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MAKALAH TEFL II

TEACHING LISTENING
Diajukan sebagai tugas mata kuliah TEFL II

Disusun oleh : 1. 2. 3. 4. ALVINA MADARISA KRISNA INDAH PUSPITASARI MUALIFATUN NISA RIA LARASATI ( 2011 E )

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS PGRI RONGGOLAWE TUBAN 2014

Foreward
Praise to Allah SWT who has given taufik, guidance, and inayah so that we all can still move as usual as well as the author so I can complete the task TEFL II about "TEACHING LISTENING". This paper contains about techniques of teaching listeing and the example of material on teaching listening. The paper is organized so that readers can add insight or expand existing knowledge about teaching listening ,easy to read and easy to understand. Hopefully, this paper can be useful for readers and expanding horizons about teaching listening and the details. And do not forget also the author apologizes for any short comings here and there of the paper's authors do.Please critique and suggestions. Thank you.

January 30, 2014

(Writer)

TEACHING LISTENING
Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Often, however, language learners do not recognize the level of effort that goes into developing listening ability. Far from passively receiving and recording aural input, listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they hear, bringing their own background knowledge and linguistic knowledge to bear on the information contained in the aural text. Not all listening is the same; casual greetings, for example, require a different sort of listening capability than do academic lectures. Language learning requires intentional listening that employs strategies for identifying sounds and making meaning from them. Listening involves a sender (a person, radio, television), a message, and a receiver (the listener). Listeners often must process messages as they come, even if they are still processing what they have just heard, without backtracking or looking ahead. In addition, listeners must cope with the sender's choice of vocabulary, structure, and rate of delivery. The complexity of the listening process is magnified in second language contexts, where the receiver also has incomplete control of the language. Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help their students become effective listeners. In the communicative approach to language teaching, this means modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in authentic situations: those that learners are likely to encounter when they use the language outside the classroom.

Developing Listening Activities


Use pre-listening activities to prepare students for what they are going to hear or view. The activities chosen during pre-listening may serve as preparation for listening in several ways. During pre-listening the teacher may

assess students' background knowledge of the topic and linguistic content of the text provide students with the background knowledge necessary for their comprehension of the listening passage or activate the existing knowledge that the students possess

clarify any cultural information which may be necessary to comprehend the passage make students aware of the type of text they will be listening to, the role they will play, and the purpose(s) for which they will be listening

provide opportunities for group or collaborative work and for background reading or class discussion activities

Sample pre-listening activities:


looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structures reading something relevant constructing semantic webs (a graphic arrangement of concepts or words showing how they are related)

predicting the content of the listening text going over the directions or instructions for the activity doing guided practice

Match while-listening activities to the instructional goal, the listening purpose, and students' proficiency level. While-listening activities relate directly to the text, and students do them do during or immediately after the time they are listening. Keep these points in mind when planning whilelistening activities: If students are to complete a written task during or immediately after listening, allow them to read through it before listening. Students need to devote all their attention to the listening task. Be sure they understand the instructions for the written task before listening begins so that they are not distracted by the need to figure out what to do. Keep writing to a minimum during listening. Remember that the primary goal is comprehension, not production. Having to write while listening may distract students from this primary goal. If a written response is to be given after listening, the task can be more demanding. Organize activities so that they guide listeners through the text. Combine global activities such as getting the main idea, topic, and setting with selective listening activities that focus on details of content and form. Use questions to focus students' attention on the elements of the text crucial to comprehension of the whole.Before the listening activity begins, have students review questions they will answer orally or in writing after listening. Listening for the answers will help students recognize the crucial parts of the message. Use predicting to encourage students to monitor their comprehension as they listen. Do a predicting activity before listening, and remind students to review what they are hearing to see if it makes sense in the context of their prior knowledge and what they already know of the topic or events of the passage. Give immediate feedback whenever possible. Encourage students to examine how or why their responses were incorrect.

Sample while-listening activities


listening with visuals filling in graphs and charts following a route on a map checking off items in a list listening for the gist searching for specific clues to meaning completing cloze (fill-in) exercises distinguishing between formal and informal registers

To ways of Listening Casual Listening Focussed Listening

Example of Focussed Listening


The trainer will read a text about earthquakes. The teacher will discuss the key points that should be indentified from the topic. Listen and write notes in the table. What are earthquakes? How are they caused? How are earthquakes measured? What precautions are to be considered? How can it be prevented?

The Use of Authentic Materials in Teaching Listening Authentic materials can be classified into three categories. 1.Authentic Listening-Viewing Materials: TV commercials, quiz shows, cartoons, news clips, comedy shows, movies, soap operas, professionally audio-taped short stories and novels, radio ads, songs, documentaries, and sales pitches. 2.Authentic Visual Materials: slides, photographs, paintings, children artwork, stick-figure drawings, wordless street signs, silhouettes, pictures from magazine, ink blots, postcard pictures, wordless picture books, stamps, and X-rays. 3.Authentic Printed Materials: newspaper articles, movie advertisements, astrology columns, sports reports, obituary columns, advice columns, lyrics to songs, restaurant menus, street signs, cereal boxes, candy wrappers, tourist information brochures, university catalogs, telephone books, maps, TV guides, comic books, greeting cards, grocery coupons, pins with messages, and bus schedules.

Modern Methods of Teaching Listening Skills


Interpersonal Activities One effective and nonthreatening way for students to develop stronger listening skills is through interpersonal activities, such as mock interviews and storytelling. Assign the students to small groups of two or three, and then give them a particular listening activity to accomplish. For example, you may have one student interview another for a job with a company or for an article in a newspaper. Even a storytelling activity, such as one that answers the question "What was your favorite movie from last year?" can give students the opportunity to ask one another questions and then to practice active listening skills. Group Activities Larger group activities also serve as a helpful method for teaching listening skills to students. You can begin with a simple group activity. For the first part, divide students into groups of five or larger and instruct them to learn one hobby or interest of at least two other group members. Encourage them to ask clarifying questions during the activity, and you may allow them to take notes if helpful. However, as time passes and their skills grow, you should limit students to only writing notes after the completion of the first part of the group activity. For the second part, have the students sit in a large circle, and then have each individual student share the name and the hobby or interest of the group members that she or he met. This second part of the group activity can also lend itself to additional listening exercises. For example, you may ask students to name a number of the hobbies and interests identified during the sharing session. Audio Segments You can also teach listening skills through audio segments of radio programs, online podcasts, instructional lectures and other audio messages. You should model this interactive listening process in class with your students, and then instruct them to repeat the exercise on their own. First, instruct students to prepare for listening by considering anything that they will want to learn from the content of the audio segment. Once they have written down or shared these ideas, then play the audio segment, allowing the students to take notes if helpful. Once they have

gained confidence and experience, repeat this activity but instruct students to not take notes until the completion of the audio segment. You can use shorter or longer audio segments, and you can choose more accessible or more challenging material for this type of exercise. Video Segments Another helpful resource for teaching listening skills are video segments, including short sketches, news programs, documentary films, interview segments, and dramatic and comedic material. As with audio segments, select the portion and length of the video segment based on the skill level of your students. With your students, first watch the segment without any sound and discuss it together. Encourage the students to identify what they think will be the content of the segment. Then, watch the segment again, this time with sound, allowing students to take notes if helpful for their skill level. After the completion of the video segment, you can have students write a brief summary of the segment, or you can take time to discuss as a group how the segment compares with the students' expectations. Instructional Tips Whatever method you use for teaching listening, keep a few key instructional tips in mind that will help both you and your students navigate the learning process. One, keep your expectations simple, as even the most experienced listener would be unable to completely and accurately recall the entirety of a message. Two, keep your directions accessible and build in opportunities for students not only to ask clarifying questions, but also to make mistakes. Three, help students navigate their communication anxiety by developing activities appropriate to their skill and confidence level, and then strengthen their confidence by celebrating the ways in which they do improve, no matter how small.

Lists of 'sub-skills', such as the following :


listening for gist

listening for specific information

listening for detailed understanding

listening for implications

listening as a member of a live audience

listening to audio media