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253 Distinguishes between the real world of author, reader and physical book, and the represented world of the text. Therefore we may call this world the world that creates the text, for its aspects the reality reflected in the text, the authors creating the text, the performers of the text !if they exist" and finally the listeners or readers who recreate and in so doing renew the text participate e#ually in the creation of the represented world of the text. $ut of the actual chrontopes of our world !which ser%e as the source of representation" emerge the reflected and created chrontopes of the world represented in the wor& !in the text".

p.25' (a&htin warns against confusing the real and represented worlds) howe%er, we mustnt see the boundary as absolute and impermeable. The two worlds are in continual mutual interaction*.The wor& and the world represented in it enter the real world and enrich it, and the real world enters the wor& and its world as part of the process of its creation, as well as part of its subse#uent life, in a continual renewing of the wor& through the creati%e perception of listeners and readers. $f course this process of exchange itself is itself chronotopic+ it occurs first and foremost in the historically de%eloping social world, but without e%er losing contact with changing historical space. ,e might e%en spea& of a special creative chronotope inside which this exchange between wor& and life occurs, and which constitutes the distincti%e life of the wor&. Mikhail Bakhtin From -orms of Time and of the .hronotope in the /o%el+ /otes Towards a 0istorical 1oetics