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Wilson 1 Rhiannon Wilson Megan Keaton ENC1102.31 25 February 2014 Annotated Bibliography Steele, Kenneth M., Karen E.

Bass, and Melissa D. Crook. "The Mystery of the Mozart Effect: Failure to Replicate." Psychological Science 10.4 (1999): 366-9. JSTOR. Web. 21 Feb. 2014. Listening to classical music as one studies, supposedly increases spatial reasoning; it is called the Mozart Effect. During the original experiment, Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky proclaimed that many of their test subjects scored more IQ points after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major. However, it was proclaimed a temporary effect. Unfortunately, many laboratories have been unable to produce the same positive results that were found during the original experiment in 1993. During one replication of Rauscher's experiment, there was no evidence of the Mozart effect. There was, however, a change in mood scores. Subjects who listened to Mozart tended to be happier than those who were assigned the repetitive tracks from Glass. Overall, the Mozart effect has not been proven to increase IQ. It appears to be unrealistic to assume that listening to music for short period of time can raise intelligence more than a fraction. In this article, the authors make their findings with the information they derived from the experiment they completed. They use precise numbers and compare them to the original data. Also, they mentioned that the different in the three Stanford-Binet tests could account from the contrasting results in some replicated experiments, but not others. The authors should've

Wilson 2 elaborated more on the spatial reasoning aspect of it all. They spent much of the article detailing the experiments, instead of elaborating on what spatial-reasoning is. As in a few of my other sources, the authors claim that the Mozart effect is bogus, and cannot be proven. This particular source provides more evidence to that statement by explaining their replication of the original experiment, and the different results that were produced. Unlike some of the other sources, this article is adamant about the falsity of the Mozart effect. In other sources, it is suggested that classical music could assist in spatial-reasoning.

We conclude that there is little evidence to support basing intellectual intervention programs on the existence of the Mozart effect.

The experiment was designed to be a faithful replication of the central conditions of the Rauscher et al. (1995) experiment.

The main result was that no significant Mozart effect was found despite replication of the procedure used by Rauscher et al. (1995). There is a large discrepancy between the results of the two studies.

Wilson 3 Jenkins JS. The Mozart effect. J R Soc Med 94 (4) (Apr. 2001): 170-172. Web. 23 Feb. 2014. In 1993, Rauscher claimed that listening to Mozart's sonata enhances test scores, because it boosts a person's spatial reasoning skills. His rat experiments produced positive results, as the rats exposed to Mozart's music completed the maze more quickly than their unexposed companions. Rauscher explained that the area of the brain responsible for spatial temporal tasks are the same parts that process music. These findings suggest that music activates these regions of the brain, enhancing spatial reasoning. Related studies featuring children have been done to test long-term effects. Children who were taught the piano achieved higher scores than those who were taught computer lessons. The Mozart effect is also said to positively affect epilepsy. Overall, many experiments have received different results. The Mozart effect does not affect intelligence, only spatial-temporal reasoning performance. The author presents some scientific evidence but hardly any specific data, such as numerical values. Convincingly, he mentions different parts of the brain, and explains their function and the relation to music. The author succeeded at making the article easy to follow, and understand. It's not as if one needs a Ph.D. on the subject to decipher his message. At the same time, however, providing more scientific data in the article would make it's accuracy more convincing. Perhaps he could elaborate on the experiments mentioned throughout the text, and provide more of the results from said experiments. Jenkins, the author of this particular article, disagrees with the other secondary sources on the subject. The majority of resources explain the falsity of the original experiment's findings, and many scientists' inability to recreate it. However, Jenkins does conclude that the Mozart effect, if it exists, is only temporary, and that positive results have not been produced in all related experiments.

Wilson 4 It is suggested, therefore, that listening to music would prime the activation of those areas of the brain which are concerned with spatial reasoning. The longer duration of the effects than in previous reports was attributed to the length of exposure to music and the greater plasticity of the young brain. The effect varies between individuals and depends upon the spatial tasks chosen; general intelligence is not affected.

Wilson 5 Goldenberg, Matthew A., Anna H. L. Floyd, and Anne Moyer. "No Effect of a Brief Music Intervention on Test Anxiety and Exam Scores in College Undergraduates." Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis 10.1 (2013): 1-16. JSTOR. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.

An experiment was done to test the effect of music on a college student's exam, and it yield positive results. The instructors had students listen to Mozart while studying/taking the exam, study/take the exam without music, and choose between the two choices. Test anxiety is commonly seen throughout academia, preventing some students from testing high, even though they understand the material. Playing music before the exam has been shown to relieve some of that test anxiety. Rauscher's, Shaw's, and Ky's original experiment in '93 introduced the Mozart effect: the idea that classical music enhances spatial temporal ability. However, scientists have frequently been unable to replicate this test. In this experiment, the author hypothesized that students who listened to classical music while studying or taking an exam would have lower test anxiety, and produce higher scores. Unfortunately, the hypothesis was incorrect; results showed that students who chose the music had lower scores. There are, however, factors that could've limited the music's possible ability to help. For example, few kids attended the study session, thus limiting the amount of music they were exposed to. Also, since many people were unused to listening to music while studying, it could have distracted them rather than have helped them focus. The author does an adequate job proving his point with the use of hard data. This data also makes him seem more convincing because it is often easier to believe in something when given possible evidence, especially statistics. A positive aspect of this article lies within the counterargument to his conclusions. Yes, the test yielded negative results, but there are many

Wilson 6 factors that could've limited the outcome, and it is good to point that out instead of dismissing the idea completely. It is nearly impossible for one test to prove or disprove a hypothesis. The author both agrees and disagrees with other authors. For example, he agrees with Steele, Bass, and Crook in that the Mozart effect yields no impact. Both studies negate the original findings of the 1993 experiment. However, Goldenberg disagrees as he explains that the idea of Mozart effect should not considered false as a result of his negative findings. He details several limitations that could've influenced the outcome of his experiment, and he is the only author to do so.

This study examined classical musics effect on test anxiety and exam
performance in a college setting by randomizing students to (1) listen to Mozart while studying and taking an exam, (2) study and take the exam under usual conditions, or (3) choose between these two alternatives.

Music may also have the added benefit of improving mental functioning, although the evidence is mixed.

This failure to support our hypotheses should be viewed in terms of the specific methodological details and limitations of the study before concluding that that music has no potential use in alleviating test anxiety or improving exam performance.