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# TOPIK 4: HUKUM HESS

## Perubahan entalpi (haba) pembentukan

piawai suatu bahan ialah haba yang
dibebaskan atau diserap apabila 1 mol
HABA PEMBENTUKAN

H
o
f
Na
2
O
2
(s)= -504.6 kJmol
-1

H
o
f
H
2
O(l) = -286 kJmol
-1

H
o
f
NaOH(s) = -426.8 kJmol
-1

CONTOH HABA PEMBENTUKAN
2Na(s) + O
2
(g) Na
2
O
2
(s) H = -504.6 kJmol
-1
Na(s) + 1/2O
2
(g) + 1/2H
2
(g) NaOH(s) H = -426.8 kJ

H
2
(g) + 1/2O
2
(g) H
2
O (l) H = -286 kJmol
-1

Hukum Hess menyatakan bahawa Apabila bahan
tersebut berlaku dalam satu langkah atau beberapa siri
langkah .

HUKUM HESS
A
B
C
H
2
H
3
H
1
H
1
=

H
2
+

H
3
KAEDAH PENYELESAIAN
Kira H bagi tindakbalas berikut,

2Na
2
O
2
(s) + 2H
2
O(l) 4NaOH(s) + O
2
(g)

Jika diberi tindakbalas berikut berserta nilai entalpi
perubahan mereka.
(a) Kaedah algebra
2Na(s) + O
2
(g) Na
2
O
2
(s) H = -504.6 kJmol
-1
Na(s) + 1/2O
2
(g) + 1/2H
2
(g) NaOH(s) H = -426.8 kj/mol

H
2
(g) + 1/2O
2
(g) H
2
O (l) H = -286 kJmol
-1

Penyelesaian:
2Na(s) + O
2
(g) Na
2
O
2
(s) H = -504.6 kJmol
-1
Na(s) + 1/2O
2
(g) + 1/2H
2
(g) NaOH(s) H = -426.8 kJ

H
2
(g) + 1/2O
2
(g) H
2
O (l) H = -286 kJmol
-1

2Na
2
O
2
(s) + 4Na(s) + 2O
2
(g) H = +1009.2 kJ

4Na(s) + 2O
2
(g) + 2H
2
(g) 4NaOH(s) H = -1707.2 kJ

2H
2
O (l) + 2H
2
(g) + O
2
(g) H = +572kJ

2Na
2
O
2
(s) +2H
2
O(l) 4NaOH(s) +O
2
(g) H = -126 kJ

Tuliskan persoalan anda!
b. Menggunakan formula
H = H hasil H bahan tindakbalas
2Na
2
O
2
(s) +2H
2
O(l) 4NaOH(s) +O
2
(g) H = -126 kJ

H
o
f
Na
2
O
2
(s)= -504.6 kJmol-1
H
o
f
H
2
O(l) = -286 kJmol-1
H
o
f
NaOH(s) = -426.8 kJmol-1
*Can be use for selected enthalpy only
Penyelesaian
H = H hasil H bahan tindakbalas
2Na
2
O
2
(s) +2H
2
O(l) 4NaOH(s) +O
2
(g) H = -126 kJ

H
o
f
Na
2
O
2
(s)= -504.6 kJmol-1
H
o
f
H
2
O(l) = -286 kJmol-1
H
o
f
NaOH(s) = -426.8 kJmol-1
4 x H
o
f
NaOH -(2 x H
o
f
H
2
O + 2 x H
o
f
Na
2
O
2
)
= 4(-426.8)- [2(-286)+2(-504.6)]
= -126 kJ
*Can be use for selected enthalpy only
H =
Tentukan entalpi pembentukan etana, C
2
H
6
berdasarkan
data berikut:

H
c
C (grafit) = -393 kJmol
-1

H
c
H (g) = -286 kJmol
-1

H
c
C
2
H
6
(g) = -1560kJmol
-1

(c)Kaedah kitaran tenaga

Penyelesaian
2C(s) + 3H
2
(g) C
2
H
6
(g)
2CO
2
(g)
2O
2
(g)
3H
2
O(g)
H
f

+
+ 7/2 O
2
(g)

3
H + )

2
H 3( + )

H 2( =

f
H
1
= 2(393) +3( 286) + 1560
= 84 kJ mol1
H
1
H
2
H
3
2
3
Soalan 1
Dengan menggunakan kaedah kitaran tenaga, hitung
entalpi bagi tindakbalas berikut.
C(p) + O
2

(g) CO
2
(g)
Diberi data berikut,
C(p) + O
2
(g) CO(g) H = -111kJ/mol
CO(g) + O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) H = -282 kJ/mol
Soalan 2
Consider the following hypothetical reactions:
A B H = + 30 kJ
B C H = + 60 kJ

(a) Use Hesss law to calculate the enthalpy change for the
reaction A C.

(b) Construct an enthalpy diagram for substances, A,B and
C, and show how Hesss law applies.

StandUp-HandUp-PairUp

Soalan 3
Use Hesss law to determine H for the reaction
C
3
H
4
(g) + 2H
2
(g) C
3
H
8
(g), given that

H
2
(g) + 1/2O
2
(g) H
2
O(l) H = -285.8 kJ
C
3
H
4
(g) + 4O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + 2H
2
O(l) H = -1937 kJ
C
3
H
8
(g) + 5O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O(l) H = -2219.1 kJ

Soalan 4
The enthalpy of formation of NH
3
(g) is -46.11 kJ/mol. What
is the H for the following reaction?

2/3NH
3
(g) 1/3N
2
(g) + H
2
(g) H = ?

Soalan Peperiksaan Mei 2012
Pemetik api rokok mengandungi cecair butana, C
4
H
10.

(a) Kirakan kuantiti haba yang dibebaskan apabila 1.0 g
butana terbakar lengkap dalam udara.
(b) Berdasarkan jawapan anda, antara butana dan benzena
manakah bahan api yang lebih baik jika haba yang dibebaskan
semasa pembakaran 1 g benzena ialah 41.8 kJ/g
H
o
f
[O
2
(g)] = 0 kJmol-1
H
o
f
[H
2
O(c)] = -285.8 kJmol-1
H
o
f
[CO
2
(g)] = -393.5 kJmol-1
H
o
f
[C
4
H
10
(g)] = -147.6 kJmol-1

ISL
Mengumpul maklumat tentang nilai berangka
haba pembentukan yang boleh digunakan
untuk:
(a) Mengira perubahan haba tindakbalas
(b) Meramal kestabilan relatif sesuatu sebatian

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