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Humza Khalid Biology 473, Section 009 TA: Khoa Nguyen 04/25/13 The Physiological Effects of Exercise on the

Body and the Homeostatic Response Introduction: The human body employs a variety of mechanisms to ensure homeostasis, or relatively stable internal conditions which include regulating temperature, carbon dioxide levels, oxygen levels, heart rate and blood pressure. These mechanisms work collectively to ensure the internal environment does not fluctuate too significantly, which could have significant consequences on the functionality of the body by denaturing proteins and reducing oxygen flow to crucial organs. Exercise is one of the most common stresses the body adapts to maintain regular function. As exercise progresses, the body must compensate for the bodys increase in metabolism and energetic demand, which is accompanied by a variety of changes the body must compensate for. These include regulating the rising temperature, facilitating increased carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange, increasing cardiac output, and regulating mean arterial blood pressure . The medulla, which sits at the base of the brain, is responsible for coordinating most of the bodys responses to maintain homeostasis. It functions by using various baroreceptors and chemoreceptors around the body to receive input about various important bodily factors, such as levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen. In particular, stretch receptors in the muscles anticipate increases in activity and metabolic need and send signals to the medulla . As the body exercises, the metabolic rate will sharply increase, which leads to excess carbon dioxide buildup and oxygen consumption. Because of this, heart rate must be increased accordingly to maintain proper levels of fuel for the muscles and vital organs. However, a delicate balance must be maintained between increasing cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, because significantly increased cardiac output can increase mean arterial blood pressure to dangerous levels. Furthermore, as the respiration increases, more excess heat will be produced as a byproduct, which the body must remove otherwise risk increasing internal temperature to dangerous levels . This information is important because doctors can utilize this information to assess patient health and identify any possible problems in homeostatic regulation. Having effective homeostatic mechanisms are crucial to survival and even small defaults can have profound impacts on overall health and survivability. Additionally,
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because athletes are constantly undergoing strenuous exercise, this information is particularly useful to them. This information could provide tips to them to improve their performance and overall recovery after exercise. Throughout this experiment, the carbon dioxide clearance should be the lowest during rest, while increasing during exercise and slowly decreasing during the recovery phase. The increased metabolic action of the body will produce more carbon dioxide as a waste product, thus forcing the body to increase the rate of clearance. On a related note, oxygen consumption will also be lowest during rest, while increasing during exercise because of increased respiration and returning to normal values during the recovery phase. This effectively depletes the bodys supply of reserve oxygen. Because there is a greater demand for oxygen during exercise, hemoglobin saturation levels should be normal during resting, decreasing during exercise and increasing during recovery. The increased need of oxygen by the body will increase disassociation of the oxygen hemoglobin complex. These factors will lead to an increase of heart rate during exercise, while maintaining normal, low values during rest and decreasing values during the recovery phase. This increased heart rate is meant to increase the rate of gas exchange and the rate of blood distribution and return throughout the body. Because of the increased metabolism, there will also be an excess amount of heat produced, which will lead to normal temperature values during rest, slightly increased temperature values during exercise and decreasing values during the recovery phase. The body will be able to compensate for most of the heat produced, but some will be stored and thus increase the internal temperature a few degrees. Finally, a combination of all of these factors and the bodys need for an increased cardiac output should increase the mean arterial pressure during exercise while maintaining regular levels during rest and decreasing levels during recovery . Methods: The baseline readings before exercise collected were age, weight, height and heart rate. These values were utilized to calculate an exercise heart rate, 80% of the maximum heart rate, which was designated as the stopping heart rate for the subject to minimize any potential for injury or harm to the subject. A variety of instruments were used to calculate the desired values throughout this experiment. The capnometer was used to measure the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in the exhaled air of the subject and the respiratory rate, while the oxygen analyzer was used to measure the oxygen percent of the exhaled air. The spirometer was used to
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calculate the tidal volume while the pulse oximeter was utilized to measure hemoglobin saturation and heart rate. Finally, the oral thermometer was utilized to measure body temperature while the sphygmomanometer and stethoscope were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressure . The resting data collection consisted of the subject sitting down for 6 minutes total, with data collection occurring before sitting, 3 minutes after sitting and 6 minutes after sitting. Because no control subjects were utilized, the resting values collected initially were considered the control because these are the normal values for the subject before exercise. During the exercise phase of the data collection, the subject was subjected to gradually increasing intensity of running speed and incline. This phase lasted for 15 minutes for subjects 1 and 2, while it lasted 18 minutes for subject 3. Subjects 1 and 2 started off running at 5 mph for the first 15 minutes with the incline increasing 3 degrees every 3 minutes until 15 minutes, where they reached their exercise heart rate. Subject 3 followed the same protocol, except at 18 minutes the speed was increased to 7 mph and kept at 15 degrees until the exercise heart rate was reached. The recovery phase lasted for 6 minutes total, with the subject walking at 2 mph for the first 3 minutes and then sitting down for the last 3 minutes . The time for data collection throughout this entire experiment was every 3 minutes, even during the exercise phase. However, temperature, hemoglobin saturation, and blood pressure were not collected during exercise because these values would be too difficult and dangerous to measure while the subject was exercising. Additionally, it would be difficult to get an accurate reading while the subject is running because the values would be difficult to stabilize. The carbon dioxide clearance was calculated using the equation, [(EtCO2/760 mm hg)*Tidal Volume (L/Breaths) *Respiratory Rate (Breaths/min)] while the oxygen consumption was calculated using the equation, [(0.209- %O2 exhaled) * Tidal Volume (L/Breaths) * Respiratory Rate (Breaths/min)]. The mean arterial pressure was calculated using the equation, [(2/3 diastolic pressure mm hg) + (1/3 systolic pressure mm hg)] .
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Results: Figure 1: This is the table of heart rate values for all 3 subjects. This includes the resting, exercising and recovery values. For subjects 1 and 2, the exercise phase started at 6 minutes and ended at 18 minutes, where the recovery phase started. For subject 3, the exercise phase also started at 6 minutes, but ended at 21 minutes, where the recovery phase began Some data was unable to be calculated, which is represented by the breaks in data. As demonstrated by figure 1, the heart rate for subject 1 significantly increased after exercise and fluctuated and began to decrease during the recovery phase, but did not reach resting levels. Subject 2 demonstrated a significant steady increase in heart rate after exercise and got very close to resting values. Subject 3 had a significant increase in heart rate immediately after exercise began and the levels fluctuated until recovery, where they decreased to nearly resting levels. Figure 2: This is the table of carbon dioxide clearance values for all 3 subjects. This includes the resting, exercising and recovery values. For subjects 1 and 2, the exercise phase started at 6 minutes and ended at 18 minutes, where the recovery phase started. For subject 3, the exercise phase also started at 6 minutes, but ended at 21 minutes, where the recovery phase began. Some data was unable to be calculated, which is represented by the breaks in data. As depicted by figure 2, carbon dioxide clearance increased significantly for subject 1 after exercise and decreased during the recovery phase but did not reach the resting levels. For subject 2, the carbon dioxide clearance increased significantly after the start of exercise and fluctuated before decreasing during the recovery phase. For subject 3, the carbon dioxide clearance gradually increased after exercise until the recovery phase, where it decreased to slightly above normal levels.

Figure 3: This is the table of oxygen consumption values for all 3 subjects. This includes the resting, exercising and recovery values. For subjects 1 and 2, the exercise phase started at 6 minutes and ended at 18 minutes, where the recovery phase started. For subject 3, the exercise phase also started at 6 minutes, but ended at 21 minutes, where the recovery phase began. Some data was unable to be calculated, which is represented by the breaks in data. Note: This machine was not utilized properly, leading to the negative consumption levels.

As demonstrated by figure 3, subject 1 had a negative decline in oxygen consumption which increased after the recovery phase, not quite reaching the resting value. Subject 2 did not show a significant change in oxygen consumption after the start of exercise and only had a small increase in the middle of exercising, which returned to basically resting levels during the recovery phase. Lastly, subject 3 had a negative decline in oxygen consumption after exercise and after recovery, the levels increased to slightly less than resting values.

Table 1: This contains the temperatures of the 3 subjects at the resting phase, exercising phase and recovery phase. The temperature was only recorded before exercise, immediately after and during the recovery phase.

Time 0 min (initial resting) 3 min of resting At end of exercise 3 mins into recovery 6 mins into recovery

Temperature (C) (Subject 1) 36.2 35.6 35.3 36.2 36.4

Temperature(C) (Subject 2) 34.7 35 35.7 35.6 36.1

Temperature(C) (Subject 3) 35.2 35.5 35.0 36.2 36.4

For subject 1, the temperature did not significantly change after exercise and during the recovery phase. For subject 2, temperature slightly increased from resting to 6 minutes into recovery, but not significantly. Lastly, temperature for subject 3 also slightly increased after exercise and during the recovery phase, but once again, not significantly.

Table 2: This contains the Hemoglobin saturation levels of the 3 subjects at the resting phase, exercising phase and recovery phase. The Hemoglobin saturation was only recorded before exercise, immediately after and during the recovery phase.

Time 0 min (initial resting) 3 min of resting At end of exercise 3 mins into recovery 6 mins into recovery

Hb saturation (%) (Subject 1) 98 96 94 95 98

Hb Saturation(%) (Subject 2) 100 100 96 98 98

Hb saturation (%) (Subject 3) 94 80 87 98 98

As demonstrated by table 2, subject 1 had a slight decrease in Hb saturation during exercise and during recovery, the saturation level reached resting values. For subject 2, there was also a slight decrease in Hb saturation levels during exercise, which reached nearly resting values during the recovery phase. Lastly, subject 3 demonstrated a decrease in Hb saturation levels during exercise that actually reached levels above resting values during the recovery phase. Table 3: This contains the Mean Arterial Blood Pressure of the 3 subjects at the resting phase, exercising phase and recovery phase. The Mean Arterial Blood Pressure was only recorded before exercise, immediately after and during the recovery phase.

Time 0 min (initial resting) 3 min of resting At end of exercise 3 mins into recovery 6 mins into recovery

Mean Arterial BP (Subject 1) 102 104 107 115 101

Mean Arterial BP (Subject 2) 83 87 88 82 79

Mean Arterial BP (Subject 3) 71 75 99 85 79

As demonstrated by table 3, subject 1 had an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) after exercising and began to decrease to resting values during the recovery phase. For subject 2, the MAP slightly increased during exercise, but decreased to below resting values after the recovery phase. Lastly, the MAP for subject significantly increased during exercise, and decreased to slightly above the resting MAP value during the recovery phase.

Discussion: Overall, most of the hypotheses were supported by the data collected during this experiment. As evident by figure 2, carbon dioxide clearance levels did increase overall after exercise in comparison to the resting values and decreased during the recovery phase. Despite the fluctuations in the measurements, it is clear there was a net positive increasing trend. This was expected because as the bodys metabolic needs increase, the levels of excess carbon dioxide in the body will increase as a byproduct of respiration. As a result, the body will stimulate the medulla to increase the depth of respiration, which will result in an increased diffusion of gases across the alveoli and result in increased carbon dioxide removed through ventilation . However, this data was rather weak because there were unexpected fluctuations in the data and some data collection points were missing data. Furthermore, oxygen consumption was hypothesized to increase significantly during exercise and decline during the recovery phase. However, this aspect of the experiment could not be confirmed because the oxygen analyzer was not utilized properly, which resulted in the negative oxygen consumption levels demonstrated in figure 3. Nonetheless, oxygen consumption should increase because as the bodys metabolic needs increase, the reserve supply of oxygen will be consumed in fueling respiration to provide ATP for the muscles. Rapid acceleration of respiration is a necessary change in muscle cells in order to adequately provide enough energy for exercise . This was weak data because of the fact that almost all of the data points had negative consumption values, which is not possible. On a related note, hemoglobin saturation was hypothesized to decrease during exercise in comparison to the resting values and increase during the recovery phase. Table 2 provides weak data to support this hypothesis because although it shows a small decrease in Hb saturation during exercise, some levels of saturation during the recovery phase exceeded the initial resting values, which is not accurate. As the levels of carbon dioxide in the body increase, the hemoglobin-oxygen binding will be shifted towards disassociation and favor easier release of oxygen from hemoglobin . This allows the body to match the metabolic oxygen needed. Next, the heart rate was hypothesized to increase during exercise and return to close to normal values during the recovery phase. As demonstrated by figure 1, there was at least an initial spike in heart rate observed after exercise but was followed by random fluctuations. Specifically, Subjects 1 and 2 support the initial
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hypothesis, while subject 3 skews the overall data off because of the large fluctuations. The heart rate should increase during exercise because the muscles will require greater supplies of oxygenated blood to fuel respiration, so cardiac output must be increased, which is dependent on heart rate and stroke volume. The medulla will stimulate the heart to increase the rate of contraction while the heart is able to increase stroke volume by receiving an increased load of deoxygenated blood from the veins, which serves to facilitate increased removal of waste products such as carbon dioxide . Based off of table 1, the hypothesis that temperature should only slightly increase during exercise was not really supported. Subject 1 experienced virtually no increase in body temperature, while subjects 2 and 3 experienced a minimal increase in body temperature after exercise. Assuming the subject was pushed to exhaustion, the excess heat produced by metabolism should have been stored in the body as heat to some degree. However, most of this heat will be lost by sweat and vasodilation, which assists in transporting more heat to the surface of the skin. On a related note, this vasodilation also serves to buffer the increase in MAP due to increased cardiac output. It was hypothesized that the MAP should increase during exercise because of the bodys increased cardiac output in response to metabolic needs. Based off of table 3, a general increase in MAP was observed in all 3 subjects. This was expected because as the cardiac output increases, blood pressure should also increase because it directly related to cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Because of the vasodilation, the change in MAP is manageable and does not inflict any permanent damage on the blood vessels or heart . There were a couple sources of error prevalent in the design of this experiment. The first is that the sample size of 3 is simply too small. There should be a bigger sample size so that the values can carry more significance and have a broader implication. Additionally, the subjects were not tested or screened before choosing to be the runners. There was no data about their daily physical activity, how often they run or how well rested they truly were. In the future, there should be a larger sample size, as well as a screening process for the runners to maximize the standardization of the data that is collected. Overall, I felt that lab went well and that this experiment should be replicated for standardization of results and to minimize the fluctuation in data observed. Based off of the data, doctors can utilize this information to inform patients of how their body responds to exercise and how important it is to continue to keep your body active so that is can readily adapt to stressful situations. For
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athletes, they can utilize this information to assess their true level of fitness and diagnose any problems they may be noticing throughout their workouts.

References: 1. Waters, John R. and Tomicek, Nanette J (2014). Physiology Laboratory Manual. Plymouth, MI : Hayden-McNeil Publishing. Silverthorn, Dee U. Cardiovascular Physiology. Human Physiology an Integrated Approach ; Cogan, Deborah; Pearson Education: Glenview, Illinois, 2013. Sixth Edition

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