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BAB 10

PERTANYAAN DISKUSI DAN JAWABAN 1. Bagaimana perubahan evolusioner dan perubahan


revolusioner berbeda? Pham Hoang Hien, MBA, PG. (CSU)
Perubahan evolusioner membuat perubahan incremental konsisten dan menggunakan strategi bottom-
up. Karyawan menyarankan perbaikan. Perubahan evolusioner memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan respon
terhadap perubahan lingkungan. Perubahan revolusioner mengambil langkah-langkah radikal dengan
strategi perubahan top-down. Perubahan revolusioner mengatasi inersia. 2. Apa yang dimaksud dengan
proses bisnis, dan mengapa rekayasa ulang instrumen yang populer perubahan hari ini?Sebuah proses
bisnis adalah setiap fungsi yang melintasi batas-batas fungsional. Reengineering populer saat ini karena
semua organisasi perlu untuk terus mencari cara untuk melakukan hal-hal yang lebih baik untuk
bersaing. Titik awal adalah untuk secara mendasar memikirkan kembali bagaimana tugas selesai. 3.
Mengapa restrukturisasi kadang-kadang diperlukan untuk rekayasa ulang terjadi?
Karena dengan benar-benar memikirkan kembali proses bisnis, struktur yang lebih efisien sering
muncul. Banyak organisasi, misalnya, menggunakan tim kerja yang fleksibel di tempat hirarki
mekanistik. Intinya adalah bahwa organisasi perlu untuk terus mencari proses yang lebih efisien, dan ini
sering melibatkan restrukturisasi hubungan tugas. 4. Apa langkah-langkah utama dalam penelitian
tindakan? Langkah-langkah yang rinci dalam Gambar 10.6 5. Apa pengembangan organisasi, dan apa
tujuannya? Ini adalah serangkaian teknik yang manajer dapat digunakan dalam program penelitian
tindakan mereka untuk meningkatkan kemampuan beradaptasi.Tujuannya adalah untuk meningkatkan
efektivitas organisasi dan untuk membantu orang dalam organisasi mencapai potensi mereka dan
mencapai tujuan mereka. TEORI ORGANISASI BERAKSI Setiap kelompok kecil siswa merupakan salah
satu dari tiga besar produsen mobil dan berencana perubahan untuk tetap kompetitif. Rencana tersebut
meliputi perubahan dari struktur multidivisional ke struktur tim produk lintas-fungsional dan melaksanakan
program manajemen kualitas total. Para siswa harus: 1. Diskusikan hambatan untuk perubahan di tingkat
divisi, fungsional, dan individu. 2. Diskusikan cara untuk mengatasi hambatan untuk berubah untuk
memindahkan organisasi untuk keadaan masa depan yang diinginkan. Membuat Siswa Connection akan
menemukan contoh dari sebuah organisasi mengalami perubahan besar.Mereka menjelaskan mengapa
organisasi membuat perubahan dan apa strategi perubahan adalah. Mahasiswa Dimensi Etis menilai
etika rekayasa ulang, dan sumber-sumber perlawanan ketika akan berarti PHK lebih dari 30% dari
karyawan. Menganalisis Mahasiswa Organisasi meneliti sejauh mana organisasi mereka telah terlibat
dalam upaya perubahan besar. Mereka memeriksa apakah perubahan yang revolusioner, evolusi, dan
apa jenis perubahan yang telah terjadi. KASUS UNTUK ANALISIS Sears Perubahan Again and Again
Kasus ini menjelaskan beberapa perubahan struktural dan pasar utama yang Sears menjalani di awal
1990-an. Kasus ini menunjukkan bagaimana dinamika pasar ritel.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. How do evolutionary change and revolutionary change differ? PHAM
HOANG HIEN, MBA, PG. (CSU)
Evolutionary change makes incremental changes consistently and uses a bottom-up strategy. Employees
suggest improvements. Evolutionary change facilitates learning and response to environmental changes.
Revolutionary change takes radical steps with a top-down change strategy. Revolutionary change
overcomes inertia. 2. What is a business process, and why is reengineering a popular instrument of
change today? A business process is any function that cuts across functional boundaries. Reengineering
is popular today because all organizations need to continuously find ways to do things better in order to
compete. The starting point is to fundamentally rethink how tasks are completed. 3. Why is restructuring
sometimes necessary for reengineering to take place?
Because by completely rethinking a business process, a more efficient structure often emerges. Many
organizations, for example, are using flexible work teams in place of a mechanistic hierarchy. The point is
that organizations need to continuously look for more efficient processes, and this often involves
restructuring the task relationships. 4. What are the main steps in action research? The steps are detailed
in Figure 10.6 5. What is organizational development, and what is its goal? It is a series of techniques that
managers can use in their action research programs to increase adaptability. The goal is to improve
organizational effectiveness and to help people in organizations reach their potential and achieve their
goals. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY IN ACTION Each small group of students represents one of the big
three automakers and plans a change to remain competitive. The plan includes changing from a
multidivisional structure to a cross-functional product team structure and implementing a total quality
management program. The students should: 1. Discuss the obstacles to change at the divisional,
functional, and individual level. 2. Discuss ways to overcome obstacles to change to move the
organization to its desired future state. Making the Connection Students will find an example of an
organization undergoing a major change. They explain why the organization is making the change and
what its change strategy is. The Ethical Dimension Students assess the ethics of reengineering, and the
sources of resistance when it will mean the layoff of over 30% of the employees. Analyzing the
Organization Students examine the extent to which their organization has been involved in major change
efforts. They examine whether the changes are revolutionary, evolutionary, and what types of changes
have been occurring. CASE FOR ANALYSIS Sears Changes Again and Again This case details some
major structural and market changes that Sears underwent in the early 1990s. This case shows how
dynamic the retail market is.
Bab 11

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What factors influence the number of organizations that are founded in
a population? How can pursuing a specialist strategy increase a companys chance of survival? The
number of organizations in a population is determined by the availability of resources. Growth is rapid
when resources are available and slows as resources become scarce. Birth is rapid, as new
organizations increase knowledge and skills tocreate other firms. A surviving organization is a role model
and confers legitimacy, which attracts stakeholders. Increased competition decreases resources, so the
number of births falls. Pursuing a specialist strategy increases survival by developing core competences
to outperform generalists. Specialists provide better customer service and can develop superior products
through a niche strategy. 2. How does r-strategy differ from K-strategy? How does a specialist strategy
differ from a generalist strategy? Use companies in the fast-food industry to provide an example of each
strategy. Answers will vary. An r-strategy is an early entry into the new environment whereas a Kstrategy
is a late entry. Established organizations enter a new environment when uncertainty is reduced.
McDonalds, an early entrant in the fast-food industry, pursued an r-strategy. Wendys, who entered later,
pursued a K-strategy. Specialists pursue a narrow range of resources in one niche; generalists spread
their skills to compete for a broad range of resources in many niches. Taco Bell pursues a niche by
offering lowcost Mexican food. McDonalds pursues a generalist strategy by offering different items, such
as hamburgers, fish sandwiches, and chicken. 3. Why do organizations grow? What major crisis is an
organization likely to encounter as it grows? An organization grows by obtaining resources and
developing core competences. Surplus resources facilitate growth. In the first stage, an organization
experiences a leadership crisis because the founder may lack the skills to manage growth. New
management teams move the firm to the direction stage. In this stage, a crisis of autonomy occurs, as
innovative employees feel frustrated by their lack of decision making. Delegating authority moves the
company to the delegation stage, which brings a crisis of control. Top and functional managers conflict
over control. A balance between centralization and decentralization moves the company to the
coordination stage where it faces a crisis of red tape, which stifles innovation. The final stage is
collaboration. 4. Why do organizations decline? What steps can top management take to halt, decline,
and restore organizational growth? Organizations decline if they fail to manage threats to their survival. In
the birth stage, organizations decline if they cant overcome the liability of newness. In the growth stage,
an organization declines if it fails to manage crises, including the crisis of leadership and red tape.
Sometimes organizations decline because they grow past the point of maximum effectiveness. Once an
organization enters the decline stage, it declines unless top management takes action. In the blinded
stage, top management implements an effective monitoring and information system and takes timely
corrective action. In the inaction stage, management makes changes, such as altering the structure or
downsizing. In the crisis stage, top management initiates a radical reorganization to halt decline. A new
topmanagement team initiates reorganization, which includes streamlining operations. 5. What is
organizational inertia? List some sources of inertia in a company like IBM or GM. Inertia is resistance or
lack of inclination to change. Sources of inertia are risk aversion, the desire to maximize rewards, and an
overly bureaucratic culture. IBM managers avoided the risk of entry into the PC market and concentrated
on mainframes, a source of past success. GM kept producing large cars. Managers at IBM or GM lacked
the incentive to improve effectiveness; pay was not tied to performance. These companies had overly
bureaucratic cultures and tall, centralized structures that stifled innovation. The cultures emphasized the
status quo, not innovation. 6. Choose an organization or business in your city that has recently closed,
and analyze why it failed. Could the organization have been turned around? Why or why not? Answers
will vary. I selected a small carryout seafood place that failed. The owner was successful at one location
and opened a second store. The second store failed due to a poor location and high rent. The first store
was small, and customers placed orders at a window. No seating was available. The building was
inexpensive and had a good location. The second store was in a nice strip mall with little traffic. There
was a crisis of leadership because the founder managed the store and performed all tasks, including
cooking and hiring workers. The organization may have survived had it hired a manager. Moving to a
different location or advertising were options. The founder could have concentrated on core operations
and the menu. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY IN ACTION In small groups, students are top managers of a
growing company that develops web sites for Fortune 500 companies. Although a loose, organic
operating structure has worked well in the past, performance is now decreasing due to lack of
cooperation. Discuss the type of crisis experienced and the changes that should be made to the operating
structure. Consider the problems associated with these changes. Making the Connection Students will
find an example of an organization that is either experiencing a crisis of growth or trying to manage
decline. They will explain how top management is trying to solve the problems. The Ethical Dimension
The decline models illustrate what humans have a tendency to do during times of decline, such as taking
advantage of subordinates, stealing their ideas, or becoming risk
create other firms. A surviving organization is a role model and confers legitimacy, which attracts
stakeholders. Increased competition decreases resources, so the number of births falls. Pursuing a
specialist strategy increases survival by developing core competences to outperform generalists.
Specialists provide better customer service and can develop superior products through a niche strategy.
2. How does r-strategy differ from K-strategy? How does a specialist strategy differ from a generalist
strategy? Use companies in the fast-food industry to provide an example of each strategy. Answers will
vary. An r-strategy is an early entry into the new environment whereas a Kstrategy is a late entry.
Established organizations enter a new environment when uncertainty is reduced. McDonalds, an early
entrant in the fast-food industry, pursued an r-strategy. Wendys, who entered later, pursued a K-strategy.
Specialists pursue a narrow range of resources in one niche; generalists spread their skills to compete for
a broad range of resources in many niches. Taco Bell pursues a niche by offering lowcost Mexican food.
McDonalds pursues a generalist strategy by offering different items, such as hamburgers, fish
sandwiches, and chicken. 3. Why do organizations grow? What major crisis is an organization likely to
encounter as it grows? An organization grows by obtaining resources and developing core competences.
Surplus resources facilitate growth. In the first stage, an organization experiences a leadership crisis
because the founder may lack the skills to manage growth. New management teams move the firm to the
direction stage. In this stage, a crisis of autonomy occurs, as innovative employees feel frustrated by their
lack of decision making. Delegating authority moves the company to the delegation stage, which brings a
crisis of control. Top and functional managers conflict over control. A balance between centralization and
decentralization moves the company to the coordination stage where it faces a crisis of red tape, which
stifles innovation. The final stage is collaboration. 4. Why do organizations decline? What steps can top
management take to halt, decline, and restore organizational growth? Organizations decline if they fail to
manage threats to their survival. In the birth stage, organizations decline if they cant overcome the
liability of newness. In the growth stage, an organization declines if it fails to manage crises, including the
crisis of leadership and red tape. Sometimes organizations decline because they grow past the point of
maximum effectiveness. Once an organization enters the decline stage, it declines unless top
management takes action. In the blinded stage, top management implements an effective monitoring and
information system and takes timely corrective action. In the inaction stage, management makes
changes, such as altering the structure or downsizing. In the crisis

Bab 13
PERTANYAAN DAN JAWABAN PEMBAHASAN
1. Apa hubungan antara kuantum dan perubahan teknologi tambahan? Perubahan
Quantum adalah perubahan dramatis yang menghasilkan inovasi kuantum. Inovasi
mengakibatkan perubahan lingkungan dan memerlukan perubahan
operasional. Perubahan Incremental didasarkan pada perubahan kuantum; inovasi
inkremental memperbaiki inovasi kuantum. Yang pertama Intel microprocessor
adalah inovasi kuantum; penerus inovasi inkremental. Inovasi kuantum lain terjadi
dan restart siklus. 2. Apa hubungan antara kreativitas, intrapreneurship dan inovasi?
Mereka adalah konsep yang sangat mirip. Kreativitas dan inovasi hanya dapat
didefinisikan sebagai melampaui batas-batas saat ini, termasuk menghasilkan ide-ide
baru, menggabungkan atau mensintesis dua atau lebih sebelumnya ide-ide yang tidak
berhubungan, atau memodifikasi produk atau proses untuk membuatnya lebih
baik. Intrapreneur adalah pengusaha di dalam sebuah organisasi yang benar-benar
terlibat dalam proses. Mereka umumnya tertarik dengan organisasi yang memiliki
budaya inovatif yang memungkinkan mereka untuk mengembangkan produk dan
layanan baru. 3. Apakah manajemen proyek? Bagaimana seharusnya manajer
memutuskan proyek yang akan dilakukan?
4. Langkah-langkah apa yang akan Anda ambil untuk membuat (a) struktur dan (b)
budaya menyenangkan untuk inovasi dalam organisasi berteknologi tinggi? (A)
Sebuah organisasi berteknologi tinggi membutuhkan struktur organik untuk
mempromosikan desentralisasi, saling penyesuaian, dan kerjasama lintas-
fungsional; Tim produk dan matriks struktur membuat tim lintas fungsi untuk
mengembangkan produk-produk dari ide ke tahap penjualan. Struktur ini
mempromosikan pemahaman lintas-fungsional dan mengurangi masalah
komunikasi. Karena otoritas didesentralisasikan ke tim, anggota harus bekerja sama
pada proyek. Organisasi informal dapat menangani hambatan terkait
Pham Hoang Hien
Manajemen proyek adalah penerapan teknik manajemen khusus dirancang untuk
membantu anggota dalam organisasi menyelesaikan sebuah proyek. Manajer sering
mencoba untuk mengambil terlalu banyak proyek sekaligus. Mereka perlu
mengembangkan proses untuk mengevaluasi proposal dan memutuskan mana yang
untuk menolak. Tahap-gerbang saluran adalah alat yang baik untuk menentukan
apakah atau tidak suatu proyek atau produk memiliki pasar, menguntungkan, dan
cocok dengan tujuan dan sasaran organisasi.
dengan struktur formal. Mekanisme integrasi lainnya dapat mempromosikan inovasi:
pemimpin tim dan juara produk, "bekerja sigung," divisi usaha baru, dan usaha
patungan. (B) Sebuah organisasi berteknologi tinggi harus fokus pada struktur, orang,
dan hak kekayaan untuk budaya inovatif. Lihat (a) untuk struktur. Orang-orang
berkomitmen untuk inovasi ketika mempertahankan keragaman harus disewa. Hak
milik yang kuat yang penting dengan bonus terkait dengan kinerja individu dan
kelompok. Karyawan yang inovatif harus menerima bonus dan opsi saham sebanding
dengan kontribusi mereka untuk keuntungan. Jalur karir bagi para ilmuwan dalam R
& D dan antara R & D dan fungsi lainnya menyebabkan inovasi.
5. Apa sinergi informasi dan dengan cara apa mereka dapat meningkatkan inovasi? Inovasi dan
Teknologi Informasi
Inovasi dan Informasi Sinergi Sinergi terjadi ketika dua atau lebih individu atau
subunit mampu menyatukan sumber daya mereka dan berkolaborasi melintasi batas-
batas subunit. TI juga memungkinkan untuk lebih kegiatan spanning batas, yang
terdiri dari unit berinteraksi dengan individu di luar organisasi untuk memperoleh
pengetahuan tentang lingkungan.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What is the relationship between quantum and incremental technological change?
Quantum change is a dramatic shift that results in quantum innovations. Innovations
result in
environmental changes and require operational changes. Incremental change builds on
quantum changes;
incremental innovations refine quantum innovations. The first Intel microprocessor
was a quantum
innovation; the successors are incremental innovations. Another quantum innovation
occurs and restarts
cycle.
2. What is the relationship between creativity, intrapreneurship and innovation?
They are very similar concepts. Creativity and innovation can simply be defined as
going beyond the
current boundaries, including generating new ideas, combining or synthesizing two or
more previously
unrelated ideas, or modifying a product or process in order to make it better.
Intrapreneurs are
entrepreneurs inside an organization who actually engage in the process. They are
generally attracted to
organizations that have an innovative culture that allows them to develop new
products and services.
3. What is project management? How should managers decide which projects to
pursue?
Project management is the application of specific management techniques designed to
help members in
organizations complete a project. Managers often try to take on too many projects at
once. They need to
develop a process to evaluate proposals and deciding which ones to reject. The stage-
gate funnel is a
good tool for determining whether or not a project or product has a market, is
profitable, and fits in with
the organizations goals and objectives.
4. What steps would you take to create (a) a structure and (b) a culture congenial to
innovation in a
high-tech organization?
(a) A high-tech organization needs organic structures to promote decentralization,
mutual adjustment,
and cross-functional cooperation; product team and matrix structures create cross-
functional teams to
develop products from the idea to the sales stage. These structures promote cross-
functional
understanding and reduce communication problems. Because authority is
decentralized to teams,
members must cooperate on the project. The informal organization can deal with
obstacles associated
with the formal structure. Other integration mechanisms can promote innovation:
team leaders and
product champions, skunk works, new venture divisions, and joint ventures.
(b) A high-tech organization should focus on structure, people, and property rights for
an innovative
culture. See (a) for structure. People committed to innovation when maintaining
diversity must be hired.
Strong property rights are imperative with bonuses tied to individual and group
performance. Innovative
employees should receive bonuses and stock options proportionate to their
contributions to profits.
Career paths for scientists within R&D and between R&D and other functions lead to
innovation.

Bab 14
PERTANYAAN DAN JAWABAN PEMBAHASAN
1. Mengapa dan dalam kondisi apa bisa konflik baik atau buruk bagi suatu organisasi? Apakah Anda
mengharapkan tingkat yang lebih tinggi dari konflik di mekanistik atau struktur organik? Mengapa? Konflik
bisa baik bagi suatu organisasi dengan mengatasi inersia. Karena ini pandangan yang berbeda manajer
yang berbeda dan pemangku kepentingan, konflik dapat meningkatkan pengambilan keputusan dan
penggunaan sumber daya yang lebih baik. Tanpa kesepakatan tentang prioritas dan alokasi sumber
daya, konflik menyebabkan kinerja menurun. Perundingan atas keputusan membuat keputusan dari yang
dibuat.Konflik lebih tinggi dalam struktur mekanistik karena organisasi tinggi kehilangan kontrol atas
hirarki. Kehilangan hasil kontrol dalam konflik; orang memiliki tanggung jawab pengambilan keputusan,
tetapi tidak memiliki kewenangan dan membutuhkan persetujuan dari orang lain. Struktur organik datar
memberikan karyawan tingkat rendah pengambilan keputusan dan meningkatkan saling
penyesuaian. Struktur organik telah mengintegrasikan mekanisme untuk mempromosikan kerjasama
lintas-fungsional. 2. Anda telah ditunjuk untuk mengelola R & D laboratorium besar. Anda menemukan
tingkat tinggi dari konflik antara ilmuwan di unit. Mengapa mungkin konflik ini akan timbul? Bagaimana
Anda akan mencoba untuk mengatasinya? Konflik ini hasil dari saling ketergantungan tugas. R & D
ilmuwan memiliki saling ketergantungan timbal balik; tindakan yang mempengaruhi tindakan orang
lain. Berbagai kelompok ilmuwan memiliki tujuan yang berbeda dan bersaing untuk sumber daya yang
langka, seperti pendanaan. Saya akan menerapkan struktur organik, seperti struktur tim produk, dengan
desentralisasi kewenangan dan hubungan wewenang yang jelas. Integrasi harus ditingkatkan antara
kelompok. Saya akan mengubah sikap dengan membiarkan pendapat yang akan ditayangkan. 3.
Mengapa penting untuk menjaga keseimbangan kekuasaan antara berbagai kelompok pemangku
kepentingan organisasi? Keseimbangan kekuasaan adalah diperlukan untuk mengelola politik dan
memperoleh manfaatnya. Hal ini memungkinkan untuk alternatif dan dissenting
pandangan. Keseimbangan membantu mengalokasikan sumber daya untuk orang-orang yang dapat
menciptakan nilai yang paling. Sebuah kelompok dengan kekuatan dominan bisa
menyalahgunakannya. Menentang pandangan ditekan, checks and balances menghilang, konflik
meningkat, dan inersia meningkat. Efektivitas menurun. Keseimbangan kekuasaan membantu mencapai
manfaat dari kekuasaan dan politik.4. Apakah kekuasaan tidak mengganggu? Mengapa begitu
penting? Daya tidak mengganggu berasal dari kemampuan untuk mengendalikan tempat pengambilan
keputusan. Subunit dengan minat yang sama membangun koalisi untuk mengejar tujuan bersama dan
menggunakan kekuasaan mereka untuk mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan. Daya Unobtrusive
penting karena koalisi mengontrol asumsi, tujuan, dan norma-norma yang digunakan untuk mengevaluasi
alternatif. Sebuah koalisi yang mendukung diferensiasi tidak akan mempertimbangkan pemotongan
biaya. Daya Unobtrusive penting karena orang lain berpikir bahwa mereka mempromosikan tujuan
organisasi, tetapi mereka sedang dimanipulasi. 5. Bagaimana desain struktur dan budaya organisasi
memberikan beberapa subunit daya lebih?Struktur dan budaya memberikan beberapa subunit
kekuasaan yang lebih melalui kontrol atas sumber daya, informasi, dan sentralitas. Sebuah organisasi
mengontrol sumber daya jika menghasilkan sumber daya. Dalam sebuah perusahaan farmasi, R & D
menghasilkan sumber daya, sehingga memiliki kekuatan. Struktur menentukan subunit yang menerima
informasi. Kontrol atas informasi dapat mengakibatkan pengaruh terhadap pendapat. Sebuah subunit
sangat kuat jika pusat organisasi. Dalam budaya murah, manufaktur pusat. 6. Diskusikan bagaimana
Anda, sebagai manajer dari fungsi R & D di sebuah perusahaan produk kosmetik, mungkin mencoba
untuk meningkatkan kekuatan Anda dan kekuatan subunit Anda untuk mengontrol lebih banyak sumber
daya dalam pertempuran dengan pemasaran dan manufaktur. Saya akan meningkatkan indispensability
dari fungsi R & D dengan meningkatkan nonsubstitutability dan sentralitas. Saya akan memastikan
bahwa fungsi memiliki pengetahuan khusus, seperti bahan untuk produk yang sukses. Aku akan
membuat kontak dengan fungsi untuk membangun jaringan pendukung. Aku akan terlihat oleh manajer
yang kuat dan membangun koalisi untuk mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan dengan mengontrol
agenda.


DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Why and under what conditions can conflict be good or bad for an organization? Would you expect a
higher level of conflict in a mechanistic or an organic structure? Why? Conflict can be good for an
organization by overcoming inertia. Because different managers and stakeholders present different views,
conflict can improve decision-making and use resources better.
Without agreement on priorities and resource allocation, conflict causes performance to decline.
Bargaining over decisions keeps decisions from being made. Conflict is higher in a mechanistic structure
because a tall organization loses control over its hierarchy. Loss of control results in conflict; people have
decision-making responsibility, but lack authority and require approval from others. A flatter organic
structure gives lower-level employees decision-making and promotes mutual adjustment. An organic
structure has integrating mechanisms to promote cross-functional cooperation. 2. You have been
appointed to manage a large R&D laboratory. You find a high level of conflict between scientists in the
unit. Why might this conflict be arising? How will you try to resolve it? This conflict results from task
interdependence. R&D scientists have reciprocal interdependence; the actions of one affect the actions of
others. Different groups of scientists have different goals and compete for scarce resources, such as
funding. I would implement an organic structure, such as a product team structure, with decentralized
authority and clearly defined authority relationships. Integration should be increased between groups. I
would change attitudes by allowing opinions to be aired. 3. Why is it important to maintain a balance of
power between different groups of organizational stakeholders? A balance of power is necessary to
manage politics and obtain its benefits. This allows for alternative and dissenting views. A balance helps
allocate resources to those who can create the most value. A group with dominant power can misuse it.
Opposing views are suppressed, checks and balances disappear, conflict escalates, and inertia
increases. Effectiveness declines. A balance of power helps achieve the benefits of power and politics. 4.
What is unobtrusive power? Why is it so important? Unobtrusive power stems from the ability to control
the premises of decision-making. Subunits with similar interests build coalitions to pursue common goals
and use their power to influence decisionmaking. Unobtrusive power is important because the coalition
controls the assumptions, goals, and norms used to evaluate alternatives. A coalition in favor of
differentiation will not consider cost-cutting. Unobtrusive power is important because others think they are
promoting organizational goals, but they are being manipulated. 5. How can the design of the
organizations structure and culture give some subunits more power? Structure and culture give some
subunits more power through control over resources, information, and centrality. An organization controls
resources if it generates resources. In a pharmaceutical company, R&D generates resources, so it has
power. Structure dictates which subunits receive information. Control over information can lead to
influence over opinions. A subunit is powerful if it is central to the organization. In a low-cost culture,
manufacturing is central. 6. Discuss how you, as manager of the R&D function in a cosmetic products
company, might try to increase your power and the power of your subunit to control more resources in a
battle with marketing and manufacturing. I would increase the indispensability of the R&D function by
increasing nonsubstitutability and centrality. I would ensure that the function had special knowledge, such
as the ingredients to a successful product. I would make contacts with functions to build a network of
supporters. I would be visible to powerful managers and build a coalition to influence decision-making by
controlling the agenda.