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Intensification of Sectional Conflict, 1848-1860

A Traditional Unit Plan Model Pre-Instructional Phase

Developed by Brett A. Bullard, Department of Teacher Education, Samford University, 2014

Pre Instructional Phase


I. Unit Objective and Sub Objectives Given a teacher developed test and opportunities to work in small groups, upon completion of a two and one half week unit, tenth grade U. S. History to 1877 students will present elements of the intensification of the sectional conflict, 1848-1869, leading up to the Civil War, including slavery, Western expansion, compromise, key legislation, violence, conflicts, politics, court cases, and debates. 1. Define key role players and concepts during the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Knowledge Level) 2. Describe slavery influence on the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Comprehension Level) 3. Demonstrate how the Dred Scott decision and Lincoln Douglas debates intensified sectional conflict. (Application Level) 4. Analyze how the intensification of the sectional conflict led to the disbanding of the Union. (Analysis Level) 5. Construct and present a PowerPoint on the Underground Railroad after completing a web quest.(Synthesis Level) Pre AP Unit Objective and Sub Objectives Given a teacher developed test and opportunities to work in small groups, upon completion of a two and one half week unit, tenth grade Pre AP U. S. History to 1877 students will present elements of the intensification of the section conflict, 1848-1869, leading up to the Civil War, including slavery, Western expansion, compromise, key legislation, violence, conflicts, politics, court cases, and debates. 1. Define key role players and concepts during Westward Expansion and the violence that occurred due to the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Knowledge Level) 2. Describe slavery influence on the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Comprehension Level) 3. Demonstrate how the Dred Scott decision and Lincoln Douglas debates intensified sectional conflict. (Application Level) 4. Analyze how the intensification of the sectional conflict led to the disbanding of the Union. (Analysis Level) 5. Construct an essay to respond to a document based question about the Underground Railroad. (Synthesis Level) Aligning National and State Standards Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, National Council for the Social Studies, 1994: 2

I.A. Analyze and explain the ways groups, societies, and cultures, address human needs and concerns III.I. Describe and assess ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, and global settings. IV.G Compare and evaluate the impact of stereotyping, conformity, acts of altruism, and other behaviors on individuals and groups. IV.H. Work independently and cooperatively within groups and institutions to accomplish goals. V.A. Apply concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society. V.F. Evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change. VI.A. Examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and status of the individual in relation to the general welfare. VI.F. Analyze and evaluate conditions, actions, and motivations, that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations. X.B. Identify, analyze, interpret, and evaluate sources and examples of citizens rights and responsibilities. X.E. Analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy. X.G. Evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion in influencing and shaping public policy development and decision making. Social Studies, Alabama Course of Study, Grade 10, Alabama State Department of Education, 2004: 8. Trace the development of efforts to abolish slavery prior to the Civil War. 9. Summarize major legislation and court decisions from 1800 to 1861 that led to increasing sectionalism, including the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision. Arranging Sub Objectives in Mini Units Mini Unit 1: Slavery, Westward Expansion, and Violence 1. Define key role players and concepts during Westward Expansion and the violence that occurred due to the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Knowledge Level) 2. Describe slavery influence on the intensification of the sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War. (Comprehension Level) Mini Unit 2: Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, John Brown

3. Demonstrate how the Dred Scott decision and Lincoln Douglas debates intensified sectional conflict. (Application Level) Mini Unit 3: The Union Dissolves 4. Analyze how the intensification of the sectional conflict led to the disbanding of the Union. (Analysis Level) Mini Unit 4: The Underground Railroad Web quest (Regular Only) 5. Construct and present a PowerPoint on the Underground Railroad after completing a web quest.(Synthesis Level) Mini Unit 4: The Underground Railroad DBQ (Pre AP Only) 6. Construct an essay to respond to a document based question about the Underground Railroad. The first mini unit provides the historical background of the key role players and concepts during the intensification of the sectional conflicts leading up to the Civil War. It will introduce students to slavery and how that will serve as a conflict in the Western territories. In addition, this mini unit will look at the several compromises that all ultimately failed. The second mini unit introduces and goes into detail the Dred Scott decision and the impacts it had on society both pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces, the birth of the Republican party and the role it played on politics prior to the Civil War, the role of the Lincoln Douglas debates and their differing views of slavery, and the students will also look at John Brown and his raid at Harpers Ferry. The third mini unit analyzes the disbanding of the Union. Students will look at the election of 1860 and how it was the turning point. In this mini unit, compromise will fail again, but this time it will directly lead to secession and the beginning of the Civil War. The fourth mini unit allows general U. S. History students to work in groups to construct a PowerPoint on the Underground Railroad after completing a Web quest. After completion of the PowerPoint, each group will present. The fourth mini unit allows Pre AP students to construct an essay response to a Document Based Question on the Underground Railroad. The students will work in groups on their research and analysis of document. Then they will write the essay on their own. This arrangement of mini units was designed to lead students through the intensification of the sectional conflicts leading up to the Civil War. The mini units were sequenced to lead students from the simple to the more complex activities as they progress through the unit.

The unit arrangement also takes into account the skills and understandings necessary for the next mini unit and builds them into student activities in readiness of the next level. The role of the teacher changes as the unit is taught.

Structured Overview of the Unit (Regular U. S. History) Sectional Conflict Intensifies, 1848-1860

Slavery, Westward Expansion, and Violence

Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown

The Union Dissolves

The Underground Railroad Web quest

The Wilmot Proviso, Popular Sovereignty, Free-Soil Party, Compromise, Secession, Uncle Toms Cabin, Fugitive Slave Act, Transcontinental Railroad, KansasNebraska Act,

Republicans, Know Nothings, election of 1856, Dred Scott, Referendum, Lincoln, Douglas, John Brown,

Election of 1860, Lincoln is elected, Secession, Failed Compromise, Confederacy, Civil War, Fort Sumter

Interprets, Composition, PowerPoint, Present

Structured Overview of the Unit (Pre AP) Sectional Conflict Intensifies, 1848-1860

Slavery, Westward Expansion, and Violence

Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown

The Union Dissolves

The Underground Railroad DBQ

The Wilmot Proviso, Popular Sovereignty, Free-Soil Party, Compromise, Secession, Uncle Toms Cabin, Fugitive Slave Act, Transcontinental Railroad, KansasNebraska Act,

Republicans, Know Nothings, election of 1856, Dred Scott, Referendum, Lincoln, Douglas, John Brown,

Election of 1860, Lincoln is elected, Secession, Failed Compromise, Confederacy, Civil War, Fort Sumter

Interprets, Composition, Essay, DBQ

Table of Content Specifications Information /Facts: The slavery controversy intensified when then the United States gained new territory. The modern Republican Party grew in part from opposition to slavery. David Wilmot, a Democrat from Pennsylvania proposed an amendment known as the Wilmot Proviso, which said that in any territory the United States gained from Mexico neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist. Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan suggested that the citizens of each new territory show be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted to permit slavery or not. This is known as popular sovereignty. 6

Conscience Whigs (against slavery), anti-slavery Democrats, and members of the abolitionist Liberty Party joined forces to form the Free-Soil Party, which opposed slavery in the free soil of western territories. Gold brought thousands to California in 1848 and by the end of 1849 more that 80,000 had arrived to look for gold. These people were called Forty-Niners. Secession refers to states leaving the Union. The Compromise of 1850 eased tensions over slavery for a shorts time. Uncle Toms Cabin, was controversial and had an impact on public opinion that led to the Civil War. The Fugitive Slave Act created active hostility toward slavery among Northerners. The Underground Railroad was an informal, but well organized system that helped thousands of slaves escape. Harriet Tubman, a runaway slave, was one of the most famous conductors of The Underground Railroad. The growth of the United States with the Gadsden Purchase and the transcontinental railroad continued to cause disagreement between the North and South. The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to Bleeding Kansas where 200 people died by the end of 1856. The Kansas-Nebraska Act split the Know Nothing Party. James Buchanan, Democrat won the election of 1856 with the hope to keep the Union together. The Dred Scott v. Sandford said the federal government could not prohibit slavery in the territories. The Lincoln Douglas debates allowed Lincoln the opportunity to make clear the principles of the Republican Party. Lincoln did not win the Senate election. John Brown, an abolitionist, and 18 others seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown was convicted and sentenced to death. Abraham Lincoln was elected president in the 1860 election. The Democrat spilt over the issue of slavery and that allowed the Republicans and Lincoln to win the presidency. Lincolns election led to the secession of the South. South Carolina was the first state to secede. By February 1, 1861, six more states left the Union Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The states that succeeded from the Union declared themselves a new nation the Confederate States of America and elected former Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis as president.

The Civil War began when Lincoln intended to resupply Fort Sumter. Jefferson Davis would not allow federal troops in Confederate territory. The federal troops surrendered. After the fall of Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for volunteers to serve in the military for 90 days. This call for troops led the Upper South seceding. Concepts: Slavery Popular Sovereignty Compromise Fugitive Slave Act Underground Railroad Kansas-Nebraska Act Politics of Slavery Sectional Division Lincoln Douglas Debates Civil War Relationships/Generalizations: Civil War was born out of intensified sectional conflict over slavery in the new territories. Failed compromise, new territories, slavery, and intense politics led to the Civil War. Process/Procedures: Planning, organizing, and carrying out a group project. Understanding a time line of events. Pre AP Only: Solve a DBQ on the Underground Railroad. II. Determining Entry Skills

Cognitive 1. Has general knowledge of the popular reasons for the Civil War.

2. Know that in a war, there are two sides and each one of those sides has reasons, supporters, and leaders. 3. Able to distinguish between influential characters of an event and less important characters of a historical event. Affective 1. Students are able to appreciate the historical period leading up to the Civil War. 2. The students accept responsibility for reading the assigned materials. 3. Students are willing to share their own insights and thoughts on historical documents and interpret what others have written. Social 1. Students work cooperatively with classmates in small group to plan, organize, and carry out a group project. 2. Students respect the opinions and ideas of classmates and teacher. 3. Students participate actively in classroom discussion and activities.

III.

Pre Instructional Activities Telling Students What They Will Be Learning Before discussing what will be learned the teacher will administer a unit pretest to establish a base line of knowledge about the upcoming unit (See Appendix A-3). The results of the pretest allow the teacher to know where the most amounts of time and energy need to be spent. The teacher will verbally go over with the class several days prior to the beginning of the new unit (after the class finishes their test for the previous unit). The information presented will contain the title of the new unit, the unit objective, and interesting background information related to the unit that will engage their attention. The class will also be given a handout (See Appendix A-1) that will include this information as well. The handout will also serve as the structured overview of the unit. Giving Students a Rationale for the Unit The teacher will discuss some of the past events in American History (Westward Expansion, The Trail West, and Texas Independence) and ask the students if they know how these events relate to the Civil War. Then the teacher will lead a discussion around questions such as: What is the main cause of the Civil War? Would the United States have ever fought a Civil War if the West were never settled? How does slavery play in the causes of the Civil War? After eliciting as many responses as possible and writing them all upon the board, the teacher will point out that the Civil War has many different causes and we will study in depth the events leading up to the Civil War. The teacher will close with a critical thinking statement: Some experts believe that the Civil War was the completion of the American 9

Revolution. The teacher will explain that revolutions normally have a political and social side. The Civil War was the United States social revolution. Reviewing Entry Behaviors After the previous discussion, students are assembled in small groups and they are asked write down the most important cause of the Civil War. Next, they will discuss what role Westward expansion played into intensifying sectional conflicts. After 10 minutes of group discussion, the students will come back together as a class and discuss the two questions. Providing a Structured Overview of the Unit The teacher distributes a handout of the structured overview (See Appendix A-1) for a reproducible copy of the graphic presented earlier in the unit plan. This will be the same handout used in the telling students what they will be learning section. Students are asked to place handout in their notebooks for easy, future access. The teacher explains each of the four mini units will be undertaken in the next two weeks and answers questions about the type of activities students will be engaging in each mini unit. This is a good time to introduce the Pre AP classes to the DBQ problem and the essays they will compose. The handout will also include unit objective and sub objectives, a schedule of outside reading assignments, and due dates. Building in Experiential Background The teacher will present primary sources to the classes to give them idea of what took place during the period prior to the Civil war where American citizens experienced sectional conflicts. To present the information to the class the teacher will use current newspaper articles of the period that describe the opinion of the public and political cartoons. Reassuring Students The teacher will reassure students that may have fears of failure from other previous situations but presenting the more popular assignments or topics from this unit. The teacher promises to the class that no one has ever been left behind after the Intensification of Sectionals Conflict, 1848-1860. The teacher will also reassure the Pre AP students the DBQ have never harmed anyone.

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Appendix A
Resources for Pre Instructional Phase Structured Overview Structured Overview for Pre AP Unit Pretest A-1 A-2 A-3

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A1 Intensification of Sectional Conflict, 1848-1860 Sectional Conflict Intensifies, 1848-1860

1. Slavery, Westward Expansion, and Violence

2. Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown

3. The Union Dissolves

4. The Underground Railroad Web quest

The Wilmot Proviso, Popular Sovereignty, Free-Soil Party, Compromise, Secession, Uncle Toms Cabin, Fugitive Slave Act, Transcontinental Railroad, KansasNebraska Act, Schedule

Republicans, Know Nothings, election of 1856, Dred Scott, Referendum, Lincoln, Douglas, John Brown,

Election of 1860, Lincoln is elected, Secession, Failed Compromise, Confederacy, Civil War, Fort Sumter

Interprets, Composition, PowerPoint, Present

Monday, March 3 Pre Test, Mini Unit 1: Slavery, Westward Expansion and Violence Wednesday, March 5 Mini Unit 1: Slavery, Westward Expansion and Violence Friday, Match 7 Mini Unit 2: Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown Monday, March 10 Mini Unit 3: The Union Dissolves Wednesday, March 12 Finish Mini Unit 3: The Union Dissolves, Start Underground Railroad Web Quest Friday, March 14 Underground Railroad Web Quest Monday, March 17 Share Underground Railroad Web Quest with the class Wednesday, March 19 Unit Test: Intensification of Sectional Conflict, 1848-1869 12

A2 Pre AP: Intensification of Sectional Conflict: 1848-1860 Sectional Conflict Intensifies, 1848-1860

1. Slavery, Westward Expansion, and Violence

2. Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown

3. The Union Dissolves

4. The Underground Railroad DBQ

The Wilmot Proviso, Popular Sovereignty, Free-Soil Party, Compromise, Secession, Uncle Toms Cabin, Fugitive Slave Act, Transcontinental Railroad, KansasNebraska Act,

Republicans, Know Nothings, election of 1856, Dred Scott, Referendum, Lincoln, Douglas, John Brown

Election of 1860, Lincoln is elected, Secession, Failed Compromise, Confederacy, Civil War, Fort Sumter

Interprets, Composition, Essay, DBQ

Schedule

Monday, March 3 Pre Test, Mini Unit 1: Slavery, Westward Expansion and Violence Tuesday, March 4 Finish Mini Unit 1: Slavery, Westward Expansion and Violence Thursday, March 6 Mini Unit 2: Republican Party, Dred Scott, Lincoln Douglas Debates, and John Brown Monday, March 10 Mini Unit 3: The Union Dissolves Tuesday, March 11 Finish Mini Unit 3: The Union Dissolves Thursday, March 13 Start Underground Railroad DBQ Monday, March 17 Finish Underground Railroad DBQ Tuesday, March 18 Unit Test: Intensification of Sectional Conflict, 1848-1869

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Name: ___________________

Date: ______________

Period: _______

Intensification of Sectional Conflict, 1848-1869 Pre Test Choose the correct answer. 1. The Republican Party opposed _____. A. Immigration C. Manifest Destiny B. Expansion of slavery D. Plantation Farming 2. The Dred Scott decision ruled that African American _____. A. Were not citizens and could not sure in court B. Were to be set free C. Were only bound to slavery in the South D. Were citizens of the United States 3. This is the idea that the people living in the territory had the right to decide by voting if they wanted slavery. A. Referendum C. Popular Sovereignty B. Obiter dictum D. Recall 4. What is the term that means to take ones state out of the Union? A. Wilmot Proviso C. Annexation B. Obiter dictum D. Secession 5. What is the name of the book that had dramatic impact on public opinion and historians consider it on the causes of the Civil War? A. Uncle Toms Cabin C. The Scarlet Letter B. The Red Badge of Courage D. The Liberator 6. Who was the man Lincoln had several famous debates with when he was running for the U.S. Senate? A. Stephen Douglas C. James Buchannan B. John Brown D. Andrew Johnson 7. John Brown, a fervent abolitionist, led a raid and seized what federal arsenal? A. Charleston C. West Point B. St. Louis D. Harpers Ferry th 8. Who was the 16 president that led the United States into civil war to preserve the Union? A. Zachary Taylor C. James Buchanan B. James K. Polk D. Abraham Lincoln 9. The southern states seceded from the Union and formed a nation called _____. A. United States of Slavery B. Confederate States of America C. Dixie D. The Southern United States 10. What was/were the cause(s) of the Civil War?

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Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B. Expansion of Slavery A. Were not citizens and could not sue in court C. Popular Sovereignty D. Secession A. Uncle Toms Cabin A. Stephen Douglas D. Harpers Ferry D. Abraham Lincoln B. Confederate States of America Slavery, Westward Expansion, Uncle Toms Cabin, States Rights.

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