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ADOLESCENCE (11 to 18 years)

Adolescence: from 11 to 18 years: This period initiates the transition to adulthood. Puberty leads to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity. Though becomes abstract and idealistic, and schooling is increasingly directed toward preparation for higher education and the world of work. Young people begin to establish autonomy form the family and define personal values and goals. (Berk, 2013). Language Development: Milestone; masters syllable stress patterns of abstract words; comprehends over 40,000 words, including many abstract terms; understands subtle, nonliteral word meanings, as in sarcasm, irony, and proverbs; continues to refine complex grammatical structures; ability to communicate clearly and in accordance with social expectations in diverse situations improves (Berk, 2013). Delay: Difficulty in performing three or more of the items listed above. Cognitive Development: Milestones: Reasons abstractly in situations that offer many opportunities for hypothetic-deductive reasoning and propositional thought; grasps the logical necessity of propositional thought, permitting reasoning about premises that contradict reality; displays imaginary audience and personal fable, which gradually decline; improves in decisionmaking strategies (Berk, 2013). Delay: Difficulty in performing three or more of the items listed above. Emotional/Social Development: Milestones: As they become more sexually mature, they become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitter; stronger reaction to stressful events and experience pleasurable stimuli more intensively; struggle to manage these powerful influences (Berk, 2013). Delay: failure to control safely unchecked drive for novel experiences. Moral/Self Control Development: Milestones: Continues to gain in moral self-regulation; teacher and peer-reported aggression declines; delinquency rise and then declines (Berk, 2013) Delay: unchecked increase in teacher and peer related aggression. Cultural Impacts: This are consists of cultural values, laws, customs and resources. Countries that require generous workplace benefits for employed parents set high standards for childcare. Children are more likely to favorable experiences in their immediate settings. There are countries and neighborhoods where this is less prevalent. The respective culture may or may not support educational activities for the children (Berk, 2013) Social Impacts: These include the parents workplaces, their religious institutions, and health and welfare services in the community. They can support or hinder development by the availability

of flexible work schedules; paid maternity and paternity leave and sick leave for children who are ill. The existence of informal network can also lend great stability to the learning environment. Families who face unemployment or are isolated socially are more likely to suffer (Berk, 2013). Parental Strategies for Delays or Problems 1. Examine the social and neighbor for any negative circumstances or influences that may be impacting the child in harmful or difficult circumstances. Utilize interventions if necessary to address the difficulties. 2. Have the child examined and evaluated by the Family Physician, education specialists or school psychologist to determine and adopt an appropriate treatment option if necessary.

Berk, L. E. (2013).Child development. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.