Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Nguyn Ph Khnh

588
Dng 3. ng trn

Nhn dng phng trnh ng trn. Tm tm v bn knh ng trn
Cch 1:
- a phng trnh v dng:
( )
2 2
C : x y 2ax 2by c 0 + + =
( ) 1 P
- Xt du biu thc
2 2
P a b c = +
Nu P 0 > th
( )
1 l phng trnh ng trn
( )
C c tm
( )
I a; b v bn knh

2 2
R a b c = +
Nu P 0 th ( ) 1 khng phi l phng trnh ng trn.
Cch 2: a phng trnh v dng:
( ) ( )
2 2
x a y b P + =
( )
2 .
Nu P 0 > th
( ) 2 l phng trnh ng trn c tm
( ) I a; b v bn knh R P =
Nu P 0 th ( ) 2 khng phi l phng trnh ng trn.
V tr tng i ca im; ng thng; ng trn vi ng trn
V tr tng i ca im M v ng trn
( )
C
Xc nh tm I v bn knh R ca ng trn
( )
C v tnh IM
+ Nu IM R < suy ra M nm trong ng trn
+ Nu IM R = suy ra M thuc ng trn
+ Nu IM R > suy ra M nm ngoi ng trn
V tr tng i gia ng thng v ng trn ( ) C
Xc nh tm I v bn knh R ca ng trn
( ) C v tnh
( ) d I;
+ Nu
( ) d I; R < suy ra ct ng trn ti hai im phn bit
+ Nu ( ) d I; R = suy ra tip xc vi ng trn
+ Nu ( ) d I; R > suy ra khng ct ng trn
Ch : S nghim ca h phng trnh to bi phng trnh ng thng v
ng trn
( )
C bng s giao im ca chng. Ta giao im l nghim ca h.
V tr tng i gia ng trn
( )
C v ng trn
( )
C'
Xc nh tm I , bn knh R ca ng trn
( ) C v tm I' , bn knh R' ca
ng trn ( ) C' v tnh II' , R R', R R' +
+ Nu II ' R R' > + suy ra hai ng trn khng ct nhau v ngoi nhau
+ Nu II ' R R' = + suy ra hai ng trn tip xc ngoi vi nhau
+ Nu II ' R R' < suy ra hai ng trn khng ct nhau v lng vo nhau
+ Nu II ' R R' = suy ra hai ng trn tip xc trong vi nhau
www.VNMATH.com
0
Nguyn Ph Khnh

589
+ Nu R R' II ' R R' < < + suy ra hai ng trn ct nhau ti hai im phn bit
Ch : S nghim ca h phng trnh to bi phng trnh ng thng
( ) C v
ng trn ( ) C' bng s giao im ca chng. Ta giao im l nghim ca h.

V d 1 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, vit ng trn
1. i qua ba im:
( ) ( ) ( ) M 2; 4 , N 5; 5 , P 6; 2
2. i qua ( ) A 3; 4 v cc hnh chiu ca A ln cc trc ta .
3. i qua ba imH, M, N. Gi H l chn ng cao k t B v M, N ln lt l
trung im ca AB, AC. Bit rng: ( ) ( ) A 0; 2 , B 2; 2 , ( ) C 4; 2 .
4. Tip xc vi trc honh ti
( )
A 2; 0 khong cch t tm ca
( )
C n im
( )
B 6; 4
bng 5 .

Li gii
1. Cch 1:
Gi phng trnh ng trn ( ) C c dng l:
2 2
x y 2ax 2by c 0 + + = .
Do ng trn i qua ba im M, N, P nn ta c h phng trnh:

4 16 4a 8b c 0 a 2
25 25 10a 10b c 0 b 1
36 4 12a 4b c 0 c 20
+ + + = =

+ + = =


+ + + = =


Vy, phng trnh ng trn cn tm l:
2 2
x y 4x 2y 20 0 + =
Cch 2: Gi
( )
I x; y v R l tm v bn knh ng trn cn tm
V
2 2
2 2
IM IN
IM IN IP
IM IP

= =

=

nn ta c h

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
x 2 y 4 x 5 y 5
x 2
y 1
x 2 y 4 x 6 y 2

+ + = +
=



=
+ + = + +

.
2. Gi
1 2
A , A ln lt l hnh chiu ca A ln hai trc Ox, Oy , suy ra

( ) ( )
1 2
A 3; 0 , A 0; 4 .
Gi s ( )
2 2
C : x y 2ax 2by c 0 + + = .
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

590
Do
( )
1 2
A, A , A C nn ta c h:
3
a
6a 8b c 25
2
6a c 9 b 2
8b c 16 c 0

+ =

+ = =


+ = =

.
Vy, phng trnh
( ) C :
2 2
x y 3x 4y 0 + = .
3. Ta c
( )
M 1; 0 ,
( )
N 1; 2 ,
( )
AC 4; 4 =

.
Gi
( )
H x; y , ta c:
( ) ( )
( )
4 x 2 4 y 2 0
x 1
BH AC
y 1 4x 4 y 2 0 H AC
+ + =
=



= + =



( )
H 1; 1
Gi s phng trnh ng trn c dng:
2 2
x y ax by c 0 + + + + = .
Ba im M, N, H thuc ng trn nn ta c h phng trnh :
a c 1 a 1
a 2b c 5 b 1
a b c 2 c 2
= =

+ = =


+ + = =

.
Phng trnh ng trn:
2 2
x y x y 2 0 + + = .
4. Gi
( )
I a; b v R ln lt l tm ca v bn knh ca
( )
C
V ( ) C tip xc vi Ox ti A nn a 2 = v R b =
Mt khc:
( )
2
2 2
IB 5 4 b 4 5 b 1, b 7 = + = = =
Vi b 1 = th phng trnh ng trn ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C : x 2 y 1 1 + = .
Vi b 7 = th phng trnh ng trn
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C : x 2 y 7 49 + = .

V d 2 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, vit ng trn
1. C tm nm trn ng thng d : x 6y 10 0 = v tip xc vi hai ng thng
c phng trnh
1
d : 3x 4y 5 0 + + = v
2
d : 4x 3y 5 0 = .
2. c tm nm trn ng trn
( ) ( )
2
2
1
4
C : x 2 y
5
+ = v tip xc vi hai ng
thng
1
: x y 0 = v
2
: x 7y 0 = .
3. i qua
( )
M 6; 6 v tip xc vi hai ng thng
1
: 4x 3y 24 0 = v
2
: 4x 3y 8 0 + + = .
4. C tm M nm trn + = d : x y 3 0 , bn knh bng 2 ln bn knh ng trn ( ) C
v ( ) C tip xc ngoi vi ng trn ( ) C' :
2 2
x y 2x 2y 1 0 + + =

www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

591
Li gii
1. V ng trn cn tm c tm K nm trn ng thng d nn gi ( ) K 6a 10; a +
Mt khc ng trn tip xc vi
1 2
d , d nn khong cch t tm K n hai
ng thng ny bng nhau v bng bn knh R suy ra

( ) ( )
3 6a 10 4a 5 4 6a 10 3a 5
5 5
+ + + +
= 22a 35 21a 35 a 0 + = + =
hoc
70
a
43

=
- Vi a 0 = th
( )
K 10; 0 v R 7 = suy ra
( ) ( )
2
2
C : x 10 y 49 + =
- Vi
70
a
43

= th
10 70
K ;
43 43
| |
|
\
v
7
R
43
= suy ra

( )
2 2 2
10 70 7
C : x y
43 43 43
| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |
\ \ \

Vy, c hai ng trn tha mn c phng trnh l:

( ) ( )
2
2
C : x 10 y 49 + = v
( )
2 2 2
10 70 7
C : x y
43 43 43
| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |
\ \ \

2. Gi
( ) I a; b l tm ca ng trn
( ) C , v
( )
1
I C nn:
( )
2
2
4
a 2 b
5
+ =
( )
Do
( )
C tip xc vi hai ng thng
1 2
, nn
( ) ( )
1 2
d I, d I, =
a b a 7b
b 2a
2 5 2

= = hoc a 2b =
b 2a = thay vo
( )
ta c c:
( )
2
2 2
4 16
a 2 4a 5a 4a 0
5 5
+ = + = phng
trnh ny v nghim.
a 2b = thay vo ( ) ta c: ( )
2
2
4 4 8
2b 2 b b ,a
5 5 5
+ = = = .
Suy ra
( )
1
4
R d I,
5 2
= = .
Vy, phng trnh
( )
2 2
8 4 8
C : x y
5 5 25
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ \
.
3. Gi
( )
I a; b l tm v R l bn knh ca ng trn
( )
C .
V
( ) C tip xc vi hai ng thng
1
v
2
nn ta c
( ) ( )
1 2
d I, d I, =
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

592
Hay
16
4a 3b 24 4a 3b 8 4a 3b 24 4a 3b 8 b
3
4a 3b 24 4a 3b 8 5 5
a 2

+ + = + + =

.
a 2 = , phng trnh
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
3b 16
C : x 2 y b
25
+
+ = .
Do
( ) M C nn
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
3b 16
6 2 6 b b 3
25
+
+ = = hoc
87
b
4
=
Suy ra phng trnh
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C : x 2 y 3 25 + = hoc
( ) ( )
2
2 87 4225
C : x 2 y
4 16
| |
+ =
|
\
.

16
b
3
= , phng trnh ca
( ) C :
( )
( )
2
2
2
4a 8
16
x a y
3 25

| |
+ + =
|
\

Do
( ) M C nn
( )
( )
2
2
2
4a 8
16
6 a 6
3 25

| |
+ + =
|
\
phng trnh v nghim.
4. ng trn ( ) C' c tm ( ) I 1; 1 bn knh = R 1
Ta c
( )
M d M x; x 3 + .
V ( ) C v ( ) C tip xc ngoi nn ta c ( ) ( )
= + + =
2 2
MI 3R x 1 x 2 9
2
x x 2 0 x 2 + = = hoc x 1 = .
Vy c hai ng trn tha yu cu bi ton l:

( ) ( )
2 2
x 1 y 4 4 + = v
( ) ( )
2 2
x 2 y 1 4 + + = .

V d 3 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, vit ng trn ngoi
tip tam gic ABC c trng tm
( ) G 2; 3 . Gi H l trc tm ca tam gic ABC .
Bit ng trn i qua ba trung im ca ba on thng HA, HB, HC c phng
trnh :
( ) ( )
2 2
x 1 y 1 10 + =

Li gii
Gi
( )
C l ng trn
( ) ( )
2 2
x 1 y 1 10 + = , suy ra
( )
C c tm
( )
I 1; 1 , bn knh
R 10 = .
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

593
Ta c kt qu sau y trong hnh hc
phng:
Trong tam gic, 9 im gm trung
im ca ba cnh, chn ba ng cao
v ba trung im ca cc on ni trc
tm vi nh nm trn mt ng trn
c tm I , G, H thng hng v
IH 3IG = .
Gi E l tm ng trn ngoi tip tam
I
C'
A'
B'
G
M
H
E
A
B
C

gic ABC v M l trung im BC. Php v t
( ) G, 2
V : I E, M A

v
( ) M C nn ta c:
( ) E 4; 7 v EA 2IM 2 10 = =
Vy, phng trnh ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC l:
( ) ( )
2 2
x 1 y 10 40 + = .

V d 4 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho ng trn
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C : x 1 y 1 25 + = v ng thng d : 2x y 1 0 = . Lp phng trnh
ng trn
( ) C' c tm nm trn d v honh ln hn 2, ng thi
( ) C' ct
( ) C
ti hai im A, B sao cho dy cung AB c di bng 4 5 v tip xc vi ng
thng : 3x y 15 0 + = .

Li gii
Cch 1: ng trn
( ) C c tm
( ) I 1; 1 , bn knh = R 5.
Gi I l tm ca ng trn
( )
C , I ' d nn suy ra
( )
I ' m; 2m 1 , m 2 > v R' l
bn knh.
Ta c: ( )
m 16
R' d I',
10
+
= = .
Gi H l giao im ca II v AB, suy ra H l trung im ca AB nn
AH 2 5 = .
V IH I' H II' + = nn
2 2 2 2
R AH R' AH II' + = hoc
2 2 2 2
R AH R' AH II ' =
TH1:
2 2 2 2
R AH R' AH II' + =
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

594
2
2 2
(m 16)
5 20 (m 1) (2m 2)
10
+
+ = +
2
5 2 m 32m 56 5 2 m 1 + + + =
( )
2 2
m 32m 56 50 m 2m 2 2 m 1 + + = +
2
2
2
49m 232m 144 0
49m 132m 44 100 m 1 m 4
49m 32m 56 0

+ =
+ = =
=

(do m 2 > ).
TH2:
2 2 2 2
R AH R' AH II ' =
2
5 2 m 32m 56 5 2 m 1 + + =
2 2 2
50 10 2(m 32m 56) m 32m 56 50m 100m 50 + + + + + = +
2 2
49m 132m 56 10 2(m 32m 56) 0 + + + = ( )
Do m 2 > nn
2 2
49m 132m 56 10 2(m 32m 56) 32 + + + > nn ( ) v nghim.
Vy, phng trnh
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C' : x 4 y 7 40 + = .
Cch 2:
( )
C v
( )
C' ct nhau ti A, B nn AB d v AB: x 2y t 0 + + =
Gi H l trung im AB nn AH 2 5 =
IAH vung ti H nn
( )
IH 5 d I, AB = = , t y tm c: t 8 = hoc t 2 =
Vi t 2 AB: x 2y 2 0 = + + = . Ta A, B tha mn h phng trnh:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
x 2y 2 0
x; y 4; 1
x; y 4; 3 x 1 y 1 25
+ + = =

= + =




( )
C' tip xc vi ng thng : 3x y 15 0 + = nn c:
( )
I' A d I', =
Tc l phi c:
( ) ( )
2 2
3m 2m 1 15
m 4 2m 2
10
+ +
+ + =

2
49m 32m 56 0 = khng tha vi m 2 >
t 8 = , tm c ( ) ( )
A 2; 5 , B 6; 1 hoc ngc li.

( )
C' tip xc vi ng thng : 3x y 15 0 + = nn c:
( )
I' A d I', =
Tc l phi c:
( )
2
49m 232m 144 0 m 4 I' 4; 7 + = =
Vy, phng trnh ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C' : x 4 y 7 40 + = .

V d 5 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy
1. Cho ng trn
( )
C :
2 2
x y 4x 6y 12 0 + + = . Lp phng trnh ng thng i
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

595
qua
( )
M 1; 1 v ct ng trn
( )
C ti 2 im A, B sao cho MA 2MB = .
2. Cho hai ng trn:
( )
2 2
C : x y 2x 2y 1 0, + + =
( )
2 2
C' : x y 4x 5 0 + + =
cng i qua
( )
M 1; 0 . Vit phng trnh ng thng qua M ct hai ng trn
ln lt ti A, B sao cho MA 2MB = .

Li gii
1. Gi d l ng thng cn tm c dng ax by c 0 + + = , d i qua
( ) M 1; 1
Suy ra d: ax by a b 0 + = .
Phng tch ca im M i vi ng trn :
MA.MB 8 MA.MB 8 MB 2 AB 6 = = = =
Gi H l trung im AB, ta c:
2 2
2 2
a 4b
IH R AH 4
a b

= =
+


2
15a 8ab a 0 = = hoc 15a 8b. =
a 0 = th d : y 1 0 = v b 0
15a 8b = th d: 8x 15y 7 0 + =
Vy, c 2 ng thng cn tm: y 1 0 = v 8x 15y 7 0 + = .
2.
( )
C c tm
( )
I 1; 1 , bn knh R 1 = v
( )
C' c tm
( )
I ' 2; 0 , bn knh R' 3 = .
ng thng
( )
d i qua M c phng trnh:
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
a x 1 b y 0 0 ax by a 0, a b 0 + = + = + > ( ) .
Gi H, H' ln lt l trung im AM, BM.
Khi :
2 2 2 2
MA 2MB IA IH 2 I' A I' H' = =

( ) ( )
{ }
2 2
1 d I,d 4 9 d I',d , IA IH. ( ( = >



( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
9a b
4 d I',d d I,d 35 4. 35
a b a b
( ( = =

+ +

2 2
2 2
2 2
36a b
35 a 36b a 6b
a b

= = =
+

Vi a 6b d : = 6x y 6 0 + + =
Vi a 6b d : = 6x y 6 0 + =
Vy, c 2 ng thng cn tm: 6x y 6 0, + + = 6x y 6 0 + =

V d 6 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho ng trn
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

596

( )
C :
( ) ( )
2 2
x 1 y 2 5 + = . Tm ta cc nh B, C, D ca hnh ch nht ABCD
ni tip trong
( ) C , c
( ) A 1; 3 .


Li gii
ng trn ( ) C c tm ( ) I 1; 2 , bn knh R 5 =
im C i xng A qua I ( ) C 3; 1 .
ng thng BD i qua I v vung gc vi AC nn nhn
( )
AC 4; 2 =

lm
vect php tuyn, suy ra
( )
BD : 2x y 0 =
Ta im B, D l nghim ca h:
( ) ( )
2 2
2x y 0
x 0, y 0
x 2, y 4
x 1 y 2 5
=
= =



= =
+ =


Vy,
( ) B 0; 0 ,
( ) C 3; 1 ,
( ) D 2; 4 hoc
( ) B 2; 4 ,
( ) C 3; 1 ,
( ) D 0; 0 tha bi ton.

V d 7 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho
( )
A 7; 1 , B v C l 2
im ln lt thuc ng thng
( )
d : 2x y 7 0 + + = v
( )
d' : 4x 3y 27 0 + = .
Lp phng trnh ng trn ngoi tip ABC , bit ABC c trng tm
7 5
G ;
3 3
| |
|
\


Li gii
( ) ( )
B B
B d B x ; 7 2x ,
( )
C
C
27 4x
C d' C x ;
3
| |

|
\

V
7 5
G ;
3 3
| |
|
\
l trng tm ABC nn c:

A B C
A B C
x x x 7
3 3
y y y 5
3 3
+ +
=

+ +


( )
( )
B B B C
B C C C
x 3, y 1 B 3; 1 x x 0
3x 2x 3 x 3, y 5 C 3; 5
= = + =



+ = = =



Bi ton tr thnh: Vit phng trnh ng trn ngoi tip ABC , bit rng
( )
A 7; 1 ,
( )
B 3; 1 ,
( )
C 3; 5 .
Gi
( )
I a; b l ta tm ng trn ngoi tip ABC .
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

597
Ta c:
( )
IA IB a b 2
I 2; 0 R IA 26
IA IC 5a b 10
= + =
= =

= + =


Vy, phng trnh ng trn cn tm c tm
( ) I 2; 0 , bn knh R 26 =

( )
2
2
x 2 y 26 + = .

V d 8. Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho tam gic ABC ni tip
ng trn ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
C : x 1 y 2 5, + + =

( )
0
ABC 90 , A 2; 0 = v din tch tam gic
ABC bng 4 . Tm to nh B, C.

Li gii
ng trn
( ) C c tm
( ) I 1; 2 v bn knh R 5 = .
V ABC c
0
ABC 90 C = i xng A qua tm
( )
I 1; 2 , nn
( )
C 0; 4 .
Phng trnh ng thng
( )
AC : 2x y 4 0 =
Din tch tam gic ABC bng 4 , nn khong cch t B n cnh AC l :

2S 4
d
AC
5
= = .
Do B nm trn ng thng ( ) ( ) d AC nn phng trnh ( ) d :
2x y m 0 + = .
( )
d cch AC mt khong bng
4
5

4 m
4
5 5
+
= m 0 =
hoc m 8 = .
Vi
( )
1
m 0 d : = 2x y 0 = , to im B l nghim ca h phng trnh
( ) ( )
2 2
2x y 0
x 0
y 0
x 1 y 2 5
=
=



=
+ + =

hoc
6
x
5
12
y
5

.
Vi
( )
2
m 8 d : = 2x y 8 0 = , to im B l nghim ca h phng
trnh:
( ) ( )
2 2
2x y 8 0
x 2
y 4
x 1 y 2 5
=
=



=
+ + =

hoc
16
x
5
8
y
5

.
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

598
Vy, to
( )
C 0; 4 , to B hoc (0; 0) hoc
6 12
;
5 5
| |

|
\
hoc
( )
2; 4 hoc
16 8
;
5 5
| |

|
\


V d 9 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho ng trn
( ) C :

2 2
x y 2x 2y 1 0 + + + = . Vit phng trnh tip tuyn ca ng trn
( ) C xut pht
t
( ) A 2; 3 .

Li gii
( ) C c tm ( ) I 1; 1 , bn knh R 1 = .
Ta thy, IA R > nn A nm ngoi ng trn.
Do qua A k c 2 tip tuyn n
( )
C .
ng thng qua A c phng trnh:
( ) ( )
a x 2 b y 3 0 + + + =
tip xc
( ) C khi
( )
2
2 2
a 4b
d I ; R 1 8ab 15b 0
a b
+
= = + =
+

( ) b 8a 15b 0 b 0 + = = hoc
8
b a
15
=
Vi ( ) ( ) b 0 a x 2 0 y 3 0 x 2 0 = + + + = + = v a 0 .
Vi ( ) ( )
8 8
b a a x 2 a y 3 0
15 15
= + + = hay 15x 8y 6 0 + = v a 0 .
Vy, c 2 tip tuyn tha mn bi: x 2 0, + = 15x 8y 6 0 + = .

V d 10 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho ng trn ( ) C :

( )
2
2
x 4 y 4 + = v im
( )
E 4; 1 . Tm ta im M trn trc tung sao cho t M
k c hai tip tuyn MA, MB n ng trn ( ) C vi A, B l hai tip im sao
cho ng thng AB i qua E.

Li gii
ng trn
( )
C c tm
( )
I 4; 0 , bn knh R 2 = .
Gi
( ) M 0; m , gi s
( ) T x; y l tip im ca tip tuyn v t M ti
( ) C .
Suy ra
( ) ( )
MT x; y m , IT x 4; y = =

.
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

599

( )
2 2
2 2
T C
x y 8x 12 0
MT.IT 0 x y 4x my 0

+ + =


= + =


4x my 12 0 =
Do , phng trnh ng thng
AB: 4x my 12 0 =
AB i qua E 16 m 12 0 =
m 4 = . Vy
( )
M 0; 4 l im cn tm.
B
I
A
M
E

V d 11 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho phng trnh l

2 2
x y 4x 6y 3 0 + + = v ng thng d c phng trnh l 3x 4y 1 0 + = . Gi

( )
C l ng trn c bn knh bng 5 tip xc vi ngoi vi ( ) C ti A v tip xc
vi d ti B. Tnh onAB.

Li gii
ng trn ( ) C c tm
( )
I 2; 3 , bn knh R 4 = .
Gi
( ) I ' a; b , R' ln lt l tm v bn knh ca
( ) C , suy ra R' 5 = v
II ' R R' 9 = + =
p dng nh l c sin cho tam gic AI' B ta c:
2 2 2
AB I' A I' B 2.I' A.I' B. cos AI' B 50(1 cos AI' B) = + =
M

( )
n .I ' I
cos AI' B cos n , I' I
n . I' I

= =




3(a 2) 4(b 3) 3a 4b 6
5.9 45
+ + + +
= =
Mt khc:
3a 4b 1
d(I ', ) 5 5
5
+
= =
3a 4b 26 + = hoc 3a 4b 24 + =
I
A
I'
B

32
3a 4b 26 cos AI' B
45
+ = =
2
32 130 130
AB 50 1 AB
45 9 3
| |
= = =
|
\


2
2 2
3a 4b 24 cos AI' B AB 50 1 30 AB 30
5 5
| |
+ = = = = =
|
\


V d 12 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho hai ng trn
( )
1
C :

( ) ( )
2 2
x 3 y 2 9 + = v
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
C : x 7 y 1 4 + + = . Chng minh
( )
1
C v
( )
2
C
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

600
tip xc ngoi vi nhau ti A. Vit phng trnh tip tuyn chung ca
( )
1
C v
( )
2
C ti A. Gi d l mt tip tuyn chung ca ( )
1
C v ( )
2
C khng i qua A,
ng thng d ct ng thng ni hai tm ti B . Tm ta im B.

Li gii
ng trn ( )
1
C c tm ( ) I 3; 2 v bn knh R 3 = .
ng trn
( )
2
C c tm
( )
I' 7; 1 v bn knh R' 2 = .
Gi ( ) A x; y . Theo gi thit ta
c:
AI' R'
AI R
=
R'
I' A IA
R
=



( )
( )
2
x 7 x 3
3
2
y 1 y 2
3

+ =



27
x
5
1
y
5


27 1
A ;
5 5
| |
=
|
\

B
I
A I'
Tip tuyn chung ca ( )
1
C v ( )
2
C ti A v vung gc II' nn c vct php
tuyn
( )
n II ' 4; 3 = =

, c phng trnh: 4x 3y 21 0 = .
Gi ( )
0 0
B x ; y , theo gi thit ta c
BI' R'
BI R
=
Suy ra
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0
0
0 0
2
x 7 x 3
x 15
R'
3
IB' IB B 15; 7
2 y 7 R
y 1 y 2
3

=

=

=


+ =


.

V d 13 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho ng thng :
x y 2 0 + = v ng trn ( )
2 2
T : x y 2x 2y 7 0 + + = . Chng minh rng ct

( )
T ti hai im phn bit A , B v tm to nguyn ca im C trn
( )
T sao
cho tam gic ABC c din tch bng
14
2
.

Li gii
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

601
ng trn
( ) T c tm
( ) I 1; 1 , bn knh
R 3 =
Ta c
( )
d I, 2 R = < v
( )
T ct
nhau ti hai im phn bit A, B
V
( )
2 2
AB 2 R d I, 2 7 = = .

B
A
I
C

Gi s
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0 0 0 0
C x ; y T x 1 y 1 9 + + = ( )
Din tch tam gic ABC:
( ) ( )
ABC
1
S d C, AB .AB 7.d C,
2

= =
Do ,
( )
ABC
14 1
S d C,
2
2

= =
M ( )
0 0 0 0
1 1
d C, x y 2 x y 2 1
2 2
= + = + =
0 0
x y 2 1 + = .

0 0 0 0
x y 2 1 x 3 y + = = thay vo ( ) , ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0 0 0 0 0
2 y y 1 9 y y 2 0 y 1 + + = = = hoc
0
y 2 =
Vi
( )
0 0
y 1 x 4 C 4; 1 = =
Vi ( )
0 0
y 2 x 1 C 1; 2 = =

0 0 0 0
x y 2 1 x 1 y + = = thay vo ( ) ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0 0
1 17
y y 1 9 y
2

+ + = = ( l ).
Vy,
( )
C 4; 1 ,
( )
C 1; 2 l ta cn tm.

V d 14 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho cho tam gic ABC ni
tip ng trn ( ) C c phng trnh
( ) ( )
2 2
: x 1 y 1 10 + = . im
( ) M 0; 2 l
trung im cnh BC v din tch tam gic ABC bng 12. Tm ta cc nh ca
tam gic ABC.

Li gii
ng trn ( ) C c tm
( )
I 1; 1 , suy ra
( )
MI 1; 1 =

.
V BC i qua M v vung gc vi MI nn BC: x y 2 0 + = .
Ta B,C l nghim ca h:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
y x 2
x 1 y 1 10
x 4
x y 2 0

= +
+ =


=
+ =


www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

602
x 2, y 4
x 2, y 0
= =


= =


Suy ra
( ) ( )
B 2; 4 , C 2; 0 hoc
( ) ( )
B 2; 0 , C 2; 4
Gi
( ) A a; b , suy ra
( ) ( )
2 2
a 1 b 1 10 + = ( )
Ta c:
( )
ABC
a b 2
d A, BC , BC 4 2 S 2 a b 2
2

+
= = = +
Nn ta c a b 2 6 a b 4,a b 8 + = = + = .
a b 4 = + thay vo ( ) ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
b 3 b 1 10 + + =
2
b 2b 0 + =
b 0, b 2 = =
a b 8 = thay vo ( ) ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
b 9 b 1 10 + = v nghim.
Vy,
( ) A 0; 4 hoc
( ) A 2; 2 .

V d 15 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho hai ng trn
( )
1
C :

2 2
x y 13 + = v
( ) ( )
2
2
2
C : x 6 y 25 + = . Gi A l giao im ca
( )
1
C v
( )
2
C vi

A
y 0 < . Vit phng trnh ng thng i qua A v ct
( )
1
C ,
( )
2
C theo 2 dy
cung c di bng nhau.

Li gii
Xt h:
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
x y 13
x 2
A 2; 3 , B 2; 3
y 3
x 6 y 25

+ =
=



=
+ =

.
Gi l ng thng cn lp.
AB tha yu cu bi ton
AB gi s ct hai ng trn
( )
1
C ,
( )
2
C ln lt ti M, N
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

603
Php i xng tm A bin M thnh
N v
( )
1
C thnh
( )
3
C

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 3 2 3
M C N C N C C

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3
C : x 4 y 6 13 + + = .
Suy ra
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
2
x 4 y 6 13
N:
x 6 y 25

+ + =

+ =



37 24
N ;
5 5
| |

|
\

I
1
'
N
A
B
I
1
I
2

Suy ra
27 9
AN ;
5 5
| |
=
|
\

c n (1; 3) =

l VTPT.
Phng trnh : x 3y 7 0 + + = .

V d 16 Trong mt phng to cc vung gc Oxy, cho cho ABC vi
( ) A 2; 3 , ( ) ( ) B 2; 1 , C 6; 3 . Gi Dl giao im ca ng phn gic trong gc

BAC
vi BC . Tm tt c cc im M thuc ng trn
( )
C :
( ) ( )
2 2
x 3 y 1 25 + = sao
cho : =
MDC ADB
S 2S .

Li gii
Ta c ( ) ( ) ( )
AB 0; 2 , AC 4; 0 , BC 4; 2 = = =


V
DB AB 1 BD 1 1 10 5 8 4
BD BC D ; CD ;
DC AC 2 BC 3 3 3 3 3 3
| | | |
= = = = =
| |
\ \

.
Phng trnh AB: = x 2 0 , nn
( ) ( )
ABD
4 1 1 4 4
d D, AB S AB.d D, AB .2.
3 2 2 3 3

= = = =
Phng trnh = DC: x 2y 0 .
Gi
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
a 3 M b 1 ; 5 a b 2 + = ( )
Mt khc:
MCD ABD
a 2b
1 8 1 4 8
S 2S CD.d(M, CD) . 5.
2 3 2 3 3
5


= = =
a 2b 4 = = + a 2b 4 hoc = a 2b 4
= a 2b 4 thay vo ( ) ta c c:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2b 7 b 1 25 b 6b 5 0 + = + =
www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

604
( )
( )
b 1 a 2 M 2; 1
b 5 a 6 M 6; 5
= =

= =

.
= + a 2b 4 thay vo ( ) ta c c:
( ) ( )
2 2
2b 1 b 1 25 + + =
2
5b 2b 23 0 + =
| |
+ + + +
= = |
|


| |

= = |

|
\
1 2 29 18 4 29 1 2 29 18 4 29
b a M ;
5 5 5 5
1 2 29 18 4 29 1 2 29 18 4 29
b a M ;
5 5 5 5
.

V d 17 Trong mt phng vi h ta Oxy, cho ng trn
( ) C :
2 2
x y 2x 4y 20 0 + + = v ng thng ( ) d : 3x 4y 20 0 + = . Chng minh d tip
xc vi
( )
C . Tam gic ABC c nhA thuc
( )
C , cc nh B v C thuc d , trung
im cnh AB thuc ( ) C . Tm ta cc nh A, B, C bit trc tm ca tam gic
ABC trng vi tm ca ng trn
( )
C v im B c honh dng.

Li gii
ng trn
( )
C c tm I(1; 2) v bn knh R 5 =
( )
2 2
3 8 20
d I, d 5 R
3 4

= = =
+
.Suy ra d tip xc vi
( ) C
Gi Hl tip im ca
( )
C v d . Ta H l nghim ca h phng trnh
( )
2 2
3x 4y 20 0
x 4
H 4; 2
y 2
x y 2x 4y 20 0
+ =
=



=
+ + =


Do I l trc tm ABC v IH BC A IH . Kt hp
( )
A C l im i xng
ca H qua I
( )
A I H A
A I H A
x 2x x x 2
A 2; 6
y 2y y y 6
= =



= =



Gi Ml trung im cnh AB. Do HA l ng knh nn HM AM
Tam gic HAB c HM va l trung tuyn va l ng cao nn HAB cn ti
H HB HA 2R 10 = = = ,
20 3b
B d B b;
4
| |

|
\
.
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 20 3b 20 3b
HB 10 b 4 2 10 b 4 2 100
4 4
| | | |
= + = + =
| |
\ \

www.VNMATH.com
,
Nguyn Ph Khnh

605
( )
2
2
2
b 4 12 3b
b 4 100 b 8b 48 0
b 12 4
= | |
+ = =
|
=
\
. Do
( )
B
x 0 B 12; 4 >
20 3c 44 3c
c d C c; AC c 2; ,
4 4
| | | |
= +
| |
\ \


( )
BI 11; 2 =


( ) ( )
44 3c
AC BI AC.BI 0 11 c 2 2 0 c 0 C 0; 5
4

= + + = =



www.VNMATH.com