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SCIENCE TUSYEN 1.

FORM 1. Chapter 3. MATTER


Chapter 4. DIVERSITY OF
RESOURCES ON EARTH
SCIENCE TUSYEN 3.
FORM 1. Chapter 5. AIR AROUND US
SCIENCE TUSYEN.
FORM 1. CHAPTER 6.
SOURCES AND FORMS
OF ENERGY
SCIENCE TUSYEN FORM 1
CHAPTER 7. HEAT AND ITS TRANSFER
VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY
CHEMICAL
ENERGY

POTENTIAL KINETIC
ENERGY ENERGY
HEAT SOUND
ENERGY ENERGY

ENERGY
ELECTRIVAL LIGHT
ENERGY ENERGY
MECHANICAL NUCLEAR
ENERGY ENERGY
OXYGEN IN AIR

RUSTING
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

ANIMALS AND GREEN


CARCASSES FOSSIL FUELS METALS
HUMANS PLANTS

DECOMPOSITION

RESPIRATION COMBUSTION

CARBON DIOXIDE IN AIR


SOURCES OF ENERGY ON EARTH

RENEWABLE NON RENEWABLE

BIOMASS

SOLAR
FOSSIL FUELS
HYDRO NUCLEAR COAL
WIND
PETROLEUM
GEO THERMAL

WAVES NATURAL GAS


EXAMPLES OF ENERGY CONVERTER
ENERGY ENERGY CONVERSION
CONVERTER
RADIO Electrical energy sound energy
TELEVISION Electrical energy light energy sound
energy
GAS STOVE Chemical energy heat energy light energy

ELECTRIC FAN Electrical energy kinetic energy


BICYCLE Kinetic energy electrical energy light
DYNAMO energy
ELECTRIC IRON Electrical energy heat energy
HAIR-DRYER Electrical energy kinetic energy heat
energy sound energy
ELECTRIC RICE Electrical energy heat energy
COOKER
LIGHT BULB Electrical energy heat energy light
energy
THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION

~ Energy cannot be ~ Energy can only be


created or converted from one
destroyed form to another

ENERGY IS CONSERVED
Amount of energy Amount of energy
before conversion after conversion
PROCESSES AND ENERGY CONSERVATION

LIGHT ENERGY CHEMICAL ENERGY


PHOTOSYNTHESIS
(from the sun) (in food)

HEAT ENERGY +
CHEMICAL ENERGY RESPIRATION WATER + CARBON
(in food)
DIOXIDE
COMPARISON BETWEEN
CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION

CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION

~ Transferred by
~ Transferred by ~ Radiated by a hot
particles that vibrate
particles that move body to surrounding
and collide with other
and form a
particles
convectional current
~ Occurs in solids,
~ Occurs in fluids ~ Occurs without any
liquids and gases but
Like liquids and gases medium
most effective in
most effective
solids
~ Can occur in
~ Does not occur in a vacuum
~ Does not occur in
a vacuum
a vacuum
~ rapid process (light
~ slow process Speed)
~ rapid process
CAR’S RADIATOR THERMOS FLASK
TO WARM BODY
~ to remove heat ~ vacuum space prevent
~ fire – to warm our
produced in engine heat loss by conduction
bodies prevent heat
by convection and convection
transfer by radiation
through water in ~ silver layered prevent
from our body to
the radiator heat loss by radiation
surrounding

USAGE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF HEAT


TRANSFER IN SOLVING PROBLEMS

HOT ROOM COLD ROOM


1. the ventilation system of a Air heater and heating
building ~ hot air rises out system ~ apply principle
through upper section (air holes) of convection, fixed at lower
2. air conditioner ~ apply Section. Hot air which produced
principle of convection, fixed at moves up while the cold air
upper section moves down
METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER

CONDUCTION:
CONVECTION:
~ Heat transfer through
~ Heat transfer in a fluid from
solid from a high temperature
A hot to a less hot area
to a low temperature

RADIATION:
Examples of good ~ Heat transfer from a ~ Hot fluid (less
conductors are heat source to its dense) move up
metal. surroundings without the ~ Cold fluid (more
need of medium dense) move down
Copper (air or vacuum)
Aluminium
Iron
decrease ~ Can be absorbed or reflected
~ travel at speed of light
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS

Materials that conduct Materials that do not


heat easily Conduct heat easily

Examples: Examples:
Metals ~ copper, iron Wood, plastic, rubber,
mercury, aluminium water and air

Applications: Applications
~ cooking utensils ~ handles of cooking utensils
~ radiator coil in vehicle ~ polystyrene – food containers
~ mercury – thermometer ~ fibreglass –refrigerators
~ wire gauze (steel) ~ sawdust – prevent ice melt
~ heating coil – electric kettle ~ fur clothing – keep body warm
~ soldering iron – made of ~ blanket – keep body warm
copper ~ igloo
~ Davy safety light ~ sleeping bag
NATURAL APPLICATION OF
THE PRINCIPLE OF CONVECTION

LAND BREEZE SEA BREEZE

~ at night, land cools faster ~ during day time, land heats


than sea up faster than sea
~ hot air from the sea rises ~ hot air from the land rises
and it is replaced by cold air and it is replaced by cold air
from the land from the sea

NATURAL APPLICATION OF
THE PRINCIPLE OF RADIATION

Earth and sun separated by vacuum. Heat from sun is transferred


To earth by radiation without the need of medium
ABSORPTION AND RADIATION

All materials can absorb and radiate

DEPENDS ON:
1. surrounding temperature
~ object that has higher temperature than its surrounding,
radiates heat
~ object that has lower temperature than its surrounding,
absorbs heat
2. nature of its surface
~ dark and dull – best for absorbing heat
~ bright and shiny – best for reflecting heat
NATURE OF SURFACE HEAT ABSORPTION HEAT RADIATION
DULL GOOD GOOD
SHINY BAD BAD
BRIGHT BAD BAD
DARK GOOD GOOD