma

byirj'a lid-dohr.

'ati-h

kart

hal-mektub wa halu "il-luh bukra se'a


franjiyi

to-morrow

at

'ashra
li

bitsherrif

10 Tell

m.

'and-uh.
in-ni

him I was sorry to find him out {that I could


not meet him).

khabber-uh
illi

tkeddert

ma

"edirt ijtim'a fih.

DIALOGUES.

319

Very good.
Please give him this letter

taiyib (mlih).

'amel m'aruf 'ati-h hal mek-

and ask

if

he

will see nie.

tub
sar

wa shuf inkan
zeman
jit

be'Vlir

shuf-uh.

How
I

long

have you been


the
?

lak

(eymta

here?
arrived

sherraft.

day before

sar

li

yomeyn

(tsherrafna

yesterday

How
It is

do you

like

Damascus?

a very interesting town.

min ow^welt imbereh). inshallah habbeyt ash-sham, ash-sham beled muhimmi.


wiskha
ktir u harra ktir.

It

is

very dusty and very


long do you propose
?

hot.

How
I

"add esh
bi
fikr-i

fikr-ak

tduU hon.

to remain here

want
it

to

make

a journey

safir la

Tidmur.
la la

to Palmyra.
Is

possible to drive the

bitisal
(f i

al-karrosa

honik
honik).

It

whole way in a carriage ? will take you five days.


should
also
visit

derb karrosa
in-nak

bidd-ak khamsit iyam.


daruri

You
It

Mt.

truh

li

jebel

Hermon.
will

ash-sheykh.
bi tlet

not take you more

lyam btusal

ila

honik.

than three days. You should see the sunrise or sunset from the top
of the mountain.

lazim in-nak tshiif ash-shems

There

are

some pleasant

drives in the neighbour-

keyf bititl'a wa keyf bitghib min ras aj-jebel. fi matarih zarifi bi "urb ash-sham li shemm alii

hood

to

Dummar,

Sal-

a wa

mitl

dummar

was-

hiyeh and elsewhere,,

salhiyi

wa

ghair-uh ghai-

rat-uh.

Damascus

is

not an unheal-

hawa ash-sham

bis-seyf

mau

320

ARABIC MANUAL.
'atil lakin-ha mishubi (ma an-nuh ash-sham fi-ha shob bis-seyf hawa-ha mau

thy place in summer though it is rather hot.

redi).

Most
at

of the

foreign

resi-

aktar

al-ajanib
la

biruhu bis-

dents spend the

summer
Le-

seyf ya
la

bludan

yimma

Bludan or

in the

libnan.

banon.

Visit to a curiosity shop.


I

ziyara
bidd-i

li

niaklizen al-antikat.

want to purchase a

few-

souvenirs of Damascus.

akhud li kam shaghli min ash-sham hatta tib"a


m'a-i mitl tezkar.

Look and
would
pets,

see

like,

what you we have carsilver

fi

'and-na sijjad
ghal

wa nahas
ashti-

men"ush wa 'and-na

brassw^ork,
inlaid

fudda u shughl

work and

motherfine

ta'im shuf shu bturid.

of-pearl work.

You
tiles

can

find
silk

some

biyilta"a
'aal

fish-sham "ishani
titriz

and

embroide-

u shughl

(harir

ries here.
I

mtarraz) mu'eteber.
bidd-i towli

want a carved table and a few brass trays and


bowls.

meshghuli wa

kam
tasi

seniyi nahas

wa kam

ghma".

Please

show me a
inlaid with

brass

'amel m'arijffarrji-ni(arji-ni)
tasi nahas meshghiil 'aleyha fudda. hai 'aal wa na"sh-ha zarif wa mahfur 'aleyha kitebi

bowl
This
it

silver.

is

very
is

fine

one,

the engraving

well done,

has an inscription from

min al-kuran

ash-sherif.

the Koran.

DIALOGUES.
This work
sive
is

321

more expenthe

ash-shughl haida bikellif aktar

than

ordinary

min shughl an-nahas


shughl an-nahas
bi-

brass work.

al-'aadi.
is

Most of the brass work done by the Jews.

aktar

sow-uh al-yahud.
as-sawani al-mliha (al-ahsan

The

best trays are sent to

Egypt.
Tourists prefer to buy cheap
articles

ma

yakun) biyib'atu-ha

la

masr.

as-suwwah byifadcllu
yit

shrai-

and

these

are

al-bda'a ar-rkhi.sa

wa

made
them.
If

here

specially for

hai m'amuli

minshan-hum

makhsus.
izakan bidd-ak shi mlih ana
b'amil
aktar.

you want better work I can have it made for you


but
it

lak

lakin

bikellif

will cost

more.

Make me
Can
If
I

a folding tea table


tray.

'amil
tiiwi

li

towlit shay bitunseniyi nahas.

and a brass
see
it

wa

being

made

be"dir shuf-ha u hiyi 'am-

mel

tinshighil.

you will come to my workshop to-morrow afternoon you will see the tray being made.
first

iza jit

bukra b'ad ad-dohr


titferrij

lid-dukken

'ala

shughl as-seniyi.
bil-owwel minsubb an-nahas
bil-"elib
bisir
tasi

We
a

cast the brass in

mould and, when the bowl is made, we fill it


with pitch; the design
side
is

b'adeyn wa"t
mintelli-ha

illi

zift

then drawn on the outsharp

and carved with a instrument, and


ont with a hama nail.

beaten

b'adeyn mniktub 'ale}'ha kitebi min berra wa min"ush 'aleyha bi ali haddi tkun wa mnihfur 'aleyha bil-matra"a u mismar.

mer and

322
I

ARABIC MANUAL.
inlaid with

want a frame
small table.

bidd-i

birwaz

mta'am

mother-of-pearl

and

skemli.

What
cost

does this carved chair


?

"add

esh

al-kursi

al-hafir

bikellif.

Residence with a family.


I

al-ind'islLi

via
li

''aieli.

want to

find a family with


I

bidd-i

la""i

'ai'eli

iskun
t'al-

whom
Arabic.

can

pass

the

m'a-ha shitwiyi hatta

winter in order to learn

1am

'arabi.

Do you want

merely to have rooms in the house or will you take your meals with the family ? want to reside among I them and have my meals with them, so that I can hear them talk and learn the spoken Arabic. It is not the custom here
to

bidd-ak bes tiskun yimma bidd-ak kaman takul m'aha.

bidd-i iskun u akul

m'a-hum

hatta ism'a-hum keyf by-

uhku wa
ad-derij.

t'allam al-'arabi

ma
ma

fi

'adi

'and-na

in-na

receive strangers, our

ni"bel al-ghurb 'awa'id-na


mitl

habits are very different


to

'awa'id-kum

ma

yours

it

will

not be
to learn

tinbusit.

comfortable for you.


It
is

the only

way

ma

fi

ghair hat-tari" hatta

Arabic quickly.

t'allam 'arabi
?

"awam.
'ai'eli.

How am
I

to find a family

kif bidd-i la""i

will

enquire
will

among my
be
difficult.

ana

bi kull ferah bis'el lak

friends with pleasure but


I

sahab-i lakin bzunn in-nuh


s'ab.

fear

it

DIALOGUES.
I

323
in-ni

think

know
will

of a house

bzunn
b'ad

b'arif

bcyt

bi-

which
will

suit you,

we

wati"-ak

call

there

together

minruh al-yum ad-dohr sawa wa

this

afternoon.

minzur-uh.

Interviezv tvith the

head
tn'^abeli in' a raiyis al-aieli.

of a family.

Do you
I

understand what

fahmanhadrat-akshu
akhadt beyt kbir
'ilt-i

bidd-i.

require

have taken a house which


is

'ala

'ai-

too

large

for

my

fa-

vva be"dir bistaghni

and I can let you have two rooms. Can I have my meals with you?
mily,

lak 'an udateyn.

be"dir
m'a-ak.

bekol

bishrab
ekel-

Yes,

if

you are able


(there
is

to eat

iza bti'"dir tekol

min

our Arab dishes, you are

na ahla u sahla (ma fih


man'i).

welcome
jection).
I

no obas

do not mind anything


long as the house
is

clean.

have dinner at noon and supper at sun-set, and you can have coffee or anything else you require in the morning. Those hours suit me very well what are your terms
;

We

bihimm-ni in-nuh yeli kun al-beyt ndif. mnitghadda ad-dohr wa


shi

mnit'ashsha al-miighrib
izakan
shi

bturid

wa "ahwi ow
bukra

ghair-uh
lak.

*ala

minhaddir
al-wa"t
'aal

"add esh btu-

rid ash-shehr.

for the
I

month?
less

cannot take
francs a

than 200
I

ma

be"dir bakhud a"el min


frank
kull

month and

shall

mite\'n

shehr

324
gain very
be
I

ARABIC MANUAL.
little (///: /:>/^^?//

wa bkun
al-ghalib
tlet

ra'it-ak ktir.

treating yon

liberally).

shall

probably remain with you three months.


should
like

bu" 'ud

'and-ak

ish-hur.
li

to

come

to

iza jit

'and-ak bukra bi-

you to-morrow, will everything be ready?


Visit to a barber

kun

kull shi hadir.

'and al-Jialla".
"uss
il-li

Cut

my

hair; cut

it

short,

sh'ar-i; bidd-i-ha

zghir.

Do

not cut
it

it

very short.

la

tzaghghur-uh
li

ktir.

Leave
cut

long in front

and

khalli

it

short at the sides. a brush and a comb.

yah min "iddam tawil wa min 'al aj-jenab


zaghgher-uh.
firshaiyi u

Give

me
not

'ati-ni

musht.

Be

careful not to cut me.

dir bel-ak tijrah-ni.

Do
on

put

any pomade

ma

bidd-i riha taiyibi (dhun).

my hair. Wash my head.


Dry
it

ghassil
shall catch

li

ras-i.

well or

neshshif-uh taiyib ahsan


reshshih.
hh"li.

ma

cold.

Shave me.
Give me some soap and a razor and wil shave myself.
hot water,
I

'ati-ni

sabuni u

shwayit mai sukhni mijs u ana

behli" la hal-i.

Your

razor

is

blunt,

give

mus-ak
'ati-ni

mau madi
ghair-uh.

(hadd)

me

another.
this razor for

Sharpen

me.

sinn

il-li

hal-mus.

DIALOGUES.

325

In

tlie

cafe.

fil-'ahiiji.

Give

me

a cup of coffee.
it

'ati-ni

finjan "ahwi.

Do you want
I

with

or

bturid-ha

hilwi

yimma
sik-

without sugar?
prefer Turkish coffee with-

murra.

bhubb-ha 'osmalliyi bela


ker.

out sugar.

How much
Boy, bring
meats,

is

it?

mc

a few sweet-

a glass

of water

"add esh bturid. ya walad yib li shwayit hulu u kasit mai u hat as-sataranj.

and the chess-board.


Bring
I

mc

a narghilch.

bidd-i nefes (arkili).

should Hke aglassofarak

bidd-i

"adah 'ara" wa shwali

and a few pistachio nuts. Buy me a box of cigarettes, third quaHty, and give me a box of matches. Have you a newspaper?

yit fistu" (maza).

shtri

'elbit
tleti

sikarat

nu-

mero
fi

wa

'ati-ni 'elbit

shahat.

m'a-ak
turki
kull

jeridi.

The

Suria

is

printed
the

in

jeridit

suria

bitintib'i

bit-

Turkish and Arabic and


contains
all

wal-'arabi

wa

fiha

official

al-akhbar ar-resmiyi.

news.
I

am
me

tired

and want to

sirt

t'aben u bidd-i
li

irj'a 'al

return to the hotel, fetch a carriage.

al-lokanda jib

karrosa.

The waslierzvonian.

al-gliasseli.

How

soon can you let have my linen back?

me

cymta

btrijj'a

li

(awa'i) al-

baiyad.

;26
I

ARABIC MANUAL.
shirts besir,

cannot send the Thursday, fore

ma

be"dir b'at lak al-"um"abl

the

san

al-khamis

wa

other things you can have

ba"iyit al-awa'i bib'at lak

tomorrow.

yahum
ktir

bukra.

Very good, but you must promise to send them all on Thursday evening. Here is a list of my things
8 shirts.

mlih lakin bidd-ak tuin-nak tib'at-hum 'id-ni

kull-hum khamis

'ashiyi.

u hai "a'imit ighrad-i.

tmen "umsan.
seb'a "abbat.
tlet

7 collars.
3 pairs of socks. 12 pocket-handkerchiefs.

ijwaz jrabet.

itn'ashar

mahremi.

2 pairs of drawers. 2

kalsoneyn.

undervests.
ties.

6 white

You must
(I

put
the

plenty
shirts

of

starch in the shirt fronts.


like

well

"amiseyn 'adi. sitt "amtat ra"bi. neshshi li al-"umsan ktir (bhubb al-"umsan yekun nisha-hum ktir).

starched).

How much

do you charge?

"add esh bturid ijra (shu btakhud 'aleyhum).


bidd-i

20 paras a piece for everything.

eshrin
"ut'a.

misriyi

'ala

kuU

Dont leave

my

flannels to

la tkhalli al-flanella

tghubb
tdubb.

soak in the water it kes them shrink. Wash them quickly and

ma-

mai

ktir

ahsan

ma

ghassil-hum
tahutt
"ili

"awam
fil-mai.

wa

hang them out

to dry.

nshur-hum hatta yinshufu.


la

Don't put soda in the water.

DIALOGUES.

327

At
Please

tJie

shoemaker's.
a pair of

\jnd al-kiiidcrji.
'amel
m'ariif

make me

'amil

li

sir-

shoes.

maiyi.

Take

my

measure.
are too tight,

khod "iyas
hal-kiindura
li

rijl-i.

These shoes
they hurt
of black or

daiy"a bituj'a

my

feet.

rijl-i.

Do you want them made


brown leather ? Will you have them to button, lace or elastic sides?

shu

bturid

yekun

16n-ha

soda

ow
bi

safra.

bturid sawi lak yaha bi zrar

ow
bidd-i

shrit

ow

bturid-ha

mugheyt.
I

want high (low) heels and


thick (thin) soles.
pair

k'ab-ha
n'al

'aali

(wati)

wa
wants

smik

(khafif).

This

of boots

hal-kiindura bidd-a taslih.

mending.

The

soles (heels) are

worn

n'al-a (k'ab-a) mihtiri.

out.

Put on a new

sole.

hutt
fi

il-la

n'al jdid.

There are nails sticking up, knock them down. I want a pair of boot-laces and a pair of slippers.

mesamir nab"a du" "hum.


joz
shraiyit lil-kun-

bid-di

dura

wa

shahata.

At

the stationer

s.

^and bey' a al zvara'


'and-ak

Have

you

writing

paper,

wara"

kitabi

pens, envelopes, blotting-

"ilam

wa

mughallifat

wa wa

paper, pencils, indiarubber

and ink?

wara" neshshaf wa "ilam resas wa mahaivi wa hibr.

328

ARABIC MANUAL.
"add esh bidd-ak yekun "add-uh. arji-ni illi 'and-ak wa ana bna" "i.
al-wara"
bidd-i wara" akbar (azghar)

size writing paper do you require ? Show me what you have and I will choose. I want some larger (smaller) paper than this and some

What

envelopes to match.
I

will
it

take
in

this,

please wrap

min haida wa mughallifat 'ala "add-um. liff il-li yaha bidd-i hai
kellif khatir-ak.

Is

paper for me. there anything else you


?

up

bturid shi ghair-uh.

want
Yes,
ing
In
I

want some red

seal-

eywah
u

bidd-i sham'a
'arabi

wax and some

reed

"ilam

ahmar wa hibr
bista'-

pens and Turkish ink. Turkey they use sand


instead of blotting-paper.

as wad.
fi

belad al-'osmalli

melu
bidd-i

rami
jizdan

bedel

wara"
bij-

an-neshshaf.
I

want a pocket-book and


an account-book.

byinhatt

jeybi
the

wa

defter hisab.

Have you an almanac ? Where shall I send


parcel
?

'and-ak riznami.

liweyn akhud
hizmi).

ar-rizmi

(al-

Travelling.
I

as-scfer.

want a good dragoman

bidd-i

terjuman

mlih

illi

who knows
Palmyra.
This

the road to

biy'arif at-tari" la

Tidmur.

man

is

honest and

haz-zalemi
taiyib)

amin (hal-insan
la

his charges are moderate.

mau tamma'a.
Tid-

What

is our best way of going to Palmyra?

mneyn ahsan nruh


mur.

DIALOGUES.

329
arb'a

How much
You
you
It
is

will

it

cost,
?

we

nahna

shu

bidd-na

are a party of four

masruf.

can drive or ride as


like.

btahubb truh kiiaiyal wa in habbeyt btriih bil-karrosa (bil-'arabaiyi).

better

to

take tents

al-ahsan takhud m'a-ak khi-

with you.

yam.
al-ahsan

You

apply to the Governor for gendarmes,


should
will

in-nak tutlub min

al-wali in-nuh y'ati-k zabtiyi


fi-k.

two
I

be

sufiicicnt.

itneyn zabtiyi bike/hadir in-ni "addim

am
ses,
all

ready to provide horfood and tents for


the party.
start

wa ana
li

kull aj-jema'a al-kheyl

We

will

as

soon
all

as
ar-

wa al-akl m'a al-khij-am. metama waddabt kull shi


mnimshi.
bidd-na arb'at iyam
nisal
fi

you

have made rangements.

The journey
days.
first

will take four

hatta
leyli leyli

We

shall

spend the

night at Jerud, the

minnam owwel jerud wa at-teni


telit

second at Karyateyn, the third at Khan al-lebn and reach Palmyra on the evening of the fourth day. We must ride faster or it will be dark before we reach the place where we
are to sleep.

bil-'uriateyn

leyli

bi

khan al-lebn wa
al-masa mnisal

rab'i

yom

la

Tidmur.
"abl

ahsan

in-na

nist'ajil

ma ma
fih.

tmessi
nla"
"i

ad-diniyi

wa

matrah an-nam

The

horses

are

tired

we

al-khe)-l t'abit

ma mnc"dir
ninzel (nhow-

cannot galop. This is where we are to spend the night.

ntarid.

hon bidd-na
wil).

330
Put the horses

ARABIC MANUAL.
in the stable

hutt

al-kheyl

fil-yakhur

and see that they are properly fed and attended to. Have you a clean room ?
This
is

lahiz akl-un u tutmir-un.

'and-ak uda
hai
lakin

ndifi.
illi

the largest
it

room

akbar uwad

'and-i

We

have but dont want beds, we have them with us. We are hungry, will you
prepare us some dinner? can give you a chicken

has no beds.

ma

fi-ha firshat.

ma

bidd-na firshat 'and-na.

je'na bthaddir-na al-ghada.

bwaddib
shwayit

lak
riz.

ferruj

m'a

and some rice. The meat is not cooked enough, cook it a little
more.

al-lahmi ma-i mistwiyi sat-

wi-ha shwayit al-ukhr.

Send me the dragoman


soon as he returns.

as

wa"t
b'at
fi

il li

byiji

at-terjuman
sidd ash-shean-nar.

yah.
ktir

There

is

a great draught,

hawa
bebik

block

up
bed

the

windows
this

wa

sha'il

and
Put
ner,

light the fire.


in

my

corwill

hutt

il-li

fersht-i bi hal-"urni

the

dragoman
at

at-terjuman

binam

berra.

sleep outside.

We We

will

start

sun-rise

tomorrow,
will

see

that

the

bukra tlu'a ash-shems biddna nimshi shuf inkan ad-

horses are ready.

dawab

hadra.

have some coffee


eggs before

bidd-na "ahwi u beyd maslu" "abl

and

boiled

ma

nsafir.

starting.

Give a present to the owner of the house, he has been very obliging.

sahib al-beyt kan ktir

latif

m'a-na

'ati-h ikramiyi.

DIALOGUES.
Saddle the horses.
wallif
'al

33'
al-khcyl
f'al

ad-

dawab).

Tighten (loosen) the This bridle is too change it.

girths.

shidd

(hill)

al-hizcmct.

small

hal-ljam zghir bdil-uh.


hal-hisan

Does
is

this horse trip at all,

byisk'a

shi,

rak-

he

fast,

quiet,

lame

kid, hadi, 'araj.

The horse has lost have him shod.


I

a shoe

al-hisan

hafian

min

rijl-uh

al-wahd-i beytir-ha.

will

hold the horse while

ana bimsik al-hisan wa

inti

you load the mules. Make haste and pack up


the things,

hammil
st'ajil

al-bghal.

wa dubb

al-ighrad

we

are late.
?

t'owwa"na.

Can we
Yes,
Call
it

cross the river here


is

not deep and the


is

mne"dir nu"t'a an-nahr hon. n'am mau ghami" wa ajjisr

bridge

me
you
far

the

some way ofif. headman of


a

be'id.
li

'aiyit

(ndah

li)

'ala

sheyk
delil.

the village.

ad-dey'a.

Can

send
?

man

to

bte"dir tib'at m'a-na

guide us

How

is

it

to

Nebk?

"add esh min hon.

tib'ed

an-ncb"
lil-"uria-

How many

hours shall

we

kam

take to reach Karyateyn on horseback?

sa'a bidd-na teyn 'al-kheyl.

The

road

is

very

steep,

at-tari"

sair daiyi" u
tlu'a.

wa'ir

narrow and stony.

u kull-uh

Shooting.

as-seyd.

Which way does


lie
?

the wind

mneyn

jei al-hawa (al-hawa keyf hakim).

332
It
is

ARABIC MANUAL.
in

the North, which the South, the birds

al-hawa shimali
seyd.

'aal

'a

as-

is

excellent for sport.

It is in

al-hawa jenubi
halla"

wa

at-tuyijr
bij-jebel

will

now be up
sport.

in
will

the

bitilta"a

mountains, there

be

wa

as-seyd 'abes.

no

Have you got my


ges?

cartrid-

m'a-ak feshekat-i.

Have you loaded


the gun
is

the gun?

dakkeyt

aj-jift.

aj-jift

musli.

cocked.
jib al-klab.
fi

Fetch the dogs. There is a bird on your right (left). I have hit it. I have wounded it. There is a covey of partridges on the top of the
hill.

teyr

'a

yemin-ak (min

'a

shimal-ak). subt-uh.

jeraht-uh.
fi

ruff hijal bi ras aj-jebel.

Do you
went ?

see

where

they
the pig

shaiyif-un feyn rahu.

They have gone over


valley.

rahu min fo" al-wadi.


tall'a

Look

out,

there

is

beyn
al-klab

al-'alley"

fi

in the bushes.

khanzir.
khalli

Keep the dogs back, dont make a noise.


There he
is.

wara-na

la

tdowwij.

Here he

is.

leyk-uh honik. shahowki-h


hon.

Come

along.

He

is

wounded
it's

mshi
'ati-ni

ley-na,

injerah

ma

he cannot get away. Give me my knife, cut


throat.

byi"dir yuhrub.
mus-i, dbah-uh.

All right,

am

ready.

taiyi'b

ana hadir.

DIALOGUES.

333
djajit al-ard jibit.

How many woodcock


It

did

kam

you get? was too warm, wc could get no woodcock, we got five quail, a hare and
three duck.

kan shob
firraiyat

ktir

ma

"edirna

njib djaj ard, jibna

khamsi

arnab u

tlet battat.

We

saw a bear but

we

shufna dubb lakin

ma

"edir-

could not get near enough


to him.

na n"arrib
fi
j

la

nah-uh.

There are ibex in these hills. Take your rifle with you in case we see any big game.

bi

hal-jibal wa'al.

ib

m*a-ak barudt-ak mshcshberki

khani

shufna

wu-

hush kbar.
bi"ulu in-nuh
fi
fi
fi

They say
in
Is

there are gazelle

han-nawfdii

the neighbourhood.

ghuzlan.

there any
plain
?

game

in

that

seyd seyd

bi

haidak
fi

as-sahil.

The wood is full of game. Take the bag back to the


tent and prepare dinner,

fi

ktir

hirsh.

khod

al-kis

lil-kheymi

wa
b'ad

haddir al-ghada

wa

we
I

shall

be back

in

rub'a sa'a mnirj'a.


bidd-i
u"t*a

quarter of an hour.

want to cross over to the


other side of the stream.
the

li

haidak

aj-

jeneb min an-nahr.


inzel

Walk down
slowly.

mountain

min

aj-jebel

'ala

mahl-ak.
a good spring of
icy cold (chilfi

There

is

bi

k'ab-uh neb'a mu'e('aal).

water at the bottom.

teber
al-mai
tis"i

The water
ly)

is
till

mjeldi

(msa'"a)
"abl

la

wait
it

the sun gets

ad-dawab
ash-shems.

mil

on

before

you water

tutl'a

the horses.

ERRATA.
Page
'3.
3,

'atshcn

sJioiild be

'atshen.

58,
58.

23,

hid'ash

hid'ash.

26, vvehid
1,

wehid.

97. 97.
100,

fow "al-hadd fow "al-"iycs

fow" al-hadd.
fow"" al-"iycs.

2,

7, haniiyit

haniyit.
y,

103, 104, 104, 107,

21, irwet
2,

'irwet.

uda
d

uda.
)

10,

P-

29, instinbat
16,

istinbat.

233> 245.
317-

telmizp.telemiz
,

telmizp. telemiz.
serwi.
'ati-ni.

23, serur
18,
'at-ni
,

58 00778 9513

Ol^

UCSOUTHERf.

AA 000 668

329

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