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Running head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 1

Effectiveness of Parental Homework Support on Pre-Kindergarten Student Achievement



Jessica Marquez
University of St. Thomas




Research Professor: Michael Papadimitriou, Ed.D.
May, 2014



EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 2


Table of Contents
Abstract 4
Chapter 1: Introduction 5
Professional Value 6
Self-Reflection 7
Research Hypothesis 9
Justification 10
Chapter 2: Literature Review 12
Parental Involvement 12
Homework Completion and Achievement 18
Improving Homework Accuracy 20
Effectiveness of Homework Feedback 23
Homework Perceptions 26
Conclusion 28
Chapter 3: Method 23
Participants and Sampling 28
Measures 29
Design 30
Procedures 30
Data Analysis 30
Chapter 4: Results 32
Procedure 32
Parent Training Sessions 32
Data Analysis 33
Chapter 5: Discussion 35
Interpretation of Findings 35
Strengths and Limitations 36
Recommendations and Action Planning 37
References 39
Appendix 42




EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 3


Abstract
The current research investigated the effectiveness of parental support in Bilingual Pre-
Kindergarten (PK) students in literacy and math in a Bilingual program. Parents of 6 PK students
received teacher training who offered support to their child at home through meaningful teacher
assigned homework. The instrument used to measure student achievement was our district
adopted Frog Street Pre K Assessment. Through the assessment, the researcher was able to
analyze student achievement where results indicated the association between the effectiveness of
parental homework support between students whose parents received teacher training and the
control group of parents who did not receive teacher training on how to effectively support
students at home with successful homework completion. Unquestionably, the results of this study
support the original hypothesis, proving that while parents are offered homework support, it
significantly increases the achievement of Pre-K students. Certainly, all students improved in
academic achievement, however, students of parents who received homework support and
training certainly reached higher academic achievement in comparison to Pre-K students whose
parents did not receive parental homework support training. The Quasi experimental design
successfully measured the impact of parental homework on student success and academic
achievement in school by comparing the scores of students who have parents who participated in
a parental homework support program to the scores of students who had untrained parents.

EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 4


Chapter 1
Introduction
Educators strongly desire that their students reap the benefits of education. One area of
debate has always been homework, defined as tasks to be completed during non-school hours
(Cosden, Morrison, Albanese & Macias, 2001). Over the years since the beginning of the
twentieth century, homework has been perceived in different ways (Gill & Schlossman, 2000).
In addition, Gill and Schlossman (2000) claim that homework can be the savior or destroyer of
schools, children, and families (p.27). Many say the use of homework is ineffective and
provides very little benefit. No doubt, homework can be a critical component in student success,
especially if parental homework support increases. According to Gajria and Salend (1995),
students are able to understand class content and are better able to retain taught concepts,
boosting academic success, with the use of assigned homework.
As reported by Iflazoglu and Hong (2012), low socioeconomic status parents highly
value education but, unfortunately, often do not have the knowledge and skills to assist with
homework. The purpose of the current research study is to examine the effectiveness of parental
support on Pre-K student achievement. Most of my students are English Language Learners
(ELL) whose native language is not English. Most of the PK students at my school have wide
academic learning gaps and parents often times do not have the necessary tools or skills to
support their students at home. In order to facilitate parent involvement, offering the necessary
skills and training to support homework completion enhanced academic growth and development
for ELL students currently enrolled in the Bilingual Program. A powerful way to facilitate
academic growth in students is through parental homework training. In the present study setting,
the training sessions took place during my conference time and after school for approximately
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 5


five weeks. After the training sessions were complete, all students in both the experimental and
control groups were assessed using the PK Frog Street Curriculum Assessment. The obtained
data was used to compare student scores from both groups of parents, those who were trained
and those who were not.
The homework was designed by the teacher considering the purpose, format, and other
elements necessary for students to be engaged and interested for successful homework
completion. The purpose of homework was to reinforce what students have been taught in class
that was closely tied to the curriculum. In addition, the format was adjusted to address the
academic needs of young four-year old students. And finally, increasing student motivation was
another element to consider when designing homework to attract and spark student interest.
Students gain interest and positive attitudes when teachers accommodate students learning
preferences (Martin & Potter, 1998). Hopefully, my efforts served this purpose.
Professional Value
In order for successful completion of homework, teacher -parent collaboration with good
communication was essential. This collaboration enabled PK students to increase academic
success and meet academic standards. Providing various parental trainings and skills to the
parents of the student experimental group was essential to build a learning bridge between the
school and home. Eccles and Wigfield (2002) suggest that parents can have a great impact on the
manner in which students perceive homework. Moreover, this parental influence shaped student
attitudes, behaviors, and learning. When parents were receiving the training and supported with
constant teacher communication regarding their childrens education, students positive attitudes
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 6


toward homework tasks also increased. Therefore, parent training and support increased
students academic achievement.
However, public opposition often arises in relation to homework. This opposition claims
that supplemental learning should not exist and that academics should be limited to only school.
Homework, in fact, can lead to parents and children to experience negative emotions. According
to Gill and Schlossman (2000), in the early twentieth century, homework was perceived by
educational scholars as a dreadful and useless practice that caused more harm to children than
good. There were efforts to abolish homework. It was criticized as something that was dreadful
and useless. According to Bennett and Kalish (2006), there is not enough evidence that
homework offers positive outcomes for students and that, in fact, it can negatively impact
families. For the present study, efforts to educate parents about how to help their children at
home was the most important but most difficult task that was attempted. Parents were able to
effectively supplement students in-school academic studies at home to enhance student learning
and academic achievement. Since PK students attend school for a short time every day, the
impact was especially noticeable and evident in their work and test scores. Even though the
evidence about the impact of homework is mixed, most people in school communities, including
parents, are convinced that homework is valuable, especially when homework is assigned
consistently and meaningfully to students (Epstein & Van Voorhis, 2001).
Self-Reflection
Currently as team-leader of the PK team, I try to remain focused on the approximately 70
students enrolled in the Bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL) education program,
along with their unique needs. In order for a student to qualify and participate in such a program,
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 7


parents need to apply and meet requirements mandated by the state and our school district. The
majority of our students who qualify become eligible by being homeless, educationally
disadvantaged or by having difficulty speaking and comprehending English. Most of the current
students in the program are at a disadvantage with tremendous learning gaps in comparison to
other PK children who did not qualify for the program.
The program involved in the study was a half-day in which PK students attend school for
three hours a day, five times a week. The program provides rich academic experiences for 15
hours a week for four year olds in order to give students a head start on learning. Despite this
fact, the 15 hours a day in which students are exposed to academic learning is not adequate,
especially since breakfast or lunch, recess and transitions take a lot of time from actual learning
time. Through this program, teachers provide independent practice and reinforce taught concepts.
Along with these efforts at implementing and offering high quality teaching, students benefited
greatly from more practice at home with parental support. I believe training for parental support
for homework helped build connections between classroom instruction at homework assistance.
Very simply, offering homework support and training to parents served to build a bridge between
school and home that made a positive impact on our students.
Working with Pre-Kinders for six years has enabled me to experience a variety of events
and emotions, both positive and negative, in relation to parental support. I have experienced
situations in which parents have a strong willingness to support their children academically but
are unsuccessful due to lack of awareness or confidence in what they could do to help. On the
other hand, I have experienced parents who have expressed the idea that they should not be
expected to support the homework efforts of their children. Most of these individuals perceived
our Pre-K program as a day care facility. I have had experiences where parents openly expressed
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 8


their feelings of failure in their childrens learning and academics. Also, many have been so
overwhelmed with life that they were not capable of providing academic support at home.
Through this research, my goal was to enhance communication, working closely and
collaboratively with parents by providing parent training sessions. My goal was to facilitate and
support parents through their childrens first academic year. In my opinion, this first year can
serve as a foundation for parents to continue supporting children at home for the rest of the
school process through graduation. This support training also allowed parents to reduce stress
and gain a broader understanding of the purpose of our program for easily facilitating and
supporting students at home with homework, especially for beginner parents with children in
school for the first time.
Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis was that parental homework support would significantly increase the
achievement of Pre-K students whose parents received homework support and training in
comparison to Pre-K students whose parents did not receive parental homework support training.
The Quasi experimental design measured the impact of parental homework on student success
and academic achievement in school by comparing the scores of students who have parents who
participated in a parental homework support program to the scores of students who had untrained
parents. Scores were attained and analyzed using our Frog Street Pre K Assessment Program.
Two groups were utilized. The first group consisted of students whose parents were
trained and the second control group consisted of kids whose parents were not trained. The
teacher trained parents and focused on providing parents with best teaching practices to
implement and successfully complete homework with students. The trained group consisted of
parents of 6 students who were willing to receive training on how to help their children with
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 9


homework on concepts and topics that were being taught in the classroom. The control group
consisted of 9 students with untrained parents.
The parent training allowed parents to gain awareness about their childrens learning
goals, as well as strategies and tools for implementing learning support at home. Through the
trainings, a sense of hope and confidence built so that parents were able to facilitate the
attainable, successful mastery of taught concepts by their children. In addition, through this
collaboration, parents found their student students build a sense of efficacy when they saw adults
around them actively involved in their learning. During the training, parents gained an
understanding of program goals and skills that used to assessed (i.e., such as letters and sounds,
rhyme and alliteration, vocabulary, sentence structure, numerals and counting, patterns and
shapes, operations, and social-emotional development). A function used from the Frog Street Pre
K Assessment is the automated practice cards specifically designed for each child who needed
more reinforcement. These cards were based on each childs responses to the assessment. In
addition, parents were presented with data in organized charts and graphs to illustrate the present
levels and the needed pathways for improving learning on specific tasks. Each chart and graph
was differentiated for each child and parents received information on their childs strengths and
weaknesses to reinforce at home. Most importantly, parents were guided through specific
teaching strategies and techniques with descriptions on how they can help with each skill that
was assessed and taught in Pre-K. Finally, parents were also given tasks to complete at home that
was purposeful and engaging to students. These tasks sparked interest for successful homework
completion and mastery of skills.
Justification
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 10


Homework assignments with effective parental participation at home connect what is
taught in the classroom with home activities. The study showed the importance of parental
support and the effectiveness of school-driven parental training with respect to homework
strategies. I believe tremendous gains were achieved by assigning meaningful homework in
which students made connections between school and real-life with the help of their parents. One
of the goals of training parents and assigning homework was to narrow the achievement gap that
existed between the high and the low achieving students in Pre-K. Training parents has the
potential to establish a positive link between the school and home by improving communication
with parents, increasing parental involvement in homework and building parental confidence in
the educational system.













EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 11


Chapter 2
Literature Review
Homework has been a long debated issue claimed by critics as something that interferes
with students home activities and provides little educational benefit. On the other hand,
homework is positively portrayed by supporters as something closely related to academic student
achievement (Cancio, West & Young, 2004). Students can reap positive benefits from homework
through family involvement. Yet, how teachers assign homework and their perceptions of
homework can greatly impact and positively shape homework attitudes. In hopes of breaking
educational barriers and expanding student learning, teachers assign homework with the purpose
of practicing taught concepts.
The following literature reviews will discuss the impact of homework on levels of
academic achievement that students can attain. Family involvement plays an important role that
will be discussed as stated by Callahan, Rademacher and Hildreth (1998). Students who receive
support for homework completion can tremendously benefit in terms of academic success,
therefore expanding student learning according to Theodore et al. (2009). Furthermore, the topic
of teacher behavior and attitudes will also be discussed. Teachers who demonstrate positive
behaviors regarding homework, as well as applying specific strategies to improve the quality of
assigned homework can also make a tremendous impact on student achievement as researched
by Elawar and Corno (1985).
Parental Involvement
Even though the practice of homework has been criticized as ineffective, many teachers,
parents, and students value homework and portray it as a critical component in advancing
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 12


academically. Most people would agree that assigning homework would improve academic
success of children. An important factor to consider in order to achieving academic success is
parental involvement. Callahan, Rademacher and Hildreth (1998) performed a study to examine
the effect of parental participation in improving the homework performance of students. Parents
implemented a home-based program for their children that focused on self-management and
reinforcement strategies over a ten week period.
This study consisted of 31 parents who agreed to participate in the study. The parents and
students received training in relation to how to implement procedures involving self-
management skills for homework completion and how to develop self-positive reinforcement.
Data collection and training occurred at the convenience of the familys home as well as at
school. The students were pre-tested in order to see the current achievement in math. The
homework assigned to students was based on the grade-levels math that consisted of four parts
addressing different math skills (Callahan, Rademacher & Hildreth, 1998).
During the first parent meeting, the parents completed a questionnaire to help researchers
understand their homework perceptions. After receiving general information related to
homework, the parents were given program materials that would be used during the study. The
staff conducted role-play demonstrations on how to implement self-management procedures as
well as how to effectively use homework materials. During the second session, parents received
a brief review about how parents would use the materials as well as what role the parents had at
home during homework. The students also received training about the program and how the
study would be conducted and obtained instructions on how the program would be carried out.
Self-management procedures were explained to help students self-manage while doing
homework using a Student Checklist and Matching Sheet in their homework folders. The parents
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 13


also received a Parent Checklist and Matching Sheet where data recorded from the student had to
match with data recorded by the parent. The researchers in the study endeavored to train the
student to: (a) self-monitor themselves and record times at the start of doing their homework and
when finished; (b) reward themselves for the correct math problems completed; (c) calculate and
total points for homework accuracy each night; and (d) self-guide her/himself to do an alternative
homework assignment if he/she did not achieve a high score on their homework for the night. On
the Positive Reinforcement Component, students received points for completing homework and
turning in student and parent checklists so that students could purchase reinforcers from a student
developed reinforcement menu (Callahan, Rademacher & Hildreth, 1998).
Parents participating had to ensure that their checklists and self-management sheets
matched with students self-management and checklists as well. In fact, students could gain
extra points by documenting and completing their homework in a timely manner and accurately.
There was an attempt to quantify the effect of parent participation on student performance. Staff
verified the math problems that were required to be completed and the checklists to ensure
accuracy. Once the forms were returned after each day Monday thru Thursday, staff ensured that:
(a) the student checklist was completed and returned; (b) the student checklist was signed by the
parent; (c) the parent homework checklist was completed and returned; and (d) marks were made
on the completed homework indicating that the parent scored the assignment. In addition, staff
calculated a percentage of parental participation on a daily basis during the intervention phase of
the study based on whether or not the four activities were complete (i.e., analyzing parental
checklists, student checklists and matching sheets, and math homework assignments). It was
determined that the participation percentages of parents were very high, 80% or higher for 9
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 14


participants, 50-79% participation for 8 participants and 45% of less participation for 9
participants (Callahan, Rademacher & Hildreth, 1998).
After the ten week study, both student homework completion and homework quality
increased. As reported by the researchers, there was an increase in homework completion, from
33.2% during baseline to 69.4% during the intervention. In addition, there was also an increase
in the homework quality focusing on the assigned math problems completed correctly from
25.9% correct during baseline to a 62.0% during intervention. As reported by Callahan,
Rademacher and Hildreth (1998), homework completion increased during the study in
comparison to the baseline conditions. In addition, the self-management strategies implemented
during the study conducted with parents and students played a major role in improving
homework completion and accuracy. Data also indicates that math achievement by students
participating in the study increased as well. Also, parental participation can have a profound
impact on school success in students, along with reinforcement strategies.
An additional implication of the study, as stated by Callahan, Rademacher and Hildreth
(1998), is that even though most parents want to be involved in school activities in order to
increase academic performance, some parents are unable or unwilling to do so. This problem was
faced in this study and t was found that some parents require academic instruction for themselves
in order to fully carry out homework activities at home. Four out of 26 parents felt unprepared
and had difficulties in carrying out the studys program strategies. In order to support these
parents, crisis assistance was offered that enabled parents to get homework assistance over the
phone when they faced homework difficulties in relation to homework content. In addition, even
though the study demonstrated improvements in homework performance, the researchers suggest
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 15


that future studies should be conducted in a longer time period since homework completion or
accuracy attained through parental participation did not clearly reach 100%.
Similarly, in a different study conducted by Knollmann and Wild (2007), it was
determined that students, regardless of being intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, preferred
and performed better when parents provided direct parental support rather than with parents who
provided learning autonomy at home while doing homework.
Before the study, it was assumed that intrinsically motivated students would feel better
about parents providing learning autonomy, while students who were extrinsically motivated
would prefer parents who were more directive at home. In order to carry out this investigation,
two studies were performed, where one out of two studies determined if students preferred
supportive vs. directive parental support. The other study allowed the researchers to investigate
student motivation when doing homework (i.e., whether they were intrinsically or extrinsically
motivated for doing homework) (Knollmann & Wild, 2007). According to Knollmann and Wild
(2007), the purpose of the two studies was to understand how students motivation and the
quality of parental support contributed to students perception and emotions during homework.
The first study that was performed determined that from the 181 students in the study,
only 27 students were predominantly intrinsic and 25 students were predominantly extrinsic.
This finding was achieved by providing a questionnaire that consisted of items such as enjoying
to do math or striving for competence to describe an intrinsic motivator and items such as
meeting expectations of parents and teachers, being liked by others, avoiding looking
incompetent, fear of punishment to describe an extrinsic motivator (Knollmann & Wild, 2007) .
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 16


In addition, the researchers gave students two vignettes where they reported their
emotions in relation to how they self-regulate their learning. Both vignettes described the type of
parental help students would prefer when they did regular math problems for homework. One
situation would require students to select directive parental help while the second situation would
be an autonomous supportive parental help. After selecting a situation, either directive or
autonomous parental help, students had to report an emotion they experienced while their parent
provided homework help and rate it in intensity from 1 being weak to a 3 being strong
(Knollmann & Wild, 2007).
It was expected during the study that students who were intrinsically motivated would
prefer parents who gave them more autonomy and students who were extrinsically motivated
preferred parents who offered more supportive and guidance. After the study and gathering the
data, Knollmann and Wild (2007) determined that students demonstrated more anxiety in
extrinsically than in intrinsically homework episodes. Extrinsically motivated students displayed
higher levels of anxiety when parents provided autonomy supportive homework support;
therefore students with extrinsic motivation seem to feel better and perform better with
homework when parents provide a stricter but organized learning environment. Surprisingly,
intrinsically motivated students, like extrinsically motivated students, also performed better on
homework when parents provided direct parental support rather parents providing learning
autonomy at home while doing homework.
Limitations about this study are the measurements used to determine students'
motivation (either extrinsic or extrinsic) and students perceived quality of parental support
(either autonomy or direct). In addition, situations vignettes given to students to determine if they
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 17


were intrinsic or extrinsic motivators were unclear and were unrelated to homework situations
(Knollmann & Wild, 2007).
Homework completion and Achievement
A study conducted by Theodore et al. (2009) investigated the impact of homework given
to 21 elementary students on academic improvement. During the study, random reinforcers were
implemented, resulting in homework completion and increased spelling performance. The
purpose of the study was to use homework to enhance classroom learning. The researchers in this
study valued homework and assumed to be of great impact on academic achievement.
The study included students in the same classroom, and spelling homework was chosen
since this was an area with difficulties on completion and accuracy. Students homework was
verified each day to determine completion through the submission of assignments at the
beginning of class. Homework accuracy was measured as the percentage of words spelled
correctly. During the study, students were given reinforcers for improvement of homework
completion and accuracy for spelling. Students baselines were determined for approximately
two weeks before the intervention and the teacher was instructed on how to implement the
interventions. For the second phase of the study, the students were also informed of potential
rewards that could be earned for their spelling homework performance as a class. Each day the
class had to reach for a goal, consisting of eight possible criteria: (a) everyone competing
spelling homework; (b) lowest grade of 70% as a class; (c) lowest grade of 75%; (d) lowest
grade of 85%; (e) highest grade of 85%; (f) highest grade of 90%; (g) highest grade of 100%; or
(h) class average of 85%. The third phase consisted of a withdrawal phase where students were
still assigned spelling homework but there was no opportunity for rewards. The last phase
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 18


consisted of a reinstatement phase where the intervention would once again be implemented
(Theodore et al., 2009).
The results were inconsistent with respect to homework completion since 12 students
maintained a perfect homework completion rate throughout all the four phases of the study. It
was also noted that students who had an 88% completion rate showed noticeable improvement
during the phases. It was also noted that students whose baseline and intervention values were
100% actually decreased to 88% and 75% completion rates during the withdrawal phase. With
respect to the results for homework accuracy, all students in the study, except one, demonstrated
improvement in accuracy rates for spelling homework. Three students of the 21 showed a small
effect, seven showed moderate effects, and 10 participants demonstrated larger effects. It was
surprising to find that the majority of the students benefited from the studys intervention, with
the exception of one student. A strength in the study was that giving students random reinforcers
increased involvement, therefore improving spelling accuracy and homework completion. Even
students performing well with spelling words maintained or slightly improved their accuracy
rates. Students who were performing poorly in spelling accuracy demonstrated a more
substantial improvement. This intervention helped aid students and enhanced academic
achievement through the investigation and implementation of a class-wide intervention with
randomized reinforcers. This study proves that homework quality improvement programs are
worth implementing with reinforcers to motivate students and teachers to implement effective
homework practices (Theodore et al., 2009). A limitation was that the findings can only be
applied to students similar to the ones in the study. It is suggested that in order to determine if
random reinforcers are effective for improving homework performance, future research should
involve different subjects, ages and classroom settings. Also, Theodore et al., (2009) suggest
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 19


changing reinforcers in order to avoid satiation in students and fade out of positive behavior.
Research done by Epstein and Van Voorhis (2001) supports the study by Theodore et al. (2009)
claiming that homework designed purposely by the teacher can help students increase practice
skills, as well as learning development, along with an increase in communication between home
and school.
Improving Homework Accuracy
Reinhardt, Theodore, Bray and Kehle (2009) completed a study with the purpose of
maximizing academic achievement in students across the grades, content areas, and student
abilities by improving homework accuracy. Nonacademic benefits include but are not limited to
the following: (a) study skills; (b) time-management; (c) home-school collaboration; and (d)
increased parental involvement. Reinhardt et al. (2009) claim that many strategies focusing on
individual contingency are not as effective in improving homework performance and are more
time consuming, in comparison to group contingencies such as a classroom-based strategies.
Group contingencies enable the teacher to establish criteria for reinforcement, behaviors and
rewards to be the same for the entire class. This option offers the benefit that no single student is
singled out. Moreover, it provides recognition and rewards for performing a desired behavior
and the entire class is working towards a common goal. Randomization in reinforcers was
considered to avoid the contingency program from being sabotaged. Students would aim to
achieve the goal without knowing the reward, in case the student was not interested in the reward
selected.
The study consisted of six students in elementary students from low income families who
were reported as having homework difficulties. The students baseline data were determined for
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 20


math, reading comprehension, and spelling. Students were assigned homework in each academic
area and the teachers measured the percentage correct for each of the six students. The teacher
ensured that she completed a checklist to ensure integrity. Students who would not turn in
homework would receive a zero and loss of recess privileges. Homework assigned was the same
for all participants and the intervention targeted reading comprehension first since this was the
poorest in homework performance (Reinhardt et al., 2009).
The results of this study indicate that, with respect to homework accuracy, participants
improved reading comprehension, mathematics, and spelling. Educators were able to analyze
data that indicated students were able to maintain or improve in each of the academic areas. This
study found that students may continue developing appropriate study habits and time-
management skills due to the intervention, since students worked hard to improve in all three
academic areas. Only one student declined during the spelling intervention, but a reason could
have been that the student was experiencing family stressors (Reinhardt et al., 2009). This
studys strength is that implementing randomized group contingencies and reinforcers aided in
students improving homework performance. By the students not knowing what subject, criteria,
or reinforcers would be selected, students were required to maintain and improve homework
accuracy in all areas. Several limitations also arose in the study, in that even though students
improved in homework performance, there is no way of knowing if students received assistance
by peers or family members to complete homework assignments. If students homework was
completed by someone else, then these actions certainly impacted the studys results.
Furthermore, in a study conducted by Cooper, Lindsay, Nye & Greathouse, (1998),
students were given a questionnaire in order to determine the amount of homework assigned as
well as to determine homework completion and students perceptions about homework. A total
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 21


of 709 students were surveyed along with 82 teachers and parents. Along with collection data
from questionnaires, the students academic achievement measures were collected. In order to
attain accurate data, triads had to be established where data was obtained from students, teachers,
and at least one parent of each student. There were 709 complete triads in this study from grades
2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 who agreed to participate in the study. A question included in the
questionnaire asked how much homework the teacher assigned each night, how much of their
assigned homework the student finished and how they felt in general about the homework
assigned. Results indicated that students in the lower grades averaged 15-30 minutes of
homework a night whereas students in the upper grades averaged doing homework for 30-60
minutes a night. In addition, the study revealed that homework completion as reported by parents
was 75% and 65% by students in the lower grades. Unfortunately, it was inappropriate to
compare homework completion by parents and students in the upper grades since students
reported homework completion in one subject and parents reported homework completion in all
subject areas. In addition, for attitudes towards homework, it was found that there was a positive
correlation between student and parent attitudes in both lower and upper grades. It was
determined in this study that there was a weak relation between the amount of homework
assigned and student achievement, but there was a positive relation between the amount of
homework that students completed and academic achievement, especially in the upper grades. A
strength about this study is that data supports great benefits of homework for students in the
lower grades. Homework helps young students learn study habits that can have a strong, long-
term effect when students move into higher grades. In addition, the frequency of completed
homework assigned by lower grade students also predicts student grades, standardized test scores
(Cooper et al., 1998).
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 22


An implication about this study is that the parents who agreed to participate in this study
were volunteers who are more than likely to be positively involved in their childrens academics
(Cooper et al., 1998). Families that are not represented in this study are parents who are not
White or who are of low-income. In order to understand how to better meet the needs of diverse
students, it is suggested that future studies involve families and students from different
backgrounds and abilities.
Effectiveness of Homework Feedback
In a study conducted by Elawar and Corno (1985), teachers were trained to provide
constructive criticism through written feedback on students math homework. According to
Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik and Morgan (1991), providing feedback to students in the form of
explanations to students positively affects achievement. The teachers in the study conducted by
Elawar and Corno (1985) received training three times a week for 10 weeks where teaching
strategies were developed for use in math with the experimental group. The training consisted of
lectures, demonstrations, open discussions, and exercises. Teachers were trained to focus on four
questions when reviewing student homework such as: (a) what is the key error; (b) what is the
reason the student made the error; (c) how can students be guided to avoid the error in the future;
and (d) what did the student do well that could be noted. Each teacher provided feedback on each
of the students homework assignments.
The results indicated that the constructive feedback increased student scores on the
achievement posttest more so than students who were in the control groups in mathematics.
Overall, the results from this study indicate that feedback from the teachers on students
homework has been very effective in improving student achievement. In addition, students in the
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 23


experimental group also demonstrated more positive attitude scores towards the math homework
than students in the control group. The major findings that resulted from this study are that the
effectiveness of teacher training improves student achievement and attitude. The study also
showed that the treatment produced positive effects on student learning and that the type of
written feedback provided a new approach for students to learn from their errors. Students
success in mathematics homework can be seen in this study where constructive feedback is a
critical component by the teacher (Elawar & Corno, 1985). Strengths of this study are that
teacher training was effective in improving students achievement and attitudes towards
homework. In addition, regardless of student abilities, the treatment used in the study
demonstrated positive effects on students learning. It is claimed that conducting the study in a
natural setting providing constructive written feedback on homework served as a way for student
to learn from their errors therefore enhancing academic achievement.
In another study by Hattie and Timperley (2007), the power of teacher feedback was
investigated in relation to student learning and achievement. Even though feedback is a major
component of success, the type of feedback that teachers give to students is crucial. Hattie and
Timperley (2007) investigated type of feedback, and specifically whether providing more
positive feedback than negative feedback made an impact in improving student learning and
achievement. Students who received more negative feedback set higher performance goals than
students who received more positive feedback or no feedback at all. Therefore as educators, if
we want our students to advance and improve in homework completion and accuracy, it is
essential for teachers to provide more negative (indicating the weak points in homework) and
constructive feedback where students can have the opportunity to see their mistakes and achieve
mastery in academic areas. A strength in this study is that if teachers give constructive feedback,
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 24


students can benefit through this feedback in order to question and reflect on what they already
know and therefore continue seeking feedback for future learning.
Conversely, even though constructive feedback provided to students is powerful to
enhance academic achievement, it is reported by Hattie and Timperley (2007) that teachers have
only completed only a part of the equation. In order for feedback to be beneficial, students need
to use the feedback to self-assess and evaluate the feedback that leads to mastery and
understanding. It is only when students are committed to using the feedback that students can
accomplish learning and actually benefit from teacher feedback. Giving feedback is not the
complete answer to enhancing student achievement. Teachers need to ensure that they are
elaborating on poorly understood concepts through their instruction.
Homework Perceptions
Bryan and Nelson (1994) surveyed 1,527 students in elementary and junior high about
their homework experiences. Of these students, 1, 242 were in regular education, 234 students
were in resource and 51 students were in a self-contained classroom. The experiences and views
of teachers, parents, and students were analyzed in an attempt to determine different homework
perspectives. The study took place in eight elementary schools and two junior highs. Bryan and
Nelson (1994) claimed that homework is correlated with student academic success; therefore all
students, regardless of being in a regular, resource and self-contained classrooms should be
assigned consistent and meaningful homework assignments. This study helped the researchers
understand students views and perspectives, since, according to Bryan and Nelson (1994), most
homework opinions come from parents and teachers. Surveys were conducted in order to
determine the: (a) number of days homework was assigned per week; (b) number of minutes of
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 25


homework assigned each day; and (c) types of homework assigned (Bryan & Nelson, 1994). The
students also reported different opinions such as if they thought they learned a lot from doing
homework on a scale from 1 to 3, 1 being always and 3 being never.
Based on the data collected in this study, it was determined that homework experiences
varied dramatically, therefore the amount of homework, amount of time spent, and type of
homework varied between several different classes (i.e., regular, resource, and special education
classrooms). Students reported varying experiences at different grade levels as well. Special
education students reported having less homework than other students. Students in the lower
grades felt they were perceived as not being ready for homework since they did not get assigned
as much homework as those in older grades. In addition, students in resource and in self-
contained special education classrooms felt they should be provided with higher quality
homework in order to advance academically and catch up with their peers. Their negative
feelings and opinions suggest that student understand the difference and value the effectiveness
of homework assignments, the nature of assignments, and the helpful feedback that is given
(Bryan & Nelson, 1994).
The strength of this study is that data covers students homework perspectives from
grades fourth to eight grade in various abilities coming from regular, resource, and self-contained
classrooms covering a few learning disabled students, emotional and behavioral disorders, and
mentally handicapped students. A limitation of this study is that the surveys in this school-wide
project were conducted anonymously, therefore many questionnaires were incomplete. It was
also difficult to determine which classes the students were in, whether if they were in regular,
resource, or special education. Bryan & Nelson (1994) claim that the classification of students
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 26


had to be estimated based on school records, possibly making a great impact on the results
attained during the study of students homework perceptions and opinions.
Conclusion
The articles presented allow the reader to understand the importance of implementing
homework to produce lifelong learners. As stated in the journals, facilitating parental
involvement at home can positively influence student learning, regardless of how motivated
students are and academic level. Other factors to consider are ensuring student success is for
educators to assign meaningful homework by providing constant feedback. Research also
suggests offering positive reinforcements to increase homework quality and completion to
ultimately enhance academic achievement.



EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 27


Chapter 3
Methods
Participants and Sampling
The study consisted of 6 parents of PK students who received teacher training on how to
support their child at home through meaningful teacher assigned homework. The students were
enrolled in a Bilingual Pre-Kindergarten classroom in a public suburb elementary school. The
students were English language learners whose native language was Spanish, as well as their
parents. Selection of participants was based on who agreed to be part of the study and was
willing to receive teacher training and support. The training was conducted during and after
school in our current Pre-K classroom and was conducted in Spanish.
Permission from Humble Independent School District was requested after receipt of
approval from the UST Human Subjects Review Committee. Once permission was granted by
the district, the Pre-K parents were asked to be part of the study, as well as their children, and the
researcher asked for their formal written consent. During our face-to-face meeting, the purpose
of the study was discussed and consent for student participation was also obtained using the
minor consent form. Parents were also asked to participate in the research where voluntary
participation was addressed. Parents were informed that refusal to participate could occur at any
time during the study. Parents were also informed that stopping participation would involve no
penalty or loss of benefits. There were no ethical issues or risks involved during this research.
However, if any participant expressed distress, the researcher would escort the participant to the
school counselor for support. During and after the study, the researcher ensured that participant
information was kept confidential in the password secured Frog Street Assessment website and
the documents used were kept in a secure and locked file-cabinet where only the researcher and
research professor would have access to.
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 28



Measures
The instrument used to measure student achievement was our district adopted Frog Street
Pre K Assessment as well as anecdotal observations that were recorded on a Pre-K assessment
checklist created by the PK grade-level team. The researcher was able to analyze student
achievement using the district grade-level assessments. The results were used to determine the
effectiveness of parental homework support in students whose parents received teacher training
in relation to the control group of children whose parents did not receive teacher training on how
to effectively support students at home with successful homework completion. During the
training, parents gained an understanding of program goals and skills that were assessed (i.e.,
such as letters and sounds, rhyme and alliteration, vocabulary, sentence structure, numerals and
counting, patterns and shapes, operations, and social-emotional development). A function used
from the Frog Street Pre K Assessment was the automated practice cards specifically designed
for each child who needs more reinforcement. These cards were based on each childs responses
to the assessment. In addition, parents were presented with data in organized charts and graphs
that illustrated the present levels and the needed pathways for improving learning on specific
tasks. Each chart and graph was differentiated for each child and parents received information on
their childs strengths and weaknesses to reinforce at home. Most importantly, parents were
guided through specific teaching strategies and techniques with descriptions on how they can
help with each skill that was assessed and taught in Pre-K. Finally, parents were provided tasks
to complete at home that was purposeful and engaging to students.


EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 29


Design
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of parental homework
support on student achievement. Parents of 6 students received teacher training who were
involved in offering support to their children at home through teacher assigned homework.
Therefore the hypothesis was if parental homework support increases, the achievement of
students whose parents receive training would also increase in comparison to those students
whose parents did not receive parental training. Using a Quasi experimental design allowed for
the comparison of the academic achievement between students whose parents offered homework
support through teacher training and those whose parents did not receive training. The instrument
used to measure student achievement was our district adopted assessment and grade-level
assessment for our grade-level.
Procedure
In this study, all participants were pretested with the district PK Frog Street Assessment.
Parents who agreed to be participants of the study received homework training and skills
development for five weeks. After the training sessions were complete, all students in both the
treatment and control groups were post-tested using the PK Frog Street Curriculum Assessment.
The obtained data was used to compare student scores from both groups of parents, those who
got trained and those who were not. The data collection process and the review of data began in
February of 2014 and continued through March of 2014 using our PK Frog Street Assessment as
well as anecdotal observations.
Data Analysis Plan
A one-way between-subject ANCOVA was utilized to examine the strength of
association of the post-test scores between treatment and control groups. The impact of the
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 30


predictor variable of parent training vs. no training was examined. The outcome variable was
student test scores on the posttest PK Frog Street Assessment. Pretest data was utilized to
examine the potential equivalency or lack of equivalency of the groups. In the end, the groups
were compared to determine whether or not the students of trained parents scored higher than the
students of untrained parents.
The PK Frog Street Curriculum Assessment stores personal information and assessment
data that is password secured on the Frog Street Assessment website. The documents that were
used to record observations were kept in a secured and locked file cabinet and any unnecessary
paper records were shredded. The data maintained in the PK Frog Street Curriculum Assessment
was kept in the system at the end of the study, accessible to Humble Independent School District,
Frog Street Press, the researcher, and the research professor. The researcher secured the
documents on anecdotal observations for five years in a locked file cabinet from the start of the
research and data will not be used again in the future. During the study, data were organized in
each students file and was frequently analyzed to monitor students progress and academic
achievement.








EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 31


Chapter 4
Results
Procedure
The study was conducted in order to support and train students parents on ways to
reinforce learning through homework activities and strategies to implement, especially for
beginner parents, with children in school for the first time. This study gave parents the
opportunity to be involved in the academic lives of their children, in effort to enhance students
learning development. As shown by Table 1 in the appendix, six parents accepted to attend five
sessions and be part of the study while the rest of the PK parents, 16, were not able to participate.
Many parents not able to participate in the study expressed their interest but regrettably could not
attend the sessions due to difficult circumstances such as lack of transportation, child-care and
conflicting work schedules.
Parent Training Sessions
The six parents identified in Table 2 (see appendix) as parents A-G were informed that
the research would likely improve homework performance and academic achievement.
Therefore, if parental involvement increased, then it would positively impact their children.
Parents received training once a week, discussing activities and strategies in each session to
implement at home for a total of five weeks/sessions. The parent sessions were held in the same
location during school hours or after school, where parents received information and knowledge
from various topics already taught in class. As stated in Table 2, the topics discussed in sessions
one thru five were as follows: (a) rhyming words; (b) alliteration; (c) words in a sentence; (d)
division of syllables; (e) onset and rime. One can also find which of the parent in the study, A, B,
C, D, E or F attended which sessions. The purpose of the topics was to reinforce and strengthen
educational deficits and scaffold student learning based on each students needs. Each topic was
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 32


appropriate for our PK students grade level, and all topics emphasized in phonological
awareness. In addition to emphasizing phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge, lessons
were developed that focused in developing listening comprehension strategies and vocabulary
knowledge. As stated by Dickinson, Coty & Smith (1993), it is imperative to provide a strong
foundation for our early learners in building background knowledge, vocabulary, and
comprehension strategies. Parents received customized practice cards on what their child had not
mastered based on the pre-test Frog Street Assessment results. Parents were grateful to receive
inexpensive yet effective materials from the teacher that was explained step-by-step on how to
effectively use at home. Parents showed gratitude for learning multiple ways to utilize materials
that could be modified for specific academic needs. It was necessary to hold these sessions
because the parents not only felt supported but also learned how to effectively help their children
grow academically. In the end, analyses allowed them to collaboratively compare before and
after pie graph results for their own childs level.
Data Analysis Procedure
A one-way ANCOVA for independent samples was utilized to compare students post
test scores from the parent training vs. no training groups. The concomitant variable (CV) was
the pretest scores, while the dependent measure was our Pre-Kindergarten Frog Street
Assessment Scores. ANCOVA calculated the post-test Observed Means and the Adjusted
Means. One can graphically see in Table 3 the post-test Observed and Adjusted Means for all
students in the Pre-K program, divided into two different groups, those with no parental support
and those with parental support. The six students mean average who participated in the study
was 77.17% while the students mean average who did not participate in the study was a lower
score of 71.31%. In addition, the ANCOVA calculated the Adjusted Mean average indicating the
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 33


average of 78.67% for those in the study while the Adjusted Mean for students not in the study
was a lower score of 70.75%.
Furthermore, Table 4 indicates the ANCOVA summary supporting the fact that there
was a significant effect of the training program on student achievement when controlling for
their preprogram level of achievement F (1, 19) =4.14, p=.0296.
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 34


Chapter 5
Interpretation of Findings
Unquestionably, the results of this study support the original hypothesis, proving that
while parents are offered homework support, it significantly increases the achievement of Pre-K
students. Certainly, all students improved in academic achievement, however, students of parents
who received homework support and training certainly reached higher academic achievement in
comparison to Pre-K students whose parents did not receive parental homework support training.
The Quasi experimental design successfully measured the impact of parental homework on
student success and academic achievement in school by comparing the scores of students who
have parents who participated in a parental homework support program to the scores of students
who had untrained parents.
When patiently carrying out the parental training sessions and planning activities that was
individualized for each students academic need, effective improvements resulted along with
parental involvement consistent to previous literature as found in Gajria and Salend (1995),
which found that students are able to understand class content and are better able to retain taught
concepts, boosting academic success, with the use of assigned homework. These findings
counter the claims made by Theodore et al. (2009) that in order for students to successfully
complete homework and bolster achievement, students homework must be verified each day to
determine competition and homework accuracy. Since my study involved four-year old students,
parents were required to select from a list of homework activities and record at least four
activities that needed to be completed on a weekly basis. Along with listing four activities, the
parents had to give a weekly quiz at home to determine how well the student understood the
activity. This is consistent with previous literature reported by Theodore, claiming that if
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 35


students homework is verified each day to determine completion through the submission of
assignments at the beginning of class, homework accuracy increased as well as the measure of
correctly spelled words. In addition to having parental support and taking careful measures to
ensure homework completion, this study required the researcher to give constructive feedback
that was individualized to each parent regarding his/her child. The effectiveness of homework
feedback is critical, as this finding is supported by Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik and Morgan
(1991), reporting that it is critical to provide feedback to students, in my current research giving
feedback to parents to improve their skills in ways to support their child in homework at home in
the form of explanations to positively affect achievement.
Furthermore, the students in the study showed drastic interest in learning, not only for
receiving support from their teacher but also by their loved one, their parent. The format of
homework was adjusted to address the academic need of each student, considering each students
interest that had an effect in positively molding attitudes towards school, while creating a
learning environment where students made connections with what had been taught in class,
closely tied to the curriculum. The efforts to reinforce previously taught concepts while sparking
students interests was visible in this study, as similar conducted by Martin & Potter (1998),
claiming that students gain interest and their attitudes are positively molded when teachers
accommodate students learning according to their preferences.
Strengths and Limitations
This research project would not have been made possible by the dedication and parental
responsibility and commitment in carrying out requirements requested to make the latter effect of
this study valid. A strength in the study is that for the most part, all six participants attended the
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 36


required 4 sessions, with the exception of parent D but requested session information and an
informal follow up. Furthermore, another strength of the study was my previous experience in
teaching for six years in the Pre-K classroom. I was able to target specific student needs, in
conjunction with parental support, and focus on the effect of homework activities, while
comparing experiences learned from trial and error from previous years to the next school year.
Even though the hypothesis of the study was supported and findings were in favor to
students academic progress, the validity of the results is fairly limited to the population in my
Pre-K classroom. A factor to consider is that the participants were not randomly selected,
suggesting limitations in our sampling group for diversity. In addition, students in our program
qualify based on criteria mandated by the state and our school district, where not all students
who register are able to participate in the program. With this being mentioned, it is difficult to
generalize the obtained research to other Pre-K students in other Pre-K settings due to the small
number of participants.
Recommendations and Action Planning
Based on the results of the study, a recommendation I would make for future research
would be to offer ample opportunities and times for parental homework training sessions.
Offering parental training sessions at different times of the day would also enable working
parents to participate in the study, increasing the sampling size to broaden our data. Another
recommendation would be to have a research assistant to offer support where needed, such as
being available Pre-K sibling child-care for parents to comfortably attend homework training
sessions with the researcher without disruptions. This support will enable more parents to agree
to participate more freely and commit to attend the homework training sessions.
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 37


This study has helped me see concerns and frustrations parents often go through in
regards to their childs education which can be a great asset to try to support and understand
future parents in my educational career. After the thirty minute sessions were complete and
parents were dismissed, parents would stay in the parent group extending the session to an hour
long session. Since time was available, parents shared their personal experiences, venting out
with other parents while learning from other parents advice and suggestions in how to improve
in regards to their childrens education. In order to expand my future research and determine if
my hypothesis is supported in other classroom settings, I would want to include other Pre-
Kindergarten classrooms from our campus and other Pre-Kindergarten classroom from other
campuses in our school district. I can envision the homework trainings being utilized and applied
to other Pre-Kindergarten classroom because of the positive results other families and students
can benefit from. Having a control and experimental Pre-K group in our campus as well as at
other campuses in our school district can definitely be a way to determine if the effectiveness of
parental homework support on pre-Kindergarten student achievement is achievable by broaden
our sampling size.







EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 38


References
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of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 213-238.
Bennett, S., & Kalish, N. (2006). The case against homework: How homework is hurting our
children and what we can do about it. New York: Crown.
Bryan, T., & Nelson, C. (1994). Doing homework: Perspectives of elementary and junior high
school students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27(8), 488.
Callahan, K., Rademacher, J. A., & Hildreth, B. L. (1998). The effect of parent participation in
strategies to improve the homework performance of students. Remedial & Special
Education, 19(3), 131.
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about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student
achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 70-83.
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work: After-school programs for homework assistance. Educational Psychologist, 36(3),
211-221.
Dickinson, D. K., Coty, L, & Smith, M. (1993). Learning vocabulary in preschool: Social and
discourse contexts effecting vocabulary growth. New Directions for Child Development,
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Eccles, J.S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of
Psychology,53, 109-132.
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Elawar, M. C., & Corno, L. (1985). A factorial experiment in teachers' written feedback on
student homework: Changing teacher behavior a little rather than a lot. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 77, 162-173.
Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers' roles in designing
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disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 291-297.
Gill, B., & Schlossman, S. (2000). The lost cause of homework reform. American Journal of
Education, 109(1), 27-62.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational
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Iflazoglu, A., & Hong, E. (2012). Relationships of homework motivation and preferences to
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Knollmann, M., & Wild, E. (2007). Quality of parental support and students' emotions during
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Reinhardt, D., Theodore, L. A., Bray, M. A., & Kehle, T. J. (2009). Improving homework
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EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 41


Appendix
Appendix A Table 1: Parent Support vs. Non-Parent Support Participants
Appendix B Table 2: Parent Session Attendance and Topics
Appendix C Table 3: Post-Test Means
Appendix C Figure 1: Post-Test Means
Appendix D Table 4: ANCOVA Summary





EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 42


Appendix A

Table 1
Parent Support vs. Non-Parent Support Participants
Group Total
Parent Support 6
Non-Parent Support 16





























EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 43



Appendix B

Table 2
Parent Session Attendance and Topics
Session Training Topics Parent A-G in Attendance
1 Rhyming Words Parent A, B, C, D, E, F
2 Alliteration Parent A, B, C, E, F
3 Words in a Sentence Parent A, B, C, D, E, F
4 Division of Syllables Parent A, B, D, E, F
5 Onset and Rime Parent A, B, C, E, F


EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 44


Appendix C

Table 3
Post-Test Means
Observed Means Adjusted Means
No Parental Support n=16 71.31 70.75
Parental Support n=6 77.17 78.67
Total n=22 72.90 72.91




Figure 1. Post-Test Means for No Parental Support group and Parental Support group.

71.31
77.17
72.9
70.75
78.67
72.91
n=16 n=6 n=22
No Parental Support Parental Support Total
Post-Test Means
Observed Means Adjusted Means
EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTAL HOMEWORK SUPPORT 45


Appendix D

Table 4
ANCOVA Summary
Source SS df MS F P
Adjusted Means 272.72 1 272.72 5.53 0.029634
Adjusted Error 936.52 19 49.29
Adjusted Total 1209.24 20