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Quantities and units

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Electrical Charge Current Voltage Resistance Power Energy

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Electrical Charge
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DEFINITION OF ELECTRICAL CHARGE Electrical charge is created when proton and electron charges are separated
QUANTITY ELECTRICAL CHARGE SYMBOL UNIT

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COULOMB, C

Electrical Charge
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Electron
-

+ Proton
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o Neutron
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Nucleus

o +

Orbit

Basic structure of atom

Electrical Charge
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Formula

Q=Ixt I

Q
t

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WHERE
Q t I CHARGE TIME IN SECOND CURRENT IN AMPERE

Current
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Current ( I ) flows on a wire or conductor like water flowing down a river. Current flows from points of high voltage to points of low voltage on the surface of a conductor.

Current
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Current is the rate of movement of charges from one point to another at a particular time. Symbol current is I and measured in a unit call ampere (A).

S I Load

Direct current circuit

Voltage
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DEFINITION Voltage is a potential energy that makes current flow in the circuit.

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QUANTITY

SYMBOL

UNIT

VOLTAGE

Volt, V

Resistance
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Definition of resistance. Resistance is a quantity that limits the flow of current in a circuit. Resistance determines how much current will flow through a component. Resistors are used to control voltage and current levels. A very high resistance allows a small amount of current to flow. A very low resistance allows a large amount of current to flow. Resistance is measured in ohms.

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QUANTITY RESISTANCE

SYMBOL R

UNIT Ohm

Power
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Definition of power.
Power is the rate at which energy is used and measured in watts (W).

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QUANTITY POWER

SYMBOL P

UNIT Watt, W

Energy
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Definition of energy. Energy is capability to do work at a particular time. Energy is measured in joule (J). QUANTITY ENERGY SYMBOL W UNIT Joule, J

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Relationship between power and energy


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Formula P W P t

W t

Energy doing work Power Time

Summary
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Mind map of Electrical Quantities


COULOMB / C CHARGE

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JOULE / J
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WD = Q x v

Q = IT AMPERE / A

ENERGY

ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES
JOULE / J ENERGY ENERGY P=IxV, I2xR, v2/R RESISTANCE V=IxR R = V/I OHM /

CURRENT I = Q/T

VOLT / V