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AGGREGATE PLANNING AND MASTER SCHEDULING

Hubungan pada perencanaan aggregate:

Pasar Keputusan Riset


dan produk dan
permintaan Teknologi

Proses
perencanaan dan
keputusan
kapasitas
Tenaga Kerja

Permintaan Aggregate Bahan Baku


peramalan, Plan for
order Production
Persediaan

Kapasitas
MPS
eksternal /
dan
subkontrak
MRP

Rencana Kerja
Detail

Aggregate Plan:
Month J F M A M J J A S
No Of 40 25 55 30 30 50 30 60 40
motors

MPS:
Month J F M A M J J A S
AC
Motors
5 hp 15 - 30 - - 30 - - 10
25 hp 20 25 25 15 15 15 20 30 20
DC
Motors
20 hp - - - - - - 10 10 -
WR
motors
10 hp 5 - - 15 15 5 - 20 10

Some Decision Variables and Costs in Aggregate Planning:


Decision Variables Associated Costs
1. Varying size of work force 1. Hiring, training & layoff costs
2. Using overtime or accepting 2. Wage premiums & nonproductive
idle time time costs
3. Varying inventory level 3. Carrying & storage costs
4. Accepting back orders 4. Stockout costs of lost orders
5. Subcontracting work to 5. Higher labor & material costs
others
6. Changing the use of existing 6. Delayed response & higher fixed
Capacity costs

Metode Untuk Perencanaan Agregat

1. Metode Grafik(Trial and Error): Pure Strategy, Mixed Strategy

a. Menentukan permintaan tiap periode


b. Menentukan kapasitas untuk waktu regular, overtime dan subkontrak tiap
periode
c. Menentukan biaya tenaga kerja, pemecatan dan rekruitmen serta biaya
inventori
d. Mempertimbangkan kebijakan perusahaan
e. Mengembangkan rencana-rencana alternative dan evaluasi biaya totalnya

Contoh 1:
Bulan Ekspektasi Hari Produksi Permintaan
permintaan per hari
Januari 900 22 41
Februari 700 18 39
Maret 800 21 38
April 1200 21 57
Mei 1500 22 68
Juni 1100 20 55
Jumlah 6200 124 298

Tingkat produksi untuk memenuhi permintaan rata-rata


= Total ekspektasi permintaan = 6200 = 50 unit / hari
Hari Produksi 124

List Beberapa Alternatif:


Misal:
a. Menyiapkan tenaga kerja cadangan
b. Produksi dengan laju yang konstan dan sisanya di subkontakkan
c. Kombinasi kerja lembur dan subkontrak

Contoh 2:
Diketahui Informasi biaya sebagai berikut:

Biaya penyimpanan persediaan $ 5/unit/bulan


Biaya Subkontrak per unit $ 10
Tingkat Gaji rata-rata $ 5/jam ($ 40 / hari)
Gaji lembur $7/jam (diatas 8 jam)
Jam Tenaga Kerja utk produksi/unit 1,6 jam/unit
Biaya untuk meningkatkan produksi $ 10 / unit
Biaya utk mengurangi tingkat produksi $ 15 / unit

Rencana 1 (level production):


Asumsi: produksi per hari 50 unit
Konstan Tenaga Kerja, Tidak ada overtime – idletime, tidak ada subkontrak dan stok
(inventori awal = 0; inventori akhir = 0)

Bulan Produksi Peramalan Perubahan Inventori


Inventori Akhir
Januari 1100 900 + 200 200
Februari 900 700 + 200 400
Maret 1050 800 + 250 650
April 1050 1200 - 150 500
Mei 1100 1500 - 400 100
Juni 1000 1100 - 100 0
Jumlah 1850

Biaya:
Inventori 1850 unit x $ 5 / unit = $ 9.250
Tenaga Kerja Reguler *10 TK x $40/hr x 124 hr = $ 49.600
(*1,6 jam / unit → 8 jam kerja = 5 unit
untuk produksi 50 unit / hr → 10 TK)
Biaya lain = $0
$ 58.850
Rencana 2 (chase demand):
Produksi 38 unit sendiri, sisanya: subkontrak
38
TK yang dibutuhkan  7,6 (7pekerja full time; 1 pekerja part time)
5
Selama periode produksi dihasilkan
= 38 unit/hr x 124 hr = 4712 unit

Sisa→ sub kontrak = 6200 – 4712 = 1488 unit


Biaya
TK Reguler : 7,6 TK x $ 40/hr x 124 hr = $ 37.696
Sub KOntrak : 1488 unit x $ 10/unit = $ 14.880
$ 52.576
2. Metode Pendekatan Matematika (menggunakan Linear Programming atau
metode2 Transportasi)
Contoh 1:
Sebuah perusahaan ban memiliki data yang berhubungan dengan produksi,
permintaan, kapasitas dan biaya di pabriknya

Periode
Maret April Mei
Permintaan 800 1000 750
Kapasitas
- Reguler 700 700 700
- Overtime 50 50 50
- Subkontrak 150 150 130
Inventori awal 100

Biaya
Reguler $ 40 / ban
Overtime $ 50 / ban
Sub kontrak $ 70 / ban
Inventori $ 2 / ban / bulan

Solusi: dengan metode transportasi!!

Contoh 2:
Diketahui data sbb:

Periode
1 2 3
Forecast 450 550 750
Kapasitas
- Reguler 300 400 450
- Overtime 50 50 50
- Subkontrak 200 200 200
Inventori awal 50

Biaya
Reguler Time$ 50 / unit
Overtime $ 65 / unit
Sub kontrak $ 80 / unit
Inventori $ 1 / unit / periode

Alokasikan kapasitas produksi untuk dpt memenuhi permintaan pada biaya yg


minimum!!

Contoh : Perencanaan Aggregat

1. RAP-X-PRESS adl sebuah perusahaan jasa paket barang (antar-jemput). Manajer


produksi / manajer operasional bertanggung jawab utk menentukan jumlah
personil yg dibutuhkan setiap kuartalnya untuk setiap kategori karyawan, seperti
pada gambar.
Misal : Rata-rata gaji $ 5000 per kuartal
Cost of shortage (lost sales) $ 6000
Cost of using overtime $ 8000

Bagaimana struktur biaya pada perusahaan ini bila:


a. Menggunakan strategi “level production”( karyawan tetap 40)
b. Menggunakan strategi “chase demand” dengan 30 karyawan? 40 karyawan?

2. Precision Products makes a variety of complex, highly engineered wastewater


pump. Sales forecast for individual models have been aggregated and are given,
along with other important data as follow:
Demand forecasts for each quarters of the year are 400, 600, 300, and 100, with this
pattern repeating itself in the future as far as can be foreseen.
Current workforce : 30
Each worker can produce : 10 unit/quarter atau sktr 1
unit/week
Inventory cost : $ 100/unit/quarter
Shortage cost : $ 130/unit/quarter
Hiring/Layoff cost : $1000/worker
Idle worker : $ 1500/
quarter
Overtime : $ 150 each
Find the best aggregate plan if all demand must be met!

Level Production:
Demand, # 400 600 300 100 TOTAL
Production, # 350 350 350 350
Inventory, # 0 0 0 0
Inventory cost 0 0 0 0
=($100x#)
Shortage, # 50 50+250=300 300-50=250 250-250=0
Shortage cost 6.500 39.000 32.000 0 78.000
=(130x#)
Overtime, # 50 50 50 50
Overtime cost 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 30.000
=($150x#)
Idle worker
Idle cost
=($1500xIW)
Hire-Layoff
Hire-Layoff cost
=($1000xHI)
TOTAL 14.000 46.500 40.000 7.500 108.000

Chase Demand with Overtime & Idletime:


Demand, # 400 600 300 100 TOTAL
Production, # 400 600 300 100
Inventory, # 0 0 0 0
Inventory cost 0 0 0 0
=($100x#)
Shortage, # 0 0 0 0
Shortage cost 0 0 0 0
=(130x#)
Overtime, # 400- 600- 300- 0
300=100 300=300 300=0
Overtime cost 15.000 45.000 0 0 60.000
=($150x#)
Idle worker 300-
100=200
200/10=20
Idle cost 30.000 30.000
=($1500xIW)
Hire-Layoff
Hire-Layoff cost
=($1000xHI)
TOTAL 15.000 45.000 30.000 90.000

Mixed Strategy:
In this case, a better strategy than any other strategy considered thus far is to
permanently hire another 10 workers, which results in one-time charge of $10.000.
Then, 400 units of level production are run for 3 periods and 200 units in last period
to match the annual demand of 1400 units.

Demand, # 400 600 300 100 TOTAL


Production, # 400 400 400 200
Inventory, # 0 0 0 0
Inventory cost 0 0 0 0
=($100x#)
Shortage, # 0 600- 300- 400 100-
400=200 + 200+100=0
200=100
Shortage cost 0 26.000 13.000 0 39.000
=(130x#)
Overtime, #
Overtime cost
=($150x#)
Idle worker 20
Idle cost 30.000 30.000
=($1500xIW)
Hire-Layoff
Hire-Layoff cost
=($1000xHI)
TOTAL 26.000 13.000 30.000 69.000

MASTER SCHEDULE FOR PUMPS

Lead time : 0 Lot Size : 70 Demand Time Fence : 0


On hand : 64 Safety Stock : 0 Planning Time Fence : 8
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Forecast 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40
2. Customer 33 20 10 4 2
Order(committ
ed)
3. Projected
on-hand
inventory
4. MPS
5. ATP
(uncommitted)

MASTER SCHEDULE FOR PUMPS

Lead time : 0 Lot Size : 70 Demand Time Fence : 0


On hand : 64 Safety Stock : 0 Planning Time Fence : 8
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Forecast 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40
2. Customer 33 20 10 4 2
Order(committ
ed) 31 1 -29
3. Projected on-
hand inventory
4. MPS
5. ATP
(uncommitted)

MASTER SCHEDULE FOR PUMPS

Lead time : 0 Lot Size : 70 Demand Time Fence : 0


On hand : 64 Safety Stock : 0 Planning Time Fence : 8
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Forecast 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40
2. Customer 33 20 10 4 2
Order(committ
ed) 31 1 41 11 41 1 31 61
3. Projected
on-hand 70 70 70 70
inventory
4. MPS
5. ATP
(uncommitted)

MASTER SCHEDULE FOR PUMPS

Lead time : 0 Lot Size : 70 Demand Time Fence : 0


On hand : 64 Safety Stock : 0 Planning Time Fence : 8
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Forecast 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40
2. Customer 33 20 10 4 2
Order(committ
ed) 31 1 41 11 41 1 31 61
3. Projected on-
hand inventory 70 70 70 70
4. MPS 11 56 68 70 70
5. ATP
(uncommitted)