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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank

for

Content Area Reading and Literacy


Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms

Seventh Edition

Donna E. Alvermann
University of Georgia

Victoria R. Gillis
University of Wyoming

Stephen F. Phelps
Buffalo State College

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Copyright 2013, 2010, 2007, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Instructors of classes using Alvermann/Gillis/Phelpss Content Area Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms, Seventh Edition may reproduce material from the Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for classroom use.

ISBN-10: 0-13-290726-7 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-290726-2

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Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process

CONTENTS
Lecture Notes Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process............................................................ 1 Chapter 2: Language, Diversity, and Culture......................................................................... 8 Chapter 3: Creating a Favorable Learning Environment ...................................................... 12 Chapter 4: Planning for Content Literacy ............................................................................ 16 Chapter 5: Assessment of Students and Textbooks.............................................................. 20 Chapter 6: Preparing to Read .............................................................................................. 23 Chapter 7: Reading to Learn................................................................................................ 26 Chapter 8: Increasing Vocabulary and Conceptual Growth.................................................. 30 Chapter 9: Reflecting on Reading........................................................................................ 34 Chapter 10: Writing Across the Curriculum ........................................................................ 37 Chapter 11: Studying and Study Strategies.......................................................................... 41 Chapter 12: Developing Lifetime Readers........................................................................... 45 Test Items Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................ 48 Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................ 50 Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................................ 52 Chapter 4 ............................................................................................................................ 54 Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................................ 57 Chapter 6 ............................................................................................................................ 60 Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................................ 62 Chapter 8 ............................................................................................................................ 64 Chapter 9 ............................................................................................................................ 67 Chapter 10 .......................................................................................................................... 69 Chapter 11 .......................................................................................................................... 72 Chapter 12 .......................................................................................................................... 75

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PREFACE
Organization of the Manual
This manual is designed to provide instructors with useful materials and suggestions for teaching a course with Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms, Seventh Edition as the primary text. It includes chapter overviews, lecture outlines, classroom activities, discussion starters, MyEducationLab activities, homework assignments, multiple choice or true-false and essay test items for each of the chapters. The manual is organized by topic, starting with overviews, lecture outlines, discussion starters and activities, and homework assignments in the first section. The next section contains the test items. Many of the suggested activities and discussion starters have been field tested by us or by one or more of our colleagues in content literacy education. There is at least one activity or homework assignment based on MyEducationLab video clips for each chapter. Test items are straightforward and are textbook dependent, thus reducing as much as possible the chance that students will be able to answer them based on previous experience alone. Our experiences have told us that materials prepared by others often have limited value in our own classrooms. We find that we usually modify activities to meet the circumstances of specific classes. Consequently, while we invite you to use this instructors manual fully, we also assume that you will adapt our suggestions liberally and develop additional materials that take into account your students and their specific needs, interests, and abilities.

Supplements for Instructors and Students


The following supplements comprise an outstanding array of resources that facilitate learning about content area reading and literacy instruction. For more information, ask your local Pearson Education representative or contact the Pearson Faculty Field Support Department at 1-800-526-0485. For technology support, please contact technical support directly at 1-800-677-6337 or http://247.pearsoned.com. Many of the supplements can be downloaded from the Instructor Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc. Help your students get better grades and become better teachers.

Instructors Manual and Test Bank


For each chapter, the instructors manual and test bank features chapter overviews, lecture outlines, classroom activities, discussion starters, MyEducationLab activities, homework assignments, and multiple choice, true/false, and essay test items. This supplement has been written completely by the text authors. (Available for download from the Instructor Resource Center at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.)

MyEducationLab
Proven to engage students, provide trusted content, and improve results, Pearson MyLabs have helped over 8 million registered students reach true understanding in their courses. MyEducationLab engages students with real-life teaching situations through dynamic videos, case studies and student artifacts. Student progress is assessed, and a personalized study plan is created based on the students unique results. Automatic grading and reporting keeps educators informed to quickly address gaps and improve student performance. All of the activities and exercises in MyEducationLab are built around essential learning outcomes for teachers and are mapped to professional teaching standards. In Preparing Teachers for a Changing World, Linda Darling-Hammond and her colleagues point out that grounding teacher education in real classroomsamong real teachers and students and among actual examples of students and teachers workis an important, and perhaps even an essential, part of training teachers for the complexities of teaching in todays classrooms.

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Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process

In the MyEducationLab for this course you will find the following features and resources. Study Plan Specific to Your Text MyEducationLab gives students the opportunity to test themselves on key concepts and skills, track their own progress through the course, and access personalized Study Plan activities. The customized Study Planwith enriching activitiesis generated based on students results of a pretest. Study Plans tag incorrect questions from the pretest to the appropriate textbook learning outcome, helping students focus on the topics they need help with. Personalized Study Plan activities may include eBook reading assignments, and review, practice and enrichment activities. After students complete the enrichment activities, they take a posttest to see the concepts theyve mastered or the areas where they may need extra help. MyEducationLab then reports the Study Plan results to the instructor. Based on these reports, the instructor can adapt course material to suit the needs of individual students or the entire class. Connection to National Standards Now it is easier than ever to see how coursework is connected to national standards. Each topic, activity and exercise on MyEducationLab lists intended learning outcomes connected to the either the Common Core State Standards for Language arts or the IRA Standards for Reading Professionals. Assignments and Activities Designed to enhance your understanding of concepts covered in class, these assignable exercises show concepts in action (through videos, cases, and/or student and teacher artifacts). They help you deepen content knowledge and synthesize and apply concepts and strategies you read about in the book. (Correct answers for these assignments are available to the instructor only.) Building Teaching Skills and Dispositions These unique learning units help users practice and strengthen skills that are essential to effective teaching. After presenting the steps involved in a core teaching process, you are given an opportunity to practice applying this skill via videos, student and teacher artifacts, and/or case studies of authentic classrooms. Providing multiple opportunities to practice a single teaching concept, each activity encourages a deeper understanding and application of concepts, as well as the use of critical thinking skills. After practice, students take a quiz that is reported to the instructor gradebook. Lesson Plan Builder The Lesson Plan Builder is an effective and easy-to-use tool that you can use to create, update, and share quality lesson plans. The software also makes it easy to integrate state content standards into any lesson plan. IRIS Center Resources The IRIS Center at Vanderbilt University (http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu), funded by the U.S. Department of Educations Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), develops training enhancement materials for preservice and practicing teachers. The Center works with experts from across the country to create challenge-based interactive modules, case study units, and podcasts that provide research-validated information about working with students in inclusive settings. In your MyEducationLab course we have integrated this content where appropriate. A+RISE Activities

A+RISE activities provide practice in targeting instruction. A+RISE, developed by three-time Teacher of the Year and administrator, Evelyn Arroyo, provides quick, research-based strategies that get to the how of targeting instruction and making content accessible for all students, including English language learners. A+RISE Standards2Strategy is an innovative and interactive online resource that offers new teachers in grades K-12 just in time, research-based instructional strategies that: Meet the linguistic needs of ELLs as they learn content Differentiate instruction for all grades and abilities Offer reading and writing techniques, cooperative learning, use of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, scaffolding, teacher modeling, higher order thinking, and alternative classroom ELL assessment Provide support to help teachers be effective through the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing along with the content curriculum Improve student achievement Are aligned to Common Core Elementary Language Arts standards (for the literacy strategies) and to English language proficiency standards in WIDA, Texas, California, and Florida.

Course Resources The Course Resources section of MyEducationLab is designed to help you put together an effective lesson plan, prepare for and begin your career, navigate your first year of teaching, and understand key educational standards, policies, and laws. It includes the following: The Preparing a Portfolio module provides guidelines for creating a high-quality teaching portfolio. Beginning Your Career offers tips, advice, and other valuable information on: Resume Writing and Interviewing: Includes expert advice on how to write impressive resumes and prepare for job interviews. Your First Year of Teaching: Provides practical tips to set up a first classroom, manage student behavior, and more easily organize for instruction and assessment. Law and Public Policies: Details specific directives and requirements you need to understand under the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004.

The Certification and Licensure section is designed to help you pass your licensure exam by giving you access to state test requirements, overviews of what tests cover, and sample test items. The Certification and Licensure section includes the following: State Certification Test Requirements: Here, you can click on a state and will then be taken to a list of state certification tests. You can click on the Licensure Exams you need to take to find: Basic information about each test Descriptions of what is covered on each test Sample test questions with explanations of correct answers National Evaluation Series by Pearson: Here, students can see the tests in the NES, learn what is covered on each exam, and access sample test items with descriptions and rationales of correct answers. You can also purchase interactive online tutorials developed by Pearson Evaluation Systems and the Pearson Teacher Education and Development group. ETS Online Praxis Tutorials: Here you can purchase interactive online tutorials developed by ETS and by the Pearson Teacher Education and Development group. Tutorials are available for the Praxis I exams and for select Praxis II exams.

Visit www.myeducationlab.com for a demonstration of this exciting new online teaching resource.

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Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process


Chapter Overview
Chapter 1 opens with an anecdotal account of Victorias first encounter with ideas related to content reading and literacy. We use this anecdote as a scaffold for examining several assumptions underlying content teaching and addressing what it means to be literate, including recent research that focuses on disciplinary literacy issues. With that as background, we proceed to a fairly detailed discussion of the reading process as viewed from both cognitive and social constructionist perspectives. It is a process in which motivation plays a major rolea fact that makes us ever mindful of the importance of listening to the voices of students and observing their interactions with others when engaging with texts of various kinds (e.g., print, visual, and digital).

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 2 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

I. Assumptions Underlying Content Teaching


Teachers often assume that covering required subject matter in their discipline areas in a timely and accurate manner is tantamount to being effective educators. Certainly it is one piece of the puzzle, but addiction to coverage often privileges factual-level learning over more engaged and deeper processing of the content under consideration. Students are at a disadvantage for future learning when they are rushed or forced to deal with complex ideas in a superficial manner. They need opportunities to learn how bits of knowledge fit together and generalize to other areas of the curriculum or to life outside of school. A second assumption is that students will use their textbooks to learn course content. This assumption may prove false if students view the teacher (and not the text) as the ultimate source of knowledge and the easiest source to tap. A third assumption is that textbooks present the content in a coherent and unbiased fashion. Even the most biased of texts, however, can lead to effective learning if teachers show students how to examine both sides of an issue. Active and independent readers use multiple strategies, including self-questioning, monitoring, graphic organizing, and interacting with peers to construct meaning from and with texts of various kinds. Regardless of which strategy they employ, active readers are skilled in separating important information from unimportant information. Independent readers do not happen by chance. Independence comes from adequate instruction and plenty of opportunities for practice. ACTIVITY: Monitoring comprehension, adapted from C. J. Gordon. (1985). Modeling inference awareness across the curriculum. Journal of Reading, 29, 444-447. To help students experience monitoring for themselves, read the following question, and then have students read the short paragraph. (The question and paragraph are provided at the end of the lecture notes for this chapter so you can photocopy them.) Question: Why would a love of French fries ruin a marriage? Three-sentence paragraph: The hamburger chain owner was afraid his love for French fries would ruin his marriage. He was worried. He decided to go on a daily exercise program. Explanatory notes: When you read the paragraph for the purpose of monitoring your comprehension you might have called to mind what happens to people when they overindulge in fried foods. Thus, you might have inferred that the hamburger chain owners love of French fries had caused him to put on weight, which in turn threatened his marriageif, of course, it can be assumed that the owners wife disliked overweight men. Suppose, however, that the owner did not eat any French fries; maybe he simply worked long hours and went home with the smell of fries

on his clothes. Might that have contributed to the mans fear that his marriage was in trouble? In face, any number of inferences could be drawn, depending on the knowledge and past experiences a reader brings to the task. The point is, you are now aware from monitoring your reading that there is more than one plausible interpretation. Consequently, if you are like most active readers, you will try to resolve the ambiguity and potential loss of understanding by selecting from an array of fix-up strategies. What are some strategies that you could apply in the exercise involving the hamburger chain owner? You could ask to see the remainder of the text, in the anticipation that forthcoming information would provide some clue as to which inference is correct. Or, you might reread the three-sentence paragraph to see if there is any evidence to suggest one inference over the other. As you can see, the third sentence (He decided to go on a daily exercise program.) lends support to the overweight inference, although students have argued that a daily exercise program would keep the hamburger chain owner away from home even more, and that it could conceivably add to the objectionable-odor problem. A common definition of fluency in relation to reading in the content areas focuses on students ability to comprehend texts of various types with speed, accuracy, and appropriate expression. An assumption that is often made about older students is that they have attained a satisfactory level of fluency in reading assigned content area materials. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. In fact, among readers who struggle to comprehend, difficulty with fluency is often the culprit. An underlying assumption of fluency instruction is that teachers will view it as a means to comprehension and not as an end in itself. Fluency with information technology is a form of information literacy. It refers to what is generally defined as the ability to access, evaluate, organize, and use information from a variety of sources. DISCUSSION: Why is teaching students to develop a critical awareness of how all texts position them in relation to issues of race/ethnicity, social class, gender, and the like an important pedagogical tool? Do you agree or disagree that nowhere is this awareness-building more important than when developing fluency in reading visual and digital texts?

II. What It Means to Be Literate


Literate thinking involves more than simply answering questions correctly after reading a passage. For example, literate thinking, according to Judith Langer, can occur when individuals who do not know how to read or write in English engage in a conversation following the viewing of a television news report. Content literacy is generally defined as the ability to use ones reading and writing skills to acquire information in a given discipline. However, we take a broader view of content literacy and argue that small- and large-group discussions, as well as computer-mediated communication technologies, are involved in subject matter learning. Content knowledge shares some characteristics in that the more content knowledge one has, the better able one is to read and understand content area text. Teachers who focus solely on content knowledge (as opposed to including process in their instruction) will increase their students ability to read and comprehend content area text, but will do little to help students become independent learners. Disciplinary literacy focuses on linguistic characteristics of disciplinary text, the literacy practices of disciplinary experts, and how new knowledge is produced in particular disciplines. Disciplines differ in what counts as knowledge in each field, how new knowledge is created, and what kinds of evidence are appropriate to verify new knowledge. Disciplines also differ in how language is used to convey knowledge. These differences result in disciplinary texts that pose different challenges to readers. In English/ language arts, reading difficulties are generally found at the macro (discourse) level whereas in other content areas (math, science, social studies) difficulties are found at the micro (word and phrase) level. For example, in English literature, students are often confronted with a wide variety of genre, each of which requires different comprehension strategies. Students must be taught different comprehension processes for poetry, short stories, plays, and multigenred selections like Shakespeares plays. In mathematics to some extent and to a greater extent in science and social studies, nominalization complicates reading of disciplinary text. Nominalization, transforming complex phrases and terms into nouns, is used in science text to create new technical terminology. In history texts, it often conceals agency by

Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process

presenting information as facts rather than a particular view of an event; in addition, nominalization is used to obscure relations among events, people, and places. Draper et al. (2010) redefined text and literacy to facilitate understanding literate behavior in different disciplines including the core subjects as well as performance disciplines like music, theater, art, technology, and physical education. Text is defined as any representation from which people derive meaning. Defined this way, texts may be read through any combination of the senses and may not be permanent. A live dance, a musical performance, and a chemical reaction that changes color are all texts that can be read through a variety of senses. Draper and her colleagues redefined literacy by describing reading as negotiating meaning-making and writing as creating meaning representations. ACTIVITY: Have students bring their content standards to class. In content specific groups have students identify standards that relate to the disciplinary literacy characteristics described in this text. In small groups of three or four, students can discuss how the new definitions of text and literacy [reading and writing] relate to their content area standards. The New Literacy Studies are focused on questions such as What is literacy? Who benefits from being literate? and What specific cultural meanings and practices are involved in becoming literate? Helping students develop facility and interest in reading resistantly by taking up a range of positions as readers is a primary goal of practitioners steeped in the theory of the New Literacy Studies. ACTIVITY : Divide the class into working groups of three or four students each. Ask group members to recall one of their earliest memories of learning to read. Ask them to describe the context, paying particular attention to such things as: Who was involved? What did they read? Were they more interested in the mechanics of reading or the content? Why was the occasion memorable?

III. The Reading Process


A cognitive view of the reading process assumes an active reader who constructs meaning by integrating her or his prior knowledge of a particular topic with new information through the use of strategies that foster self-monitoring (metacognition). Schema theory, with its emphasis on the importance of prior knowledge activation, has been used to describe how readers organize their experiences into meaningful patterns that in turn help them to assimilate or accommodate new information. ACTIVITY: Give your students some experience using a little common sense and some prior knowledge of language and content to comprehend two paragraphs from a selection titled The Kingdom of Kay Oss (Roskoss & Walker, 1994, p. 5). The following text and accompanying questions are provided at the end of the lecture notes for this chapter so you can duplicate and provide them to pairs of students. Have them read the text together: The Kingdom of Kay Oss Once in the land of Serenity there ruled a king called Kay Oss. The king wanted to be liked by all his people. So one day thx bxnxvolxnt dxspot dxcidxd that no onx in thx country would bx rxsponsiblx for anything. Zll of thx workxrs rxstxd from thxir dzily lzbors. Blxss Kzy Oss, thzy xxclzimxd. Now thz lzw mzkxrs wxrx vxry wvsx. But zs wvsx zs thxy wxrx, thxy dxcvdxd thzt thx bxst form of govxrnmxnt wzs nonx zt zll. If students made sense of all or most of these two paragraphs with relative ease and little frustration, it might be said that they are the type of person who reads to obtain meaning rather than to identify letters of words per se. According to Frank Smith (1971), a prominent psycholinguist whose work builds on that of E. B. Huey (1908/1968):

The ability to put letters together to form words has very little to do with the actual process of (fluent) reading (as opposed to learning to read) and . . . even the ability to identify words loses its importance when one reads for meaning. (Smith cited in Cooper & Petrosky, 1976, p. 186) Simply put, reading is more than the linear sum of words. After students have read and discussed this text, prompt them to think about this claim in relation to their reading of the Kingdom of Kay Oss, by answering the following questions: 1. Did you find that you needed only a minimum of visual cues from the printed text to understand it? 2. What prior knowledge did you call on to make sense of the selection? 3. To what extent did your knowledge of stories, in general, influence your understanding and reduce the uncertainty of the task? 4. How often did you rely on your knowledge of: Letter-sound associations (graphophonics)? Spelling patterns (orthography)? Relationships of words to each other (syntax)? Contextual meaning (semantics)? 5. Did you risk being wrong in your attempt to derive meaning? That is, did you use context to guess unfamiliar words or just skip them? 6. Did you maintain sufficient speed when reading the selection to overcome the limitations of visual processing and short-term memory? 7. As a result of this activity, which model of reading [bottom up, top down, interactive] do students most agree with? Why? Alexanders lifespan developmental perspective on reading helps us to recognize students who are at different points along the developmental continuum. Factors that influence lifespan development of reading identified by Alexander include knowledge of language and content topics, interest, and strategic processing. Her description of how these factors evolve and change as readers move from acclimation through competence to proficiency can be used to develop lessons that help students grow as readers and learners. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic The Reading Process. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Academic Literacy. In this video segment, literacy experts and teachers are discussing the importance of viewing literacy development as continuous throughout the lifespan. Have your students work in small groups to discuss the connections between Alexanders lifespan developmental perspective on reading and the importance of academic literacy as discussed in the video segment. Social constructionism is a perspective on the reading process that holds to these premises: Language is the prime mediator (or intervening factor) in terms of what readers will understand about a particular concept. Truth is made, not found. Teachers who believe that social constructionism explains student learning understand that while our cultural histories do not determine how we experience or respond to texts, these histories do in fact channel or help to frame our responses. DISCUSSION: Ask students to use what they know about the reading process to debunk the oft-repeated slogan that children learn to read and then read to learn. (Hint: There is no natural break in the reading process between learning to read and reading to learn. Developmentally speaking, emergent and beginning readers are different from older, skilled readers, but the difference lies more with the content materials the two read rather than with their purpose for reading. It is counterproductive to separate the act of reading from one of its functionsreading to learn something.) When students are motivated readers, they typically view themselves as competent and in control of their own learning; they are said to be strategic in their approach to reading. Connecting students everyday experiences to what they are expected to learn in the content areas is a good way to motivate them. Sustaining their engagement

Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process

over time is just as important. Shorting attention on content in an attempt to concentrate more time on developing basic literacy skills is counterproductive. The goal is to teach content and process skills simultaneously. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Motivation to Read Content-Area Texts. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Engagement. In this video, the teacher is helping students create personal connections to the content they are studying. Organize students into small content-specific dyads or triads; have students select a conceptual area or unit of study in their discipline and then brainstorm ways to connect this content to students personal lives. Have them share the ideas generated with the class.

Homework Assignments
1. Locate an article on a topic you know very little about and then keep track of how language mediated your understanding of this article. Does the social constructionist view of the reading process account for what you learned? Where did this view fall short and what might you have done to intervene in your learning at that point? How would you explain the reading process you used to gain information from the article? Make a chart in which you map the similarities and differences in four types of constructivism: Piagetian, radical, sociohistorical, and social constructivism. Describe the characteristics of a student who is motivated to read content area texts (i.e., he or she uses positive strategies). How are those characteristics different from the characteristics of a student who is unmotivated to read (i.e., he or she uses avoidance strategies)? Create a graphic organizer that summarizes characteristics of literacy in your specific discipline. On returning to class, compare your chart with a colleague in your discipline. Form Jigsaw groups in which other content areas are represented and compare your charts. Discuss similarities and differences in your individual disciplinary literacies.

2. 3.

4.

Question: Why would a love of French fries ruin a marriage? Three-sentence paragraph: The hamburger chain owner was afraid his love for French fries would ruin his marriage. He was worried. He decided to go on a daily exercise program.

Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process

The Kingdom of Kay Oss Once in the land of Serenity there ruled a king called Kay Oss. The king wanted to be liked by all his people. So one day thx bxnxvolxnt dxspot dxcidxd that no onx in thx country would bx rxsponsiblx for anything. Zll of thx workxrs rxstxd from thxir dzily lzbors. Blxss Kzy Oss, thzy xxclzimxd. Now thz lzw mzkxrs wxrx vxry wvsx. But zs wvsx zs thxy wxrx, thxy dxcvdxd thzt thx bxst form of govxrnmxnt wzs nonx zt zll. If you made sense of all or most of these two paragraphs with relative ease and little frustration, it might be said that you are the type of person who reads to obtain meaning rather than to identify letters of words per se. According to Frank Smith (1971), a prominent psycholinguist whose work builds on that of E. B. Huey (1908/1968): The ability to put letters together to form words has very little to do with the actual process of (fluent) reading (as opposed to learning to read) and . . . even the ability to identify words loses its importance when one reads for meaning. (Smith cited in Cooper & Petrosky, 1976, p. 186) Simply put, reading is more than the linear sum of words. Think about this claim in relation to your reading of the Kingdom of Kay Oss, and then answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Did you find that you needed only a minimum of visual cues from the printed text to understand it? What prior knowledge did you call on to make sense of the selection? To what extent did your knowledge of stories, in general, influence your understanding and reduce the uncertainty of the task? How often did you rely on your knowledge of: Letter-sound associations (graphophonics)? Spelling patterns (orthography)? Relationships of words to each other (syntax)? Contextual meaning (semantics)? Did you risk being wrong in your attempt to derive meaning? That is, did you use context to guess unfamiliar words or just skip them? Did you maintain sufficient speed when reading the selection to overcome the limitations of visual processing and short-term memory?

5. 6.

As a result of this activity, which model of reading [bottom up, top down, interactive] do you most agree with? Why?

Chapter 2: Language, Diversity, and Culture


Chapter Overview
Chapter 2 focuses on how students who come from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds can make good progress in classrooms where teachers treat differences as strengths and build on students experiences to teach content literacy. Viewing language as a social practice that mediates young peoples cognitive processing of a wide range of texts is conducive to teaching in a culturally responsive manner. This approach acknowledges that it is the learning environment that needs fixing and not the students per se. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 39 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Language as a Vehicle for Teaching and Learning Content


Viewing language as a social practice calls for understanding what is meant by Discourse with a capital D. From James Gees perspective, a Discourse is an identity kit that governs ways of speaking, thinking, and behaving in the world. People change their ways of speaking, thinking, and behaving when they move from one Discourse to another (e.g., when they move from watching a basketball game to attending a violin concert). Claiming membership in a particular Discourse at a particular time allows one to be recognized as part of that Discourse and to recognize others like oneself. This has implications for how students speak, think, and behave in the Discourse known as schooling. Just as learning subject matter can be described as learning a kind of Discourse, so also can learning how to do school literacy. Classroom language, which is part of ones school Discourse, can lead to stereotyping. Language that stereotypes can be found in student-to-student and teacher-to-student interactions, as well as in content area texts of various kinds. Such stereotyping gradually narrows students thinking and creates potentially unproductive learning environments. DISCUSSION: (either online or face-to-face): Recall a time when you did not know some aspect of the school Discourse that is now so familiar to you. What did you say or how did you behave that betrayed your lack of understanding in that Discourse? Were there any gendered nuances to your speaking or behaving? If so, describe them.

II. Diversity in Language and Learning


It is important to establish the basic distinction between acquiring a second language and learning a second language. It is not simply an either-or proposition. Rather, think of the distinction as falling somewhere on a continuum, with the two terms (acquisition and learning) as the imaginary poles. According to James Gee, a sociolinguist, acquisition is a process of trial and error in which a person is exposed to a language (and the social practices associated with it) without formal teaching. Learning a second language is typically done under formal teaching conditions. Typically, it is the case that second-language speakers are better at performing what they acquire rather than what they learn. What happens to students who come to school without the proficiency in English to keep up with their peers in the various subject matter areas? How are such students expected to meet the high standards set by state and national reform movements? More and more frequently, schools are turning to sheltered English instruction as an approach that prepares English learners (ELs) to comprehend the content of their subject matter classes at the same time that they receive instruction in reading, writing, speaking, and listening in English. Through various adaptations in their instruction, English-speaking teachers are able to make adjustments in the language demands put on students who are not yet fluent in English but who, with supportive teaching techniques,

Chapter 2: Language, Diversity, and Culture

can understand grade-level content standards and concepts. These adjustments may include scaffolding their instruction (e.g., modeling teacher thinking, providing analogies, elaborating on student responses), providing necessary background information and experiences, and organizing their lessons in ways that simplify syntactic structures (e.g., using more active than passive verbs). Teachers in sheltered classrooms may also employ strategies that emphasize visual cues and other concrete means for helping students apply what they know in their primary language to the English language. The downside of sheltered English instruction is that many ELs receive much of their instruction from content area teachers or aides who have not had appropriate professional development to address second-language learners developmental needs. The demand for teachers knowledgeable in the implementation of sheltered English instruction simply exceeds the supply. However, in schools that have initiated systemwide sheltered instruction taught by appropriately educated staff, the story is quite different. In these schools, it is highly likely that students whose first language is other than English will acquire academic literacy through instruction that shows them how to pool their emerging knowledge of English with what they know about the content and the tasks necessary for comprehending that content. Typically, students in sheltered English classrooms are expected to enter mainstream classes after one year. Through various adaptations in their instruction, English-speaking teachers who use the sheltered English approach are able to adjust the language demands put on students who are not yet fluent in English but who, with supportive teaching techniques, can understand grade-level content standards and concepts (Echevarria & Short, 2011; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). These adjustments may include scaffolding their instruction (e.g., modeling teacher thinking, providing analogies, and elaborating on student responses), providing necessary background information and experiences, and organizing their lessons in ways that simplify syntactic structures (e.g., using more active than passive verbs). Teachers in sheltered classrooms may also employ strategies that emphasize visual cues and other concrete means for helping students apply what they know in their primary language to learning content in English. Students are expected to gain proficiency enough to enter mainstream classes in one year (Mora, Wink, & Wink, 2001). The downside of sheltered English instruction is that many ELs receive much of their instruction from content area teachers or aides who have not had appropriate professional development to address their second-language development needs (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000, p. 4). The demand for teachers knowledgeable in the implementation of sheltered English instruction simply exceeds the supply. Although the sheltered English approach includes many of the same instructional methods and strategies that a school districts curriculum calls for, teachers who are unfamiliar with the research on second-language learning are at a distinct disadvantage. Research reported from a national study of ELs long-term academic achievement published by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence (CREDE, 2003) found that bilingual programs that were sustained for 5 to 6 years assisted ELLs in maintaining the greatest gains in both their native language and English in all content areas. Just as importantly, the fewest high school dropouts came from these bilingual programs. Although students who exited ESL and sheltered English classrooms initially outperformed their peers who had been taught in bilingual programs, this finding did not hold for the later grades. By the middle school years, ELs taught in bilingual classrooms reached the same achievement levels as those taught all in English, and by the high school years, they outperformed them. ACTIVITY : Working in pairs (either online or face-to-face), jot down an advantage and disadvantage sheltered English instruction. Summarize your thinking to share with the whole class. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Diversity, Culture, and Literacy. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Cultural & Language Experiences. The eighth-grade mathematics teacher in this video is aware of the diversity in learning opportunities that some students have had prior to their arrival in her classroom. Note how she also acknowledges that students from diverse backgrounds have parents who are interested in seeing them do well in school. Working individually or in small groups, design a class activity in your area of specialization that takes into account what you viewed in the video as well as what you know about culturally responsive teaching from reading your textbook. Be

Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

sure that the activity you design reflects the importance of involving parents and linking the school and home communities. Dialects provide powerful ways of expressing meaning. At the same time, when dialect speakers are unaware of the power code, they can create communication problems and encounter all kinds of marginalizing moves by others. Knowing when to use dialect or the more standard forms of English is crucial. Code-switching behaviors can be helpful in this regard. A point to keep in mind is that everyone is a dialect speaker of one kind or another. Diversity in language and learning involves more than second-language and dialect differences. Struggling or reluctant readers also present different challenges to teachers. Often they require instruction that is scaffolded. This may take the form of teachers modeling how they monitor their own comprehension, stopping to check whether they are making sense of what they read, self-questioning, and applying fix-up strategies when comprehension breaks down. Gifted and talented learners are part of the diversity that must be taken into account in todays content area classrooms. The practice of labeling certain students as being gifted and talented has a host of issues tied to it. One of the most troubling is that placements in gifted and talented classes reflect an under representation of minority and poor children. Often ELs are automatically assigned to basic or general-level classes, rather than to gifted and talented classes, because their proficiency level in English fuels a misguided perception about their overall academic capabilities.

III. Teaching and Learning in Culturally Diverse Classrooms


Unless students find the content interesting, relevant, and worth knowing, they are not likely to engage with it, at least not in substantive and meaningful ways. This is not surprising, of course, but finding ways to match students interests with available resources, while simultaneously taking into account state-mandated standards and accountability measures, is quite another matter. What the authors (Alvermann, Ridgeway Gillis, and Phelps) of your textbook propose is no easy solution to this matter, but it is, they believe, workable and within the guidelines of current thinking on teaching and learning in culturally diverse classrooms. We are living in a time when adolescents language backgrounds are becoming increasingly diverse but their teachers are mainly English monolinguals. This fact, coupled with the growing diversity in race and ethnicity, will mean that teachers no longer can expect to teach students who speak, think, and behave like themselves. In short, the school Discourse is changing, and teachers, as part of that Discourse, must change as well. Improving literacy instruction for adolescent ELs will depend on how effective the literacy field is in meeting the following six challenges: Lack of common criteria for identifying ELs and tracking their academic performance Lack of appropriate assessments. Inadequate supply of teachers who have been educated to work with ELLs. Lack of appropriate and flexible EL program options. Inadequate use of research-based instructional practices with ELs. Lack of a strong and coherent research agenda about EL literacy.

IV. Culturally Responsive Professional Growth


In undergraduate and graduate teacher education programs, culturally responsive pedagogy ensures, as Gloria Ladson-Billings points out, that teachers come away with more than a food-and-festivals approach to understanding culture. Such an approach requires teachers to acknowledge that culture plays a major role in how they and their students interpret texts, whether in print, visual, aural, or digital formats. It also requires teachers to view themselves as part of a culture, perhaps distinct from their students in one or more ways, but nonetheless a culture whose truth values are negotiated and become transparent over time to members of the same culture group. Parents and community partnerships can strengthen a teachers resolve to use a culturally responsive approach to content teaching and learning. Such arrangements increase the probability that literate practices in students homes and communities will be viewed as relevant to classroom learning in the same way that school-based literacy will be valued by parents and community groups.

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Chapter 2: Language, Diversity, and Culture

ACTIVITY : In groups of 3 or 4 of your peers (either online or face-to-face) discuss instances in which you have had direct experience (or first-hand knowledge of) community partnerships that support a culturally responsive approach to teaching and learning.

Homework Assignments
1. Locate a site on the Web that discusses some of the controversies related to No Child Left Behind and the Common Core State Standards. Find a point of contention in this information that you believe has implications for your school (or a school you might teach in sometime in the future). Summarize that section for an administrator in your district or possibly a school board member. What are some barriers to integrating language, culture, and content in your discipline area (e.g., English language arts, social studies, history, biology, art, music, and so on)? List them and then pose a possible way around each barrier that you identify. Interview a teacher that you believe takes a culturally responsive approach to instruction. Write a synopsis of your interview notes and share them with your peers in a whole-class discussion. Be sure to identify the teachers subject matter specialty.

2.

3.

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Chapter 3: Creating a Favorable Learning Environment


Chapter Overview
Chapter 3 begins with a reminder that creating a favorable learning environment involves more than just teaching to the standards. This reminder comes through loud and clear in Todd Goodsons account of Teaching in the Time of Dogs. The chapter focuses on the affective characteristics of a favorable learning environment: linking content literacy with students lives, bridging out-of-school literacies and content literacy learning, adapting ones instruction to meet students needs, and giving students choices, or a say, in what and how they learn. Various forms of grouping (e.g., cross-age tutoring, cooperative learning, and reading and writing workshops) are some of the vehicles most often used to provide students choices in how they learn. Creating a sense of community through the use of information communication technologies and multimedia is key to creating a favorable learning environment, as is finding effective ways to manage or resolve conflicts that sometimes arise in the course of community building. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 64 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Affective Characteristics
One way of thinking about the need to link content literacy with students lives is to view the process as a learning cycle. Just as the schema-theoretic view of the reading process described in Chapter 1 is heavily dependent on prior knowledge, so also is the learning cycle. To understand the learning cycle, it is best to begin with prior knowledge since all new learning is based on what one already knows. Furthermore, prior knowledge helps generate reasons for learning new content. Depending on a readers purpose for reading, attention will be focused on some information more than other. Focusing attention on certain material is goal-directed in order for understanding to occur. New information gained from such understanding can, in turn, be used by the reader to modify his or her existing (or prior) knowledge. In this way, the learning cycle repeats itself. A strategy called Creative Thinking-Reading Activities (CT-RA) offers students a chance to brainstorm solutions to a problem using their everyday knowledge. As such, it tends to reward individuals for applying ideas from their practical store of knowledge to solve school-related problems. This is a particularly good strategy to use in creating a favorable learning environment for ESL students and less-academically inclined youth. Bridging out-of-school literacies and content literacy learning is a topic of great interest currently. What counts as literacy and whose literacies should count are two questions that are debated vigorously in the professional literature. However, such debates are often counterproductive (and mostly irrelevant) because much can be learned about creating a favorable learning environment by simply observing the overlap between formal education and everyday life. Adaptive instruction, in which a teacher releases responsibility for learning to students based on their ability to selfregulate, is conducive to creating a favorable learning environment in content area classes. It generally assumes that these five principles are at work: Students capabilities (not just their weaknesses) have been assessed. A procedure is in place for choosing materials and methods that will appeal to students interests. Students play an active role in setting goals and evaluating their progress toward those goals. Alternative activities and materials are available for students who require additional assistance. Cooperative, rather than competitive, approaches to learning are used.

Chapter 3: Creating a Favorable Learning Environment

ACTIVITY: Brainstorm (either online or face-to-face) a scenario in which you could imagine adapting instruction for students in a subject matter class and grade of your own choosing. Be sure to address the 5 principles just named as part of your scenario-building. Providing students with choices is part of creating a favorable learning environment. Young people appreciate having a say in the schooling process. They also are more likely to appreciate a teachers purpose for making an assignment when they have choices in how to go about completing it. Providing choices can extend to the kinds of questions teachers are willing to entertain. A willingness to hear the hard (and sometimes sensitive) questions students ask is fundamental to exploring issues of social justice and bias.

II. Forms of Grouping


Ability grouping can take several forms. It can consist of tracking students by assigning them to a particular class section (such as honors math, or general science). Within-class grouping consists of separating students into small instructional units so that different groups in the same class are working on tasks of varying difficulty. DISCUSSION: (online or face-to-face): In working groups of three or four students each, share a personal experience that you have had with ability grouping. Describe the situation, paying particular attention to: Who was involved? What was the teachers purpose for forming such a group? What are the advantages and disadvantages of tracking? Is tracking synonymous with ability grouping? What is the basis for your answer? In cooperative/collaborative-learning, students work together in small groups of four or five individuals each to set goals and to learn from one another. The incentive or group reward for combined individual efforts can vary. In cooperative/collaborative learning groups, students come to rely less on the teacher and more on one another. Acting as peer tutors, they learn more because they are actively engaged with the text or other instructional materials. By engaging students in cooperative/collaborative learning, teachers set the stage for acceptance of diversity and valuing of individual contributions. Linguistically diverse students are known to benefit from cooperative/ collaborative learning because they become more actively involved and spend more time in meaningful exchanges with their peers than they otherwise would. Students in cooperative/collaborative learning groups typically come to rely less on the teacher and more on one another. They work in groups of 4 or 5 to set goals and act as peer tutors. Generally there is a group reward that serves as an incentive for individuals to cooperate rather than compete. Cross-age tutoring differs from cooperative learning in several ways. First, it usually occurs in groups of two (dyads) as opposed to small groups of 4 or 5 members. Second, cross-age tutoring lends itself to situations in which the transfer of very specific information, usually at a very basic level, is the goal. Third, it focuses on rewarding the individual rather than the group, as in cooperative learning. Grouping for discussion as a means of enriching and refining students understandings of what is read, viewed, or heard in content area classrooms encourages them to think for themselves rather than rely largely on their teachers or textbooks for ideas. It also creates an environment in which students can voice their own perspectives while learning to respect the views of others. Reading and writing workshops function as temporary instructional units in which teachers can pull aside students needing extra help in a particular skill, additional background information to understand a certain concept, and so on. Reading and writing workshops provide students with a range of choices in materials and procedures for using them to learn in the content areas.

III. Creating Community with Technology and Multimedia


Globally, a revolution is occurring in the way people exchange information. This digital revolution, as it is sometimes called, is having an impact on teaching and learning in culturally diverse classrooms, or at least in classrooms with Internet access. As a consequence of increased access to the Internet, changes are occurring rapidly

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

in what counts as reading and writing. Hypertexts, or interlinked texts comprised of print and nonprint information, have produced a new relationship between reader/writer and content area texts of various kinds. Using technology and multimedia to motivate students interest in content area learning, while not new, is being taken up more and more by teachers who work with struggling readers. Assistive technological devices and equipment for youth who have disabilities is a way of enhancing the classroom learning environment and ensuring access to texts that might otherwise be out of reach for these youth. The importance of having an appreciative audience for ones writing is a major factor in adolescents fascination with self-created online content. For example, fan fiction is a term for stories that fans of an original work (e.g., Harry Potter) write by using the settings, characters, and plot from the original to imagine and create different situations that sometimes include curious mixes of genres and media. Research has shown that ELLs are especially motivated to participate in online fan fiction sites. DISCUSSION: (online or face-to-face): After visiting www.fanfiction.net, discuss features of this site that would likely appeal to an ELL who is relatively new to the U.S. What adaptations might teachers be able to use in their writing instruction that would incorporate some of the appealing features of www.fanfiction.net? What are some precautions that teachers would need to take in making these adaptations? MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Technology. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Teaching and Learning with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). In this video, you see a teacher helping students who are working individually at computers. You also see another teacher comment on what she calls a significant learning curve that goes along with using information communication technologies. Imagine yourself as one of those two teachers and describe either in writing (or through discussion with a partner) how you would create a community of learners with technology and multimedia. Would that community of learners remind you of the students you observed in the video? What might be similar? What would likely be different? Why?

IV. Conflict Resolution


Resolving conflicts among adolescents in ways that involve them in problem solving can lead to both skillfulness in negotiations and respect for other members of a community. When bullying or other aggressive behaviors are the exception rather than the norm, classroom learning environments become places where teaching and learning go on relatively undisturbed. It is in these kinds of environments that students do their best work and acquire strategies for managing conflict in their lives and the lives of others. Timely discussions that focus on both the positives and negatives associated with change in a particular classroom learning environment can increase social support among peers and decrease feelings of victimization and rage. DISCUSSION: Initiate a class discussion (online or face-to-face) on the controversial nature of some issue that is affecting literacy education locally (and that is causing conflict). This could be a book banning, a mandated change in curriculum, a new statewide reading test, a controversial television program, and so on. Ask members of the class to suggest steps they would use to resolve the conflict. Compare the suggestions they make to the strategies for managing conflict described in Chapter 3 of Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms (6th edition).

Homework Assignments
1. Imagine yourself in Todd Goodsons shoes in his recounting of Teaching in the Time of Dogs. What would you have done had you been in his position? What do you think this anecdote has to say about literacy teaching and learning? Write about a personal experience you have had in cooperative-learning groups. What are the advantages and disadvantages to this form of grouping? What changes would you make if you were the teacher?

2.

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Chapter 3: Creating a Favorable Learning Environment

3.

Use the Internet to locate a summary of the research literature on how content area teachers are making difficult texts more readily accessible to struggling readers. Share these ideas in a whole-class discussion. Where possible, bring examples of the assistive technology devices you discuss. If working in a distance-learning course, provide URLs where these examples can be found.

15

Chapter 4: Planning for Content Literacy


Chapter Overview
Good teaching doesnt just happen; it is the result of thoughtful planning. In this chapter, we look at some of the decisions and factors that go into lesson planning. We describe uses of educational technology both for planning and for teaching, and we introduce and explain the Learning Cycle, a framework used to organize principles and strategies presented in this text as well as a useful framework to structure content literacy lessons. Finally, we discuss the long-range thinking that occurs in collaborative and unit planning. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 86 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Instructional Decision Making


Lesson planning involves a number of interrelated decisions. First of all, a teacher must determine the content objectives for a lesson: What is it that students should be learning? Most good lessons have at their heart a central theme or idea, what we call an organizing concept. This is what gives coherence and meaning to the activities in the classroom. These bid ideas can be expressed as essential questions. In addition to content objectives, objectives related to content processes are also important. Teaching students to think like writers, mathematicians, scientists, historians, artists, or dancers is an important part of teachers responsibilities. Teachers need to consider specific language or literacy objectives such as improving students ability to engage in discussion, comprehend science text, deal with archaic language in primary documents, read scientific equipment scales, understanding the technical vocabulary in a particular conceptual domain, or helping students convey what they have learned in writing. Teachers need to take into account students capabilities and needs. What will students already know? What reading, writing, and language skills do they have? What difficulties might students encounter with new concepts, the reading materials, or planned activities? In order to successfully master new concepts and new skills, students will need instructional scaffolding, or a supportive framework for learning that is gradually reduced as students become more adept. Before selecting or creating activities that will help students achieve the content, process, and disciplinary literacy goals, teachers must decide how to evaluate students learning. Teachers may use exams or quizzes, homework, written assignments, projects, observation, or a variety of in-class activities to help them make judgments about what students have accomplished. Once a teacher knows how student learning will be assessed, planning the instructional sequence can be accomplished. In the process of designing instructional activities, teachers must also consider the materials at hand, including reading materials, manipulatives and equipment, visual aids, worksheets and exams, technology, media, and various teacher-made materials. There is no one best way to plan. These many factors are interrelated, and planning will likely be more web-like than linear. Thoughtful instructional decision-making will vary for different teachers, students, grade levels, and subject areas. As teachers plan instruction, they need to be aware of the learning principles discussed in Chapter 1. We have found that using the Learning Cycle to organize instructional activities helps us to integrate those learning principles into our instruction. DISCUSSION: Assign students to groups by content area. For each subject area, have them prepare a position on the question, What is more important, knowing what or knowing how? Present these decisions, along with the rationale, to the whole class.

Chapter 4: Planning for Content Literacy

ACTIVITY: Have students bring in a textbook from their discipline. In groups, ask students to select a conceptual unit from the textbook and create essential questions to guide planning. Using content area standards may be helpful in creating these essential questions. Next, have students determine content, process, and language/literacy objectives for the conceptual unit. Then ask the groups to brainstorm possible ways to assess student learning. How might students demonstrate their learning? Lastly, have students suggest teaching strategies that would help students answer the essential questions, achieve content, process, and language/literacy objectives and help students successfully complete the assessment. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Planning Instruction. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Scaffolded Instruction in Geometry. The math teacher in this lesson scaffolds students learning about isosceles triangles. As students watch this video, have them take observation notes on techniques the teacher uses to support student learning and how she gradually turns over responsibility to students. In groups, ask your students to formulate an essential question for the lesson. Then ask them to critique the lesson: What was especially effective? Is there anything that might have been done to give students even more responsibility for their own learning? English learners (ELs) especially will benefit from scaffolded instruction. A sheltered English approach to instruction involves instructional adaptations such as using simplified sentences, providing visual representations, preteaching vocabulary, and explicitly modeling language, including academic language, and literacy skills. English learners also need many opportunities to engage in instructional conversations with their peers during role-playing, hands-on activities, and small-group discussions.

II. Planning and Educational Technology


Teachers can find a number of resources on the Internet. Lesson plans, teaching materials, content-specific information, and direct interaction with colleagues are all available. There are also many ways that teachers can use the Web in the classroom to complement instruction. Specifically, teachers can plan hands-on student activities that allow them to use computer technology to collect, organize, create, or present information. The volume of information, the dubious (and sometimes inappropriate) nature of some information, and the difficulty of finding what is needed all make Internet planning something of a challenge. Therefore, it is useful to follow some basic Internet planning guidelines: Based on your Essential Questions, determine instructional objectives, including specific Internet objectives, and do some preliminary Internet research. Be aware of the literacy demands of the Web, especially for struggling readers and English learners. Provide students with needed support. For example, teach them Internet skills the may need or narrow their searches by preselecting sites that they should visit. Link Internet literacy with book literacy and writing. ACTIVITY: Have student bring laptops to class or reserve computer lab time; give students some class time to explore some of the Internet sites listed on page 99. You might actually design a WebQuest that asks them to find specific things, such as one planning idea or lesson plan, or a website they could have middle or high school students visit to complement something they are studying. Alternatively, assign specific sites to groups; have them explore their site outside of class, and then report in class on the potentially useful things they found. Adding technological applications to instruction does not by itself constitute new literacies in the sense used by contemporary theorists. New literacies do involve new technological stuff, but there is also a sociocultural dimension, or a new ethos of literacy. Integrating new literacies into a content area would therefore mean planning instruction that meets many of the following characteristics: multimodality, or an extended definition of text to include a variety of visual, auditory and physical representations; multimedia, including technological and post-typographical media; an emphasis on learning processes as equal to or superior to learning products; collaborative rather than individual effort; critique of both explicit and implicit communication across varied media and modes; shared expertise and authority, rather than the authority of a text or a teacher;

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

learner choice in topics, projects, modality, media, and assessment.

III. Structured Frameworks for Content Literacy Lessons


A structured lesson framework helps to insure that literacy is built in to content area lessons and that students literacy needs are accommodated. Structured approaches to planning content literacy lessons we have found productive include the Learning Cycle and reciprocal teaching. Learning cycles have been described in English/language arts, math, science, and history. The Learning Cycle introduced in this chapter and used to organize this textbook is divided into three main components or phases: In the preactive phase, a teacher may employ motivational techniques, activate prior knowledge, engage students in an exploration of phenomena to be studied, pose a problem for students to solve, provide background, establish purposes for learning, give directions, or preteach vocabulary. This phase is focused on engaging and exploring ideas as well as connecting to and building prior knowledge. In the interactive phase, teachers scaffold students learning through questioning, reading or study guides, or cooperative/collaborative learning tasks as students explore new information provided through interactive lectures, videos, lab explorations, discussion of readings. This phase is focused on processing new information being explained. In the reflective phase,teachers provide opportunities for students to reflect on their learning through discussion, vocabulary tasks, writing, and/or independent application of new skills and knowledge. This phase is focused on transforming and personalizing new knowledge. Keep in mind that the Learning Cycle is not linear but iterative and that frequently the phases blur into one another. It is not important to be able to identify a particularly strategy for a particular phase; adaptations of strategies often result in nearly new strategies that include features of more than one Learning Cycle phase. The important thing to keep in mind when planning using the Learning Cycle is that it is based on all the learning theories introduced in Chapter one of this text, so that using it to plan lessons and units embeds those principles of learning in your lessons and units. In reciprocal teaching, students get explicit instruction and practice in four research-based reading comprehension strategies: predicting, question-generating, clarifying, and summarizing. As students develop proficiency with these strategies, teachers gradually decrease the amount of guidance they provide, so that ultimately students themselves are able to lead instructional dialogues incorporating the strategies. Reciprocal teaching involves a high degree of social interaction and collaboration, and has been shown to be an effective approach to comprehension with varied student populations, especially those who struggle with comprehension and students who are learning English. ACTIVITY: Model the four strategies of reciprocal teaching: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. In groups no larger than five, let students take turns leading a reciprocal teaching dialogue about a selection from Chapter 4 or another short reading selection. Let students share their reactions to this activity.

IV. Beyond the Daily Plan


Most teachers take a long-range view toward planning. Unit planning may span a matter of weeks, and may also incorporate cross-curricular aspects and provide for student collaboration. Schoolwide programs involve coordinated planning and instructional efforts across the school to meet the literacy needs of all students. This usually involves teachers from several disciplines and requires dedicated leadership and commitment. One good example of a schoolwide program is the reading apprenticeship approach, in which students are provided opportunities to develop reading fluency, expand their experience with more diverse texts, and learn literacy strategies with the direct, expert guidance of knowledgeable teachers. Interdisciplinary teaching, thematic teaching, and unit planning are three other planning approaches that can integrate curricula and accommodate the inherently social nature of learning. Teachers from two or more disciplines may collaborate in planning instructional units that bridge conceptual understandings across content areas. Interdisciplinary planning is especially common in middle schools that are organized around focused on a core theme or issue, can either be an interdisciplinary enterprise or may be carried out by a single teacher within his or her own content area. Thematic teaching usually involves a variety of activities

18

Chapter 4: Planning for Content Literacy

and reading materials, and provides for student decision making. Both interdisciplinary and thematic teaching help students to see the larger picture of frequently complex issues. Unit plans may be cross-disciplinary or may be developed for a single subject. Good unit planning requires establishing overall goals, deciding on conceptual and skill objectives, assembling and evaluating resources, planning activities and strategies for teaching, and deciding how to evaluate students learning. DISCUSSION: Lead the class in brainstorming a list of possible topics, concepts or problems that might serve as the focus for a unit plan. Group students in interdisciplinary teams and have them draft a planning web that incorporates a variety of concepts and activities.

Homework Assignments
1. 2. 3. For a topic in your subject area, use either the Learning Cycle or reciprocal teaching to prepare a lesson that incorporates literacy appropriate for your discipline. Design a WebQuest for your subject area suitable for middle school or high school students. Create a thematic unit plan that specifies Essential Questions, learning goals, how students will be assessed, and learning activities and materials.

4. Use Google Earth to create a Google Lit trip [English], tour of a famous place with your students [social studies, art, music], visually inaccessible place [science], an activity that makes abstract concepts more concrete [science, math]

The Learning Cycle.


Source: Adolescent literacy, field tested: effective solutions for every classroom by Parris, Sheri R.; Fisher, Douglas; Headley, Kathy. Copyright 2009 by the International Reading Association (www.reading.org) <http://www.reading.org)/>.

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Chapter 5: Assessment of Students and Textbooks


Chapter Overview
Assessment has taken on increasing importance with the proliferation of state and national assessment requirements. Whether preparing students for high-stakes exams or simply correcting homework for a grade, teachers need to understand assessment techniques and limitations. In this chapter, we look into some current assessment issues, different types of assessment organized by the purpose of that assessment, and means of evaluating students formally and informally. We also give some advice on assigning grades. Finally, we describe how to evaluate the relative difficulty of text materials. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 126 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Assessing Students
There are two purposes for assessing students. Formative assessment is designed to discover student attributes that might help or hinder learning. Summative assessment is intended to make a judgment of what a person has learned. Formative assessment helps teachers to plan optimal learning situations for students. Summative assessment communicates student achievement to the student and to other interested parties. Whatever the purpose of an assessment, good assessment practices have the following characteristics: They draw on multiple sources of information rather than a single text or project. They result in useful information for students and teachers. They provide students with optimal conditions for showing their learning, including a variety of assessments so that all students can provide evidence for learning. They involve students in self-assessment. They admit the possibility of fallibilitysome judgments, no matter how carefully considered, may be inaccurate. Assessments are conducted for many different stakeholders, including of course students and teachers. But parents, administrators, community members, taxpayers, and authorities at different levels of government are also interested parties to assessment. The purposes for assessment are as varied as the stakeholders. It is important for teachers to keep in mind the limitations of testing. A single assessment is only one sample of what a person knows or can do. Students of diverse cultural backgrounds are especially vulnerable to cultural or linguistic bias that might be built into an assessment. Therefore, in day-to-day practice, it is a good idea for teachers to give students multiple opportunities and venues to show what they are learning and what they can do. Several types of assessment are common in schools. They include: Standardized tests Authentic assessment Performance assessment International assessments National assessments ACTIVITY: Share samples of various assessments, both formal and informal, with the class. If you are working with in-service teachers, ask them to bring samples to class. Include state assessments, if applicable. Compare and contrast the different forms of assessment and the purposes of each. DISCUSSION: How do high stakes assessments affect, either positively or negatively, the ways that teachers teach? How can teachers prepare students for high-stakes assessments without teaching to the test?

Chapter 5: Assessment of Students and Textbooks

DISCUSSION: Response to Intervention (RTI) has been described as an alternative to the traditional identification of LD students and as a preventative for the inaccurate inclusion of some students in special education. Based on information in the textbook and/or the experience of classroom teachers, is RTI an appropriate model for secondary schools? Why or why not? MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Assessment. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Authentic Assessment in Science. The teacher is preparing students for an assignment in which they must design a scientific experiment, an assignment that will be given gradebook credit. In groups, have your students list the ways in which this assignment might be considered authentic assessment. Learning About Students: Assessment for learning Learning about students, especially at the beginning of a school year, can help to plan effective instruction. Teacherdesigned reading assessments such as a Strategic Content Literacy Assessment (SCLA) or a cloze passage can reveal a good deal of useful information about students from a cognitive perspective. Whereas a SCLA can be appropriate for any content area, including music, art, physical education, or drama, a cloze assessment is appropriate for those content areas that require informational text be read and understood. A cloze is not as appropriate for narrative text. Learning about students interests, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to your discipline can provide teachers with information helpful in contextualizing lessons and experiences. Using interest and attitude inventories and assessments such as Whats Easy/Whats Hard provide teachers with a wealth of information useful in making instruction more relevant. ACTIVITY : In small content specific groups, have students use Figures 5.1, 5.3, and 5.4 to discuss cognitive processes they might include in an SCLA for students in their classes. You might extend this activity and have student groups generate an SCLA for their discipline and have these assessments reviewed by other groups. DISCUSSION: Administer a cloze passage from college-level text to the class. Let students score their own results. Discuss how accurate they feel the results may be. What factors might limit the reliability of the results? ACTIVITY: If students have designed their own WebQuests, as suggested in the Chapter 4 lecture notes, have them use the Internet comprehension checklist (Figure 5.7) and earth science rubric (Figure 5.9) as guides to outline an assessment rubric for their WebQuest. Assessment of learning Assigning grades to students can be one of the most difficult and least agreeable aspects of teaching. In order to be fair, a grading system should be clearly explained to students. The system should be relatively uncomplicated and based as much as possible on key elements of the curriculum. Each marking period, students should have a variety of ways to earn credit. One good way to make sure that grading is rigorous but fair is to use rubrics, or itemized lists of criteria by which students work is to be evaluated. When possible, involve students in establishing assessment criteria. Tests and quizzes should be carefully designed. Students should be informed as much as possible about what will be included on a test and what the test will look like. Assessment as learning One variation of authentic assessment that is widely used is the portfolio. Generally, a portfolio is a collection of student work that illustrates students achievement as well as their learning process. A portfolio may be a collection of varied artifacts, or it may document the evolution of a single project. Portfolios, especially when students are involved in selecting and evaluating the contents, become opportunities for students to learn from the assessment and can therefore be much more informative and productive than a single static measure such as a quiz or test. ACTIVITY: In small groups, have students brainstorm a list of possible portfolio contents and procedures for evaluating them. Let them visit one of the websites listed in the section titled Implementing Portfolio Assessment on page 163 of the textbook, so they can also brainstorm how the contents and procedures might be adapted to eportfolios.

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DISCUSSION: What are the pros and cons of using portfolio assessment in different content areas? Does this type of assessment lend itself more readily to certain subjects?

II. Assessing Textbooks


Based on their experience and a quick perusal of the material, experienced teachers can make reasonably accurate estimates of the relative difficulty of text. More objective judgments can be made by using a readability formula. Readability formulas estimate reading levels of text by quantitatively measuring syntactic and conceptual complexity. In the case of the Fry Readability Formula, syntactic complexity is measured by counting the average length of sentences per 100 words, and conceptual complexity is measured by average number of syllables per 100 words. While they have limitations, readability formulas are useful, especially in situations where one has to compare several different text sources. ACTIVITY: Have students use the Fry Readability Formula to estimate the readability level of Content Reading and Literacy. (Note: One of the authors computed a Fry Readability estimate of 14th grade level for the text. If students obtain substantially different results, have them evaluate why the results might differ so widely.)

Homework Assignments
1. 2. Recall a time that you were the object of someones educational assessment. In a short essay, reflect on how you were affected by this assessment and what you learned from it. In one of the professional journals for your content specialty, find an article that addresses some of the issues of either standardized or authentic assessment. Write a short review and response in which you summarize the article and support your opinions on the pros and cons of particular types of assessment. Share your article and review with your peers. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Assessment. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Authentic Assessment in Science. Note how this science teacher involves her students in authentic assessment. Describe an authentic assessment for a specific instructional unit in your content area. As part of your assessment, design a rubric that you would use to evaluate student work. Design your own Strategic Content Literacy Assessment, using Figures 5.1 and 5.2 as guides.

3.

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Chapter 6: Preparing to Read


Chapter Overview
Chapter 6 focuses on getting students ready to read their content area assignments and related materials. Because students vary widely in the knowledge, skill, and enthusiasm they bring to a reading assignment, good teachers know that preparing students in advance will go a long way toward making their reading successful. In previous chapters we discussed the importance of helping students make connection between their existing knowledge and the ideas that appear in texts and coursework. In this chapter, we describe strategies for assessing and activating that knowledge, and where little or none exists, strategies for building a knowledge base sufficient for interpreting the assigned text. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 172 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. The Role of Prior Knowledge


Many research studies have documented the degree to which comprehension problems may arise when readers possess inappropriate or incomplete schemata. Distortions or misinterpretations may result when readers attempt to make sense of unfamiliar ideas by drawing on their own cultural background knowledge. Problems also arise when readers have no relevant or insufficient schemata in relation to a particular content area assignment or related task. It is not uncommon for readers to ignore ideas in a text or discussion that conflict with conventional wisdom or supposed real-world knowledge. Further, teachers cannot underestimate the tenacity with which students will hold onto their beliefs, even in the face of conflicting evidence. DISCUSSION: (either online or face-to-face): In small discussion groups of 3 or 4 members each, examine the broad implications of how prior knowledge affects the reading process. Then relate one or more of those implications to a personal experience you had when attempting to read subject matter texts in middle school, high school, or in college. Be prepared to share your experience with the whole class.

II. Assessing and Building Prior Knowledge


In order for teachers to know how to bridge the gap between what students already know and what they will need to know to understand a particular reading (or viewing) assignment, they must first assess what students are likely to bring to the task. This can be done through any number of prereading strategies, such as: The List-Group-Label strategy Graphic organizers Reading, viewing, and listening Writing The List-Group-Label strategy and graphic organizers can also be used to review information at the end of a unit or chapter. Brainstorming activities such as List-Group-Label often assume a common set of experiences that derive from students shared cultural and linguistic knowledge. When this is not the case (e.g., in a class with ELs), it would be a good idea to introduce activities for building rather than merely activating students prior knowledge (such as those involving multimedia, teacher read-alouds, or graphic organizers). For mature readers, much of the required background knowledge for reading in the content areas comes from previous reading experiences. Reading a pertinent selection from a text different from a regularly assigned textbook (e.g., a trade book or a magazine) should help to activate and build background knowledge for subsequent reading of a targeted selection in a content area text.

Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

However, for those students who struggle with reading subject matter texts, the rich array of knowledge that is necessary for comprehending new material is often in short supply. For these students, it may be helpful for them to listen as the teacher reads aloud from a related text. Writing provides another window into students existing knowledge. When students write, they must reflect on what they know, select what they wish to use, and organize the selected ideas. Writing what they do know can help them discover what they do not know. A strategy known as free writing helps students to begin collecting and organizing their thoughts on a particular topic. ACTIVITY: Engage in the List-Group-Label strategy on your own, choosing a topic that is relevant to your school curriculum (or to a curriculum that you imagine yourself teaching someday). Represent the results of the ListGroup-Label strategy in the form of a graphic organizer.

III. Activating Prior Knowledge with Prereading Strategies


A major purpose of prereading strategies is to engage students interest by focusing on their ideas and beliefs. Prereading strategies that employ discussion should allow students to use the discussion as a means for understanding and organizing new information. That is, discussion should be a means, and not an end, to discovering what is already known about a particular topic or assigned reading selection. An anticipation guide is a good device for activating prior knowledge. It contains a series of statements that are relevant both to what students already know and to the materials they are assigned to read. In this way, an anticipation guide serves not only to activate a students prior knowledge but also to motivate him or her to read the assignment. Sometimes anticipation guides also serve to nudge students in the direction of questioning what they had previously accepted as conventional wisdom (and thus truth). A common mistake teachers make in developing anticipation guides is to write statements that are too passage dependent. Because anticipation guides are used prior to asking students to read a passage, stating an idea that is far removed from students personal experiences and based solely on information in the text, students are left with no option but to guess wildly about the validity of the statement. K-W-L is a strategy for showing students that they do know (K) something about the topic they are assigned to read. Whether they want (W) to learn (L) more about the topic is sometimes debatable. Thus, an alternative is to suggest that the strategy become K-N-L, where the N stands for needs to know. With teacher guidance and modeling, students learn how to categorize the information they have discussed and anticipate other categories of information that they may find as they read the targeted selection. ACTIVITY: With a peer (either online or face-to-face), develop a K-W-L worksheet for a topic of your choice (but one which you know very little about). Go through the process of actually discussing the information that will fit under the first two categories (K and W). Then evaluate the degree to which you were motivated to find answers to the questions that you raised. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Activating Prior Knowledge and Interest. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Using K-W-L in 8th-Grade Math. The teacher in this video begins the K-W-L lesson asking students what they want to know about solving equations. Analyze what happens next in the classroom. Are the want-to-know questions that the students generate connected to what they already know? How can you tell? If you had been the teacher, would you have introduced the K-W-L activity differently? Why or why not?

Homework Assignments
1. Analyze a passage from a literature anthology, a history text, or a science book for the kinds of prior knowledge students might be expected to bring to the text (including social and cultural understandings). Then write a brief description of how this prior knowledge might affect students comprehension of the text. Describe a situation in which you have seen (or can imagine) prior knowledge activation leading to a misunderstanding. This might be the case when students who are new to the English language and are

2.

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Chapter 6: Preparing to Read

unfamiliar with the context in which a new concept is introduced. How would you clarify and/or redirect discussions that might occur in such a situation? 3. Find a WebQuest on a topic of your choice. Then modify that WebQuest so that it fits within a unit you either currently teach or can imagine yourself teaching in the future.

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Chapter 7: Reading to Learn


Chapter Overview
Chapter 7 focuses on reading to learn, or what happens when a student opens a book and reads. We begin by examining cognitive and social constructionist viewpoints on comprehension. Then we give an overview of some of the research on comprehension, including recommendations of the National Reading Panel, the merits and drawbacks of direct instruction in comprehension, and the role of fluency in comprehension. A significant portion of the chapter is devoted to the uses of questions and questioning in comprehension. We provide examples of several kinds of reading comprehension guides, and we conclude the chapter with discussion of the influence of text structures in comprehension. !"#$%$#&'(Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 196 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Constructing Meaning with Text


Learning from text involves a complex interaction between reader and text. In Chapter 1 we contrasted cognitive and social constructionist views of the reading process, and in Chapter 7 we revisit these viewpoints. A cognitive view suggests that readers use their prior knowledge to build a representation of what an author is trying to communicate. Social constructionists would say that meaning is constantly negotiated through the lens of a readers linguistic, social, and cultural understanding. In many ways, however, these two viewpoints are more complementary than contradictory. Constructing meaning from text also varies in each content area, both because of the inherent nature of different subjects and because of the differing pedagogical beliefs of teachers. Consequently, teaching strategies for comprehension will need to be adapted to individual circumstances. The content of instruction needs to determine the process of instruction. DISCUSSION: Does a passage in a history textbook have a fixed meaning, or is the meaning subject to interpretation based on social factors that the reader brings to the text? What about a text in chemistry or mathematics? Share brief samples from different content area texts. Let students compare what might be comprehended in each, and how a reader might arrive at those understandings.

II. Helping Students Comprehend


Reading comprehension is influenced by many factors, but one factor that is particularly germane to teachers is instruction. Comprehension instruction may be student-centered, with the goal of teaching students to master specific comprehension strategies, or it may be content-centered, with the goal of helping students to master particular concepts in a subject area. Whether the emphasis is on strategy mastery or content mastery, effective instruction requires a knowledgeable teacher who understands something about comprehension processes and strategies. The National Reading Panel found seven categories of comprehension instruction that had strong research support: Comprehension monitoring Cooperative learning Use of graphic and semantic organizers Question answering Question generating Story or text structure Summarization Each of these approaches to comprehension is given thorough coverage in this text, and this chapter especially emphasizes question answering, question generating, and text structure.

Chapter 7: Reading to Learn

To help students with comprehension, teachers can present strategies explicitly through direct instruction, as described in Chapter 4. The direct instruction model is a four-step process: Introduce the strategy and its purpose. Model the strategy by thinking aloud and providing examples. Provide guided practice and corrective feedback on strategy use. Provide independent practice. Providing intensive direct instruction until students have mastered a comprehension strategy is probably not feasible for content teachers who are under intense pressure to achieve broad-ranging curricular objectives. In that case, a teacher may use a more content-oriented approach in which techniques such as prereading activities, vocabulary building, graphic organizers, questioning strategies, and reading guides are used in various combinations to engage students in reading, talking, and thinking about subject-area concepts. Fluent reading also plays an important role in comprehension. If a reader is struggling with decoding, reading slowly and laboriously, he or she will have few cognitive resources left over for comprehension. The National Reading Panel suggests that guided oral-reading procedures in which students read and reread text to practice fluency can have a positive impact on comprehension. ACTIVITY: Access the Reports of the Subgroups, available at the National Reading Panel website at www.nationalreadingpanel.org/Publications/subgroups.htm. Find suitable excerpts on one of the recommended comprehension strategies, reading fluency, guided oral reading, or teacher preparation and comprehension instruction. Assign excerpts to groups of students, and have them discuss possible practical applications in content area instruction.

III. Questions and Questioning


In order for questions to be an effective classroom tool, teachers need to be mindful about the ways in which they use questions. Most especially, questioning activities should be thoughtfully planned so that students are presented with a variety of question types. One useful way to conceptualize questions which has solid research support is questionanswer relationships (QARs.) Briefly, QARs imply that readers may draw on different resources for answering questions about their reading. There are four main types of QAR. Right There: The answer comes directly from the text. A reader can point to the literal words that answer the question. Putting It Together: The answer is implied in the text but not directly stated. The reader must use inferences to make connections between some of the things an author says. Author & You: The reader combines his or her background knowledge with text information to reach an interpretation. On Your Own: The answer comes almost exclusively from the background knowledge of the reader. Reading the text may not be necessary. Knowledge of these QARs can help teachers plan effective questions to be used both before and after reading. If teachers explain the four QARs to students, they can then construct reading guides made up of questions labeled according to their QAR. This will help students know what type of answer they should be constructing. Other useful questioning strategies include Questioning the Author (QtA), Reciprocal Questioning, and SelfQuestioning. In QtA, teachers acknowledge that authors make decisions about what to include and how to present information, decisions that may be questioned by readers. Teachers can guide students to formulate questions such as, What is the author trying to say? or Does the author explain this clearly? In the ReQuest procedure, students and teachers take turns formulating questions for each other as they work through a reading selection, with the teacher modeling higher-level questions and thinking out loud about answers to student questions. With Self-Questioning, students are directed to develop their own questions before, during, and after reading. Introduction of the ReQuest and Self-Questioning strategies will be enhanced if students have been previously taught about questionanswer relationships. ACTIVITY: Support students as they formulate their own questions for a QAR activity that makes use of their disciplines domain knowledge.

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

IV. Comprehension Guides


Comprehension guides can be designed to walk readers through a text selection and help them to find important information and ideas. One type of reading guide, the Three Level Guide, provides statements at the literal, interpretive, and applied levels. As students read, they decide whether each statement is supported by the reading or not. In follow-up discussion, students explain their choices and provide support from the text. A Selective Reading Guide is useful with a long reading assignment that may present difficulties for readers as they try to determine what is or is not important. The Selective Reading Guide points students to important information in the text, with page numbers given where each item may be found. The expectation is that students will not need to read all the text, but rather concentrate on essentials. Three-level guides can be used to simulate disciplinary thinking in science as students complete lab exercises and in history as students read primary documents. Science students can miss the connections between data, inferences, and conclusions when they complete typical lab reports. Called Thinking Guides in science (Ridgeway & Padilla, 1998), laboratory data comprise the literal level statements, possible inferences based on the data comprise the interpretive level statements, and possible conclusions comprise the application level. Thinking Guides require students to link data to inferences and inferences to conclusions. History students may have difficulty with primary documents, particularly if the primary documents contain archaic language. A Three-Level guide can simulate historical thinking and scaffold students' comprehension of primary documents.

V. Sensing and Responding to Text Structure


Authors use various structures or organizational patterns to present information in content area texts, and knowledge of these patterns can help readers with comprehension. Three kinds of text structures in particular may cause difficulties for readers who do not perceive them or understand how an author is using them to convey ideas: Sequence or time order. Comparison and contrast. Cause and effect (and a related pattern, Problem/solution). Students can benefit from direct instruction in the use of text structure. Teachers can read aloud from short passages illustrating a specific text structure, pointing out words that signal the pattern and modeling the thinking processes involved in comprehending. Graphic representations such as semantic maps or graphic organizers are also useful in teaching students how to use time order, comparison and contrast, and cause and effect. When an extended text selection is organized primarily around one of these organizational patterns, teachers may also design reading guides that lead students to work with ideas within that text structure. ACTIVITY: Give students groups several one- or two-paragraph samples of text representing sequence, comparison and contrast, and cause and effect text patterns. Let the group identify the main pattern in each sample and determine whether any of the signal words in Figure 7.6 were used.

VI. Comprehending Online Texts


The skills and strategies used to comprehend traditional print texts are also used in comprehending online texts. However, there are many additional complexities associated with online comprehension. Skilled online readers call on their prior knowledge of website structure and search engines and make a large number of predictions, for instance when they encounter one or more hyperlinks on-screen. They also extend traditional print inferences with an understanding that information they need might be concealed within several layers of a website. Online readers cognitive reading strategies are augmented by physical reading actions, such as typing, scrolling, clicking, and dragging. Finally, online reading calls on a very rapid process of reading and evaluating search engine results, as readers swiftly predict, plan, monitor, and evaluate what they read in repeated cycles. As readers navigate an enormous number of choices and possible distractions, they construct their own paths between and within linked texts and thereby create a unique understanding of the information available.

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Chapter 7: Reading to Learn

Not every student in middle or high school has sufficient Internet experience or expertise. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that some students will need some explicit instruction in order to successfully conduct self-directed Internet inquiry.

Homework Assignments
1. Choose a column from Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy or an article from Reading Today Daily on the International Reading Association Website (www.reading.org.) Read it and keep a record of your comprehension processes as you read. What strategies did you use? What problems did you encounter? How did you solve them? Write up a brief analysis of your comprehension processes. Prepare a direct instruction lesson to introduce any of the following. Present it to the class or a group of your peers. QuestionAnswer Relationships Questioning the Author Three Levels of Comprehension Sequence or Time Order Comparison and Contrast Cause and Effect Select a three- to four-page reading from a suitable middle school or high school text in your content area. Design a reading guide for that text, using any of the formats in this chapter. Present this reading guide to a group of your peers. After they have read the selection and responded to the guide, evaluate how the reading guide influenced their comprehension. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Comprehension Instruction. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and view the video entitled Dimensions of Comprehension. The speaker, William Brozo of George Mason University, outlines four dimensions that influence comprehension. Think of a topic in your content area that would be taught in middle school or high school. Briefly explain how each of the four dimensions would affect students comprehension as they read about that topic in their textbooks.

2.

3.

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Chapter 8: Increasing Vocabulary and Conceptual Growth


Chapter Overview
This chapter examines the importance of vocabulary in content area learning. Content teachers recognize that the vocabulary of their content area is not just words, but rather words that represent essential concepts. We describe some of the factors that influence vocabulary learning. We give several guidelines for teaching vocabulary, including how to select words wisely and strategies for giving students an initial introduction to new content concepts. We also elaborate on strategies that can help students develop independent word-learning abilities. At the end of the chapter, we present several activities that teachers can use to review and reinforce vocabulary.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 240 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

I. Learning Words and Concepts


Nagy and Herman (1987) estimate that he average student learns approximately 3,000 new words each year through twelfth grade. In content areas, these new words represent important concepts. Simple declarative knowledge (ability to define a term) is not enough in most cases. Students must develop procedural knowledge, or the ability to use the concepts in meaningful contexts. DISCUSSION: Introduce some content area vocabulary from the disciplines of students in your class. (For example, math: sine and cosine; chemistry: valence; history: emancipation.) Ask them to describe the difference between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge of these terms. Which kind of knowledge would be required of students in that discipline?

II. How Students Learn Vocabulary


Learners will have varying degrees of familiarity with the vocabulary of their content studies. There are four different relationships between words and concepts. Students may know both the word and the concept; they may know the concept, but the label may be unfamiliar; they may have a previous meaning for a word, but find it applied to a new concept; or both word and concept may be unfamiliar. (See Figure 8.1 for examples.) ACTIVITY: Group students by content area. Have them pick a topic in their subject area and think of examples of words that exemplify each of the word-learning tasks described in Fig. 8.1. Which of these words do they think would be most difficult for their students to learn? Why? Students have several strategies they can use to figure out new and unfamiliar words. They may use context clues or morphemic analysis, ask someone, or consult the dictionary. None of these strategies are foolproof. Context may offer little help, morphemes may be misleading or confusing, another person may be unavailable or uninformed, and the dictionary definition may be as obtuse as the unknown word. The effectiveness of these strategies will vary with students expertise, the specific words encountered, and the context in which they are found. ACTIVITY: Select one or two short but challenging text passages that include several words unlikely to be known to many of your students. In small groups, have students read the passages, identify difficult words, and use various resources, including the dictionary, to try to figure them out. Let the groups compare their results and discuss how the different strategies did or did not help. There are three broad categories of vocabulary taught in schools: general (terms used everydayerroneously thought to be the responsibility of the English teacher), polysemous (terms that have multiple meanings poly means many, semous comes from the word semantic, indicating meaning), and technical terms that represent the specialized language of the various content areas. In mathematics, readers must pay close attention to every word because everyday general terms such as of have specialized meanings in mathematics. In science, readers must deal

Chapter 8: Increasing Vocabulary and Conceptual Growth

with a heavy vocabulary load. Polysemous terms with specialized technical meanings in several content areas (termed sub-technical terms by Harmon et al., 2005) are often problematic. Additionally, in science and social studies readers must cope with terms and phrases that are not technical vocabulary but that indicate relationships among the ideas discussed in the text. Figure 8.2 will be helpful in discussing this information. ACTIVITY: In small content-specific groups, have students identify a conceptual area and generate a list of vocabulary terms that students would be required to know. Have students identify any polysemous (sub-technical) terms and discuss ways to teach them.

III. Teaching Vocabulary: Preactive Phase


Examination of content area texts will reveal different kinds of vocabulary demands in different subjects. Some texts define new terms as they are introduced, often with examples and sometimes with illustrations. Some texts will boldface keywords and provide pronunciation keys. Literature texts often footnote some especially difficult words, but give little or no help for many other words that may be unfamiliar. New vocabulary is often cumulative, with new terms built on an understanding of other terms recently introduced. Nearly all texts, however, will present many vocabulary challenges to the average reader, and will be especially daunting for students who struggle with reading. This makes the teachers task especially difficult. In addition, disciplinary differences inherent in vocabulary drawn from different content areas present their own challenges. How can we get the most benefit from the time spent on word study? Remembered that in teaching vocabulary, you teach your content! MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Developing Vocabulary, Concepts, and Fluency. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Vocabulary and Content Area Learning. The math teacher in this video is focusing on vocabulary in mathematics and using strategies that are particularly effective with English learners. After showing the video, have student pairs generate a list of ways this teacher helps her students learn the language of mathematics. Discuss how these strategies might be used across the curriculum. As a result of the discussion, you might wish to generate a class list of strategies that help students acquire the language of particular disciplines. In order to maximize the effectiveness of vocabulary work, teachers should carefully choose the focal words. Four criteria are helpful: The words should represent key concepts. Consider the relative importance of a large group of words. Choose words that students are most likely not to know, or most likely not to be able to figure out on their own. Look for words that can help you develop students word-learning strategies, such as using context clues, morphemic analysis, or the dictionary. ACTIVITY: Have students bring content area textbooks or text objects (music scores, paintings, etc.) to class and have them select words for instruction using these criteria. Once you have selected a list of words for instruction, several guidelines are helpful in planning your teaching activities: Start with what students already know and build on that. Provide multiple exposures to the terms. Provide varied exposures and active engagement with the words and concepts. Teach to promote transfer to other situations and subjects. Include discussion as part of vocabulary learning. Make your classroom a word-rich environment. There are a number of strategies that can be used to introduce and teach vocabulary, either before or after students encounter the terms in their reading. Simple in-class presentation of a list of words and definitions, semantic maps, concept of definition maps, semantic feature analysis, possible sentences, visual associations, and modeling your own interest and enthusiasm for word learning all can be effective.

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

ACTIVITY: Model one or more of the introductory/teaching strategies. For instance, draw students attention to the concept of definition map in Figure 8.6. Then walk them through creation of another concept of definition map for a different subject area. Alternatively, you can divide students into content specific groups and have them create examples of one or more of the introductory/teaching vocabulary strategies and share them. ACTIVITY: Distribute sample vocabulary lists for different topics drawn from a variety of content areas to small groups of students organized by content area. Assign each group one of the introductory/teaching strategies and have them create their own example, using the words they have been given.

IV. Developing Students Independence: Interactive Phase


Teachers can build on the word-learning strategies that students already have. Context clues, morphemic analysis, and dictionaries can all be helpful ways to help students learn content area vocabulary. One strategy, knowledge rating, is especially useful for awakening students prior knowledge and curiosity about words. (See Figure 8.11 for an example.) Teaching students the meanings and derivations of roots and affixes can deepen their understanding of the target words and give them a useful resource for unlocking other words that feature those elements. While dictionaries can be useful word-learning tools, many students need instruction on how to effectively read and interpret the information offered in a dictionary entry. Vocabulary self-selection is especially effective in promoting students word-learning self-sufficiency. Rather than spending a lot of time preteaching vocabulary, a teacher can ask students themselves to find a certain number of important words as they do the reading. After reading, the class can pool the list of words they selected, look at them in the context of the reading assignment, and discuss their meanings and reasons for selection. This strategy transfers the responsibility for identifying vocabulary to the students and also tends to sharpen their awareness of words and of word-learning resources. Students who are learning English or who struggle with reading will find vocabulary one of their greatest obstacles to success in school literacy tasks. For these students, intensive word study will be most effective. On the simplest level, they will need frequent help with pronunciation, syllabification, and spelling. They will especially benefit from learning how to use context clues, morphemic analysis, and dictionaries, including bilingual dictionaries. Frequent use of visual aids, such as semantic maps, concept of definition maps, and vocabulary squares, is also effective. Vocabulary study during the preactive phase, guided oral reading, activities that involve students in exploring several aspects of vocabulary terms such as four square, concept of definition maps, and semantic feature analys, vocabulary reinforcing activities like categories and word sorts (that involve small group discussion as they complete these activities), and lots of writing practice will serve these students well in learning vocabulary. ACTIVITY: Have students select one strategy that develops students independent word-learning skills and describe adaptations that might be applied for use in their content area. Do students in the same content areas choose similar strategies? What kinds of adaptations are suggested for each content area?

V. Reinforcing Vocabulary: Reflective Phase


In order to provide the frequent and varied exposures that are needed to learn new words and concepts, teachers may design a variety of pencil and paper activities that will reinforce students vocabulary acquisition. These reinforcers include: Matching activities, puzzles, and games Categorizing activities Analogies Concept Circles Focused writing assignments Students need to remember that in order to effective in helping students to own (rather than rent) vocabulary terms, students need multiple exposures to the vocabulary and opportunities to discuss the terms and concepts. This is why interpretive activities such as categories, word sorts, analogies, and graphic organizers are so effective. ACTIVITY: Distribute one or more short samples of secondary-level text or have students bring in text from their own content area. In small groups, have students select vocabulary, decide on how they would introduce and teach

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Chapter 8: Increasing Vocabulary and Conceptual Growth

it, and then draft one of the reinforcing activities described in this section, using the words they have selected. Have groups present their results to the whole class.

Homework Assignments
1. Find a word in one of your college texts that you think peers outside your major probably would not know. Develop a mini-lesson to teach them that word using Four Square, (see pages 261-262), Concept of Definition map (see pages 257-258), or Frayer Model (see pages 262). Drawing on the principles and strategies for teaching English learners and struggling readers described in pages 271-275 of the chapter, design a content area lesson that would help such students master new vocabulary. Develop a lesson for your content area that emphasizes vocabulary learning. Choose the words you think should be taught and explain how you would introduce them and provide students with multiple and varied meaningful exposures. Be sure that your lesson focuses on key content area concepts, not just word learning. Finally, design a vocabulary reinforcer like one of those described at the end of the chapter. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Developing Vocabulary, Concepts, and Fluency. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Intentional Vocabulary Instruction. This video provides several general guidelines for teaching vocabulary. How do the suggestions on the video compare to those in your text? Generate a list of guidelines that you, as a teacher, think will serve you well in your career. Be prepared to share your list with the class.

2. 3.

4.

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Chapter 9: Reflecting on Reading


Chapter Overview
Chapter 9 considers ways in which teachers can encourage students to think beyond the facts in a textthat is, to reflect on what they have read for the purpose of integrating new knowledge with old, and for testing the degree to which they find the new information valid and worth remembering. In some instances, such reflections may cause students to rethink what they previously had held as truth. At other times, students may think of ideas or arguments that oppose those presented by an author or illustrator. When this happens, we say students are reading critically and applying their own (or another persons) set of criteria for determining the truthfulness or validity of an authors argument. In this chapter you will find suggestions for grouping students in ways that encourage them to discuss different kinds of text in depth. You will also find classroom-tested strategies for guiding students reflections and promoting critical literacy as a special form of reflection. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 287 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Engaging Students through Discussion


Important as they are to student engagement in general, cognitive and motivational factors alone cannot fully account for students willingness to participate in academic tasks that require them to read subject matter texts. The culture of the classroom clearly plays a significant role in how readily students are willing to engage in reading and post-reading discussion groups. Typically, small-group discussions consist of 4 or 5 students who work collaboratively on a literacy-related activity. Small-group discussions may (or may not) involve assigning roles such as monitors, mediators, summarizers, and the like. Peer-led literature or learning circles originated as a process for getting students to come together to read and discuss a common book. This grouping practice often makes use of materials other than books. It has also been shown to stimulate students interest in reading in their second language. Such circles typically include a discussion director whose job it is to prepare a list of questions for the group to answer. Others in the group assume roles such as the connector (responsible for connecting the text to everyday life experiences or to other texts), the word or phrase finder (responsible for locating language in the text that is colorful, unusual, funny, etc.), the literary luminator (responsible for identifying sections of the text the group might find interesting to read aloud), and the illustrator (responsible for visually representing his or her favorite part of the story, sharing it with other member of the group, and receiving their feedback). Students alternate in these roles so that everyone has responsibility for guiding the discussions in different ways over time. ACTIVITY: Working in small groups (online or face to face), students select a favorite short story or piece of informational text. After everyone has read the selection, roles are assigned for a peer-led literature or learning circle. Then students engage in peer-led discussion and critique the process as a whole-class activity. This activity could be adapted for distance-learning courses by asking students to try out a peer-led literature or learning circle with children in their classrooms.

II. Guiding Student Reflection


Using a scaffolded approach to instruction, teachers model thinking aloud as they guide and support students to think about (and beyond) a particular text (printed, visual, aural, or digital). An important point to keep in mind is that reflective thinking is not just for gifted and talented students or for those who are academically proficient. There is sufficient research to suggest that students of all ability levels can benefit from instruction in higher-level thinking.

Chapter 9: Reflecting on Reading

To create a reaction guide, first identify a few key ideas that you want students to pursue in greater depth. Then provide a set of directions that emphasize the importance of students being able to support their responses with evidence from the target text as well as from their own experiences and other texts theyve read (including visual and digital texts). Reading for Different Purposes challenges students to read beyond surface-level understanding. It also encourages them to extend and elaborate on the ideas of their peers. Teachers who prefer to assign all students the same reading material will find Reading for Different Purposes well suited to their needs. However, after reading the common material, students break into groups for the purpose of tackling different tasks related to the common text. Discussion webs present central questions that students must address by looking at both sides of an issue. They must also compile evidence in support of their reasoning. The evidence can be obtained from reading texts, visiting websites, viewing videos and CDs, listening to others, and so on. Discussion webs help to structure discussions in such a way that more students have an opportunity to contribute than would be the case if a less-structured approach were used. The Intra-Act Procedure can be used to guide reflection in most content areas. It gets its name from the inferred intra-personal dialogue that takes place within individuals who are engaged in an exercise of self-actualization. The Intra-Act Procedure was developed during a time in education history when values clarification was at the forefront. Today, we see it being useful as a way to encourage students to reflect on what they have read, and in particular, to predict how the meanings they have constructed of a particular text are likely to mirror (or differ from) the meanings constructed by others in their peer group. This is an especially good activity to use in classes where there are several ELs present. ACTIVITY: Use a blank worksheet for the Intra-Act Procedure (see Transparency Masters) to generate a set of four value statements that could be used to accompany a short article of your own choosing. After you have generated the statements, divide into groups of three and record whether you agree (A) or disagree (D) with each statement. Compare responses during a whole-class discussion. Reading for Different Purposes, the Discussion Web, and Intra-Act all require students to consider competing points of view. Noting an authors point of view (and taking into account the various subtexts that such a view implies) is a characteristic of critical literacy. With few exceptions, however, students at the middle and high school levels are seldom encouraged to take a reflective, critical stance as readers. This is indeed unfortunate. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Reflecting on Learning. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Engaging Students through Discussion. The teacher in the video says that while the students did a fairly good job in their presentations on reflecting about what they had learned, they were not as strong in discussing as he would have liked. Working with a partner (or individually if part of an online class), pinpoint one thing that the teacher did to support student-to-student discussion. Also, pinpoint one thing that he did which may have discouraged the kind of discussion he wanted. Then choose one of the discussion activities described in your textbook and explain how the teacher in the video might have used it to strengthen the students discussion.

III. Promoting Critical Literacy


Teaching students how to analyze both online and offline texts to develop an awareness of how, why, and in whose interests particular texts might work is part of teaching from a critical literacies perspective. A pedagogical framework for building this kind of awareness is the four resources model (code breaker, meaning maker, text user, and text analyst) in which code breaker refers to decoding; meaning maker to composing and comprehending a written, visual, or spoken texts message; text user to understanding and acting on the functions of text structure, tone, and sequencing of information; and text analyst to unpacking social, economic, and political assumptions of a texts message in order to redesign the message. Although the ability to decode and comprehend what is learned from, and with, texts is a common expectation in most content area classrooms, the capacity to analyze how different texts position different readers in different ways is not. This is unfortunate, too, given that the increasing number of newcomers in schools today would seem to point

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

to the necessity of considering how individuals from different cultural backgrounds see themselves represented (or not represented) in the textbooks they are required to read. Developing students critical awareness through literacy practices that engage them in interpreting and evaluating all forms of text (print, nonprint, image-based, and verbal) is an important aspect of guided response to reading. Critical literacy also entails developing an awareness of how power circulates in all kinds of texts and relationships with people, especially when the norm (or what seems natural) favors those who have authority over others. To read critically is to go well beyond responding to words on a page. Teaching critical literacy is a way of ensuring that students consider how texts are taken up and put to use for the benefit of some, but not all, people. It also gives us a way to engage students in analyzing media texts and the audiences for whom those texts are produced. When teaching for critical literacy awareness, one or more of the following goals is usually at stake: To motivate students to explore the assumptions authors (illustrators) seem to have been operating under when constructing their messages. To facilitate students thinking about the decisions authors (illustrators) make when it comes to word choice, content (included as well as excluded), and interests served. To encourage multiple readings of the same text from different perspectives.

Homework Assignments
1. 2. Select one of the discussion techniques from A Potpourri of General Discussion Techniques in your textbook and develop a content area literacy lesson in which this technique would be used. Search your collection of nonfiction books and prepare a short book talk on your favorite one. Focus on the following points as a way of ensuring that you read with a critical eye: Why might the author of the book or graphic novel have chosen to write on her/his particular topic? What content was included, what was left out, and why? Whose interests were served by publishing the book? Does the book or graphic novel present biased content? By whose standards? Prepare a Discussion Web that could be used to introduce a unit on a topic of your own choosing. Then devise a means for making the Web more interactive (e.g., you might remove certain terms of the Web and ask readers to supply them based on what was learned from the unit of study). MyEducationLab ACTIVITY. Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Reflecting on Learning. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Engaging Students through Discussion. The teacher says that while the students did a fairly good job of presenting what they learned to the class, they were not as strong in their discussion skills as he would have liked. Adapt one of the discussion activities described in your textbook so that it would likely ensure more student-to-student interactions during discussion in the teachers classroom in the video.

3.

4.

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Chapter 10: Writing Across the Curriculum


Chapter Overview
Writing is a powerful tool for thinking, learning, and communicating. Teachers need to understand something about how writers work so they can craft discipline-appropriate writing activities that will enhance students content learning. Both formal and informal writing have value in content area studies. Informal writing, such as that done in learning logs, journals, or think writes, gives students an opportunity to try out ideas and develop writing fluency. Formal writing requires that students show what they have learned with precision and thoughtfulness. Inquiry writing, when students research a topic and report on it in written or multimedia formats, brings together reading in various print and nonprint sources, thinking, writing, and technology. The many forms of content area writing imply flexible and varied response and evaluation from teachers.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 313 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

I. What Content Teachers Need to Know About Writing


Research suggests that writing complements and enhances reading comprehension and content learning. Writing helps students to reflect, to organize what they know, to synthesize ideas across multiple sources, and to integrate new concepts with prior knowledge. Writing is not just something done in English class; it is a significant component of the content standards of all disciplines. ACTIVITY: Engage students with the activity on page 318 in which they locate the number of times writing is referred to in the content standards for their discipline. Let students from different disciplines share how writing is a tool for learning in their subject. Middle school and high school students are still developing as writers. Their written products will naturally vary in quality both within and across grade levels. However, the production of a finished piece of writing, whether done by relatively inexperienced students or by seasoned professionals, goes through similar stages: Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing Postwriting This implies that developing writers will need guidance and support during the various stages of the writing process. It is also important to remember that in content areas, some writing, such as that done in journals, does not need to go through the final phases of revising and editing. Such unfinished writing is nevertheless valuable because it promotes reflective thinking and gives the writer an opportunity to evaluate his or her learning and thinking. Because we usually think of writing as a solitary activity, we may overlook the social aspects of writing. However, writers draw on all of their social, cultural, and linguistic resources when they commit words to paper. Written products are consequently social artifacts. This may manifest itself in subtle ways, such as the manner in which a writer develops a train of thought or the illustrations used to make a point. More obvious sociocultural influences such as word choice and dialect features will also show up in student writing. There is no question that students need to be facile with the mechanical and rhetorical conventions of Standard English; the question is how those conventions should be taught. Teachers need to appreciate the conventions, legitimacy, and power of nonstandard usage so that they can explain and model standard conventions for students. ACTIVITY: Compare the conventions of Standard English with the shorthand conventions used by people in the electronic environment of Instant Messaging. Give students a short excerpt from a current news magazine or education-related publication and let them paraphrase it both in standard and IM English. Have them discuss why

Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

IM conventions are appropriate to that medium, and how they might teach their own students to avoid IM conventions in their formal writing. (If you are not familiar with the conventions of Instant Messaging, read Nu Shortcuts in School R 2 Much 4 Teachers at www.able2know.com/forums/about118.html.)

II. Writing Activities for Content Areas


The way in which a writing assignment is designed and presented will influence students success. Giving students some choice in their topics, specifying an audience and purpose for writing, varying the format of the writing, and guiding students in various stages of the writing process will all make writing easier to produce (and easier to read). ACTIVITY: With students divided into groups by content area, have them devise RAFT2 writing assignments. (See Figure 10.2, page 328 for possible modes for writing and Figure 10.3, page 332 for a RAFT2 example.) A learning log or journal is a useful tool in any content area. There are a variety of learning log and journal formats, and what students actually write in their learning logs and journals varies widely, according to the discipline. An alternative to learning logs or journals that does not require a long-term commitment is the think write., sometimes called an entrance visa or exit visa. Generally, think writes, learning logs, and journals are used by students to reflect on what and how they are learning. As such they are valuable sources of information for both teacher and student about students learning journey. DISCUSSION: Have the class look at the sample prompts for learning log entries in Figure 10.5 (page 334). Using these as a guide, ask them to brainstorm prompts specific to their content areas. List these writing prompts on the board or overhead, and ask them what sort of responses they might expect, and how this writing could facilitate teaching and learning. ACTIVITY: Response Heuristic is a particularly useful strategy because it guides students through the levels of comprehension (from literal, to interpretive, and finally to application). Organize students into content-specific groups and using the suggested adaptations of Response Heuristic on page 338, have each group generate disciplinary appropriate adaptations and provide an example to share with the class. Summary writing is a research-supported strategy for improving reading comprehension, especially for average and below-average readers. That is because summarizing processes are very similar to the comprehension processes of good readers. In order to summarize, a person must: Select and delete information; Condense information; Transform the information into writing. Students can be taught to summarize through direct instruction, including modeling and guided practice, or through any of several summarizing strategies such as hierarchical summaries, REAP, or GIST. ACTIVITY: Using one of the summarizing strategies described in the text, walk students through the writing of a summary for a short selection from high school level expository text. We have said repeatedly that students need sufficient guidance in order to write well. Writing guides can be crafted to help writers know what to include, what format and voice to use, how to anticipate their audience, and how to organize their writing. Good content area writing does not need to be confined to essays, summaries, and reports, either. There are many modes for content writing (see Figure 10.2, page 323), including creative writing and humorous writing. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Writing. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Writing in Science. The teacher in this video is scaffolding students learning about a particular form of writing found in science. Writing hypotheses in science also provides evidence of how scientists do science. After viewing the video, have students work in content specific partners or small groups and discuss how writing in their discipline is unique. You may wish to have students look for examples of writing in their disciplines prior to viewing the video and use their examples as a basis for their discussion.

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Chapter 10: Writing Across the Curriculum

Creative writing to learn activities can engage the most uninterested student. Cinquains and bioppoems can be useful strategies to help students summarize content information in a non-traditional way. Found poems and photographs are particularly well suited to social studies and the fine arts. Activity: Organize students into content specific groups of 3-4 and direct them to make a list of important terms/concepts from their discipline. Have them select one of the terms/concepts and create a cinquain or biopoem that summarizes the most important ideas related to the concept the term/phrase represents.

III. Writing to Inquire


It is especially true that thoughtful planning and guidance will be necessary when students undertake an extended inquiry project. Before they can embark on a process of research and reporting on a content area topic, they will need a solid grounding in background information, help with selecting specific questions to investigate, and assistance with various tools and strategies for gathering and organizing information. Actually producing an inquiry report may also necessitate some instruction in outlining and paraphrasing. Final products may transcend the traditional research paper as students employ multiple genres and media to share what they have learned. (See examples of I-Charts in Figures 10.12, page 355 and figure 10.13, page 357.)

IV. Responding to Student Writing


Who is going to read all of this student writing? Lets face it: grading papers is one of the least enjoyable facets of teaching. However, there are ways to reduce some of the onus of reading a huge stack of student papers. First of all, not every piece of writing needs to be read and formally evaluated by the teacher. A lot of student writing, especially informal writing, can be shared in peer conferences. Peer conferences for the purpose of revising and editing formal writing assignments can also improve the final products, thereby making evaluation easier. (See the Peer Review Guide, Figure 10.14, page 362.) Frequent teacher conferences while written work is in progress can also make final evaluations less time-consuming. ACTIVITY: In groups of three or four, have students circulate drafts or final copies of short prose writing they have done. Let them respond to each others writing using the Peer Review Guide in Figure 10.13 or one of the following techniques: Pointing: A reader points to a single word, phrase or sentence that is especially effective or that communicates the main idea of theme. Summarizing: The reader writes a one-sentence summary of what the author is trying to say. Questioning: The reader asks the author one question about the piece. Alternatively, use the following strategy to guide peer response and encourage helpful peer conferences. PQS: Praise: point out something that works in the writing; Question: ask a question to help clarify the writing for you as a reader; Suggest: make a suggestion from the viewpoint of a reader trying to understand the writing. When teachers sit down to do formal evaluations of student writing, they should be sure to focus attention on the content of the writing. While standard conventions are important and expectations should be high, the primary purpose of writing in content areas is to promote meaningful learning.

Homework Assignments
1. Prepare a lesson on summary writing. Include lesson objectives and procedures, at least two sample summaries of grade-appropriate text, and two additional short passages that you would use to provide students with guided practice. What content will students have to understand in order to create the summary you provide for practice? Design a writing guide using the RAFT2 acronym and one of the modes for content writing listed in Figure 10.2 (page 328). Prepare a unit plan for an inquiry project in your content area. The plan should include appropriate guidance and instruction at each phase of the inquiry process as well as disciplinary appropriate writing.

2. 3.

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

4.

MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Writing. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and watch the video entitled Peer Editing. Note how this teacher structures and guides the peer editing process, termed Clocking, as students review each others work. How might peer editing be applied to your content area? Working with a peer in your own content area, generate a list of possible ways to use peer editing in your own classrooms. Be prepared to share your list with the class.

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Chapter 11: Studying and Study Strategies


Chapter Overview
Chapter 11 treats studying and the use of study strategies as active and deliberative processes on the part of the readerprocesses that require creative and critical thinking, not passive acceptance or mindless regurgitation of an authors (or illustrators) message. That said, there is still a nuts and bolts type of teaching that must go into making any study system work. For example, the prerequisites for effective studying include taking into account students motivations, teaches expectations, knowledge of the criterion task, and domain knowledge. Accessing information involves much more than a simple mouse click; information literacy and library skills must be honed and websites evaluated. Tips on preparing for tests, while seemingly mundane information, are just as important as study strategies that develop students metacognitive and self-regulatory abilities. All figure into what it is that makes for effective studying.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 368 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

I. Prerequisites for Effective Studying


Developing a certain metacognitive awareness of the study task and of themselves as readers is a primary prerequisite for effective studying. Such awareness enables students to check their comprehension periodically for loss of meaning, apply appropriate fix-up strategies, monitor the effectiveness of those strategies, and evaluate their efforts to learn from studying. Students also need to attend to what motivates them to learn if they are to be effective in studying. Beyond that, they can benefit from knowing their teachers expectations, either through implicit or explicit cueing, from understanding the criterion task (e.g., Was there a match between your study techniques and the items on the test?), and from possessing adequate domain knowledge. ACTIVITY: Take a short (noncredit) objective test over the content in Chapter 11 of Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms. Analyze your answers in relation to the prerequisites for effective study. For example, did you do well on questions for which you had adequate domain knowledge? Were you motivated to do well on a test that was for noncredit only? You might test the generalizability of these prerequisites for effective studying by doing a similar activity with students in your own classes, if you are teaching.

II. Accessing Information


Online resources abound for students interested in using the World Wide Web as a learning environmentone in which accessing information efficiently plays an important role in effective studying. How well students do in this digital environment will depend to a great extent on how well teachers prepare them to become independent learners capable of applying information literacy and library skills in critical and creative ways. Although the search strategies differ for paper and online searches, the actual skills necessary for accessing both kinds of information are similar to those needed in any problem-solving activity. One first defines the task and then determines which available search strategies would most likely yield the best results in terms of locating and accessing the desired information. The Information Literacy Standards (see Appendix E in Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms) are important to identifying the instruction that students will need to access information in an efficient manner. Beyond accessing information efficiently, a key factor in determining who is (and is not) information literate is the ability to evaluate websites and their various resources. Without such critical evaluation, these resources are hardly worth accessing, for information that is biased or inaccurate is information best left alone.

Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

ACTIVITY: Providing students the guidance and practice necessary for them to become thoughtful evaluators of the websites they choose to visit might include dividing them into small groups of four and asking each member to play a different role: Role: Specialist in Content Authority / Credibility Bias / Purpose Usability / Design Questions Does the information seem accurate based on what you know about the topic? Is it important to know when the material was last revised? Why? Who is responsible for this site? (Hint: inspect the URL) Who else links to the site? Are they credible sources? Is the site trying to persuade you or change your opinion? Can you distinguish facts from opinion? Is the site easy to navigate? Do the links on the site work?

After everyone has had an opportunity to evaluate a targeted site, students might share their findings within their small groups and across groups.

III. Preparing for Tests


Teachers can alleviate some of their students natural anxiety about taking tests by minimizing the weighting of test grades in their overall course grade and by providing students with information about the criterion task. Because objective and subjective items place different demands on students studying routines, it is helpful to provide separate test-taking tips for each type of exam. Objective items on an exam evaluate students recall or recognition of information. Tips for doing well on these types of items include teaching them to use mnemonic devices (e.g., HOMES is a mnemonic for the names of the Great Lakes). It is also useful to teach students to recognize that multiple-choice foils with the words always and never in them are typically not the correct answers, although there are exceptions, as in All carrots are vegetables. Subjective items, such as short-answer tests and opinion essays, evaluate students abilities to organize, analyze, synthesize, and integrate ideas. Tips on helping students prepare for subjective tests include providing them with information (perhaps in the form of a rubric) on what should be included in an essay and what the point distribution will be if analytic scoring is to be used. Letting students know whether grammar, spelling, and punctuation will be taken into consideration is also helpful. Scaffolding instruction, such as a teacher modeling a particular process used in writing essays (and gradually turning the responsibility for the task over to students) will provide students with an idea of the steps involved. Similarly, providing students with a model of a good essay will inform them about a particular teachers expectations. Homework, too, figures into preparing students to do well on a test. Interactive homework involves students in collecting information and/or data from home, their families, or a local expert. Such activities as recording diameter and circumference of 3-5 round or cylindrical items (in preparation for a lab on pi), or interviewing a pharmacist (in preparation for a lesson in chemistry) or a resident of a retirement home (in preparation for a documentary about the Great Depression or World War II) help forge connections between the curriculum and students lives. Although little research exists on the effect of homework on students academic achievement, that which does exist suggests that in seventh grade and beyond, students who complete more homework score better on standardized tests than do students who complete less homework. This difference increases as young people move up through the grades. DISCUSSION: Divide into pairs and reflect on tips that work for you when preparing for objective and subjective tests. How many of these are similar to the tips provided in Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms? Where are there differences?

IV. Using Study Strategies


Reading to learn specific information for the purpose of performing some criterion task is what defines studying and sets it apart from merely comprehending the information. This type of reading requires students to think about and self-regulate their own study habits. Helping students become sufficiently aware of the type of studying required to do well on a particular criterion task involves teaching them the following:

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Chapter 11: Studying and Study Strategies

What to study in a particular situation (task awareness). How best to learn the information (strategy awareness). Whether and to what extent they have learned it (performance awareness).

Task awareness can be taught by having students brainstorm about the most important idea in a short selection they have read. For example, to point out the importance of task awareness in responding to a criterion task that involves writing a short essay, show students what information they would need to answer a sample question. Teach them how to arrange the needed information in a hierarchical manner. Show them how selectively focusing attention on relevant material requires them to self-question. For example, students might ask themselves why they placed a particular piece of information in a position subordinate to another piece of information. An effective study strategy for focusing students attention on important information is the SQ3R techniquean acronym that stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. It is a systematic way of previewing, questioning, and reviewing information that is read, and it offers them a chance to be proactive in developing task awareness. SQ3R is more powerful still when combined with a note-making strategy. Strategy awareness can be taught through teacher modeling. For example, as a teacher reads a short selection aloud, he or she might distinguish between observable study methods and in-the-head study methods (see Figure 11.2, page 377). Examples of observable study methods include copying, outlining, and drawing diagrams. In-the-head study methods include such things as looking over the material before reading it, reading slowing, rereading, paying special attention to specific parts of the text, putting together ideas in your head, relating information to what you already know, making a picture in your mind, questioning or testing yourself, and predicting what will happen next. Performance awareness enables students to monitor whether or not they have understood a criterion task and used an appropriate strategy to accomplish it. If they have done both, their performance on the criterion task should reflect it. Research has shown that metacognitively aware readers know when their learning breaks down and how to adjust the strategies they are using (or adopt new ones) to remedy the problem. ACTIVITY: Form a panel of your peers consisting of representatives from several content areas. As a panelist, list and discuss strategies you have used in the past for increasing students fluency in reading textbook assignments. Ask other members of the class to analyze the strategies on the panel's list. [Note: Panelists should evaluate past performances in relation to the strategies they listed. They should also comment specifically on the strategies that seem relevant across more than one content area.] Note-making strategies should be taught through direction instruction. Palmatiers split-page method of making notes provides a systematic approach to organizing and studying class notes. It consists of five steps: Divide a notebook sheet of paper in half (length-wise). Record lecture notes in the right column. Review and write the major concept of the notes in the left column. Fill in sketchy notes by referring to the textbook. Study the notes by folding the paper so that only the left column is visible. Students can used Palmatiers split-page note-making strategy as they read or during lectures. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Study Strategies. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Cornell Notes. The math teacher in this video is using Cornell Notes to help her students organize their math notes. In content specific groups, have students discuss how they might use Cornell Notes in their content area. What changes might they make in the process of helping students learn how to make notes using the Cornell or split-page method? Have students critique the video: is there anything that was particularly effective? How might one use Cornell Notes in a way that is more inquiry oriented than that shown in the video? The read-aloud/note-taking method is especially useful when teaching struggling readers how to improve their listening and note-making skills. Like Palmatiers split-page method, the read-aloud/note-taking method requires students to jot down facts in the right-hand column and then classify the facts they jotted down into main idea topics or concepts (which are then listed in the left-hand column). The difference in the two methods is that the teacher reads the passage aloud and scaffolds the entire process in the read-aloud/note-taking method.

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

The INSERT note-making strategy is useful for both narrative and expository text. To increase the effectiveness of INSERT, have students use their INSERT chart, organized by whether information is known or new, and reorganize the information conceptually. INSERT helps students develop metacognitive strategies. Chapter Mapping note-making strategy is particularly well-suited for science and social studies texts, which generally are well-organized through the use of heading and sub-headings. With a very dense text, Chapter Mapping might best be applied to sections of the text. The advantage to Chapter Mapping is having all of your notes on one side of one sheet of paper. Structured Notes are an excellent choice when you wish to alert students to the structure of the content that underlies the text. Teaching students to use consistent headings to organize their notes in specific content areas facilitates students understanding of this underlying content structure (see page 383 for examples of headings for several content areas). Structured Notes are also helpful when using non-textbook sources, particularly when the target text lacks the structure of headings and sub-headings to scaffold readers comprehension. Structured Notes are a good choice when using newspaper or periodical articles or primary documents (see the example provided on page 384). A compare/contrast study matrix assists students in organizing information while they are in the process of reading their content area assignments. As a study strategy, it involves them in summarizing what they have read as they go. A compare/contrast matrix also assists students in developing a sense of a texts organizational structure and enables them to recall information more fully and efficiently. It is an especially useful strategy to use with content area reading assignments that present information that differs along various attributes. Surfing the Web for information requires strategies that differ considerably from those used in locating information in paper documents. In a growing number of school districts, curriculum standards mandate that teachers help students become efficient and effective at searching on the Internet for information that can be used in completing homework assignments and studying. Among the many Internet search strategies that exist, the authors of Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classrooms recommend the following: The snatch-and-grab reading technique. Refining keyword searches. Providing clear search guidelines. The chunking technique. Developing mechanisms to overcome frustration with technology. Providing short-cut lists to sites or search engines. Evaluating non-textual features (images, graphics).

Homework Assignments
1. Analyze a short selection from a college-level text. What strategies would you use if you were studying to take a multiple-choice or true/false test on the selection? What strategies would you use if it were a short-answer or essay type exam? Explain why the study system known by the acronym INSERT is especially helpful to struggling readers. Think of a particular content area class and the students in that class (or imagine such a class if you are not presently teaching). Next, construct a simple 2 X 3 chart in which you jot down and describe three types of homework assignments (practice, preparation, and extension) for both interactive assignments and conventional assignments that you regularly give (or would imagine giving) in your class. Conclude by writing a synopsis of how those assignments differ among themselves. Have students select one type of note-making strategy to use while reading Chapter 11. Have students who selected the same type of note-making strategy discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the strategy they have used, then Jigsaw a discussion in which each group has members who have used different note-making strategies and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all the note-making techniques.

2. 3.

4.

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Chapter 12: Developing Lifetime Readers: Literature in Content Area Classes


Chapter Overview
Reading in middle and secondary schools should be more than just reading textbooks. Many adolescents are, in fact, quite interested in reading on a range of subjects outside of school, but the kinds of things that they like to read are seldom found in school. Schools should encourage students to develop and maintain lifelong reading habits. If we conceptualize content area reading as going beyond the textbook to include many of the kinds of reading materials available to the general public, we can nurture those lifelong reading habits and enrich students content-related learning. In this chapter, we consider some of the benefits of using trade books (books marketed to the general public) and other non-text materials, describe ways to integrate these resources into content area study, and show how trade books can develop appreciation for cultural diversity. ACTIVITY: Have students complete the Anticipation Guide on page 398 of the textbook. Have them compare their responses with a peer prior to reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, have students return to the Anticipation Guide to respond again.

Lecture Outline, Activities, and Discussion Starters


The outline is organized using the same headings as the chapter.

I. Reading among Adolescents


Reading in a digital age changes what counts as literacy in some peoples eyes. It also can lead to new understandings of students are using their free time during after-school hours. According to a recent Kaiser Family Foundation report (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010), young people between 8 and 18 years of age are spending an average of 7 hr and 38 min daily (7 days a week) using media that portray meaning through images, sounds, icons, gestures, language, performances, and other multimodal forms of communication. But thats not all. When the time they spend using more than one medium is accounted for (as they multitask their way through the day), the total number of hours of media exposure rises to 10 hr and 45 min. A comparatively small segment of that time is spent reading print media, such as books (25 min a day), magazines (9 min a day), and newspapers (3 min a day). By far, the largest chunk of time per day is spent on multimodal texts in the form of TV content, music/audio, websites, video games, and movies. What these numbers fail to show, however, is that adolescents are producers as well as consumers of 21st-century texts. According to a report issued by the PEW Internet & American Life Project (Lenhart, Madden, Macgill, & Smith, 2007), 64% of young people between the ages of 12 and 17 who have Internet access in the United States spend a significant amount of their after-school hours creating web content (e.g., blogs, web pages); sharing original artwork, photos, stories, and videos; and remixing online content to create new texts. More than half the youth surveyed in the PEW Project had also created profiles on social networking sites. Most of this activity remains largely invisible to their teachers, however,

II. Using Literature in the Content Areas


Reading from fiction and nonfiction resources beyond the textbook has many benefits for students: Wide reading can increase their vocabulary and conceptual range. Trade books and periodicals are often more up-to-date than textbooks. Learning is more reader-friendly with trade books which are generally more appealing and less didactic than textbooks. Good literature goes beyond the facts. Fictional characters and nonfiction reporting and analysis bring a human element to learning, so readers can experiences other times, places, and people with empathy. Finally, good experiences with reading engender the motivation to continue seeking pleasurable reading experiences.

Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

DISCUSSION: Working in small groups, students should write or draw images of how a broadened definition of the term literature makes it easier (or more difficult) to integrate the use of literature in other core disciplines. Louise Rosenblatt differentiates two possible stances that a reader may take toward a text being read. One is an efferent stance, where the attention is on getting important meanings, retaining them, and using them in some sort of academic or practical task. This is contrasted with an aesthetic stance, where the reader is most concerned with the personal responses, pleasure, or feelings brought forth from reading. While most reading fits somewhere on a continuum somewhere between these two poles, school reading seems to heavily favor efferent responses. The implication is that teachers should look for ways to encourage more aesthetic reading by actively soliciting students personal responses and by asking questions that tap into students interests and opinions. DISCUSSION: In groups, let students list titles of books, magazines, journals, graphic novels, or blogs which they have read in the last year or two. Let them decide where these different sources fall on a continuum between aesthetic and efferent reading. Teachers can integrate trade books into content area classes by reading aloud to students, either short excerpts or longer works in serial form. Some teachers may have the opportunity to offer students some free-reading time during the week, when students read from content-related materials of their own choosing. This would probably require a substantial classroom library of pertinent resources. Read-alouds and free-reading time are especially beneficial for students who are learning English. Teachers may also assign readings that complement the curriculum and expand on concepts introduced in the textbook. A whole class may read the same source, or teachers could provide multiple copies of several books and assign students to groups based on interest or ability. A teacher might also decide to assign occasional outside readings in non-textbook resources. Choosing trade books and other reading materials requires some knowledge of student interest and ability as well as knowledge of available resources. Several professional organizations, including the International Reading Association, review and recommend trade books for adolescents. There are many on-line resources, both commercial and noncommercial, that review books for middle school and high school readers. MyEducationLab ACTIVITY: Go to MyEducationLab (www.myeducationlab.com) and select the topic Multimodal Texts. Then go to the Activities and Applications section and show the video entitled Using Picture Books in 8th-Grade Language Arts. First ask students to analyze what the teacher was able to accomplish by using a picture book in this lesson segment. Then divide students into groups, giving each group a picture book that would be relevant to topics in various disciplines. Let the groups discuss how their picture book might be used in a middle or high school classroom, and then present their book and teaching ideas to the rest of the class. ACTIVITY: Have students bring a content-related trade book or periodical to class. In class, lead them to perform a Fry Readability check on the material. (The Fry Graph and instructions are in Chapter 5.) Ask them to consider whether the readability estimate seems accurate or useful. Are there other factors which might influence a readers success with these resources? Teachers should not overlook picture books or contemporary comics as good classroom resources, because their relatively short format and frequently thought-provoking subject matter make them ideal as background builders and discussion starters within the confines of a short class meeting time. Popular culturegraphic novels, music, film, television, and other popular mediacan also be integrated into many content area subjects. In bringing any of these many resources into the classroom, teachers need to be aware of the potential for parental or community objections to some of the content. Teachers should know school district policies on using materials and on potential challenges, and should be prepared to take proactive steps to avoid unpleasant and damaging censorship attempts.

III. Developing Awareness of Diversity through Literature

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Chapter 12: Developing Lifetime Readers

Students from all cultural backgrounds benefit from reading literature by and about people of different cultures. Reading culturally familiar literature helps to validate positive feelings about oneself and reinforce positive identification with school. Reading about cultures different from ones own helps to develop an appreciation for differences as well as the essential humanity of diverse people. Some people may resist multicultural literature because it is not part of the traditional curriculum, because of prejudices and misconceptions, or through a refusal to acknowledge institutional cultural or gender bias. These are not easy issues to resolve. As with other potential controversies, these objections may best be met by careful preparation, thoughtful choice of material, and clarification of possible misunderstandings. There is a large corpus of multicultural literature which has considerable literary merit, strong and sympathetic characters, and life-affirming themes, all worth including in the curriculum. When choosing multicultural literature, the following considerations are helpful: The author should be authoritative, either a member of the group portrayed or possessing enough knowledge to be credible. The theme should be culturally pluralistic, with issues of cultural assimilation given sensitive treatment. A good plot and characterization will make the book enjoyable. Portrayals of people from diverse cultures should be positive and accurate. Illustrations, if included, should also be accurate and non-stereotypical. Books should be carefully researched by their authors and historically accurate. DISCUSSION: When we teach reading to middle school and high school students, what are we actually preparing them for? To go to college? To get a job? Perhaps, also, to enrich their lives? Why is it important that students become lifetime readers? ACTIVITY: Have a Book Fair. Each student brings two to four trade books applicable to their discipline. Ask for volunteers to do a book talk for a small group or the whole class. Discuss when choosing and using literature can lead to controversy. Suggest ways to handle differing points of view.

Homework Assignments
1. Reflect on your development as a literate person. How did you learn to read? How have your reading tastes and abilities changed over the years? What benefits do you derive from reading? What are the implications in your own literate history for your practice as a teacher? Find ten good trade books or other non-textbook reading resources related to your subject area. Report on each with an annotation that summarizes the content and indicates how you might use the book in your content area classroom. Prepare a five-minute read-aloud related to a topic in your subject area. Present it in class, along with an explanation of why it was chosen and how you might use it.

2.

3.

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Test Items, Chapters 112

Chapter 1: Content Literacy and the Reading Process


True/False Questions 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 An assumption of content teaching is that textbooks present information in a coherent and unbiased manner. Active readers monitor their understanding of what they are reading. Being addicted to covering the content will ensure that students learn. Independence in reading is difficult to develop when students work in groups. Fluent readers comprehend a wide range of texts with speed, accuracy, and appropriate expression. The term New Literacy Studies refers to research on reading that was conducted after the year 2000. The bottom-up model of the reading process assumes that meaning resides primarily in the text. A cognitive view of the reading process assumes the flexible use of strategies to monitor and regulate comprehension. Schemata are the plot structures in literary texts.

1.10 In Piagetian constructivism, knowledge constructed must correspond to an external authoritative standard. Short Essay Questions 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 How do the New Literacy Studies open up the discussion of what counts as literacy? What can teachers do to combat student apathy and lack of motivation for learning in the content areas? Contrast information literacy with computer literacy. Why is a lifespan developmental perspective on reading important to educators of adolescents? Briefly describe three assumptions made about textbooks. Define disciplinary literacy. Explain what you would do as a teacher if you subscribed to the psycholinguistic view of the reading process. What distinguishes a social constructionist perspective from other learning theories? Why does motivation play such a large role in students reading achievement?

1.10 What is nominalization? How does it affect expository text comprehension? True or False Answer Key 1.1 T 1.6 F 1.2 T 1.7 T 1.3 F 1.8 T 1.4 F 1.9 F 1.5 T 1.10 T

Test Items, Chapters 112

Short Essay Answers 1.1 New Literacy Studies broadened the definition of what it means to be literate to include both in- and out-ofschool practices; explored the relationship between culture and literacy practices; enlarged the definition of what counts as text to include signs, music, websites, videos, art; and situated literacy as a political practice. Teachers can use learner-centered teaching and learning strategies; they can provide choices for students; they can help students see the relevance of topics under study; they can provide sufficient scaffolding so that students feel competent to complete work assigned. Information literacy refers to the ability access, evaluate, organize, and use information from a variety of sources; computer literacy refers to technological expertise associated with software programs. Educators of adolescents must recognize that middle and high school students are still becoming literate they should not expect that students can read and comprehend content area textbooks and other text used instructionally [primary documents, for example] without instruction in how to read and comprehend these texts. Textbooks can help structure loosely coupled curricular goals and objectives. They are viewed by students as being the primary knowledge source in their classroom. Textbooks present information in a coherent and unbiased manner. It is a term that describes epistemologic and linguistic differences among the content areas, focusing on how the various disciplines establish and verify new knowledge as well as characteristics of text (in the broadest sense of the term) drawn from the various content areas. Answers will vary, but they should allude to the idea that while reading, ones brain supplies more information about a text than it receives from the eye. Two distinguishing features are the centrality of language in mediating what is understood about lived experiences and the notion that truth is made, not found. When students are motivated, they view themselves as competent readers who are in control of their comprehension processes; they are said to be strategic in their approach to reading.

1.2

1.3 1.4

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1.7 1.8 1.9

1.10 Nominalization is the practice of transforming phrases or verbs into nouns. In science, nominalization is used to create new technical vocabulary terms, telescoping information so that the text is more dense. In social studies, particularly history, nominalization is used to make relations among ideas in the text implicit and therefore obscure agency.

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Test Items, Chapters 112

Chapter 2: Language, Diversity, and Culture


Multiple Choice Questions 2.1 The concept of language as social practice means that a. language has rules of etiquette. b. all languages are equal to all others. c. language is used to exchange meaning among people. d. discourses are identity kits. Stereotyping in gendered talk among students during a class discussion may eventually lead to a. better working relations between males and females. b. students shaping their identities to match the talk. c. parents filing class action suits. d. criticisms of the textbook and curriculum. If you believe that second-language development is more a matter of acquisition than learning through formal methods, which of the following practices would you favor? a. teaching grammar rules b. establishing more bilingual/bicultural programs c. tolerating greater diversity in students thinking d. exposing ESL students to various word games Advocates of sheltered English think of it as a a. way for ELs to learn content and English simultaneously. b. substitute for instruction in English. c. method for teaching children who live in homeless shelters. d. program that is too costly for schools to manage on their own. Ebonics is controversial in that not everyone agrees it is a. slang or ungrammatical English. b. a substitute for reading instruction. c. a form of code switching in Africa. d. the best approach to teaching speakers of foreign languages. Culturally responsive teaching requires the following: a. teach all students of the same race/ethnicity as though they are alike. b. choose one racial/ethnic group as the target group. c. plan instruction to match a groups average ability. d. know that students from any one ethnic group respond differently. Which of the following is NOT suggested for teachers in culturally diverse classrooms? a. Teach all students to think critically. b. Ignore cultural differences by treating everyone the same. c. Recognize and celebrate language differences. d. Understand how culturally diverse students view the world. When a childs home language does not match the language spoken at school, that child is a. naturally at risk of falling behind his or her peers. b. an example of the deficit hypothesis. c. likely to benefit from being taught the power code of Standard English. d. probably living in poverty. The following is NOT an effective strategy for teaching in diverse classrooms. a. teaching through conversation

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Test Items, Chapters 112

b. c. d.

participating in joint productive activity teaching phonemic awareness connecting school to students lives

2.10 Educators of gifted and talented youngsters are probably most aware of a. an underrepresentation of minority and poor children. b. the needs of readers who struggle with printed text. c. the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP). d. African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Short Essay Questions 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Describe a major way in which proficiency in conversational and academic literacy differ and why this difference has implications for literacy instruction in your discipline. According to Ladson-Billings, what does it mean to make students cognizant of the power of language and the language of power? Describe how the involvement of parents in school decision making would be an example of the schools attention to culturally responsive instruction. What is common about most instructional strategies that have been effectively used with readers who struggle to comprehend their content area texts?

Multiple Choice Answer Key 2.1 c 2.6 d Short Essay Answers 2.1 Answers will vary, but should include the fact that conversational English is acquired fairly quickly, but the language and complex concepts that form the very core of subject-matter learning require a longer time. Instructionally this means providing scaffolded support when introducing cognitively challenging textsa recommendation that aligns perfectly with the Learning Cycle. This phrase refers to the need for all speakers to recognize when it is appropriate to use dialect and when it is not. It refuses to romanticize differences when in fact those differences can be held against someone for social, political, and economic gain. Answers will vary, but should allude to the notion that a students home environment should not be viewed as lacking, but rather, as being rich in experiences that can make school learning relevant. Answers will vary but should include the notion of scaffolded instruction, which involves teaching students to monitor their comprehension through self-questioning and applying fix-up strategies when comprehension is lost. 2.2 b 2.7 b 2.3 d 2.8 c 2.4 a 2.9 c 2.5 a 2.10 a

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Test Items, Chapters 112

Chapter 3: Creating a Favorable Learning Environment


Multiple Choice Questions 3.1 The learning cycle is a heuristic for a. teaching students to review regularly. b. linking content literacy with students lives. c. improving test-taking abilities through massed practice. d. all of the above. Creative Thinking-Reading Activities (CT-RA) is the name of a strategy that is especially suitable for a. content area teachers in art and drama. b. students who have strong egos. c. English language learners (ELLs). d. schools in which high-stakes testing is important. Which of the following is a form of cooperative learning? a. WebQuest b. TrackStar c. jigsaw II d. all of the above Which of the following is an argument against ability tracking in schools? a. Higher-track teachers have better educations. b. Lower-track students are restricted to more factual-level recall and less critical thinking. c. Higher-track students receive less attention and are left to learn on their own. d. Isolating gifted students for part of the day leads to maladaptive behaviors. Cross-age tutoring involves a. pairing students in dyads. b. focusing on higher-order thinking. c. favoring skill development over self-esteem. d. working with others of the same ability level. Discussions differ from recitations in terms of the a. number of views that are expressed. b. degree to which students interact with each other. c. types of questions teachers ask struggling readers. d. length of time that is devoted to content skills. Which of the following is NOT associated with using technology to create community? a. motivational b. self-paced c. online writing assessments d. interactive communication software Reading and writing workshops provide struggling readers with a. sufficient time to complete their work. b. choice in types of materials used. c. strategy instruction needed for learning. d. all of the above. According to a recent study of tracking, being placed in a low-track curriculum is a a. detriment to ELs because it limits their post high school options. b. requirement of the No Child Left Behind legislation for English learners.

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Test Items, Chapters 112

c. d.

good indication that the students will receive quality instruction. carry-over from earlier policies that pertained to special education students.

3.10 Conflict resolution strategies focus on ways to decrease a. binding arbitration. b. cultural differences. c. formal debate. d. bullying behaviors. Short Essay Questions 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Explain what cooperative/collaborative learning would look like in your discipline and how you would reward students for participating in this kind of learning environment. List and briefly describe the five SPAWN prompts used in teaching struggling readers and ELs. Discuss a trend in student use of technology. Describe how assistive technology such as word processing software helps students with learning disabilities. How does the research on understanding peer conflict help teachers create a favorable environment for teaching and learning in content area classrooms?

Multiple Choice Answer Key 3.1 b 3.6 b Short Essay Answers 3.1 Answers will vary, but should include that in cooperative/collaborative-learning, students work together in small groups of four or five individuals each to set goals and to learn from one another. The incentive or group reward for combined individual efforts can vary. S (special powers); P (problem solving); A (alternative viewpoints); W (what if); and N (next). With these prompts, students are given opportunities to change some aspect of the text; write possible solutions to problems; retell a story from a unique perspective; respond to a change the teacher has introduced in a story or topic; and write in anticipation of what the author will discuss next. Answers will vary, but should allude to the claim that young people make about the Internet being invaluable to them as end users. Reduces frustration in letter formation; may increase letter/word recognition; and provides a spell checker. Students can learn better in an environment in which everyone has reason to feel valued for their contributions, regardless of race, ethnicity, class, gender, and so on. 3.2 c 3.7 c 3.3 c 3.8 d 3.4 b 3.9 a 3.5 a 3.10 d

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

Chapter 4: Planning for Content Literacy


Multiple Choice Questions 4.1 As teachers plan, they make decisions about a. content objectives and literacy skills. b. students abilities and needs. c. learning materials and assessment procedures. d. all of the above. Using the Learning Cycle to plan lessons a. is not appropriate for all content areas. b. will not include cooperative or collaborative groups. c. embeds principles of major learning theories in the resulting lessons. d. presents a concept through a lecture and evaluates students with a short quiz. With a lesson framework such as Reciprocal Teaching, a. the teacher takes on a dominant role. b. implementation in class would be highly predictable. c. formal, objective evaluation of student achievement is easy to incorporate. d. students are actively involved in their own learning. Teachers who advocate cognitive apprenticeship believe that students should a. identify closely with master teacher mentors. b. learn through being taught by older students. c. engage in authentic activity similar to what practitioners do in the real world. d. have an opportunity to work in business or industry while they are going to school. Predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing are strategies used in a. reciprocal teaching. b. the instructional framework. c. direct instruction. d. thematic teaching. The Academic Literacy course is part of a schoolwide literacy program based on reading apprenticeship. Reading apprenticeship is based on the idea that adolescent readers a. are deficient in decoding skill. b. need broad-based remediation. c. are inexperienced. d. are not ready for more complex cognitive tasks. Which approach to teaching requires special school organizational structures? a. thematic teaching b. interdisciplinary teaching c. cognitive apprenticeship d. reciprocal teaching With thematic teaching, a teacher a. can share instructional decision making with students. b. will cover a large number of facts and concepts in the course of a year. c. is limited to units that pertain to a single discipline or content area. d. cannot accommodate the varied needs of diverse students. Sheltered English instruction allows English learners to a. learn content area concepts in their native language.

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Test Items, Chapters 112

b. c. d.

learn content, English language skills, and increasingly complex academic tasks. gain content knowledge without having to use their limited English language skills. delay content area study until they have achieved minimal English language skills.

4.10 Meaningful purposes, student choices, audiences other than the teacher, and varied learning materials are all characteristics of a. direct instruction. b. unit planning. c. thematic instruction. d. authentic learning activities. Short Essay Questions 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Briefly describe four decision-making factors that teachers must consider in the process of lesson planning. Explain four characteristics of instruction that integrates new literacies. Explain the term instructional scaffolding, and give an example of how it might apply to your content area. Briefly explain two primary uses of the Internet in instructional planning. Compare and contrast interdisciplinary teaching and thematic teaching.

Multiple Choice Answer Key 4.1 d 4.6 c Short Essay Answers 4.1 Four of the following factors should be correctly described: 4. content objectives 5. language and literacy objectives 6. learning materials 7. student capabilities and needs 8. evaluation and assessment Answers should include four of the following: a. multimodality, or an extended definition of text to include a variety of visual, auditory and physical representations; b. multimedia, including technological and post-typographical media; c. an emphasis on learning processes as equal to or superior to learning products; d. collaborative rather than individual effort; e. critique of both explicit and implicit communication across varied media and modes; f. shared expertise and authority, rather than the authority of a text or a teacher; g. learner choice in topics, projects, modality, media, and assessment. When a teacher uses instructional scaffolding, he or she provides intensive guidance and support for students as they are learning something new, and then gradually withdraws support and encourages progressively more student independence as students become more adept. Specific applications of instructional scaffolding will vary across content areas. 4.2 c 4.7 b 4.3 d 4.8 a 4.4 c 4.9 b 4.5 a 4.10 d

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

4.4

The Internet can be used as a resource for lesson plans, materials, and teaching ideas. Teachers can also plan to use the Internet as an actual component of instruction. For instance, they could use the Web to provide information on a topic, or they could design actual hands-on Internet experiences for students. Both interdisciplinary and thematic teaching involve long-range plans that incorporate a variety of learning activities, materials, and content-related concepts. The primary difference is that interdisciplinary teaching crosses disciplinary boundaries, as when two or more teachers cooperatively plan an interdisciplinary unit. Thematic teaching may be interdisciplinary, but teachers can also plan themed units within a single content area.

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Chapter 5: Assessment of Students and Textbooks


Multiple Choice Questions 5.1 Which of the following is a characteristic of good assessment practices? a. tends toward accountability in teacher effectiveness b. draws on multiple sources of information c. disregards the cultural background of students d. establishes the learning styles of students Validity in a test is dependent on a. stakeholders credibility. b. students limited resources. c. a tests ability to tell us what we want to know. d. scorers understanding of psychological principles. An example of linguistic bias in a test question is a. use of Spanish words that are derived from Latin. b. lack of familiarity with specific vocabulary. c. request for known answers. d. content related to a minority culture. Authentic assessments are usually a. teacher designed and closely related to the class curriculum. b. publisher designed and parallel to the states curriculum. c. student-designed and reflective of learners grade placement. d. None of the above. Which is NOT a practical way to assess students norms, values, and beliefs? a. interest inventories b. content area learning logs c. observation charts d. yearly scores on standardized tests Much of what makes portfolio assessment effective is that it is a. derived from students increased awareness of their own learning. b. based on teachers professional knowledge of content literacy. c. devoted to showing that standardized tests are invalid measures. d. concentrated on knowledge of content over knowledge of process. Ways to make grading more equitable include all of the following EXCEPT a. giving students a variety of ways to earn credit. b. providing rubrics at the start of an assignment. c. grading bilingual students on the curve. d. making the grading standards clear to the class. Assessing textbooks can be accomplished through a. the cloze procedure. b. readability formulas. c. consumer judgments. d. all of the above. Most readability formulas rely on this assumption: a. shorter sentences are more difficult to read. b. longer sentences are more difficult to read.

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c. d.

bilingual readers have a limited vocabulary. gendered texts bias students understanding.

5.10 Test content that reflects the knowledge and values of mainstream society is an example of a. content bias. b. functional bias. c. consequential bias. d. all of the above. Short Essay Questions 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Describe two ways that authentic and performance assessment differ. Construct an example of a cloze passage. Be sure to include the deleted words in an answer key format that follows the passage. Compare and contrast assessment for, of, and as learning. Discuss the pros and cons of portfolio assessment. End with a statement of where you stand on this type of assessment.

Multiple Choice Answer Key 5.1 b 5.6 a Short Essay Answers 5.1 Performance assessments are graded by externally established criteria, not according to criteria developed by teachers or students. Also, students are judged on performance assessments according to benchmark criteria that indicate satisfactory or minimal accomplishment. Responses will vary. However, there should be intact sentences at beginning and end and there should be an equal number of words between each blank space. Answers will vary but should include the following: Assessment for learning includes assessment of affective and cognitive factors that influence learning such as beliefs, attitudes, interests, prior knowledge, and the ability to use prior knowledge and comprehension strategies to comprehend text drawn from a content area. Assessment of learning includes objective and subjective measures of content that has been learned (also termed summative assessment). Assessment as learning includes an element of student self-assessment so that students learn content from the assessment process. Possible pros: more authentic than other forms of assessment more effective than single, static measures allows for student input in selection and evaluation can show the history or development of both a particular assignment and also of individual students useful for communicating student ability to parents and peers helpful to teachers in evaluating their instruction may be more accurate than other forms of assessment for English learners Possible cons: 5.2 c 5.7 c 5.3 b 5.8 d 5.4 a 5.9 b 5.5 d 5.10 a

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time-consuming to collect and evaluate teachers may not know how to evaluate portfolios may be used only to assess student performance, and not instruction not widely used in disciplines other than English; may not lend themselves as readily to other disciplines may expose students or teachers to undue scrutiny or negative consequences

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Chapter 6: Preparing to Read


Multiple Choice Questions 6.1 Teachers who use prior knowledge activation strategies are a. equally effective in teaching high-, average-, and low-achieving readers. b. generally the more experienced and better teachers in a school. c. less well informed than their colleagues who emphasize rote-memorization. d. typically motivated to be more learner-centered than teacher-centered. Culture, stubbornness, language, perceptions, and development are all a. reasons for school failure. b. impossible to overcome. c. irrelevant to learning. d. potential barriers to conceptual change. Teachers can prepare culturally diverse students for learning by a. recognizing the validity of cultural experiences and beliefs. b. allowing students to discuss their schemata. c. looking for congruence between what students know and what they will be learning. d. all of the above. A diagram of important vocabulary terms, arranged in a branching pattern of coordinate and subordinate ideas, is called a(n) a. graphic organizer. b. preview. c. anticipation guide. d. schemata organizer. Teachers can build background for a reading assignment by a. assigning a list of questions to be answered. b. telling students they will be quizzed on the material. c. letting students read, view, or listen to another selection on the same topic. d. all of the above. An important part of the List-Group-Label strategy is the a. discussion of why words belong in a certain group. b. label that most closely matches an ELs prior knowledge. c. topic that a teacher chooses for investigation with students. d. invariant grouping that must occur for the strategy to work. A major purpose of anticipation guides is to a. break difficult text into smaller, more manageable sections. b. assess readers background knowledge for an unfamiliar topic. c. focus a lesson on students ideas and beliefs. d. all of the above. Anticipation guides are recommended for a. reviewing difficult material before a test. b. previewing the content of an assignment and establishing the purpose for reading. c. giving students new information on a topic. d. activating prior knowledge and clarifying misconceptions. Much of the effectiveness of anticipation guides depends on a. including ideas that are likely to be unfamiliar to students.

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b. c. d.

student discussion before and after reading. the teachers skill in setting a purpose for reading. having students write out their predictions before they read.

6.10 In preparing an anticipation guide, a teacher should a. avoid ideas that may be counterintuitive or controversial. b. look for points of congruence between students prior knowledge and important ideas in the text. c. include potentially unfamiliar technical terms. d. list specific facts from the text. Short Essay Questions 6.1 6.2. 6.3 Briefly explain the influence of prior knowledge on the reading process, and what this implies for teachers. Describe how K-W- L can be used to prepare students for reading. Tell why this particular strategy is better for building or activating prior knowledge than other strategies. Briefly describe the role prior knowledge plays in a reader/writers understanding of assigned readings (and viewings) in content area classrooms that you know. Be as specific as possible. If you are not presently teaching, recall a situation in which you used your existing knowledge to complete a subject matter assignment. Discuss how you would implement an anticipation guide as a prereading strategy. Be sure to include why such a guide fits well with the Learning Cycle. Sketch a graphic organizer for a topic in a specific content area (you choose), and then explain why it would likely prepare students to read an assigned portion of their text.

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Multiple Choice Answer Key 6.1 a 6.6 a Short Essay Answers 6.1 When a student is missing a relevant schema or has a misconception about a particular topic or assigned reading, distortions in meaning may result. Teachers can use strategies to help build background knowledge where little or none exists, or where an inappropriate schema may cause a student to misinterpret the text. K-W-L prepares students for reading by helping them connect what they already know (existing or prior knowledge) to what they want (need) to know. It is a motivating device for some students, especially if they have little confidence in themselves as readers or are generally turned off to content area reading. Answers will vary, but they should allude to the process of connecting the known to the unknown. Answers will vary, but they should include mention of analyzing a reading assignment for the purpose of assessing what students will probably already know in relation to the information presented in the assigned reading. Statements need to be devised that 1) address students existing schemata, and 2) connect those schemata to the new information. Answers will vary, but all organizers should show a hierarchical structuring of concepts related to the topic, and it this structuring that will help students organize the information they are about to read. 6.2 d 6.7 c 6.3 d 6.8 d 6.4 a 6.9 b 6.5 c 6.10 b

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Chapter 7: Reading to Learn


Multiple Choice Questions 7.1 Which is NOT a feature of content-centered comprehension instruction? a. Teachers emphasize essential curricular concepts. b. Content area texts are the main source for reading. c. Teacher-made materials like graphic organizers and reading guides make content area text more comprehensible. d. There is explicit emphasis on using comprehension strategies independently. Questions posed before reading a. improve recall of the answers as well as unrelated information. b. help readers focus on the targeted information. c. have little real effect on comprehension. d. characterize the interactive phase of the Learning Cycle. Questions that call for literal answers are a. textually explicit or Right There. b. textually implicit or Putting It Together. c. scriptally implicit of Author and You. d. scriptally implicit or On Your Own. When a reader must call on previous knowledge to answer a question, the question answer relationship is a. textually explicit or Right There. b. textually implicit or Putting It Together. c. scriptally implicit or In My Head. d. schema specific or In the Book. Self-questioning a. is successful in improving comprehension of students of diverse ages and abilities. b. is less effective than teacher-generated questions. c. is only suitable with short stories. d. tends to be textually explicit. Common text structures or organizational patterns include a. textually implicit, textually explicit, and scriptally implicit. b. time order, cause and effect, and comparison and contrast. c. expository and narrative. d. main ideas, details, and inferences. The best approach to comprehension instruction comes from a. a scripted instructional program. b. a knowledgeable teacher. c. the National Reading Panel report d. a comprehension workbook. Direct instruction in comprehension should include a. explicit explanation and modeling of the comprehension strategy. b. guided practice with teacher feedback. c. independent practice. d. all of the above. The Questioning the Author strategy is based on the idea that 4. narrative and expository text are different.

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5. 6. 7.

EL students are likely to make up better questions than teachers. questions should be used primarily to evaluate student comprehension. authors make decisions about what to include and how to present it.

7.10 A teacher would give students a study guide before they read if she wanted to a. test their comprehension. b. guarantee they read the entire assignment. c. support their search for important information and ideas. d. assign a grade for homework completion. Short Essay Questions 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Specify a well-known folk tale and write four questions about it, using one from each of the following:Right There, Putting It Together, Author and You, and On Your Own. List four common text structures or organizational patterns and tell why they are appropriate for the interactive phase of the Learning Cycle.. Outline the essential steps in direct instruction of comprehension strategies and tell how you might differentiate such instruction for ELs. Explain a questioning strategy and how you might use it with a reading selection in your discipline. Describe the design and use of organizational pattern guides as Thinking Guides.

Multiple Choice Answer Key 7.1 d 7.6 b Short Essay Answers 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Answers will vary, but there should be distinctions made among the four types of questions. Time order/sequence, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, problem/solution. Direct instruction would include explaining and modeling the strategy, guided practice with teacher feedback, and independent practice. Answers will vary, but should incorporate a strategy such as QARs, Questioning the Author, ReQuest, or self-questioning. Answers will vary, but they should indicate students awareness that Thinking Guides require them to link evidence to inferences, and in turn, inferences to conclusions. 7.2 b 7.7 b 7.3 a 7.8 d 7.4 c 7.9 d 7.5 a 7.10 c

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Chapter 8: Increasing Vocabulary and Conceptual Growth


Multiple Choice Questions 8.1 When students learn in physics that work means the amount of force used to move an object a certain distance, they are a. using a known word for a known concept. b. applying a new word to a known concept. c. learning a new concept associated with a known word. d. learning a new word for a new concept. Context clues can a. help a reader learn new words. b. help a reader understand an unfamiliar word. c. sometimes be misleading or no help at all. d. all of the above. Breaking a word into meaningful parts, or roots and affixes, is a strategy called a. contextual analysis. b. syntactic analysis. c. semantic analysis. d. morphemic analysis. Semantic feature analysis is useful to help students a. learn the definition of a word. b. see several dimensions of meaning associated with a word. c. use morphemic analysis. d. all of the above. The study of the origin or history of words is called a. etymology. b. morphology. c. semantics. d. analogy. The best use of the dictionary is a. to introduce new vocabulary. b. to have students look up words in order to write sentences. c. in conjunction with other vocabulary strategies to clarify or confirm meanings. d. as a source of new vocabulary to teach. Vocabulary self-collection is efficient and effective because a. preparation time is minimal. b. responsibility for learning is shifted to students. c. students are likely to pick unfamiliar but important words. d. all of the above. In a classroom where the teacher was making an effort to help struggling readers or English learners, you would expect to find a. frequent dictionary exercises. b. students involved in content-related discussion. c. careful correction of students language miscues. d. presentation of concepts through lectures rather than demonstrations or visual aids.

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8.9

Puzzles and matching activities are limited because they a. only require students to recall the relation between a word and its definition. b. are not motivating to students. c. cannot accommodate long lists of words. d. all of the above.

8.10 Which term best completes the analogy? regular exercise : physical fitness : : ___________ : vocabulary building a. drill and practice b. wide reading c. direct instruction d. memorization Short Essay Questions 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 Explain the role of context in vocabulary development. Sketch a Concept of Definition map for an essential vocabulary term from your content area. List four criteria for selecting vocabulary to teach. Briefly describe a Sheltered English classroom. Write an analogy using at least two of the following terms: celery, dairy, raisin bran, meats & proteins, apples, turkey, milk, fruits & vegetables, bread & cereal, fish, cheese. Explain the role of morphemic analysis in vocabulary learning. Choose a technical term in your content area, explain how you would teach it to students and provide a rationale for your choice of strategy. (Look it up in the dictionary and write a sentence is not an acceptable answer.) Describe a strategy that seems compatible with your content area that would help students develop relational knowledge and provide a rationale for your choice.

Multiple Choice Answer Key 8.1 c 8.6 c Short Essay Answers 8.1 Most new vocabulary is learned through repeated exposure in meaningful context. However, context alone may not help in every case, and struggling readers especially may over-rely on context. Teachers can help students to use context clues, especially when new terms are clearly defined in the text. Teachers can also prepare sentences that provide rich context clues for unfamiliar words and use these sentences to introduce or reinforce vocabulary. Finally, context should always be consulted and discussed when students are engaged in activities like vocabulary self collection. Answers will vary, but should include the three essential components of a Concept of Definition: Category, Properties, and Illustrations. Four criteria for selecting vocabulary: relation to key concepts. 8.2 d 8.7 d 8.3 d 8.8 b 8.4 b 8.9 a 8.5 a 8.10 b

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8.4

relative importance. students ability and background. potential for enhancing independent learning.

Characteristics of a Sheltered English classroom include: Focus on meaning rather than form. Use of simplified sentences and controlled vocabulary. Concepts are presented using clue-rich contexts, such as demonstrations, visual aids, maps, and hands-on activities. Students are involved in conversational interaction. New students are allowed a silent period. Answers will vary, but they should follow the format A : B :: X : Y, where A and B have the same relation to each other as X and Y have to each other. Using the meaning of the morphemes that comprise the term to develop an understanding of the meaning of the word. Answers will vary, but they should include the term chosen, a description of how that term would be taught, and a rationale for the choice of the strategy described. Answers will vary, but they should include a description of a vocabulary strategy and a rationale for why that strategy is compatible with the specified content area.

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Chapter 9: Reflecting on Reading


Multiple Choice Questions 9.1 Immersing students in a sea of talk gives struggling readers more opportunity to a. practice their language skills. b. learn technical vocabulary. c. benefit from peers responses. d. all of the above. During small-group discussions a. very few students can participate at any one time. b. a diverse number of ideas can be expressed. c. students with less fluency in English are at a disadvantage. d. competition between individual students is encouraged. The purpose of a Discussion Web is to a. allow students to reflect on opposing points of view. b. have students support one side of an issue. c. organize facts into meaningful relationships. d. encourage highly verbal students. The Intra-Act Procedure highlights differences in a. speakers communication styles. b. individuals ability levels. c. students values and beliefs. d. teachers abilities to interact. Peer-led literature circles occur when a. teachers take primary responsibility for leading discussions. b. older kids teach younger kids. c. a group of youngsters read and discuss a common book. d. struggling readers are helped by more able readers. Strategies for guiding student reflection include a. reading for different purposes. b. activating prior knowledge. c. teaching technical vocabulary. d. demonstrating differences in text structure. Promoting critical literacy involves a. focusing on visual images rather than printed texts. b. reinventing ways to write critical essays. c. teaching students about critical theory. d. developing adolescents ability to read the world. Asking students to is a goal of critical media literacy. a. critique their pleasures of popular media texts b. investigate how many people watch TV c. map the ways people assimilate popular media texts differently d. learn a game of Pokmon What counts as critical literacy is an ability to a. integrate critical theory in written responses to texts. b. score above the mean on standardized tests.

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c. d.

ask factual-level questions. go beyond responding to words on a page.

9.10 An effective method for encouraging content area discussions among English language learners is articulated in the literature on a. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). b. Instructional Conversation (IC). c. Intra-Act Procedure (IAP). d. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). Short Essay Questions 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 What steps are crucial in implementing small-group discussions, and how would they fit with the Learning Cycle that you have in mind for your discipline? What would you do if you were the teacher in charge of setting up peer-led literature or learning circles? Be sure to consider how you might adapt this approach for a science or social studies classroom. List the steps for teaching students how to read for different purposes. What are three reasons for teaching critical awareness while reading? Describe the four approaches to teaching critical media literacy.

Multiple Choice Answer Key 9.1 d 9.6 a Short Essay Answers 9.1 Answers will vary, but should include at least three of the following: assigning clear and manageable tasks; guiding students by setting limits, monitoring and assisting group work; moderating whole-class follow-up; and modeling. A statement should also be included that shows the fit between these strategies and the Learning Cycle. Answers will vary, but should allude to the need to assign roles (e.g., the word finder, connector, illustrator, and so on). Also should address the possibility of selecting informational texts if adapted for social studies and science. Assign the same reading material; break into groups and complete different tasks; a spokesperson from each group reports to the whole class; conclude with a written summary of the groups task. To motivate students to explore assumptions underlying an authors message; to reflect on the decisions an author makes when choosing words and selecting/omitting content; to encourage multiple readings of the same text from different perspectives. Viewers as consumers; teachers as liberating guides; pleasures without parameters; media as sources of both pleasure and learning. 9.2 b 9.7 d 9.3 a 9.8 c 9.4 c 9.9 d 9.5 c 9.10 b

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Chapter 10: Writing Across the Curriculum


Multiple Choice Questions 10.1 According to Donald Murray (1984), writing is a. most valuable when all the steps in the writing process are completed. b. linear. c. the most disciplined form of thinking. d. separate from the reading process. 10.2 Research suggests that it is beneficial to a. combine writing with reading. b. teach writing separately from other subjects. c. strengthen reading skills before working on writing skills. d. none of the above. 10.3 The first phase of the writing process involves a. gathering data, organizing ideas, and rehearsing. b. actually getting words down on paper. c. rereading to look for clarity, meaning, and information. d. making sure that spelling and mechanics are correct. 10.4 Learning logs can be effective because they are a. an example of the writers best work. b. easy to grade. c. a valuable record of students thinking, learning, and growth. d. all of the above. 10.5 In the guided writing procedure, students write a. before reading. b. after reading. c. from a list of facts. d. both before and after reading. 10.6 Which is NOT one of the basic processes involved in writing a summary? a. selecting and deleting information b. condensing information c. translating information d. transforming information into writing 10.7 Learning how to summarize a. can improve comprehension. b. takes guidance and repeated practice. c. is easier with narrative than expository text. d. all of the above. 10.8 To discourage students from simply copying information directly from a source when writing reports, teachers can a. prepare notes in advance and let students choose the notes they want to use. b. show students how to use various notetaking methods. c. permit students to use only approved references (e.g., put encyclopedias off limits.) d. deduct points for plagiarism. 10.9 In writing reports, what is likely to cause students difficulty? a. narrowing the topic.

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b. c. d.

collecting information. organizing information. all of the above.

10.10 Receiving writing means a. collecting students papers when they are completed. b. letting a writer know his or her message has come across. c. responding to student writing while it is still in draft form. d. emphasizing form and content equally when assigning grades. Short Essay Questions 10.1 Briefly describe the stages of the writing process. 10.2 Give three examples of how a learning log might be used in your classroom. 10.3 Describe a technique for teaching students how to summarize. 10.4 Give an example of report writing in your content area, and how you might guide students in the process of researching and completing a report. 10.5 Explain how you would evaluate student writing. 10.6 Explain what the acronym R.A.F.T.2 stands for, and how a teacher might use it. 10.7 Describe three ways that technology can be used to enhance student inquiry projects. 10.8 Describe the three-search process. How is it different from the traditional research process? 10.9 How would you respond to student learning log entries? 10.10 Describe the Response Heuristic strategy. How might you adapt the strategy to your content area? Multiple Choice Answer Key 10.1 c 10.6 c Short Essay Answers: 10.1 Prewriting involves selecting a topic, collecting ideas and information, and organizing. Drafting is actually putting words down on paper. Revising involves going back to a draft and adding, deleting, and clarifying. When editing, the writer cleans up spelling, punctuation, and grammatical conventions as part of preparing the final product. In the postwriting phase, writing is shared with others and may be formally or informally evaluated by the author and by readers. 10.2 The answer should include three appropriate prompts or topics for learning log writing. 10.3 A satisfactory answer should accurately describe direct instruction, hierarchical summaries, G.I.S.T., or R.E.A.P. 10.4 Answers will vary. 10.2 a 10.7 d 10.3 a 10.8 b 10.4 c 10.9 d 10.5 d 10.10 b

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10.5 Answers will vary. 10.6 Role, Audience, Format, Topic and Task. RAFT2 is used to structure writing activities. Students write in a Role other than that of student, for an Audience other than the teacher, on a Topic under study to complete an identified Task. 10.7 First, technology can facilitate student information gathering from multiple sources; second, technology can help students develop their ability to back up their assertions through dialogue with distant others; technology provides several venues for presenting results of inquiry project. 10.8 The Three Search process involves the following: reflecting, interviewing, reading. The traditional research process begins with reading, often before students have acquired sufficient prior knowledge to be able to identify salient sources and comprehend what they are reading. 10.9 Answers will vary. ! 10.10 Response Heuristic strategy scaffolds students thinking process into three comprehension levels: from the literal [what] to the interpretive [what did the author mean?] to the application [how is this related to your life?] levels. Adaptations for different content areas will vary.

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Chapter 11: Studying and Study Strategies


Multiple Choice Questions 11.1 In order to be effective in their studying, students must have a. motivation and metacognitive knowledge of the task, topic, and teachers expectations. b. a minimum of one-half hour of study time for each hour of class time. c. access to supplementary materials and computer technology (including appropriate software). d. a quiet space in which to study, either at home, in public libraries, or after-school programs. 11.2 Information literacy is generally defined as the ability to a. access information from a variety of sources. b. evaluate information from a variety of sources. c. organize and use information from a variety of sources. d. all of the above. 11.3 Students might prepare for an objective test by remembering the word HOMES to recall the names of the Great Lakes. This is an example of a. compensating for inadequate domain knowledge. b. using an ineffective study strategy. c. getting a handle on performance awareness. d. relying on a mnemonic device. 11.4 Which would NOT be a helpful tip on preparing for a subjective test? a. Telling students how many points will be awarded for each question. b. Telling them what information should be included in an essay. c. Having them memorize a list of study strategies aimed at improving discussion. d. Modeling for students how to plan, organize, and write their answers. 11.5 Overall, the amount of time spent doing homework is associated with a. students IQ levels. b. families socioeconomic levels. c. school district policies on homework. d. students academic achievement. 11.6 As part of being in control of their own learning, students must develop performance awareness. This means a. knowing how to complete a learning task. b. knowing when learning breaks down and what to do. c. knowing the grade they can expect on a task. d. analyzing information to determine major ideas. 11.7 The Read-Aloud/Note-Taking method is especially good for a. schools having attendance problems. b. parents attempting to help their children with homework. c. teachers who believe in direct instruction. d. readers who struggle and attend inclusion classes. 11.8 Interactive homework assignments a. is only appropriate for practice homework b. is not appropriate for preparation homework. c. involves students in collecting information. d. involves students in answering objective questions. 11.9 The Compare/Contrast Study Matrix assists students in a. drawing graphic organizers to scale.

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b. c. d.

learning vocabulary for weekly tests. organizing information as they read. communicating main ideas to others.

11.10 Surfing the Web for information requires knowledge of this strategy. a. the chunking technique b. the sea of words technique c. the take and run technique d. none of the above Short Essay Questions 11.1 Explain the role of teachers expectations in relation to effective studying. 11.2 List five steps in Palmatiers split-page note making. 11.3 Explain how developing metacognitive awareness can improve test-taking skills. 11.4 Compare and contrast Palmatiers split-page note making with the INSERT method of note making. 11.5 Contrast observable study methods with in-the-head study methods. 11.6 Describe the difference between conventional homework and interactive homework. 11.7 Why should students be taught to evaluate websites? What four dimensions of websites are suggested for evaluation purposes? Multiple Choice Answer Key 11.1 a 11.6 b Short Essay Answers 11.1 For some students it is sufficient just to know that their teachers expect them to master the content. For others, this is not sufficient motivation; these students would benefit from teachers expectations that are explicit and demonstrated. 11.2 Divide a notebook sheet of paper in half (length-wise); record lecture notes in the right column; review and write the major concept of the notes in the left column; fill in sketchy notes by referring to the textbook; study the notes by folding the paper so that only the left column is visible. 11.3 Knowing when comprehension has failed and how to apply fix-up strategies to regain comprehension can improve test-taking skills (e.g., knowing when to go back and reread). 11.4 Both note-making methods require students to put ideas in their own words. Palmatiers split-page method can be used to take notes during reading or during a lecture. The INSERT method of note making focuses on metacognitive processes and can only be used to take notes during reading. 11.5 Observable study methods consist of outlining, drawing diagrams, and copying. In-the-head study methods are more metacognitive (e.g., go back and read again, pay special attention, put together ideas in your head, and so on). 11.2 d 11.7 d 11.3 d 11.8 c 11.4 c 11.9 c 11.5 d 11.10 a

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11.6 Conventional homework is generally completed in isolation. Interactive homework requires the student to gather data or interact with family or community members. 11.7 Teaching students how to access resources on the Internet in a timely and effective manner is a necessary but insufficient step toward achieving digital literacy. Students also need to know that information that is biased or inaccurate is best left alone. Students should evaluate websites for authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage or for content, authority/credibility, bias/purpose, and usability/design.

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Chapter 12: Developing Lifetime Leaders


Literature in Content Area Classes
Multiple Choice Questions 12.1 The term __________ refers to books written for the general public, as opposed to books written specifically for classroom use. a. textbooks b. literature c. trade books d. fiction 12.2 Reading literature in content area classes can increase a. vocabulary. b. critical thinking. c. content knowledge. d. all of the above. 12.3 Rosenblatt (1978) defines efferent reading as a. reading for what should be recalled or analyzed publicly. b. reading for recreation. c. reading for personal cognitive and affective purposes. d. reading quickly to get an overall idea of the material. 12.4 Which question would be most likely to encourage an aesthetic response from readers? a. What is the main idea of the selection? b. What is the theme of the selection? c. How would a graphic novel artist depict your favorite scene in the selection? d. How would you compare Character X and Character Y? 12.5 Which would NOT be a good suggestion for a teacher who wished to read aloud to students? a. Choose material you enjoy. b. Discourage questions and discussion until after you finished reading. c. Preview the material and practice reading it. d. All of the above are good suggestions. 12.6 The purpose of sustained silent reading (S.S.R.) is to a. give students time to prepare for quizzes and homework assignments. b. give the teacher time to grade papers. c. give students an opportunity to practice lifetime reading skills. d. prepare students for book talks they will give for credit. 12.7 When a class is reading a book, graphic novel, or blog together, teachers can encourage student involvement and self-direction using a. efferent questioning techniques. b. strategies such as K-W-L, discussion webs, and learning logs. c. end-of-chapter review questions. d. all of the above. 12.8 Research suggests that most adolescent readers especially enjoy reading a. culturally relevant literature. b. romance and science fiction. c. nonfiction. d. none of the above; readers tastes are very diverse.

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Instructors Resource Manual and Test Bank for Content Area Reading and Literacy, Seventh Edition

12.9 Trade books for social studies a. offer contrasting viewpoints on issues. b. are less up-to-date than most school texts. c. are limited largely to historical fiction. d. are easier to find than books for science. 12.10 Reading work by and about people from diverse cultures a. helps to break down myths and stereotypes. b. increases students knowledge of literary technique and history. c. is beneficial mostly to students from non-mainstream cultural backgrounds. d. both a. and b. are true. Short Essay Questions 12.1 Explain four benefits of integrating literature with disciplinary knowledge. 12.2 Describe three benefits of using books, graphic novels, and blogs by or about people from diverse cultures. 12.3 Contrast efferent and aesthetic reading when using graphic novels. 12.4 Define or describe the following: a. Trade books b. Book talks c. Sustained silent reading (S.S.R.) Multiple Choice Answer Key 12.1 c 12.6 c Short Essay Answers 12.1 Answer should include four of the following: Wide reading can increase students vocabulary and conceptual range in the core disciplines. Trade books and periodicals are often more up-to-date than textbooks. Learning is more reader-friendly with trade books, which are generally more appealing and less didactic than textbooks. Good literature goes beyond the facts. Fictional characters and nonfiction reporting and analysis bring a human element to learning, so readers can experiences other times, places, and people with empathy. Good experiences with reading engender the motivation to continue seeking pleasurable reading experiences. 12.2 Answer may include three of the following. Reading about diverse cultures breaks down barriers between people; increases understanding and appreciation for diversity. provides positive role models and experiences with diversity. provides personal validation for culturally diverse students. increases students knowledge of history, geography, and literary technique. breaks down myths and stereotypes. 12.3 Efferent reading focuses on public meaning and what is to be retained after readingto be recalled, paraphrased, acted on, or analyzed. Aesthetic reading focuses on what is being experienced or lived through, cognitively and affectively, during reading, and on the ideas, feelings, and associations activated. 12.2 d 12.7 b 12.3 a 12.8 d 12.4 c 12.9 a 12.5 b 12.10 d

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Test Items, Chapters 112

12.4 a) Trade books are books written for the general public, as opposed to books written specifically for classroom use. b) A book talk is a brief presentation of the content, theme, and/or author of a book, with the intent of promoting interest in the book. Book talks may be presented by the teacher or by students. c) Sustained silent reading (S.S.R.) is a regular time set aside for reading outside the textbook. Students may choose to read anything they wish, with the provision that it should be related to the content area. Teachers are expected to read during this time as well. Although readers may have a chance to briefly share their responses, there is no formal evaluation or product required for S.S.R.

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