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CHAPTER 9 SKELETAL SYSTEM

206 BONES IN BODY


MAIN FUNCTIONS OF BONE:
*

SUPPORT, PROTECTION, MOVEMENT, MINERAL STORAGE & HEMATOPOIESIS

SKELETON IS 40-50% OF OUR BODY WEIGHT

SKELETON CONSISTS OF 2 MAIN DIVISIONS: AXIAL & APENDICULAR

AXIAL SKELETON HAS 80 BONES ( FACE, CRANIUM, TORSO, SPINE, COCCYX)

SKULL IS MADE UP OF 28 BONES (face & cranium)

CRANIAL BONES*

FRONTAL-(forehead, anterior top)

PARIETAL(2)-(bulging sides near top)

TEMPORAL(2)-(around ears)

OCCIPITAL-(bump at posterior bottom)

SPHENOID-("bat-shaped", cranial floor)

ETHEMOID-(inside front, under eyes)

FETAL SKULL HAS FONTANELS(SOFT SPOTS) WHICH ALLOWS ROOM FOR THE
BRAIN TO GROW - WITH MATURITY THE FONTANELS CLOSE AND CRANIAL BONES
GROW TOGETHER AND FUSE TOGETHER TO FORM SUTURE LINES.

CRANIAL SUTURES-(IMMOVABLE JOINTS

SQUAMOUS - articulation along the top curved edge of temporal bone

CORONAL - joint between parietal & frontal bones

LAMBDOID - joint between parietal & occipital bones

SAGITTAL - joint between right & left parietal bones

FACIAL BONES
*

NASAL BONE - bridge of nose, articulates with ethmoid,septum, frontal,maxilla

MAXILLA - upper jaw, attaches to teeth, forms part of orbital floor

MANDIBLE - lower jaw, attaches to teeth, largest strongest face bone, only moveable joint of
the face.

ORBIT - right & left eye sockets

ZYGOMATIC - cheek bones

ZYGOMATIC ARCH - arch formed by zygomatic and temporal bones coming together

EXTERNAL ACCOUSTIC MEATUS - ear canal

FORAMEN MAGNUM - hole in skull where spinal cord enters cranial cavity

SINUSES (some)
*

FRONTAL - above nose/eyes on forehead

MAXILLARY - sides of nose on cheeks

SPHNOID - in temple area

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HYOID BONE - U-shaped bone in throat area above larynx & below mandible
BONE THAT DOES NOT ARTICULATE WITH ANY OTHER BONE

- ONLY

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VERTEBRAL COLUMN - HAS 24 VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, COCCYX

(vertebral column order)


*

7 CERVICAL - atlas, axis, c3, c4, c5, c6, c7

12 THORACIC - t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, t7, t8, t9, t10, t11, t12

5 LUMBAR - L1, L2, L3, L4, L5

SACRUM

COCCYX

SPINE HAS 4 CURVES


*

CERVICAL CURVATURE

THORACIC CURVATURE

LUMBAR CURVATURE

SACRAL CURVATURE

AT THE TOP OF THE SPINE SITS THE AXIS


AXIS ARTICULATES WITH THE ATLAS
ATLAS ARTICULATES WITH THE OCCIPITAL CHONDYLE (SKULL)
ATLAS ROTATES ON AXIS TO TURN HEAD FROM SIDE TO SIDE
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ANTERIOR TORSO

STERNUM - dagger shaped bone in center of chest (3parts)

MANUBRIUM TOP PART OF STERNUM (articulates with clavicle and 1st rib)
BODY MIDDLE (longest) PART OF STERNUM (articulates with ribs 2-7)
XIPHOID PROCESS TIP OF STERNUM (ossifies as an adult)

*COSTAL CARTILLAGE ATTACHES RIBS TO STERNUM


TRUE RIBS 1-7 ARTICULATE DIRECTLY WTH STERNUM
FALSE RIBS 8-12
RIBS 8, 9 & 10 ARE INDIRECTLY ATTACHED TO STERNUM BY ARTICULATING WITH THE
RIB ABOVE
FLOATING RIBS 11-12 DO NOT ARTICULATE WITH ANYTHING ANTERIORLY
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UPPER EXTREMITY shoulder girdle, arms, wrists, hands
SHOULDER GIRDLE clavicle & scapula

CLAVICLE FORMS THE ONLY BONY JOINT W/ THE TRUNK (sternoclavicular joint)
CLAVICLE ARTICULATES WITH THE SCAPULA, 1ST RIB & (top of) MANUBRIUM

GLENOID CAVITY shoulder socket (glenoid cavity is most lateral part of scapula)
GLENOID CAVITY ARTICULATES WITH THE HEAD OF THE HUMERUS

HUMERUS (distal end of humerus) ARTICULATES WITH THE ULNA & RADIUS

OLECRANON MAKES UP THE ELBOW JOINT(HOLDS TROCHLEA OF HUMERUS-distal end


of humerus) FULCRUM-little bone sticks out on side of elbow

ULNA & RADIUS


ULNA (pinky side forearm bone) ARTICULATES PROXIMALLY WITH HUMERUS
ULNA IS LONGER THAN THE RADIUS TOWARD THE HUMERUS
RADIUS IS LONGER THAN ULNA TOWARD HAND

ULNA DOES NOT ARTICULATE WITH ANY CARPAL BONES


RADIUS ARTICULATES WITH CARPAL BONES
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CAPRAL BONES WRISTS, HANDS, FINGERS
8 BONES FORM THE WRIST (2 ROWS OF 4)
PROXIMAL ROW OF WRIST BONES ARTICULATE WITH THE RADIUS
(pisiform, triquestum, lunate, scaphoid)
DISTAL ROW OF WRIST BONES ARTICULATE WITH THE METACARPALS
capitate, trapeziod, trapezium)

(hamate,

SCAPHOID BONE IS THE MOST FREQUENTLY FRACTURED WRISTBONE


METACARPALS form the framework of the hand, articulate with phalanges
Heads of the Metacarpals form the knuckles used to punch
OPPOSABLE MOVING THUMB IS POSSIBLE DUE TO THE MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE
(thumb) METACARPAL AND TRAPEZIUM OF THE WRIST
DISTAL TO THE METACARPAL ARE THE PHALANGES
EACH FINGER HAS 3 SETS OF PHALANGES (thumb has 2)
middle phalanx, distal phalanx

(proximal phalanx,

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LOWER EXTREMITY hips, thighs, legs, ankles, feet, toes)


PELVIC GIRDLE SACRUM,(2) COXAL
COXAL IS MADE UP OF 3 BONES THAT HAVE FUSED TOGETHER
ISCHIUM, PUBIS

ILIUM,

ILIUM largest, uppermost part (toward back)


ISCHIUM strongest, lower most (toward front)
PUBIS most anterior (pubic area)

LATERAL MOST PART OF COXAL BONE WHERE ILIUM, ISCHIUM & PUBIS MEET IS THE
ACETABULUM.

ACETABULUM HIP SOCKET

ACETABULUM ARTICULATES WITH FEMUR HEAD

FEMUR HEAD BECOMES FEMUR NECK(CAUSES PROTRUSION OF GREATER


TROCHANTER)

GREATER TROCHANTER (HIP BONE THAT PROTRUDES) IS INFERIOR AND LATERAL


TO THE FEMORAL HEAD
FEMUR IS THE LONGEST, HEAVIEST BONE IN THE BODY
is the patella(knee)

PATELLA IS LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE BODY


PATELLA ARTICULATES PROXIMALLY WITH THE FEMUR
PATELLA ARTICULATES DISTALLY WITH THE TIBIA

below the femur

TIBIA IS THICKER AND LONGER, PROXIMAL TO THE FIBULA


is higher than fibula

head of tibia

TIBIA IS MEDIAL (INSIDE BONE) more superficial than fibula


TIBIA ARTICULATES DISTALLY WITH FIBULA
FIBULA IS THINNER AND LONGER, DISTAL TO THE TIBIA
fibula bottom is longer than tibia
FIBULA IS LATERAL (OUTSIDE BONE) deeper than the tibia

BOTTOM OF FIBULA AND PART OF TIBIA ARTICULATE WITH THE TALUS


ankle bone

talus-

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TARSAL BONES ankle, foot, toes


Bones in the foot are held together to form spring arches (medial & lateral longitudal arches)
TALUS UPPER MOST BONE OF THE FOOT/ANKLE
CALCANEUS HEEL BONE
METATARSAL long bones that make up framework of feet
PHALANGES (toes) 3 in each toe, 2 in big toe
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CHAPTER 10 ARTICULATIONS

Articulations are the point of contact between bones


JOINTS
MOSTLY MOVABLE BUT SOME ARE IMMOVABLE OR ALLOW ONLY LIMITED MOTION
MOVABLE JOINTS ALLOW COMPLEX HIGHLY COORDINATED MOVEMENT

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS


SYNARTHROSES immovable fibrous joints
1. Sutures -Sutures of skull
2. Syndesmoses radioulnar ligament
3. Gomophoses between teeth & jaw bone
AMPHIARTHROSES slightly movable cartilaginous joints (Pubic Symphyses)
DIARTHROSES freely movable SYNOVIAL JOINTS:
1. Joint Capsules- sleeve like casing that holds two bones together
2. Synovial Membrane - lines joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
3. Articular Cartilage hyaline cartilage covering the surface of the ends of bone
4. Joint Cavity
5. Menisci(articular disks) Pads of fibrocartilage between bones (KNEE JOINT)
6. Ligaments connect bone to bone
7. Bursae pillow like membrane filled with synovial fluid

SHOULDER JOINT- most mobile because of the shallowness of glenoid cavity


GLENOID LABRUM(rim of fibrocartilage that strengthens the shoulder joint and holds the
humerus in place)
OLECRANON FORMS ELBOW JOINT (inflammation called bursitis)

Types of Synovial Joints


Uniaxial - Hinge(elbow), Pivot(axis&atlas)
Biaxial - Saddle(thumb), Condloid(wrist)
Multiaxial - Ball & Socket(shoulder, hip), gliding(vertabrae, joints of carpals & tarsals)

KNEE JOINT has anterior & posterior CRUCIATE LIGAMENT-holds knee and femur together-)
MOST COMMONLY INJURED LIGAMENT
(TORN ACL-anterior cruciate
ligament)
In between Vertebral Disks is a Gliding Joint. The central core is called Nucleus Pulposus, the
outer rim is the Annulus Fibrosus (as it loses resiliency a herniated disk is possible)

RANGES OF MOTION:
ABDUCTION AWAY FROM BODY
ADDUCTION TOWARD BODY
FLEX DECREASES THE ANGLE BETWEEN BONES
EXTENSION INCREASES THE ANGLE BETWEEN BONES
PLANTAR FLEXION FOOT TOWARD FLOOR
DORSI FLEXION TOES UPWARD
EVERSION OUTSIDES OF FEET UP
INVERSION INSIDES OF FEET UP
SUPINATION HANDS, WRISTS OUTWARD
PRONATION HANDS, WRISTS INWARD
MOST ANKLE SPRAINS ARE FROM INVERSION (SPRAIN OUTER PART OF ANKLE)

CHAPTER 11 MUSCULAR SYSTEM

600 muscles in body


40-50% of the body is muscle
Connective tissue components of muscle:
EPIMYSIUM COURSE SHEATH COVERING WHOLE MUSCLE
ENDOMYSIUM COVERS INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS
Fasicles are groups of muscle fibers
PERIMYSIUM BINDS BUNDLES OF FASICLES TOGETHER

ORIGIN POINT OF ATTACHMENT THAT DOESNT MOVE WHEN CONTRACTING


INSERTION POINT OF ATTACHMENT THAT MOVES WHEN MUSCLE CONTRACTS

MUSCLE MOVEMENTS:
PRIME MOVER- MUSCLE THAT DIRECTLY PERFORMS A MOVEMENT
ANTAGONIST OPPOSING MUSCLE BUT RELAXED WHEN PRIME MOVER IS IN
MOTION
SYNERGIST- MUSCLES THAT COMPLEMENTS/HELPS THE PRIME MOVER
FIXATOR MUCLE THAT HELPS PRIME MOVER MAINTAIN BALANCE:
Example: When doing a Curl ..the Bicep is the Primary, the Antagonist is the relaxed Tricep, the
Synergist is the Deltoid

FACIAL MUSCLES
MUSCLES OF MASTICATION(chewing muscles-all move the Mandible)

Masseter
Temporalis
Pterygoids
Frontal Belly Wrinkles forehead and raises eyebrows
Corrugator Supercilli Vertical wrinkles above nose when frowning
Orbicularis Oculi(encirles eyes) Closes eyes
Orbicularis Oris (encircles lips) Draws lips together(lip pucker)
Buccinator Facilitates Smiling

SCM STERNOCLYDOMASTOID allows movement of head up and down


TRAPEZIUS neck/back muscle goes all the way down to T12 RAISES AND SHRUGS THE
SHOULDERS
SITS MUSCLES(ROTATOR CUFF):
SUPRASPINATUS on top close to clavicle
INFRASPINATUS mostly in back
TERES MINOR bottom back
SUBSCAPULARIS mostly in front

THORAX MUSCLES:
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS EXPANDS RIBS WHEN YOU BREATHE
INTERNAL ITERCOSTALS DEPRESSES RIBS WHEN YOU BREATHE OUT
DIAPHRAGM FLATTENS AND PULLS LUNGS TO DOWN TO EXPAND WHEN YOU
BREATH IN
PECTORALIS(titty muscle) adducts arm across the chest
RECTUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLES 6 pack muscles (vertical up & down)Biggest Muscle of the
Abdomen (tendinous intersections cause breaks in the muscle to give 6 pack look)

LINEA ALBA IS THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN BETWEEN (holding) BOTH SIDES OF THE
RECTUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLES

LEG MUSCLES
QUADS ARE THE ANTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES
RECTUS FEMORIS
VASTUS LATERALIS
VASTUS MEDIALIS
VASTUS INTERMEDIUS
(WHEN YOU BEND YOUR KNEE TO GO UPSTAIRS YOU ARE EXTENDING YOUR QUAD
MUSCLES)

HAMSTRINGS ARE THE POSTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES

When you Plantar Flex the foot you use Posterior Calf Muscles
When you Dorsi Flex the foot you use Anterior Calf Muscles