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SUBJECT_________EXPT. NO. ____________DIV__________ ROLL NO. _______
AIM: Generation and reception of QPSK and its spectral analysis.
specification ;
1. power supply requirement: 230 V !" #0$%.
2. &uilt in '! &ased power supply.
3. on &oard modulation di(ital data si(nal (eneration to (enerate any
&inary input word wit) &it cloc* + word cloc*.
,ord len(t) : - &it.
,ord !loc* .requency : 10 K$%.
/ata .ormat : 012" 3ipolar 012.
4. modulation type : &alanced modulator.
#. demodulator type: &alanced modulator" P55 and squarer circuit.
6. ll parts are soldered on sin(le P!3 of si%e 127 8 97 wit) complete circuit
dia(ram screen:painted.
;. Standard ccessories: 1. trainin( manual.
2. connectin( patc) cords.
<)is trainer )as &een desi(ned wit) a =iew to pro=ide practical>e8periment
*nowled(e of QPSK modulation >demodulation tec)nique as practically
implement in di(ital communication system on a sin(le pc&.
Theory of QPSK:
QPSK is t)e quadratic p)ase s)ift *eyin(.in t)is type of system t)e
data (roup is di=ided into two or more &its and eac) (roup of &its and
eac) (roup of &its is respectecd &y t)e specific =alue of amplitude
fruquncy or p)se of t)e carrier.
QPSK is an e8ample of multile=elp)se modulation.
'n QPSK system two sussesi=e &its in t)e &it stream com&ine
to(et)er to form messs(e and eac) mess(e is represent &y t)e
distinct =alue of p)ase s)ift of t)e carrier.
<)e sym&ol and correspondin( p)ase s)ift are represent &elow:

Sym&ol P)ase
00 0
01 90
10 1-0
11 2;0
?at)ematical representation of QPSK:
V@QPSKA@tABsqrt@2PsAcos@wctC@2mC1A@DA mB0"1"2"3"EE
3y su&stitutin( t)e =alue of m from 0 to 3 we (et 4 messe(es
i.e. =@QPSKABs1Bsprt @2PsAF cos @,c CD>4A mB0
=@QPSKABs1Bsprt @2PsAF cos @,c C3D>4A mB1
similarly we can o&tain QPSK output for mB2"mB3
!'1!G'< /H<'5S I. QPSK ?I/G5<'I0 + /H?I/G5<'I0S:
<)e QPSK modulation and demodulation system consist of followin(
1. 'nput data (eneration section.
2. !arrier (eneraton.
3. QPSK modulation usin( &alanced modulators.
4. QPSK demodulators
#. /ata squarer and summer section.
6. Power supply section.
@1A Diita! Data "eneration Section::
<o (enerate QPSK si(nal input di(ital modulatin( si(nal is required. <)is
section (enerates t)is di(ital data si(nal.
't consists of many di(ital '!Js. <)e carrier cloc* of 1.2- ?$% is (enerate &y
'! ;4$!04. <)e 1K pot is used to =ary t)e carrier cloc* @c*A frequency. <)is
!K frequency is di=ided &y 16 to produce &it cloc* @3KA of -0K$%. <)is &it
cloc* frequency is di=ided &y - to (enerate word cloc* @,KA of 10 K$%.
<)en a word of - &it data is (enerated usin( /:..s and ei()t data
(eneratin( pus) switc)es &y pus)in( different pus) switc)es different data
word can &e (enerated. <)is data word is called 012 data.
<)is 012 data is spitted into odd and e=en data &it stream. w)ic) are
*nown as 'n:p)ase @'A and 90de(ree out of p)ase @QA data &y '! 4013"
402; and 40#2. Hac) pus) switc) control one &it from 5S3 to ?S3 =i%. /1
to /-. <)ese ' and Q @'n:p)ase and 90dec out of p)ase dataA si(nal are
(i=en to QPSK modulation section.
@2A Carrier "enerator:#
<)e function of t)is section is to produce two 90de(ree out of p)ase sine
wa=e si(nal referred as Q1 @0A de(ree and Q2 @90Ade(ree. <)eses Q1 @0A
and Q2 @90A si(nals are (enerates from data carrier si(nal for
sync)ronisation. <)e carrier si(nal @1.2- ?$%Ais applied at t)e input of t)is
section from data (eneration section. 'ts p)ase is s)ifted &y p)ase splitter
coil. <)e p)ase control pot controls t)e de(ree of p)ase s)ift of from carrier
p)ase. <)e (ain control t)e amplitude of Q1 and Q2 si(nals.
@3$ QPSK %o&'!ator 'sin (a!ance& %o&'!ator ::
<wo &alanced modulator are used to (enerate QPSK si(nals. <)e
&alanced modutor )as two input. <)e output of &alanced modulators is
multiplication of t)ese two input.
'! 1496 is used as &alanced modulator. <)e modulatin( si(nals is
connected at pin1 t)rou() &uffer transister. <)e second input is connected
at pin- t)rou() couplin( capacitor. <)e modulated output are a=aila&le at
pin 12 and 6 of t)is '!. w)ic) are t)en &alanced and multiplied &y four
transistors. <)e final &alanced modulated output is a=aila&le at output
terminals. preset 1K and 10K are adKusted &alancin( input and carrier
si(nals. 1K preset is used to adKust output %ero /! le=els.
<)e &alanced modulator )as two input si(nals :Q1 @0Adec(ree from carrier
p)ase splitter and 'n p)ase si(nals form data (enerators. Second &alanced
modulator )as two input si(nals Q2 @90A from carrier p)ase splitter @90A out
of p)ase si(nal @QA from data (enerators. <)e output of eac) &alaced
modulators are PSK si(nals. t)is PSK si(nals are added to produce QPSK
modulated si(nal
@4A QPSK De%o&'!ater ::
<wo &alanced modulator are used to demodulate QPSK si(nal. <)e
&alanced modulator circuit is same as =e. .irst &alanced modulator is (i=en
two si(nal as QPSK modulated si(nals from modulator section and
reco=ered 0 de(ree p)ase carrier si(nal 1 01 from carrier reco=ery section.
<)e second &alanced modulator is (i=en two input si(nals as QPSK
modulated si(nal from modulator section and reco=ered 90 de(ree p)ase
carrier si(nal 102 from carrier reco=ery section.
<)e output of &ot) &alance modulators are raw data si(nals for ' and Q
si(nals. <)is raw data si(nals t)en (i=en data squarer and summer section.
@#$ Data s)'arer an& s'%%er section :#
<)e output &ot) &alanced modulator are (i=en to data squarer section to
(enerate raw data si(nal 1' and 1Q. <)is two si(nals are added to produce
reco=ered 012 data &y summer circuit.
'!311 is used to con=ert raw data into pure transient free pure di(ital data.
<)e t)res)old %ero le=el is &y two 10K preset. <)e output is a=aila&le at pin
<)e reco=ered 'Q si(nals are t)en multiple8ed to reco=er ori(nal 012 data
&y '!40#3. <)e samplin( si(nal for multiple8er '! is &it cloc*" w)ic) is
reco=ered &y &it cloc* reco=ery section.
<)e &it cloc* reco=ery section consists of P55 '!4046" dual consta&le
@'!;4123A. <)e &it si(nal is reco=ered from ' and Q si(nal.
@6A Po*er s'pp!y section :#
<)e re(ulated power supply is used for different supply =olta(es.
.ollowin( output /.! =olta(es are required to operate QPSK modulation
and demodulation system.
C1# =olt" 2#0 m" :1# =olt" 2#0m" C#=olt" 2#0m ":# =olt" 2#0 m.
<)ree terminal re(ulator are used for different output =olta(es i.e '!;-0#
for C# =olt" '!;-1# for C1# =olt" '!;91# for :1# =olt + '!;90# for :# =olt.
<)is '! are supplied different /.! input =olta(es &y two &rid(e rectifier
consistin( of /1 to /4 + /# to /- and two 1000>2# H! + 1000>10 H!. <)e
capacitors at eac) input and eac) output are for filterin( purpose.
3loc* dia(ram::

1. First apply any digital word by pushing push switches in data
generator section. e.g.11001100
2. This digital word is NRZ data, which can be observed at NRZ DT
output ter!inal.
". #onnect #R$ channel 1 at carrier cloc% &#%' so%et an observe it
(. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at bit cloc% &)%' so%et an observe it
*. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at word cloc% &+%' so%et an observe it
,. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at NRZ data&NRZ' so%et an observe it
-. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at 1 signal #R$ channel 2 at . signal and
observe their relationship . prove that this are even and odd bit data
applying the di//erent data by push swiches
0. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at RF carrier so%et observe it
1. #onnect #R$ channel 1 and 2 at 01 02 signal resp.&in carrier
generator section' andobserve their 10 degree out o/ phase
10. Now connect #R$ channel 2 at .234 output o/ .234 !odulator.
#onnect #R$ channel 1 and RF carrier .and observe the relationship
o/ .234 signal and RF carrier signal
11. $bserve .234 output o/ respect to inphase &5' signal by triggering
channel 1 by 5 signal.
12. $bserve .234 output o/ respect to RF carrier by triggering channel 1
by RF carrier signal.
1". $bserve raw data R5 and R. at the output o/ the balance
1(. $bserve recived pure digital 5 and . data at the output o/ data
1*. Finally $bserve recoverd NRZ data at NRZ o7p o/ data co!biner
1,. pply di//erent digital word by pushing push swiches in data
generator and $bserve recovered signal
1-. #onnect #R$ channel 1 at carrier cloc% &#%' so%et an observe it