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# Decision Science Multiple Choice Questions 1.

The application of OR techniques involves approach a) Individual b) Team c) Critical d) None of the above Answer- : (b) 2. Opportunity loss refers to a) the expected value of a bad decision. b) the expected loss from a bad decision. c) the difference between the actual payoff and the optimal payoff. d) the re ret from not havin made a decision. Answer-:(c) 3. !ll of the followin are steps in the decision"ma#in process \$%C\$&T' a) (efine the problem b) Compute the posterior probabilities c) Identify possible outcomes d) )ist payoffs Answer-:(b) . *hich of the followin is +are, types of decision"ma#in environmentsa) (ecision ma#in under uncertainty b) (ecision ma#in under certainty c) (ecision ma#in under ris#

d) !ll of the above Answer "' +d) !. ! ood decision always implies that we a) will obtain the best final results b) have used appropriate quantitative analysis. c) have followed a lo ical process. d) have based the decision on all available appropriate information. Answer-: (c) have followed a lo ical process. ". *hich of the followin mi ht be viewed as an .optimistic. decision criteriona) /urwic0 criterion b) 1aximin c) 1aximax d) 1inimax Answer-:(c) #. (ecision alternatives a) should be identified before decision criteria are established. b) are limited to quantitative solutions c) are evaluated as a part of the problem definition sta e. d) are best enerated by brain"stormin . Answer-:(a) \$. The equally li#ely decision criterion is also #nown as a) 2ayes3.

b) )aplace. c) minimax. d) /urwic0. Answer-: (b) %. *hich of the followin is a property of all linear pro rammin problemsa) alternate courses of action to choose from b) minimi0ation of some ob4ective c) a computer pro ram d) usa e of raphs in the solution Answer-:(a) 1&. ! point that satisfies all of a problem3s constraints simultaneously is a+n, a) maximum profit point. b) corner point. c) intersection of the profit line and a constraint. d) None of the above Answer-: (d) 11. The first step in formulatin an )& problem is a) 5raph the problem. b) 6nderstand the mana erial problem bein faced. c) Identify the ob4ective and the constraints. d) (efine the decision variables. Answer-:(b) understand the mana erial problem bein faced.

12. )& theory states that the optimal solution to any problem will lie at a) the ori in. b) a corner point of the feasible re ion. c) the hi hest point of the feasible re ion. d) the lowest point in the feasible re ion. Answer-:(b) 13. Consider the followin linear pro rammin problem' 1aximi0e 78% 9 7:; <ub4ect to' =% 9 >; ch? @A =B: 8% 9 >; ch? @A >C: all variables DA : *hich of the followin points +%E;, could be a feasible corner pointa) +=:E=B, b) +78:E:, c) +7B:E78:, d) +>:E>C, Answer-: (b) 1 . 1ana ement science and operations research both involve a) qualitative mana erial s#ills. b) quantitative approaches to decision ma#in . c) operational mana ement s#ills.

d) scientific research as opposed to applications. Answer-: (b) 1!. *hich of the followin does not represent a factor a mana er mi ht consider when employin linear pro rammin for a production schedulin a) labor capacity b) employee s#ill levels c) warehouse limitations d) none of the above Answer-: (d) none of the above 1". The quantitative analysis approach requires a) the mana er3s prior experience with a similar problem. b) a relatively uncomplicated problem. c) mathematical expressions for the relationships. d) each of the above is true. Answer-: (c) 1#. In labor plannin formulationE how would you write the constraint that there are only 7: full" time tellers +labeled as T, availablea) T 9 7: D : b) T D 7: c) T F7: d) !ll of the above are correct ways. Answer-:(c) 1\$. ! type of linear pro rammin problem that is used in mar#etin is called the

a) media selection problem. b) 1adison !venue problem. c) mar#etin allocation problem. d) all of the above Answer-: (a) 1%. The maximi0ation or minimi0ation of a quantity is the a) oal of mana ement science.

b) decision for decision analysis. c) constraint of operations research. d) ob4ective of linear pro rammin . Answer-: (d) ob4ective of linear pro rammin . 2&. (ecision variables a) tell how much or how many of somethin to produceE investE purchaseE hireE etc. b) represent the values of the constraints. c) measure the ob4ective function. d) must exist for each constraint. Answer-: (a) 21. *hich of the followin is a valid ob4ective function for a linear pro rammin problema) 1ax Gxy b) 1in =x 9 >y 9 +8H>,0 c) 1ax Gx89 Cy8 d) 1in +x7 9 x8,Hx>

Answer-: (b) 22. *hich of the followin statements is NOT truea) ! feasible solution satisfies all constraints. b) !n optimal solution satisfies all constraints. c) !n infeasible solution violates all constraints. d) ! feasible solution point does not have to lie on the boundary of the feasible re ion. Answer-: (c) 23. ! solution that satisfies all the constraints of a linear pro rammin problem except the non" ne ativity constraints is called a) optimal. b) feasible. c) infeasible. d) semi"feasible. Answer-: (c) 2 . In convertin a less"than"or"equal constraint for use in a simplex tableE we must add a) a surplus variable. b) a slac# variable. c) an artificial variable. d) both a surplus and a slac# variable. Answer-: (b) 2!. <lac# a) Is the difference between the left and ri ht sides of a constraint. b) Is the amount by which the left side of a F constraint is smaller than the ri ht side.

c) Is the amount by which the left side of a I constraint is lar er than the ri ht side. d) \$xists for each variable in a linear pro rammin problem. Answer-: (b) 2". 6nboundedness is usually a si n that the )& problem a) has finite multiple solutions. b) is de enerate. c) contains too many redundant constraints. d) has been formulated improperly. Answer-: (d)

2#. To find the optimal solution to a linear pro rammin problem usin the raphical method a) find the feasible point that is the farthest away from the ori in. b) find the feasible point that is at the hi hest location. c) find the feasible point that is closest to the ori in. d) None of the alternatives is correct. Answer-: (d) 2\$. *hich of the followin special cases does not require reformulation of the problem in order to obtain a solutiona) alternate optimality b) infeasibility c) unboundedness d) each case requires a reformulation. Answer-: (a)

2%. *henever all the constraints in a linear pro ram are expressed as equalitiesE the linear pro ram is said to be written in a) standard form. b) bounded form. c) feasible form. d) alternative form. Answer-: (a) 3&. In applyin Jo el3s approximation method to a profit maximi0ation problemE row and column penalties are determined by' a) findin the lar est unit cost in each row or column. b) findin the smallest unit cost in each row or column. c) findin the difference between the two lowest unit costs in each row and column. d) findin the difference between the two hi hest unit costs in each row and column. Answer-: (d) 31. The northwest corner rule requires that we start allocatin units to shippin routes in the' a) middle cell. b) )ower ri ht corner of the table. c) 6pper ri ht corner of the table. d) 6pper left"hand corner of the table. Answer-:(d) 32. In a transportation problemE when the number of occupied routes is less than the number of rows plus the number of columns "7E we say that the solution is' a) 6nbalanced.

b) (e enerate. c) Infeasible. d) Optimal. Answer-: (c) 33. The only restriction can be placed on the initial solution of a transportation problem is that' a) must have non0ero quantities in a ma4ority of the boxes. b) all constraints must be satisfied. c) demand must equal supply. d) must have a number +equal to the number of rows plus the number of columns minus one, of boxes which contain non0ero quantities. Answer-: (b) 3 . The table

represents a solution that is' a) an initial solution. b) Infeasible. c) de enerate. d) all of the above

Answer-: (c) 3!. *hich of the followin is used to come up with a solution to the assi nment problema) 1O(I method b) northwest corner method c) steppin "stone method d) /un arian method Answer-: (d) 3". The raph that plots the utility value versus monetary value is called' a) utility curve. b) decision tree raph. c) )aplace curve. d) benefit curve. Answer-:(a) 3#. *hat is wron with the followin table-

## a) The solution is infeasible. b) The solution is de enerate. c) The solution is unbounded.

d) Nothin is wron . Answer-: (a) 3\$. The solution presented in the followin table is

## a) infeasible b) de enerate c) unbounded d) Optimal Answer-:(d) 3%. The solution shown

was obtained by Jo el3s approximation. The difference between the ob4ective function for this solution and that for the optimal is a) =: b) C: c) B: d) 7:: Answer-: (c) &. *hich method usually ives a very ood solution to the assi nment problema) northwest corner rule b) Jo el3s approximation method c) 1O(I method d) steppin "stone method Answer-:(b) 1. Infeasibility means that the number of solutions to the linear pro rammin models that satisfies all constraints is a) at least 7. b) :. c) an infinite number. d) at least 8. Answer-: (b) 2. The steppin "stone method requires that one or more artificially occupied cells with a flow of 0ero be created in the transportation tableau when the number of occupied cells is fewer than a) m 9 n K 8

b) m 9 n K 7 c) m 9 n d) m 9 n 9 7 Answer-: (b) 3. The per"unit chan e in the ob4ective function associated with assi nin flow to an unused arc in the transportation simplex method is called the a) net evaluation index. b) de enerate value. c) opportunity loss. d) simplex multiplier. Answer-: (a) . The difference between the transportation and assi nment problems is that a) total supply must equal total demand in the transportation problem b) the number of ori ins must equal the number of destinations in the transportation problem c) each supply and demand value is 7 in the assi nment problem d) there are many differences between the transportation and assi nment problems Answer-: (c) !. !n example of a heuristic is the a) minimum"cost method. b) steppin "stone method. c) /un arian method. d) 1O(I method.

Answer-: (a) ". ! solution to a transportation problem that has less than m 9 n K 7 cells with positive allocations in the transportation table is a) an optimal solution. b) an initial feasible solution. c) a minimum"cost solution. d) a de enerate solution. Answer-:(d) #. 6sin the transportation simplex methodE the optimal solution to the transportation problem has been found when a) there is a shipment in every cell. b) more than one steppin "stone path is available. c) there is a tie for out oin cell. d) the net evaluation index for each unoccupied cell is I :. Answer-: (d) \$. Identifyin the out oin arc in &hase II of the transportation simplex method is performed usin the a) minimum cost method. b) 1O(I method. c) steppin "stone method. d) matrix reduction method. Answer-: (c) %. To use the transportation simplex methodE a transportation problem that is unbalanced requires the use of

a) artificial variables. b) one or more transshipment nodes. c) a dummy ori in or destination. d) matrix reduction. Answer-: (c) a dummy ori in or destination. !&. The problem which deals with the distribution of oods from several sources to several destinations is the a) maximal flow problem b) transportation problem c) assi nment problem d) shortest"route problem Answer-: (b) !1. The parts of a networ# that represent the ori ins are a) the capacities b) the flows c) the nodes d) the arcs Answer-: (c) !2. The optimal solution is found in an assi nment matrix when the minimum number of strai ht lines needed to cover all the 0eros equals a) +the number of a ents, K 7. b) +the number of a ents,. c) +the number of a ents, 9 7.

d) +the number of a ents, 9 +the number of tas#s,. Answer-: (b) !3. The ob4ective of the transportation problem is to a) identify one ori in that can satisfy total demand at the destinations and at the same time minimi0e total shippin cost. b) minimi0e the number of ori ins used to satisfy total demand at the destinations. c) minimi0e the number of shipments necessary to satisfy total demand at the destinations. d) minimi0e the cost of shippin products from several ori ins to several destinations. Answer-: (d) ! . The 1O(I method is used to a) identify an out oin arc. b) identify an incomin arc. c) identify unoccupied cells. d) identify an initial feasible solution. Answer-:(b) !!. *hich of the followin is not true re ardin the linear pro rammin formulation of a transportation problema) Costs appear only in the ob4ective function. b) The number of variables is +number of ori ins, L +number of destinations,. c) The number of constraints is +number of ori ins, L +number of destinations,. d) The constraints3 left"hand side coefficients are either : or 7. Answer-: (c) !". In the eneral linear pro rammin model of the assi nment problemE

a) one a ent can do parts of several tas#s. b) one tas# can be done by several a ents. c) each a ent is assi ned to its own best tas#. d) one a ent is assi ned to one and only one tas#. Answer-: (d) !#. *hich of the followin is not true re ardin an )& model of the assi nment problem- M a) Costs appear in the ob4ective function only. b) !ll constraints are of the I form. c) !ll constraint left"hand side coefficient values are 7. d) !ll decision variable values are either : or 7. Answer-: (b) !\$. The assi nment problem constraint x>7 9 x>8 9 x>> 9 x>= F 8 means a) a ent > can be assi ned to 8 tas#s. b) a ent 8 can be assi ned to > tas#s. c) a mixture of a ents 7E 8E >E and = will be assi ned to tas#s. d) there is no feasible solution. Answer-: (a) !%. The assi nment problem is a special case of the a) transportation problem. b) transshipment problem. c) maximal flow problem. d) shortest"route problem.

Answer-: (a) "&. The field of mana ement science a) concentrates on the use of quantitative methods to assist in decision ma#in . b) approaches decision ma#in rationallyE with techniques based on the scientific method. c) is another name for decision science and for operations research. d) each of the above is true. Answer-: (d)

"1. Identification and definition of a problem a) cannot be done until alternatives are proposed. b) is the first step of decision ma#in . c) is the final step of problem solvin . d) requires consideration of multiple criteria. Answer-: (b) "2. The quantitative analysis approach requires a) the mana erNs prior experience with a similar problem. b) a relatively uncomplicated problem. c) mathematical expressions for the relationships. d) each of the above is true. Answer-: (c) "3. !rcs in a transshipment problem a) must connect every node to a transshipment node. b) represent the cost of shipments. c) indicate the direction of the flow. d) !ll of the alternatives are correct.

Answer-: (c) " . ! physical model that does not have the same physical appearance as the ob4ect bein modeled is a) an analo model. b) an iconic model. c) a mathematical model. d) a qualitative model. Answer-: (a)

"!. 1ana ement science and operations research both involve a) qualitative mana erial s#ills. b) quantitative approaches to decision ma#in . c) operational mana ement s#ills. d) scientific research as opposed to applications. Answer-: (b) "". 5eor e (ant0i is important in the history of mana ement science because he developed a) the scientific mana ement revolution. b) *orld *ar II operations research teams. c) the simplex method for linear pro rammin . d) powerful di ital computers. Answer-: (c) "#. ! model that uses a system of symbols to represent a problem is called a) mathematical. b) iconic. c) analo . d) constrained. Answer-: (a)

"\$. The number of units shipped from ori in i to destination 4 is represented by a) xi4. b) x4i. c) ci4. d) c4i. Answer- a) "%. *hich of the followin special cases does not require reformulation of the problem in order to obtain a solutiona) alternate optimality b) infeasibility c) unboundedness d) each case requires a reformulation. Answer-: (a) #&. The ran e of feasibility measures a) the ri ht"hand"side values for which the ob4ective function value will not chan e. b) the ri ht"hand"side values for which the values of the decision variables will not chan e. c) the ri ht"hand"side values for which the dual prices will not chan e. d) each of the above is true. Answer-: (c)

#1. The amount that the ob4ective function coefficient of a decision variable would have to improve before that variable would have a positive value in the solution is the a) dual price. b) surplus variable. c) reduced cost.

d) upper limit. Answer-: (c) #2. The values in the c 4 " 0 4 E or net evaluationE row indicate a) the value of the ob4ective function. b) the decrease in value of the ob4ective function that will result if one unit of the variable correspondin to the 4th column of the ! matrix is brou ht into the basis. c) the net chan e in the value of the ob4ective function that will result if one unit of the variable correspondin to the 4th column of the ! matrix is brou ht into the basis. d) the values of the decision variables. Answer- : (c ) #3. In the simplex methodE a tableau is optimal only if all the c4 O 04 values are a) 0ero or ne ative. b) 0ero. c) ne ative and non0ero. d) positive and non0ero. Answer- : (a ) # . Por the basic feasible solution to remain optimal a) all c4 " 04 values must remain :. b) no ob4ective function coefficients are allowed to chan e. c) the value of the ob4ective function must not chan e. d) each of the above is true. Answer- : (a )

## #!. The dual variable represents

a) the mar inal value of the constraint b) the ri ht"hand"side value of the constraint c) the artificial variable d) the technical coefficient of the constraint Answer- : (a ) #". The parts of a networ# that represent the ori ins are a) the axes b) the flow c) the nodes d) the arrows Answer- : (c ) ##. The number of units shipped from ori in i to destination 4 is represented by a)

xi4.

## b) x4i. c) ci4. d) c4i.

Answer- : (a ) #\$. <lac# a) is the difference between the left and ri ht sides of a constraint. b) is the amount by which the left side of a @ constraint is smaller than the ri ht side. c) is the amount by which the left side of a D constraint is lar er than the ri ht side. d) exists for each variable in a linear pro rammin problem. Answer-: (b) #%. The difference between the transportation and assi nment problems is that a) total supply must equal total demand in the transportation problem b) the number of ori ins must equal the number of destinations in the transportation problem

c) each supply and demand value is 7 in the assi nment problem d) there are many differences between the transportation and assi nment problems Answer- : (c )

\$&. The critical path a) is any path that oes from the startin node to the completion node. b) is a combination of all paths. c) is the shortest path. d) is the lon est path. Answer- : (d ) \$1. Operations research analysts do not a) &redict future operations b) 2uild more than one model c) Collect relevant data d) Recommend decision and accept Answer- : (a ) \$2. (ecision variables are a) Controllable b) 6ncontrollable c) &arameters d) None of the above Answer- : (a ) \$3. ! model is a) !n essence of reality b) !n approximation c) !n ideali0ationN d) !ll of the above

Answer- :(d ) \$ . ! physical model is an example of a) !n iconic model b) !n analo ue model c) ! verbal model d) ! mathematical model Answer- : (a )

\$!. \$very mathematical model a) 1ust be deterministic b) Requires computer aid for solution. c) Represents data in numerical form d) !ll of the above Answer- : (c ) \$". Operations research approach is a) 1ulti disciplinary b) <cientific c) Intuitive d) !ll of the above Answer- : (a ) \$#. In an assi nment problemE a) one a ent can do parts of several tas#s. b) one tas# can be done by several a ents. c) each a ent is assi ned to its own best tas#. d) None of the alternatives is correct. Answer- : (d )

\$\$. !n optimi0ation model a) 1athematically provides best decision b) &rovides decision with limited context c) /elps in evaluatin various alternatives constantly d) !ll of the above Answer- : (d )

\$%. Operations research is applied a) 1ilitary b) 2usiness c) !dministrationN d) !ll of the above Answer- : (d ) %&. Operations Research techniques helps to find ..solution a, Peasible b, Non feasible c, Optimal d, Non optimal Answer- : (c ) %1. OR provides solution only if the elements are a) Quantified b) Qualified c) Peasible d) Optimal Answer- : (a )

%2. . Theory is an important operations research technique to analy0e the queuin behaviour. a) *aitin line b) Net wor# c) (ecision d) <imulation Answer- : (a ) %3. model involves all forms of dia rams a) iconic b) mathematical c) analo ue d) schematic Answer- : (a ) % . . . Is #nown as symbolic model a) Iconic b) 1athematical c) !nalo ue d) None of the above Answer- : (b ) %!. ! map indicates roadsE hi hwaysE towns and the interrelationship is an model a) Iconic b) mathematical c) analo ue d) none of the above Answer- : (c ) %". Constraints in an )& model represent a) )imitations

b) Requirements c) 2alancin limitation d) all of the above Answer- : (d ) %#. )inear pro rammin is a a) Constraint optimi0ation technique b) Technique for economic allocation of limited resources. c) 1athematical technique d) all of the above Answer- : (d ) %\$. ! constraint in an )& model restricts a) Jalue of ob4ective function b) Jalue of decision variable c) 6se of available resource d) all of the above Answer- : (d ) %%. .. is an important Operations research technique to be used for determinin optimal allocation of limited resources to meet the iven ob4ectives. a) *aitin line theory b) Net wor# analysis c) (ecision analysis d) )inear pro rammin Answer- : (d ) 1&&. The best use of linear pro rammin technique is to find an optimal use of

## d) all of the above Answer- : (d )

1&1.

5iven the followin table that presents the solution for a queuin problem with a

constant service rateE on the avera eE how many customers are in the system-

a) :.BR> b) :.?7= c) 7.C:? d) :.>?G Answer-: (c) 1&2. 5iven the followin table that presents the solution for a queuin problem with a

constant service rateE on the avera eE how many minutes does a customer spend in the service facility-

a) :.BR> minutes b) :.>87 minutes c) :.?7= minutes d) 7.C:? minutes Answer-: (b) 1&3. 5iven the followin table that presents the solution for a queuin problem with a

constant service rateE what percenta e of available service time is actually used-

a) :.87? b) :.C=> c) :.>87 d) none of the above Answer-: (d) 1& . *hich of the followin is usually the most difficult cost to determine-

## a) service cost b) facility cost c) callin cost d) waitin cost

1&!.

5iven the followin table that presents the solution for a queuin problem with a

## constant service rateE the probability that the server is idle is

e) :.87? ') :.C=> () :.8BC h) :.?7= Answer-: (c) 1&". 1ar#ov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by

a) usin 2ayes3 theorem. b) analy0in presently #nown probabilities. c) time series forecastin . d) the maximal flow technique. Answer-: (b)

1&#. i) ))

(ecision ma#ers in queuin situations attempt to balance operatin characteristics a ainst the arrival rate. service levels a ainst service cost.

*) the number of units in the system a ainst the time in the system. l) the service rate a ainst the arrival rate.

Answer-: (b) 1&\$. The manner in which units receive their serviceE such as PCP<E is the +) queue discipline. n) channel. o) steady state. p) operatin characteristic. Answer-: (a) 1&%. *hat queue discipline is assumed by the waitin line models presented in the textboo#-

,) first"come first"served. r) last"in first"out. s) shortest processin time first. t) No discipline is assumed. Answer-: (a) 11&. In 1ar#ov analysisE we are concerned with the probability that the

u) state is part of a system. -) system is in a particular state at a iven time. w) time has reached a steady state.

.) transition will occur. Answer-: (b) 111. Por a situation with wee#ly dinin at either an Italian or 1exican restaurantE

a) the wee#ly visit is the trial and the restaurant is the state. b) the wee#ly visit is the state and the restaurant is the trial. c) the wee#ly visit is the trend and the restaurant is the transition. d) the wee#ly visit is the transition and the restaurant is the trend. Answer-: (a) 112. ! transition probability describes

a) the probability of a success in repeatedE independent trials. b) the probability a system in a particular state now will be in a specific state next period. c) the probability of reachin an absorbin state. d) None of the alternatives is correct. Answer-: (b)

113.

&erformance measures dealin with the number of units in line and the time spent

waitin are called /) queuin facts. 0) performance queues. aa) system measures. bb) operatin characteristic. Answer-: (d) 11 . The probability of oin from state 7 in period 8 to state = in period > is

a) p78 b) p8> c) p7= d) p=> Answer-: (c) 11!. The probability that a system is in a particular state after a lar e number of periods is

a) independent of the be innin state of the system. b) dependent on the be innin state of the system. c) equal to one half. d) the same for every endin system. Answer-: (a) 11". !nalysis of a 1ar#ov process

a) describes future behavior of the system. b) optimi0es the system. c) leads to hi her order decision ma#in . d) !ll of the alternatives are true. Answer-: (a) 11#. If the probability of ma#in a transition from a state is :E then that state is called a+n,

a) steady state. b) final state. c) ori in state. d) absorbin state. Answer-: d, absorbin state.

11\$.

## !bsorbin state probabilities are the same as

a) steady state probabilities. b) transition probabilities. c) fundamental probabilities. d) None of the alternatives is true. Answer-: (d) 11%. 1ar#ov analysis mi ht be effectively used for

a) technolo y transfer studies. b) university retention analysis. c) accounts receivable analysis. d) all of the above Answer-: (d) 12&. The followin is not an assumption of 1ar#ov analysis.

a) There is an infinite number of possible states. b) The probability of chan in states remains the same over time. c) +a, and +d, d) *e can predict any future state from the previous state and the matrix of transition probabilities. Answer-:(c) 121. The total cost for a waitin line does NOT specifically depend on

cc) the cost of waitin . dd) the cost of service. ee) the number of units in the system.

'')

122.

## 1ar#ov analysis assumes that conditions are both

a) complementary and collectively exhaustive. b) collectively dependent and complementary. c) collectively dependent and mutually exclusive. d) collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Answer-: (d) 123. OccasionallyE a state is entered which will not allow oin to another state in the future.

This is called a) an equilibrium state. b) stable mobility. c) mar#et saturation. d) none of the above Answer-: (d) 12 . 1ar#ov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by

e) usin 2ayes3 theorem. ') analy0in presently #nown probabilities. () time series forecastin . h) the maximal flow technique. Answer-: (b)

12!.

In 1ar#ov analysisE the li#elihood that any system will chan e from one period to the

next is revealed by the a) identity matrix. b) transition"elasticities. c) matrix of state probabilities. d) matrix of transition probabilities. Answer-: (d) 12". The condition that a system can be in only one state at any point in time is #nown as

a) Transient state. b) !bsorbent condition. c) 1utually exclusive condition. d) Collectively exhaustive condition. Answer-:(c) 12#. !t any period nE the state probabilities for the next period n97 is iven by the followin

formula' a) n+n97,An+n,&n b) n+n97,An+:,& c) n+n97,A+n97,& d) n+n97,An+n,& Answer-: (d) n+n97,An+n,& 12\$. If we decide to use 1ar#ov analysis to study the transfer of technolo yE

## a) our study will be methodolo ically flawed.

b) our study will have only limited value because the 1ar#ov analysis tells us .what. will happenE but not .why.. c) we can only study the transitions amon three different technolo ies. d) only constant chan es in the matrix of transition probabilities can be handled in the simple model. Answer-: (b)

12%.

The followin data consists of a matrix of transition probabilities +&, of three competin

companiesE the initial mar#et share state 7CS7:. if+7,E and the equilibrium probability states. !ssume that each state represents a firm +Company 7E Company 8E and Company >E respectively, and the transition probabilities represent chan es from one month to the next.

The mar#et share of Company 7 in the next period is a) :.7: b) :.8: c) :.=8 d) :.=? Answer-: (d) 13&. 1ar#ov analysis assumes that the states are both SSSSSSSSSS and SSSSSSSSSS.

## d) collectively exhaustiveE mutually exclusive

Answer-: (d) 131. ! simulation model uses the mathematical expressions and lo ical relationships of the

(() real system. hh) computer model. ii) performance measures. ))) estimated inferences. Answer-: (a) 132. The SSSSSSSS determine+s, the equilibrium of a 1ar#ov process.

a) ori inal state probabilities b) state vector c) transition matrix d) fundamental matrix P Answer-: (c) 133. Jalues for the probabilistic inputs to a simulation

a) are selected by the decision ma#er. b) are controlled by the decision ma#er. c) are randomly enerated based on historical information. d) are calculated by fixed mathematical formulas. Answer-: (c) 13 . ! quantity that is difficult to measure with certainty is called a

## a) ris# analysis. b) pro4ect determinant. c) probabilistic input.

d) profitHloss process. Answer-: (c) 13!. ! value for probabilistic input from a discrete probability distribution

a) is the value iven by the R!N(+, function. b) is iven by matchin the probabilistic input with an interval of random numbers. c) is between : and 7. d) must be non"ne ative. Answer-: (b) 13". The number of units expected to be sold is uniformly distributed between >:: and G::. If

r is a random number between : and 7E then the proper expression for sales is a) 8::+r, b) r 9 >:: c) >:: 9 G::+r, d) >:: 9 r+8::, Answer-: (d) 13#. Common features of simulations"" eneratin values from probability distributionsE

maintainin recordsE recordin data and summari0in results""led to the development of a) \$xcel and )otus. b) 2!<ICE PORTR!NE &!<C!)E and C. c) 5&<<E <I1<CRI&TE <)!1E and !rena d) )IN(O and The 1ana ement <cientist Answer-: (c) 13\$. In order to verify a simulation model

## a) compare results from several simulation lan ua es.

b) be sure that the procedures for calculations are lo ically correct. c) confirm that the model accurately represents the real system. d) run the model lon enou h to overcome initial start"up results. Answer-:( b) Si+ulation 7. <imulation a) does not uarantee optimality. b) is flexible and does not require the assumptions of theoretical models. c) allows testin of the system without affectin the real system. d) !ll of the alternatives are correct. Answer-: d) !ll of the alternatives are correct. 2. ! simulation model used in situations where the state of the system at one point in time does not affect the state of the system at future points in time is called a a) dynamic simulation model. b) static simulation model. c) steady"state simulation model. d) discrete"event simulation model. Answer-: b) static simulation model. 3. *hen events occur at discrete points in time a) a simulation cloc# is required. b) the simulation advances to the next event. c) the model is a discrete"event simulation. d) !ll of the alternatives are correct.

Answer-: d) !ll of the alternatives are correct. . The process of determinin that the computer procedure that performs the simulation

calculations is lo ically correct is called a) implementation. b) validation. c) verification. d) repetition. Answer-: c) verification. !. Numerical values that appear in the mathematical relationships of a model and are considered #nown and remain constant over all trials of a simulation are a) parameters. b) probabilistic input. c) controllable input. d) events. Answer-: a) parameters. ". The word .uniform. in the term .uniform random numbers. means a) all the numbers have the same number of di its. b) if one number isE sayE 7: units above the meanE the next number will be 7: units below the mean. c) all the numbers are odd or all are even. d) each number has an equal probability of bein drawn. Answer-: d) each number has an equal probability of bein drawn. #. The first step in simulation is to

a) set up possible courses of action for testin . b) construct a numerical model. c) validate the model. d) define the problem. Answer-: d) define the problem. \$. *hich of the followin are disadvanta es of simulationa) inability to analy0e lar e and complex real"world situations b) .time compression. capability c) could be disruptive by interferin with the real"world system d) is not usually easily transferable to other problems Answer-: d) is not usually easily transferable to other problems %. Cumulative probabilities are found by a) summin all the probabilities associated with a variable. b) simulatin the initial probability distribution. c) summin all the previous probabilities up to the current value of the variable. d) any method one chooses. Answer-: c) summin all the previous probabilities up to the current value of the variable. 1&. *hich of the followin statements is INCORR\$CT re ardin the advanta es of simulationa) <imulation is relatively easy to explain and understand. b) <imulation uarantees an optimal solution. c) <imulation models are flexible. d) ! simulation model provides a convenient experimental laboratory for the real system.

Answer-: b) <imulation uarantees an optimal solution. 11. If we are oin to simulate an inventory problemE we must a) Run the simulation for many days. b) Run the simulation for many days many timesE i.e.E usin numbers. c) Run the simulation many timesE i.e.E usin multiple sets of random numbers. d) Run the simulation onceE for a relative short period of time. Answer-: b) run the simulation for many days many timesE i.e.E usin multiple sets of random numbers. 12. <imulation should be thou ht of as a technique for a) obtainin a relatively inexpensive solution to a problem. b) increasin one3s understandin of a problem. c) obtainin an optimal solution to a problem. d) providin quic# and dirty answers to complex problems. Answer-: b) increasin one3s understandin of a problem. 13. In assi nin random numbers in a 1onte Carlo simulationE it is important to SSSSSSSS. a) develop cumulative probability distributions b) use random numbers from a random number table c) use only a sin le set of random numbers d) use \$xcel spreadsheets Answer-:a) develop cumulative probability distributions 1 . To simulate is to try to SSSSSSSSSS the featuresE appearanceE and characteristics of a real system. multiple sets of random

a) (evelop b) !naly0e c) 1ultiply d) (uplicate Answer-:d) (uplicate 1!. The three types of mathematical simulation models are a) operational amin E 1onte CarloE systems simulation b) 1onte CarloE queuin E maintenance policy. c) 1onte CarloE systems simulationE computer amin . d) system simulationE operational amin E weather forecastin . Answer-: a) operational amin E 1onte CarloE systems simulation 1". *hich of the followin as an assumption of an )& model a) (ivisibility b) &roportionality c) !dditively d) all of the above Answer- : d ) 1#. 1ost of the constraints in the linear pro rammin problem are expressed as . a) \$quality b) Inequality c) 6ncertain d) all of the above Answer- : b ) 1\$. ! feasible solution to a linear pro rammin problem

a) 1ust satisfy all problem constraints simultaneously b) Need not satisfy all constraints c) 1ust be a corner point of the feasible re ion d) 1ust optimi0e the value of the ob4ective function Answer- : a ) 1%. *hile plottin constraints on a raph paperE terminal points on both axes are connected by a strai ht line because a) The resources are limited in supply b) The ob4ective function is a linear function c) The constraints are linear equations or in equalities d) all of the above Answer- : c ) 2&. Constraints in )& problem are called active if they a) Represent optimal solution b) !t optimality do not consume all the available resources c) 2oth of +a, and +b, d) None of the above Answer- : a ) 21. The solution space of a )& problem is unbounded due to a) !n incorrect formulation of the )& model b) Ob4ective function is unbounded c) Neither +a, nor +b, d) 2oth +a, and +b, Answer- : c ) 22. The raphical method of )& problem uses a) Ob4ective function equation

b) Constraint equation c) )inear equations d) !ll the above Answer- : d ) 23. *hile solvin )& problem raphicallyE the area bounded by the constraints is called a) Peasible re ion b) Infeasible re ion c) 6nbounded solution d) None of the above Answer- : a ) 2 . *hich of the followin is not a cate ory of linear pro rammin problemsa) Resource allocation problem b) Cost benefit trade off problem c) (istribution networ# problem d) !ll of the above are cate ories of linear pro rammin problems. Answer- : d ) 2!. *hich of the followin may not be in a linear pro rammin formulationa) @A. b) D. c) A.

d) !ll the above Answer- : b ) 2". *hile solvin an )& problem infeasibility may be removed by a) !ddin another constraint b) !ddin another variable c) Removin a constraint

d) Removin a variable Answer- : c ) 2#. ! linear pro rammin model does not contain which of the followin componentsa) (ata b) (ecisions c) Constraints d) ! spread sheet Answer- : d ) 2\$. <trai ht lines shown in a linear pro rammin a) Ob4ective function b) Constraints c) &oints d) !ll the above Answer- : b ) 2%. In linear pro rammin problem if all constraints are less than or equal toE then the feasible re ion is a) !bove lines b) 2elow the lines c) 6nbounded d) None of the above Answer- : b ) 3&. . is a series of related activities which result in some product or services. a) Networ# b) transportation model c) assi nment d) none of these raph indicates

Answer- : a ) 31. !ny activity which does not consume either any resource or time is called ..activity. a) &redecessor b) <uccessor c) (ummy d) \$nd Answer- : c ) 32. !ll ne ative constraints must be written as a) \$quality b) Non equality c) 5reater than or equal to d) )ess than or equal to Answer- : c ) 33. !ctivities that cannot be started until one or more of the other activities are completedE but immediately succeed them are called activities a, &redecessor b, <uccessor c, (ummy d, \$nd Answer- : b ) 3 . !n event which represents the be innin of more than one activity is #nown as ..event. a) 1er e b) Net c) 2urst

d) None of the above Answer- : c ) 3!. If two constraints do not intersect in the positive quadrant of the raphE then a) The problem is infeasible b) The solution is unbounded c) One of the constraints is redundant d) None of the above Answer- : d ) 3". !n activity which must be completed before one or more other activities start is #nown as .activity. a) &redecessor b) <uccessor c) (ummy d) \$nd Answer- : a ) 3#. Constraint in )& problem are called active if they a) Represent optimal solution b) !t optimality do not consume all the available resources c) 2oth of +a, and +b, d) None of the above Answer- : a ) 3\$. *hile solvin an )& problemE infeasibility may be removed by a) !ddin another constraint b) !ddin another variable c) Removin a constraint d) Removin a variable

Answer- : c ) 3%. ...is that sequence of activities which determines the total pro4ect time. a) Net wor# b) Critical path c) Critical activities d) None of the above Answer- : b ) &. !ctivities lyin on the critical path are called. a) Net wor# b) Critical path c) Critical activities d) None of the above Answer- : c ) 1. ..models in which the input and output variables follow a probability distribution. a) Iconic b) mathematical c) analo ue d) (eterministic model Answer- : d ) 2. . \$xample of probabilistic model a) 5ame theory b) Charts c) 5raphs d) !ll the above Answer- : a ) 3. !lternative solutions exists of an )& model when

a) One of the constraints is redundant. b) Ob4ective function equation is parallel to one of the constraints c) Two constraints are parallel. d) all of the above Answer- : b ) . . ..is a method of analy0in the current movement of the same variable in an effort to predict the future movement of the same variable. a) 5oal pro rammin b) 1ar#ov analysis c) Replacement theory d) Queuin theory Answer- : b )