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ABSTRACT

This project deals with the design and simulation of solar water pumping
system using watt single phase induction motor. The main scope is to provide an
economic way of water pumping in sub-urban areas. The design and evaluation of
an induction motor-driven water pumping system which is powered by solar panels
is configured in this project. Simulation can be used to study the behavior of
individual components of the system, study the interaction of various components,
or fine-tune the set points of control device. The outputs of the simulation are
available either in numeric or graphical form. The reason why an induction motor
has been chosen is that these motors are cheaper and more robust than the more
conventional DC motors. It is expected that, by using an induction motor, the
system performance will improve significantly for the same investment. The
efficiency of the AC drive for a 350 WP system was found to be 67%, which is
similar to that of DC systems. The source of energy is from a photovoltaic (PV)
module which is a current source.
The Modeling & Simulation of system has been carried out using MATLAB
software. The practical implementation is also done.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
ABSTRACT iv
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF SYMBOLS xi
1. OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT 4
2. PHOTOVOLTAIC MODELLING
2.1 ENERGY AND ITS REQUIREMENT 5
2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF SOLAR CELL 6
2.3 PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS AND POWER 7
GENERATION
2.3.1 Photovoltaic Cell 7
2.3.2 Photovoltaic generator 7
2.4 THE PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT 9
2.5 SOME IMPORTANT DEINITIONS 9
2.6 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SOLAR CELL 11
2.6.1 Ideal Solar Cell 11
2.6.2 Parasitic Resistances 12
2.7 MATLAB MODEL OF A PV SYSTEM 12
2.8 SIMULATION OF A PV MODULE 14
3 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF BUCKBOOST CONVERTER
3.1 NEED FOR CONVERTERS 17
vi
3.2 TYPES OF CONVERTERS 18
3.3 CHOICE OF BUCK BOOST CONVERTER 18
3.3.1. Operation Of Buck Boost Converter 19
3.3.2 The Inverting Topology 19
3.3.3 A Buck Converter Followed By A Boost 20
Converter
3.4 SIMULATION OF BUCK BOOST CONVERTER 21
3.5 SIMULATION RESULTS OF BUCK BOOST 22
CONVERTER
4. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER
4.1 NEED FOR AN INVERTER 23
4.2 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF SINGLE PHASE 24
INVERTERS
4.3 FULL BRIDGE INVERTER 24
4.3.1 Principle Of Operation 24
4.4 APPLICATIONS 28
4.5 MATLAB SIMULINK 28
4.6 SIMULATION RESULTS 29
5 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR
5.1 SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AN 30
INTRODUCTION
5.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 31
5.2.1 Construction 31
5.2.2 Working Principle 32
5.2.3 Double Field Revolving Theory 33
vii
5.3 STARTING OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION 35
MOTORS
5.3.1 Capacitor Start Induction Motor 35
5.4 SIMULATION OF CAPACITOR RUN INDUCTION 36
MOTOR
5.4.1 No Load Test 37
5.4.2 Blocked Rotor Test 37
5.5 SIMULINK MODEL 37
5.6 SIMULATION RESULTS 39
6 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
6.1 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 41
6.2 OPTIONS CONSIDERED 42
6.2.1 Solar Array 42
6.2.2 Converter 42
6.2.3 DC Battery Source 44
6.2.4 Inverter 44
6.2.5 Single Phase Induction Motor 44
6.2.6 Astable Multivibrator 45
6.2.7 Hardware Results 47
7 CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
7.1 CONCLUSION 53
7.2 FUTURE SCOPE 53
viii
APPENDIX I 54
APPENDIX II 57
REFERENCES 58
ix
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
2.1 Photovoltaic array integrated with components 8
For charge regulation and storage
2.2 A solar cell in a simple circuit 10
2.3 Equivalent circuit of an ideal solar cell 12
2.4 Equivalent circuit including series and shunt 13
resistance
2.5 Matlab Simulink diagram of a PV module 14
2.6 V-I and P-V characteristics of PV module at STC 15
2.7 Simulated V-I and V-P Characteristics of SPV 15
module for Various Insolation at Constant Temperature
T=25
0
C
2.8 Simulated V-I and V-P Characteristics of SPV 16
module for Various Temperature at Constant
Insolation G = 1000W/m
2
3.1 Circuit of buck-boost converter 20
3.2 Simulation of buck-boost converter 22
3.3 Output characteristics of buck-boost converter 22
4.1 Mode1 operation of single phase inverter 25
4.2 Mode2 operation of single phase inverter 26
4.3 Mode3 operation of single phase inverter 27
4.4 Mode4 operation of single phase inverter 28
4.5 Simulink model of single phase inverter 29
4.6 Output voltage of single phase inverter 29
5.1 Elementary single phase induction motor 31
x
5.2 Flux Rotation 34
5.3 Torque-speed characteristic of a 1-phase induction 34
motor
5.4 (a) connection; (b) phasor diagram at start 36
5.5 Simulink model of induction motor 38
5.6 T-n characteristics of single phase induction motor 39
5.7 tion motor 39
5.8 Overall matlab simulink circuit 40
6.1 Block diagram of Photovoltaic water pumping system 41
6.2 Arrangement of solar PV array 42
6.3 Hardware model of Buck Boost converter 43
6.4 Inverter and battery setup 44
6.5(a) Water pumping arrangement 45
6.5(b) Practical induction motor 45
6.6 Pcb circuit of an astable multivibrator 46
6.7 Entire setup of the PV water pumping system 47
6.8 Setup of the Induction Motor and the pump. 48
6.9 Astable multivibrator pulses 48
6.10 PIC control pulses 49
6.11 Inverter output voltage and Inverter output current 49
6.12 Battery charging current and Battery discharging current 50
6.13 Battery output voltage 50
6.14 Induction motor output current and output voltage 51
6.15 Induction motor output voltage and current 51
xi
LIST OF SYMBOLS
K - Boltzmanns constant (=1.381x10
-23
J/K)
V
c
- Capacitor voltage of the converter
Q - Charge of electron (=1.602x10
-19
C)
I
D
- Current through the diode in PV model
I
sh
- Current through the shunt resistance
A -
Diode Ideality factor (1< a< 2 for a
single cell)
I
r
-
Diode reverse saturation current in PV
model
D - Duty ratio of converter
I
L
- Inductor current of the converter
G - Insolation level
X
m
-
Magnetizing component of an induction
motor
I
mp
- Maximum output current of PV panel
P
mp
- Maximum Power of PV panel
G
n
- Nominal Insolation level (1000 W/m
2
)
I
pvn
- Nominal photocurrent of PV panel
T
n
-
Nominal Temperature (273K) of PV
panel
V
ocn
-
Nominal value of open circuit voltage of
PV panel
I
scn
-
Nominal value of short circuit current of
PV panel
V
oc
- Open circuit voltage of PV panel
I
ph
-
Photon generated current of the PV
module
xii
xiii
I
pv
- PV panel current
V
pv
- PV panel Voltage
R
r
,L
r
-
Rotor resistance and Inductance of
Induction motor
R
se
- Series Resistance in PV model
I
sc
- Short Circuit current of PV panel
K
i
-
Short-circuit current temperature
Coefficient in PV model
R
sh
- Shunt Resistance in PV model
R
a
,L
a
-
Stator resistance and Inductance of
Induction motor
F - Switching frequency of the converter
T - Temperature
V
ta
- Thermal Voltage (=aKT/q)
J
se
- Short circuit current density
J
dark
- Dark current density
J
o
- Constant
- Efficiency
V
o
- Output voltage of converter
V
s
- Input voltage to the converter
L
1
,C
1
-
Inductance and Capacitance of the
converter
V
oi
- Output voltage from the inverter
V
si
- Input voltage to the inverter
Ns -
Synchronous Speed of the induction
motor
1
CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Water pumping has a long history; so many methods have been developed to
pump water with a minimum of effort. These have utilized a variety of power
sources, namely human energy, animal power, hydro power, wind, solar and fossil
fuels for small generators. Nowadays the electric energy is mostly obtained from
hydroelectric fossil or nuclear plants. In the past decades alternative and renewable
energy sources have deserved a growing interest due to environmental issues.
Considering that traditional energy sources are finite (e.g. petroleum), the costs per
generated kWh are expected to be continuously hiking. On the other hand, the
dissemination of energy generation plants, together with R&D in system
components and processes, pulled the generation costs of alternative energy
sources to levels in many cases competitive with traditional sources. Recent
awareness of global warming and increasing prices of fossil fuels has drawn more
attention towards the usage of renewable energy sources today. Among the various
renewable energy systems, solar energy systems have the merits such as clean
without any environmental pollution problems and infinite in mass, and are
becoming one of our future energies .Using an abundant primary source, the solar
photovoltaic (SPV) cells (associated in photovoltaic modules) convert the radiant
energy from the sun directly into electricity.
2
Albeit the various alternatives, solar energy comes at the top of the list due
to its abundance, and more even distribution in nature than any other renewable
energy such as wind, geothermal, hydro, wave and tidal energies .
Moving on to the solar water pumping system, there is tremendous scope in
this area particularly in India. Because, with about 300 clear, sunny days in a year,
India's theoretical solar power reception, on only its land area, is about 5 Petawatt-
hours per year (PWh / year) (i.e. 5 trillion kWh / year or about 600 TW). The daily
average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh / m
2
with about
15002000 sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more
than current total energy consumption. For example, assuming the efficiency of PV
modules was as low as 10%; this would still be a thousand times greater than the
domestic electricity demand. This would be sufficient as well to meet the
electricity demands in urban areas and electricity requirements for irrigation would
be easily settled.
In this project, DC voltage obtained from solar PV array is boosted up using
a buck-boost converter. The boosted voltage is fed into inverter to make it
alternating in nature and this voltage is fed to induction motor. A centrifugal pump
is driven that is mounted on the same shaft of induction motor. The individual
components mentioned above are discussed in detail in forthcoming chapters.
3
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
In 1993, the paper Optimized solar water pumping system based on
induction motor driven centrifugal pump, by C.V. Nayar , E. Vasu , S.J. Phillips
[11] suggests development of induction motor driven submersible centrifugal
pump formed by two power electronic interfaces , each forming a complete
photovoltaic system.
In 1993, the paper Optimum matching of direct coupled electro
mechanical loads to a photovoltaic generator by K. Khousem and L.Khousem [7]
points out that the performance of photo voltaic pumping system based on an
induction motor are degraded once the insulation varies far from the value called
nominal, where the system was sized.
In 1996, the paper Development for a model for photovoltaic arrays
suitable for use in simulation studies of solar energy conversion systems by J.A.
Gow and C.D. Manning [4] focuses on developing a clean but effective system to
characterize existing cells and generate device-dependent data that links
environmental irradiance , temperature and electrical characteristics.
In 1995, the paper Simulation and Performance of photovoltaic pumping
system by W. Lawrance, B. Richert and T. Langridge [8] describes an efficient
system for pumping water using a Brushless D.C motor driven by PV array.
4
In 2010, the paper A comparative study on performance improvement of a
Photovoltaic pumping system by A. Betka and A. Moussi [1] suggests the
optimal operation of photo voltaic pumping system based on induction motor
driving a centrifugal pump .The optimization problem consists in maximizing the
daily pumped water quantity via the optimization of motor efficiency for any
operating point.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
To design a photovoltaic system that yields maximum efficiency so that this
system can be used in sub urban areas. This project also aims at effective storage.
The effective storage parameters are the volume of tank, height at which the tank is
situated from the ground. So this project mainly focuses on effective storage of
hydraulic energy.
5
CHAPTER 2
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODELLING
2.1 ENERGY AND ITS REQUIREMENT
Energy is the basic unit of life. The existence of mankind is impossible
without energy. This project is concerned about electrical energy. At the present
scenario, the source of electrical energy is only from non-renewable resources.
These resources have been continuously depleted to benefit mankind. However
these non-renewable resources will not be available after a few decades. The only
possible solution is the usage for renewable resources which are abundant in
nature. Amongst the renewable resources the photovoltaic resource has a key role.
This project focuses on utilizing the solar energy in an efficient way for water
pumping in remote areas where electricity is always a major concern. Also solar
PV systems do not require fuel and waste management and have no pollution
problems. A solar cell is used to trap energy from sunlight. In order to process the
power generated by the solar cell, converter is used at the output side of the solar
cell. A buck- boost converter is chosen for water pumping application. The output
voltage of the converter may contain ripples. To reduce these ripples LC filter is
added after the converter. The only disadvantage in using solar PV system is the
rise of initial cost. However researches are being carried on to overcome this.
6
2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF SOLAR CELL
The photo voltaic effect was first reported by Edmund Bequerel in 1839
when he observed that the action of light on a silver coated platinum electrode
immersed in electrolyte produced an electric current. In 1876 William Adams and
Richard Day found that photo current could be produced in a sample of selenium
when heated by two heated platinum contacts. The photovoltaic action of the
selenium differed from its photo conductive action in that a current was produced
spontaneously by the action of light. No external power supply was needed. In
1894, Charles Fritts prepared what was probability the first large area solar cell by
pressing a layer of selenium between gold and another metal. However, it was not
the photo voltaic properties of materials like selenium which excited researchers,
but the photoconductivity.
The fact that the current produced was proportional to the intensity of the
incident light, and related to the wavelength in a definite way meant that
photoconductive materials were ideal for photographic light meters. It was not
until the 1950s, with the development of good quality silicon wafers for
applications in the new solid state electronics, that potentially useful quantities of
power were produced by photovoltaic devices in crystalline silicon. The first
silicon solar cell was reported by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson in 1954 and
converted sunlight with an efficiency of 6%, six times higher than previous
attempt. Nevertheless, the early silicon solar cell did introduce the possibility of
power generation in remote locations where fuel could not be easily delivered. The
7
obvious application was to satellites where the requirement of reliability and low
weight made the cost of cells unimportant and during the 1950s and 60s, silicon
solar cells were widely developed for applications in space.
2.3 PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS AND POWER GENERATION
2.3.1 Photovoltaic Cell
The solar cell is the basic building block of solar photovoltaic. Solar cells
consist of a p-n junction fabricated in a thin wafer or layer of semi-conductor the
cell can be considered as a two terminal device which conducts like a diode in the
dark and generates a photovoltaic voltage when charged by the sun. Usually it is a
thin slice of semiconductor material of around 100 cm
2
area. The surface is treated
to reflect as little visible light as possible and appears dark blue or black. A pattern
of metal contacts is imprinted on the surface to make electrical contact. When
charged by the sun, this basic unit generates a dc photo voltage of 0.5 to 1 volt and
in a short circuit, a photo current of some tens of milliamps per cm
2
.
2.3.2 Photovoltaic Generator
Although the current is reasonable, the voltage is too small for most
applications. To produce practical dc voltages the cells are connected together in
series and encapsulated into modules. A module typically contains 28 to 36 cells in
series, to generate a dc output voltage of 12 V in standard illumination conditions.
12 V modules can be used singly, or connected in parallel and series into an array
with a larger current and voltage output. Cells within a module are integrated with
bypass and blocking diodes in order to avoid the complete loss of power which
would result if one cell in the series failed. Modules within arrays are similarly
protected. The array, which is also called a photovoltaic generator, is designed to
generate power at a certain current and voltage which is some multiple of 12 V,
under standard illuminations.
For almost all applications, the illumination is also a variable for efficient
operation all the time and the photovoltaic generator must be integrated with a
charge storage system (a battery) and with components for power regulation as
shown in Figure 2.1. The battery is used to store charge generated during sunny
periods and the power conditioning ensures that the power supply is regular and
less sensitive to the solar irradiation.
Power
PV
Load
Conditioning
8
Figure 2.1 Photovoltaic array integrated with components for charge regulation and
Storage
Generator
Storage
[Battery (dc)
or grid (ac)]
9
2.4 THE PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT
Solar photovoltaic energy conversion is a one-step conversion process which
generates electrical energy from light energy. The explanation relies on ideas from
quantum theory. Light is made up of packets energy, called photons, whose
energy only depends upon the frequency, or colour, of the light. When exposed to
light photons with energy greater than the band gap energy of semiconductor are
absorbed and create electron-hole pair. These carriers are swept apart under the
influence of the internal electric fields of the p-n junction and create a current
proportional to incident radiation. When the cell is short circuited, this current
flows in the external circuit; when open circuited, this current is shunted internally
by the intrinsic p-n junction diode. Normally, when light is absorbed by matter,
photons are given up to excite electrons to higher energy states within the material,
but the excited electrons relax quickly back to their ground state.
In a photovoltaic device, however, there is some built-in asymmetry which
pulls excited electrons away before they can loosen up, and feeds them to an
external circuit. The extra energy of the excited electrons generates a potential
difference, or electro-motive force (e.m.f). This force drives the electrons through a
load in the external circuit to do electrical work.
2.5 SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Open circuit voltage: When a solar cell is switched on by light it develops a
voltage or e.m.f. analogous to the e.m.f. of the battery. The voltage developed
when the terminals are isolated (infinite load resistance) is called open circuit
voltage V
oc
.
Short circuit current: The current drawn when the terminals are connected
together is called the short circuit current I
sc
. Since current is roughly proportional
to the illuminated area, the short current density J
sc
is a useful quantity. For any
intermediate load resistance R
L
the cell develops a voltage V between 0 and V
oc
and delivers a current I such that V= IR
L
and I(V) is determined by the current
voltage characteristic of the cell under that illumination. A simple circuit of a solar
cell is shown in Figure 2.2.
Load
solar cell
Figure 2.2 A solar cell in a simple circuit
Dark current density: When a load is present, a potential difference
develops between the terminals of the cell. This potential difference develops
between the terminals of the cell. This potential difference generates a current
which acts in the opposite direction to the photocurrent, and net current is reduced
10
11
from its short circuit value. This reverse current is usually called dark current. For
an ideal diode the dark current density J
dark
(V) varies like
J
dark
(V) = Jo (eqV
/ kT
1) (2.1)
where J
o
is a constant, k is Boltzmanns constant and T is the temperature in
degrees Kelvin.
Efficiency: The efficiency of the cell is the power density delivered at the
operating point as a fraction of the incident light power density, P
S
.
These four quantities J
SC,
V
OC,
FF and efficiency are the key performance
characteristics of a solar cell. All of these should be defined for particular
illumination conditions.
The Standard Test Condition (STC) for solar cells is the Air Mass 1.5
spectrum, an incident power density of 1000 W m
-2
, and a temperature of 25
o
C.
2.6 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SOLAR CELL
2.6.1 Ideal Solar Cell
Electrically the solar cell is equivalent to a current generator in parallel with
an asymmetric non-linear resistive element i.e. a diode. When illuminated, the
ideal cell produces a photocurrent proportional to the light intensity. That photo
current is divided between the variable resistance of the diode and the load. For
higher resistances, more of the photocurrent flows through the diode, resulting in a
higher potential difference between the cell terminals but smaller current through
the load. The load thus provides the photo voltage. As per the equivalent circuit
shown in Figure 2.3, without diode there is nothing to drive the photocurrent
through the load.
Figure 2.3 Equivalent circuit of an ideal solar cell
2.6.2 Parasitic Resistances
In real cells, power is dissipated through the resistance of the contacts and
leakage currents around the sides of the device. These effects are equivalent to two
parasitic resistances in series (R
se
) and in parallel (R
sh
) with the cell. The series
resistance arises from the resistance of the cell material to current flow and it is a
particular problem at high current densities, for instance under concentrated light.
The parallel or shunt resistance arises from the leakage of current through
the cell and is a problem in poorly rectifying devices. Series and parallel resistance
reduce the fill factor. For an efficient cell R
S
should be small and R
SH
as large as
possible. From Figure 2.4, when parasitic resistances are included, the diode
equation becomes
J = J
SC
- J
O
( e
q ( V + JARs ) / kt
) 1 - ( V+JARs ) / R
sh
(2.2)
12
Figure 2.4 Equivalent circuit including series and shunt resistance
2.7 MATLAB MODEL OF A PV SYSTEM
A single diode model is used for the modeling of PV module. The
advantage of using PV module is that the direct conversion of light energy into
electricity is directly possible and also it is static in nature. The PV cell has non-
linear characteristics. The output voltage from the PV module depends on
insolation and temperature gradient. A group of solar PV cells together form the
PV power generation system. Equations (1)-(4) are used for the mathematical
modeling of PV cell. The output current from PV panel is given as
sh D ph pv
I I I I
(2.3)
Photon generated current of the PV panel, I
ph
is given as
n
pvn n i ph
G
G
I T T K I
(2.4)
The current through the diode is calculated as
13
1 V ) R I V ( exp I I
ta se pv pv r D (2.5)
and
1 ) ( exp
) (
ta ocn n v
scn n i
r
V V T T K
I T T K
I
(2.6)
2.8 SIMULATION OF PV MODULE
The MATLAB-SIMULINK model for the PV panel is as shown in Figure
2.5 and the results are presented in Figure 2.6.
Figure 2.5 MATLAB- Simulink diagram of PV module
14
Figure 2.6 V-I and P-V characteristics of PV module at STC
Datasheet for a solar PV module available in lab (SOLKAR panel) is
presented in Appendix. The characteristics for different illumination levels and
different temperature conditions are presented in Figure 2.7 and Figure 2.8
respectively.
Figure 2.7 Simulated V-I and V-P Characteristics of SPV module for Various Insolation at
Constant Temperature T=25
0
C
15
Figure 2.8 Simulated V-I and V-P Characteristics of SPV module for Various Temperature
at Constant Insolation G = 1000W/m
2
Thus the solar PV model was simulated using Simulink and the above mentioned
results were obtained.
16
17
CHAPTER 3
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER
3.1 NEED FOR CONVERTERS
In many industrial applications, it is required to convert a fixed voltage DC
source into a variable voltage DC source. A DC-DC converter converts directly
from dc to dc and is known as a DC converter. A dc converter can be considered as
DC equivalent of an AC transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like
a transformer, it can be used to step down or step up a dc voltage source.
DC converters are widely used for traction motor control in electric
automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks and mine haulers. They
provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response.
DC converters can be used in regenerative breaking of dc motors to return
energy back to the supply, and this feature results in energy savings for
transportation systems with frequent stops. DC converters are used in dc voltage
regulators; and also are used, in conjunction with an inductor, to generate a dc
current source, especially for current source inverter.
DC-DC converter is nothing more than a DC transformer or a device that
provides a loss less transfer of energy between different circuits at different voltage
levels. When DC-DC conversion is needed there is also a need for control and a
18
need for higher efficiencies. If the latter were not important we could just use a
voltage divider and get the change in voltage we are looking for. In modern dc
electronics we need more than just voltage reduction. What really are needed are
voltage transfers, polarity reversals, and increased and decreased voltages with
control. One method of building a dc transformer is to use switching converters
called choppers. The provided switching function requires a duty ratio, which will
give us the control that has been needed.
3.2 TYPES OF CONVERTERS
By the principle of operation, they are of two types of converters .They are
1. Step up converters
2. Step down converters
The four basic topologies of converters are
1. Buck converters
2. Boost converters
3. Buck-boost converters
4. Cuk converters
3.3 CHOICE OF BUCK BOOST CONVERTER
The choice of converter is based on constant charging current. Based on the duty
cycle of converter it can operate in two modes basically
1. buck mode
2. boost mode
19
When the PV system is fed using battery, the system operates in buck mode
When the PV system uses solar energy, it operates in boost mode
3.3.1 Operation of Buck-Boost Converter
The buck boost converter is a type of dc-dc converter that has output
voltage magnitude greater or lesser than input voltage magnitude. Two different
topologies are called buck-boost converter. Both of them can produce a range of
output voltages, from an output voltage much larger (in absolute magnitude) than
the input voltage, down to almost zero.
3.3.2 The Inverting Topology
The output voltage is opposite polarity of input. This is a switched mode
power supply with a similar circuit topology to boost converter and buck converter.
The output voltage is adjustable based on duty cycle of the switching transistor.
One possible drawback of this converter is that the switch does not have a terminal
at ground, this complicates driving circuitry. Neither drawback is of any
consequence if power supply is isolated from the load circuit as the supply and
diode polarity can simply be reversed. The switch can be either on ground side or
on supply side.
3.3.3 A Buck Converter Followed By a Boost Converter
The output polarity is of same polarity as input, can be lower or higher than
input. Such a non-inverting buck boost converter may use a single inductor that is
both used as buck inductor or boost inductor.
Operation
As shown in Figure 3.1, the output voltage polarity of buck boost regulator
is opposite to that of input voltage. Hence it is also called inverting regulator.
Figure 3.1 Circuit of buck-boost converter
The switch used here is generally a MOSFET. The L, C and D are the
filtering components. T is the transistor switch. The output current is shown
negative. T is turned at t=0. It conducts from 0 to dt. Hence the current flows
through inductance. Diode is reverse biased. Inductance stores the energy from 0 to
dt. The current through inductor keeps on increasing. The capacitor discharges and
supplies current to the load. Load current is assumed to be continuous and ripple
free. The output voltage varies according to capacitor voltage.
20
At dT the transistor switch is turned off. Inductance generates the voltage
L(di
L
/dt),this forward biases diode D. The inductance supplies energy to load from
dT to T. Hence inductor current decreases. The capacitor is also charged. Hence its
voltage also rises.
The average output voltage is given as
s o
V
D
D
V
1
Converter design equations are given as follows,
f
DR D
L
2
) 1 (
1
fR 2
D
C
1
Where R is the load of the converter, and D is the duty cycle of the
converter.
3.4 SIMULATION OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER
The Simulink model of the Buck-Boost converter is presented in the Figure
3.2. By varying the duty cycle, it is made to operate two modes.
21
Figure 3.2 Simulation of buck-boost converter
3.5 SIMULATION RESULTS OF BUCK-BOOST COVERTER
The simulation of buck-boost converter was carried on using MATLAB-
SIMULINK and the results are presented in Figure 3.3.
(a) (b)
Figure 3.3 Output characteristics of buck-boost converter
The buck-boost converter was designed and simulated.
22
23
CHAPTER 4
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER
4.1 NEED FOR INVERTER
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC)
to alternating current (AC).The converted AC can be at any required voltage and
frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of
applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric
utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters
are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar
panels or batteries. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
The output voltage waveform of the inverter can be square wave, quasi
square wave or low distorted sine wave. The output voltage can be controlled with
the help of drives of switches.
The inverters can be classified as voltage source inverters or current source
inverters. When input DC voltage remains constant, then it is called voltage source
inverter (VSI) or voltage fed inverter. When input current is maintained constant,
then it is called current source inverter (CSI) or current fed inverter (CFI).
Sometimes, the DC input voltage to the inverter is controlled to adjust the output.
Such inverters are called variable DC link inverters.
24
4.2 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTERS
1. Half bridge inverter
2. Full bridge inverter
Here for the sake of conversion of the DC voltage obtained from the buck-boost
converter to an AC voltage in order to feed it to the induction motor, single phase
inverter is considered.
4.3 FULL BRIDGE INVERTER
The diodes are required for feedback when the load is inductive. Here for
separate simulation of the inverter, a resistive load is used. When the load is
resistive, does not carry any current.
4.3.1 Principle of Operation
A Single phase bridge voltage source inverter is shown in Fig.1. It consists
of four MOSFETS or say switches. When MOSFETS 1 and 2 are turned on
simultaneously, the input voltage V
dc
appears across the load. If switches 3 and 4
are turned on at the same time, the voltage across the load is reversed and is V
dc
.
The modes of conduction are shown from Figure.4.1 to Figure 4.4. The rms output
voltage can be found from the following equation
2
2
0
2
2
o
T
si
o
oi
dt V
T
V
(4.1)
Hence the output voltage of the inverter can be obtained theoretically and
compared with the practical results.
Mode 1 (1, 2 conduct)
1 and 2 are applied to the drive at t=0. But they dont conduct until t
1
.
Diodes, D1 and D2 conduct from 0 to t
1
.
Figure 4.1 Mode1 operation of single phase inverter
Hence 1 and 2 are reverse biased and they do not conduct. From t
1
to T/2, 1
and 2 conduct. The load current is positive and it increases from 0 to +I
max
.
25
Mode 2 (D3 and D4 conduct)
At T/2, switches 1 and 2 are turned off and 3 and 4 are applied drives. The
load inductance (in case of RL load) generates a large voltage. The diodes D3 and
D4 are forward biased due to the inductance voltage. These diodes conduct and
output current flows through DC supply. This is called as feedback operation.
Figure 4.2 Mode2 operation of single phase inverter
There is negative current when D3 and D4 conduct and hence 3 and 4 are
reverse biased and they dont conduct even though base drives are applied. When
the load becomes zero say at t
2
3 and 4 start conducting.
Mode 3 (3 and 4 conduct)
At t
2
the switches 3 and 4 start conducting. The output current is negative
and increases to I
max
.
26
Figure 4.3 Mode3 operation of single phase inverter
The supply current is positive and the output voltage is negative during this
period.
Mode 4 (D1 and D2 conduct)
At T, 3 and 4 are turned off and 1 and 2 are applied to the drive. The output
current is I
max.
Hence load inductance generates large voltage. Due to this voltage
the diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased.
27
Figure 4.4 Mode4 operation of single phase inverter
Hence they start conducting. The load energy is fed back to DC supply
whenever diodes conduct. The output voltage waveform is square wave having
amplitudes of V
dc..
4.4 APPLICATIONS
DC power source utilization, uninterruptible power supplies, induction
heating, HVDC power transmission, variable frequency derives air conditioning
etc.
4.5 MATLAB SIMULINK
As explained above, a single phase inverter was modeled using the matlab
simulink model and circuit is shown in the Figure 4.5.
28
Figure 4.5 Simulink model of single phase inverter
4.6 SIMULATION RESULTS
Figure 4.6 shows the output voltage characteristics of the single phase
inverter.
Figure 4.6 Output voltage of single phase inverter
Thus the modeling of inverter was completed.
29
30
CHAPTER 5
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
5.1 SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR-AN INTRODUCTION
An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is
supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. These motors are
widely used in industrial drives, particularly poly phase induction motors, because
they are rugged and have no brushes. Single-phase versions are used in small
appliances. Their speed is determined by the frequency of the supply current, so
they are most widely used in constant-speed applications, although variable speed
versions, using variable frequency drives are becoming more common. The most
common type is the squirrel cage motor, and this term is sometimes used for
induction motors generally. The characteristics of single phase induction motors
are identical to 3-phase induction motors except that single phase induction motor
has no inherent starting torque and some special arrangements have to be made for
making it self-starting. It follows that during starting period the single phase
induction motor has to be converted to a type which is not a single phase induction
motor in the sense in which the term is ordinarily used and it becomes a true single
phase induction motor when it is running and after the speed and torque have been
raised to a point beyond which the additional device may be dispensed with. The
starting device adds to the cost of the motor and also requires more space.
Figure 5.1 Elementary single phase induction motor
An induction motor with a cage rotor and a single phase stator winding is
shown schematically in Figure 5.1. The actual stator winding is distributed in slots
so as to produce an approximately sinusoidal space distribution of mmf. With
regard to this project the main cause for the choice of an induction motor is, it has
high efficiency when compared to conventional dc motors, also the optimal size
and cost. The frequent speed control of induction motors is also possible.
5.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
5.2.1 Construction
Similar to a DC motor single phase induction motor has basically two main
parts, one rotating and other stationary. The stationary part is called stator while
the rotating part is the rotor. The stator has a laminated construction, made up of
stampings. The stampings are slotted on its periphery to carry the stator or the main
winding. This is excited by a single phase supply. The stator winding is wound for
certain definite number of poles means when excited by a single phase a.c supply,
31
stator produces a magnetic field which creates the effect of certain number. The
number of poles for which the winding is wound decides the synchronous speed of
the motor, denoted as Ns.
Ns = (5.1)
The induction motor never rotates in the synchronous speed but rotates at a
speed which is slightly less than the synchronous speed. The rotor construction is
of squirrel cage type. In this type, rotor consists of un-insulated copper or
aluminium bars placed in the slots. The bars are permanently shorted at both the
ends with the help of conducting rings called end rings. Since they are shorted the
resistance is very small. The air gap between stator and rotor is kept uniform and
as small as possible. The main feature of rotor is that it automatically adjusts itself
for same number of poles as that of stator windings.
5.2.2 Working Principle
For the motoring action there must exists two fluxes which interact with
each other to produce the torque. In DC motors, field winding produces the main
flux while DC supply given to the armature is responsible to produce armature
flux. The main flux and the armature flux interact to produce the torque.
In the single phase induction motor single phase AC supply is given to the
stator winding. The stator winding carries an alternating current which produces
the flux which is also alternating in nature. This flux is called the main flux. This
32
33
flux links with the rotor conductors and due to transformer action e.m.f. gets
induced in the rotor. The induced e.m.f. drives current through the rotor as rotor
circuit is closed circuit. This rotor current produces another flux called rotor flux
required for the motoring action. Thus second flux is produced according to the
induction principle due to induced e.m.f hence the motor is named so. The single
phase is not self-starting which can be explained through the double field revolving
theory.
5.2.3 Double Field Revolving Theory
Any alternating quantity can be resolved into two rotating components
which rotate in opposite directions and each having a magnitude as half of the
maximum magnitude of the alternating quantity. In case of single phase induction
motor, the stator winding produces an alternating magnetic field having maximum
magnitude of m. According to this theory, two components of the stator flux ,
each having magnitude half of maximum magnitude of start flux. Both these
components are rotating in the opposite direction at the synchronous speed which
is dependent on frequency and stator poles. Let f is the forward component
rotating in anticlockwise direction while b is the backward component rotating in
anticlockwise direction. The resultant of these two fluxes at any instant gives the
instantaneous value o the stator flux at that instant. As shown in Figure 5.2, the
resultant of these two is the original flux.
Figure 5.2 Flux Rotation
Both the components are rotating and hence get cut by the rotor conductors.
Due to cutting of flux, e.m.f gets induced in rotor which circulates rotor current.
The rotor flux interacts with f to produce a torque in one particular direction say
anticlockwise, while rotor flux interacts with backward component, b, to produce
a torque in clockwise direction. At start, these two torques are equal in magnitude
Figure 5.3 Torque-speed characteristic of a 1 phase induction motor
taking into account the changes in flux
and opposite in direction. Each torque tries to rotate the rotor in its own direction.
Thus the net torque experienced by the rotor is zero at start and hence the single
phase induction motors are not self-starting as represented by Figure 5.3.
34
35
5.3 STARTING OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
The single phase motors are always classified based on their starting
methods. Appropriate selection of these motors depends upon the starting and the
torque requirements of the load, duty cycle, and limitations on the starting and the
running current drawn from the supply by these motors. Following are the starting
methods available.
(a) Split-phase induction motor
(b) Capacitor start induction motor
(c) Permanent split-capacitor motor
(d) Capacitor start-capacitor run motor
(e) Shaded pole induction motor
In this project, based on the water pump, the capacitor start induction
motor has been opted.
5.3.1 Capacitor Start Induction Motor
Capacitors are used to improve the starting and the running performance of
the motors. The capacitor start induction motor is also a split phase induction
motor. From Figure 5.4 it is inferred that a capacitor of a suitable value is added in
series with the auxiliary winding through a switch such that I
a
the current in the
auxiliary winding leads the current I
m
in the main coil by 90 degrees in time phase
so that the starting torque is maximum for certain values of I
a
and I
m
. Since the two
windings are displaced by 90 degrees, maximum torque is developed at start.
However the auxiliary winding and the capacitor are disconnected after the motor
has picked up speed of about 75% of the synchronous speed. The motor will start
without any humming noise. However after the auxiliary winding is disconnected,
there will be some noise.
Figure 5.4 (a) connection; (b) phasor diagram at start
Since the auxiliary winding and the capacitor are used intermittently, these
can be designed for minimum cost. However, it is found that the best compromise
among the factors of starting torque, starting current and costs results with a phase
angle somewhat less than 90 degree between I
a
and I
m.
5.4 SIMULATION OF CAPACITOR RUN INDUCTION MOTOR
The double field revolving theory can be effectively used to obtain the
equivalent circuit of a single phase induction. The method consists of determining
the values of both the fields clockwise and anticlockwise at any given slip. When
the two fields are known, the torque produced by each can be obtained. The
difference between these two torques is, the net torque acting on the rotor. Certain
tests are performed on the induction motor in order to obtain the required
36
37
.2)
st equal to the synchronous speed in this condition. Hence
lip is assumed be zero.
.4.2 B
rt circuit current. And this voltage can be adjusted
y the help of auto transformer.
.5 SIMULINK MODEL
obtained resembles the transformer model. It is given
the following Figure 5.5.
parameters of the equivalent circuit. The tests conducted are no-load test or open
circuit test and blocked rotor test or short circuit test
5.4.1 No-Load Test
The test is conducted by rotating the motor without load. The input current,
voltage and power are measured.
W
0
= V
0
I
0
cos
(5
The motor speed is almo
s
5 locked Rotor Test
In this test, the rotor is held still such that it will not rotate. A reduced
voltage is applied to limit the sho
b
5
The equivalent circuit
in
Figure 5.5 Simulink model of induction motor
The equations used to derive the torque and speed of the equivalent circuit
shown in Figure 5.5 are given as,
P
f
= (I
f
)
2
. . Forward power equation
(5.3)
P
f
= (I
b
)
2
. . Backward power equation (5.4)
f
; (5.5)
T
b
= P
b
(5.6)
erefore, the net torque is given in equation (7)
T
f
= P
Th
38
39
T = T
f
- T
b
(5.7)
And also %efficiency = * 100 (5.8)
.6 SIMULATION RESULTS
calculated
and they are plotted against speed as shown in Figure 5.6 and 5.7.
5
From the above equations [3] to [8] , torque and efficiency are
Figure 5.6 T-N characteristics of single phase induction motor
40
racteristics of single phase induction motor
a
=5.9 ; L
a
=0.048H; X
m
=0.374H; R
r
=101 ; L
r
=3.21mH;
s
=0.64to1.2
he complete simulation circuit is shown in Figure 5.8.
Induction motor parameters
HP motor; R
C
T
Figure 5.8 Overall Matlab Simulink circuit
ce the software implementation was carried out using the MATLAB
oftware.
Hen
s
41
CHAPTER 6
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
.1 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
e
and
ost converter. i.e. the
utput voltage of the PV module is fed to the converter.
6
As shown in the Figure 6.1 above, the PV module receives energy from th
sunlight. This form of thermal energy is converted into electric energy through
photovoltaic effect. This output voltage of the PV module is of very less value,
needs to be boosted up. Here comes the usage of buck bo
o
Figure 6.1 Block diagram of Photovoltaic water pumping system
motor, the voltage needs to be inverted. Hence the inverter gains its role. The dc
Thus the voltage is boosted up to the desired value. Since we use an AC
form of voltage is thus inverter and is fed into the induction motor which is
connected to the pump in the same shaft.
6.2 OPTIONS CONSIDERED
6.2.1 Solar Array
Specification of the photovoltaic module as shown in Figure 6.2
Voltage : 21.2V
Current : 2.55A
Power rating : 37W
No. of cells/module : 36 cells
No. of panels : 7 panels
3X3 Panel Board
Electronic Load
Solar Panels Electronic Load
Figure 6.2 Arrangement of Solar PV Array
6.2.2 Converter
A DC-DC converter is a device that accepts a DC input voltage and
produces a DC output voltage. Typically the output produced is at a different
42
voltage level than the input. The converter we researched for the purpose
considered in this project was a buck-boost converter. It starts at the lowest input
voltage. The components used to design the hardware of the converter as shown in
Figure 6.3.
Mosfet : IRF460
Power Diode : 1N5408
Capacitor : 0.3F, 60V
Inductor : e-core type, 1.23mH
43
Power Circuit
Control Circuit
Figure 6.3 Hardware model of Buck-Boost converter
The power circuit was made to operate in both the modes by varying the
duty cycle and hence the voltage was made to boost.
6.2.3 DC Battery Source
In order to the store the energy when the power is not utilized a battery
source was included after the converter circuit. Hardware setup as shown in Figure
6.4
Ratings of the Battery: 600VA
Figure 6.4 Inverter and battery set up
6.2.4 Inverter
It is a device which converts the DC to AC. A single phase inverter which
was available in the laboratory was utilized for this purpose.
Ratings of the Inverter: 50 Hz
6.2.5 Single Phase Induction Motor
For practical purpose the single phase induction motor available in the
laboratory was made use. Hardware setup as shown in Figure 6.5
44
Ratings of the Motor: watt
Figure 6.5(a) Water Pumping Arrangement
Figure 6.5(b) Practical induction motor
6.2.6 Astable Multivibrator
In order to count the number of water cycles the induction motor has
pumped the astable multivibrator was utilized. At t
1
, the water begins to discharge
45
and t
2
is the time taken to complete the cycle, hence t1-t2 gives the time taken to
fill up the volume of the tank.
Components Used:
Diode : 1N4007
Resistor : 10.1K , 4.37K
Capacitor : 0.01F, 0.1F
The hardware setup of astable multivibrator is as shown in Figure 6.6
Figure 6.6 PCB circuit of an astable multivibrator
The circuit has been connected and the output pulses generated were
verified. The output pulse was almost to be 4V.
46
6.2.7 Hardware Results
The layout for the hardware setup of the PV pumping system is shown in
Figure 6.7. Input to the boost converter is provided by the Solar Photo voltaic
module.
Figure 6.7 Entire setup of the PV water pumping system
By inter connecting the system, the following results were obtained. The
Voltage from the solar photovoltaic module was fed to the converter. The
respective control pulses were obtained for the converter. As shown in Figure.8,
astable multivibrator was connected to the induction motor. The pulses from the
multi vibrator are shown in Figure 6.9. Thus according to the pulses (Figure 6.9),
the beep sound appears whenever the water begins to discharge.
47
Figure 6.8 Setup of the Induction Motor and the pump.
Figure 6.9 Astable multivibrator pulses
48
The control pulses for the converter generated from the PIC controller for
various duty cycles are shown in Figure 6.10
(a) 70% duty cycle (b) 80% duty cycle
Figure 6.10 PIC control pulses
Thus when the MOSFET is triggered using the pulse as shown in Figure
6.10, the voltage is boosted up and is fed to the inverter. The generated output
characteristics of inverter are shown in Figure 6.11
(a) (b)
Figure 6.11 Inverter output voltage and Inverter output current
49
Under poor illumination conditions, battery can be used as a back-up. When
the converter is to be operated in buck mode, the inverter gets its supply from the
battery. The charging current and discharging current of the battery are shown in
Figure 6.12.
(a) (b)
Figure 6.12 Battery charging current and Battery discharging current
Figure 6.13 shows battery output voltage, which is fed to inverter under poor
illumination conditions.
50
Figure 6.13 Battery output voltage
The output voltage and current of the induction motor during the running
condition are measured using the Digital Storage Oscilloscope and are shown in
Figure 6.14 and Figure 6.15. The input to the induction motor is given from the
inverter.
(a) (b)
Figure 6.14 Induction motor output current and output voltage
51
Figure 6.15 Induction motor output voltage and current
52
Thus the implementation of design, simulation and implementation of the
photovoltaic water pumping system was carried out. As per the facilities available
in the solar research lab, 9 photovoltaic panels were available, from which a total
of 110V of voltage is obtained which was given to the converter circuit, which is
boosted up to the level required by the inverter i.e. 230V approx. Then this voltage
is given to the induction motor which drives the hp water pump and hence the
water is pumped. Hence the theoretical and the practical results were made to co-
ordinate.
53
CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
7.1 CONCLUSION
In this project analysis of PV fed water pumping system has been carried
out. To extract maximum power buck-boost converter is used. The outcome of the
project is effective hydraulic storage. Though direct coupled dc motors with PV
systems are already in use at present, an induction motor paves the way to achieve
maximum efficiency. A battery is included in the system which stores energy when
system is not in use. So even in case of pure sunlight conditions, this can serve the
purpose. Though the power conversion capability of solar cell is limited,
researches are being done to improve the same. In this project simulation results
have been presented for low voltage levels but the concept can be extended to
higher voltage levels with same inferences for industrial purpose.
7.2 FUTURE SCOPE
The agricultural side of the world, particularly India, is facing much more
problems due to the insufficient availability of technology. So the main idea of this
project lies here. In order to develop an economical system of water pumping in
rural or sub urban areas this project was developed. The induction motor could be
further increased in its efficiency by many methods. Future researches in this area
will definitely prove to be worthwhile. Since constant and rapid researches are
performed to develop the solar panel into a more economical model, the solar
energy would serve the future scope for electricity.
APPENDIX I
A 1.1 EXIDE POWERSAFE BATTERIES:
Charge Parameters
Charge Voltage
Applications
Temperature Cut-off Point Range
Max Charge
Current
Cyclic Use 27
O
C 14.7 14.6 - 14.8 0.2 CA
Standby Use 27
O
C 13.53 13.38
13.68
0.2 CA
Temperature Compensation Coefficient : 5 mV/
O
C
(Cyclic)/-3mV/
O
C(Standby)
Ratings:
Voltage: 12V
Current: 100Ah
Standby Use 13.6V 13.8V
Cycle Use 14.6V - 14.8V
Maximum Initial Current 20A
Voltage Regulation 27
O
C
54
55
A 1.2 MICROTEK UPS EV/E
2
MODELS:
Technical Specifications
Input Voltage 100V 300V(Wide Input
Voltage Range)
180V 260V(Normal Input
Voltage Range)
Output Voltage On Mains Mode Same as input
Output Voltage on UPS mode 200V 230V 10%
Output Frequency on UPS Mode 50Hz 0.1Hz
Switching from mains to UPS and from Automatic
UPS to mains
Output waveform on mains mode Same as Input
Output waveform on UPS mode TPZi
waveform(TRAPEZOIDAL WAVEFORM)
Battery charging current Constant charging approx. 10%
of the rated battery
Current in AH
Charger Constant current, constant
wattage
Efficiency EV models > 84% E
2
models >
87%
UPS overload / UPS short circuit 110%/300%
UPS transfer time 15ms
56
Browns out mains voltage 100V 40V
Technology MICROCONTROLLER
BASED DESIGN
Auto Reset Feature Yes
Front Panel
LED Indications
1. Mains on
2. UPS on
3. Battery charging
a. LED Continuously Glows When Charged
b. LED Blinks When Battery Is Charging
4. Fuse Blown
5. UPS Overload
6. Battery Low
Back Panel
1. Mains Input Terminal Block/Lead For AC Input
2. Circuit Breaker for mains overload / short circuit protection.
(4Amps/6Amps for UPSE
2
275 / 400 Model, 6Amps / 7Amps for UPSEB /
E
2
600 / 625 model, 8Amps/ 10 Amps for UPSEB / E
2
1400/1550 Model).
3. Output socket for load
4. Positive Battery Lead.
57
5. Negative Battery Lead
6. Slide Switch for Mains Input Voltage Range Selection
7. Slide Switch to Select the Maximum Charging Voltage.
(This switch is not in UPSE
2
275/400 model)
(HIGH = 14.2VDC / Standard(STD)=13.8VDC)
Select the appropriate Voltae as recommended by the Battery
Manufacturer/Supplier.
CAUTION: Proper selection of switch position is recommended based on
the battery manufacturers specifications, for proper backup and also to avoid
any damage to the battery due to wrong selection.
8. Fuse ( 10Amp Slow Blow for UPSEB/E
2
600/625/850/875/1400/1550
models , 2Amp Slow Blow or UPSE
2
275/400 model) for Charger.
A 1.3 SOLAR PANEL SPECIFICATIONS
1 Rated Power (P
max
) 37.08W
2 Voltage at maximum power (V
mp
) 16.56V
3 Current at maximum power (I
mp
) 2.25A
4 Open Circuit Voltage (V
oc
) 21.24V
5 Short Circuit Current (I
sc
) 2.55A
6 Size of Solar module 990mm x 440mm
7 Total number of cells in series 36
8 Total number of cells in parallel 0
9 Cell arrangement(row x col) 6 x 6
1N4001 1N4007 1 of 4 2006 Won-Top Electronics
Pb
1N4001 1N4007
1.0A STANDARD DIODE
Features
Diffused Junction
Low Forward Voltage Drop
High Current Capability A B A
High Reliability
High Surge Current Capability
Mechanical Data C
Case: DO-41, Molded Plastic D
Terminals: Plated Leads Solderable per
MIL-STD-202, Method 208
Polarity: Cathode Band
Weight: 0.35 grams (approx.)
Mounting Position: Any
Marking: Type Number
Lead Free: For RoHS / Lead Free Version,
Add -LF Suffix to Part Number, See Page 4
Maximum Ratings and Electrical Characteristics @T
A
=25C unless otherwise specified
Single Phase, half wave, 60Hz, resistive or inductive load.
For capacitive load, derate current by 20%.
Characteristic Symbol
1N
4001
1N
4002
1N
4003
1N
4004
1N
4005
1N
4006
1N
4007
Unit
Peak Repetitive Reverse Voltage
Working Peak Reverse Voltage
DC Blocking Voltage
VRRM
VRWM
VR
50 100 200 400 600 800 1000 V
RMS Reverse Voltage VR(RMS) 35 70 140 280 420 560 700 V
Average Rectified Output Current
(Note 1) @T
A
= 75C
IO 1.0 A
Non-Repetitive Peak Forward Surge Current
8.3ms Single half sine-wave superimposed on
rated load (JEDEC Method)
IFSM 30 A
Forward Voltage @I
F
= 1.0A VFM 1.0 V
Peak Reverse Current @T
A
= 25C
At Rated DC Blocking Voltage @T
A
= 100C
IRM
5.0
50
A
Typical Junction Capacitance (Note 2) Cj 15 pF
Typical Thermal Resistance Junction to Ambient
(Note 1)
R JA 50 C/W
Operating Temperature Range Tj -65 to +125 C
Storage Temperature Range TSTG -65 to +150 C
Note: 1. Leads maintained at ambient temperature at a distance of 9.5mm from the case
2. Measured at 1.0 MHz and Applied Reverse Voltage of 4.0V D.C.
DO-41
Dim Min Max
A 25.4
B 4.06 5.21
C 0.71 0.864
D 2.00 2.72
All Dimensions in mm
1N4001 1N4007 2 of 4 2006 Won-Top Electronics
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
T , AMBlENT TEMFEFATUFE (C)
Fig. 1 Forward Curreht Deratihg Curve
A
V , FEVEFSE VOLTAGE (V)
Fig. 4 Typical Juhctioh Capacitahce
F
1.0 10 100
1.0
10
100
T = 25C
j
f = 1MHz
1.0 10 100
NUMBEF OF CYCLES AT 60 Hz
Fig. 3 Max Noh-Fepetitive Feak Fwd Surge Curreht

0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6


0.01
0.1
1.0
V , lNSTANTANEOUS FOFWAFD VOLTAGE (V)
Fig. 2 Typical Forward Characteristics
F
10
1N4001 1N4007 3 of 4 2006 Won-Top Electronics
MARKING INFORMATION TAPING SPECIFICATIONS
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Packaging
Reel Diameter /
Box Size (mm)
Quantity
(PCS)
Carton Size
(mm)
Quantity
(PCS)
Approx. Gross Weight
(KG)
TAPE & REEL 330 5,000 370 x 370 x 420 25,000 13.0
TAPE & BOX 255 x 75 x 150 5,000 400 x 273 x 415 50,000 21.0
BULK 198 x 84 x 20 1,000 459 x 214 x 256 50,000 19.5
Note: 1. Paper reel, white or gray color. Core material: plastic or metal.
2. Components are packed in accordance with EIA standard RS-296-E.
TAPE & REEL
Cathode = Polarity Band
1N400x = Device Number
x = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7
WTE = Manufacturers Logo
1N400x
WTE
0.8mm
MAX
5mm
1.2mm
MAX
0.8mm
MAX
6mm
52.4mm
Cathode Tape: Red
Anode Tape: White
330mm
Product ID Label
Inspection Hole
(both ends)
805mm
TAPE & BOX
255mm
Product ID Label
150mm
75mm
BULK
198mm
84mm
20mm
1N4001 1N4007 4 of 4 2006 Won-Top Electronics
ORDERING INFORMATION
Product No. Package Type Shipping Quantity
1N4001-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4001-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4001 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4002-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4002-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4002 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4003-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4003-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4003 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4004-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4004-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4004 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4005-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4005-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4005 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4006-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4006-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4006 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1N4007-T3 DO-41 5000/Tape & Reel
1N4007-TB DO-41 5000/Tape & Box
1N4007 DO-41 1000 Units/Box
1. Products listed in bold are WTE Preferred devices.
2. Shipping quantity given is for minimum packing quantity only. For minimum
order quantity, please consult the Sales Department.
3. To order RoHS / Lead Free version (with Lead Free finish), add -LF suffix
to part number above. For example, 1N4001-TB-LF.
Won-Top Electronics Co., Ltd (WTE) has checked all information carefully and believes it to be correct and accurate. However, WTE cannot assume any
responsibility for inaccuracies. Furthermore, this information does not give the purchaser of semiconductor devices any license under patent rights to
manufacturer. WTE reserves the right to change any or all information herein without further notice.
WARNING: DO NOT USE IN LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. WTE power semiconductor products are not authorized for use as critical components in life
support devices or systems without the express written approval.
Won-Top Electronics Co., Ltd.
No. 44 Yu Kang North 3rd Road, Chine Chen Dist., Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Phone: 886-7-822-5408 or 886-7-822-5410
Fax: 886-7-822-5417
Email: sales@wontop.com
Internet: http://www.wontop.com
2003 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39617A-page 1
PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550
Universal Serial Bus Features:
USB V2.0 Compliant SIE
Low-speed (1.5 Mb/s) and full-speed (12 Mb/s)
Supports control, interrupt, isochronous and bulk
transfers
Supports up to 32 endpoints (16 bidirectional)
1-Kbyte dual access RAM for USB
On-board USB transceiver with on-chip voltage
regulator
Interface for off-chip USB transceiver
Streaming Parallel Port (SPP) for USB streaming
transfers (40/44-pin devices only)
Power Managed Modes:
Run: CPU on, peripherals on
Idle: CPU off, peripherals on
Sleep: CPU off, peripherals off
Idle mode currents down to 5.8 A typical
Sleep current down to 0.1 A typical
Timer1 oscillator: 1.1 A typical, 32 kHz, 2V
Watchdog Timer: 2.1 A typical
Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up
Flexible Oscillator Structure:
Five Crystal modes, including High-Precision PLL
for USB
Two External RC modes, up to 4 MHz
Two External Clock modes, up to 40 MHz
Internal oscillator block:
- 8 user selectable frequencies, from 31 kHz to 8 MHz
- User tunable to compensate for frequency drift
Secondary oscillator using Timer1 @ 32 kHz
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
- Allows for safe shutdown if any clock stops
Peripheral Highlights:
High current sink/source: 25 mA/25 mA
Three external interrupts
Four Timer modules (Timer0 to Timer3)
Up to 2 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules:
- Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution 6.25 ns (TCY/16)
- Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution 100 ns (TCY)
- PWM output: PWM resolution is 1 to 10-bit
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) module:
- Multiple output modes
- Selectable polarity
- Programmable dead-time
- Auto-Shutdown and Auto-Restart
Addressable USART module:
- LIN bus support
Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module
supporting 3-wire SPI (all 4 modes) and I
2
C
Master and Slave modes
10-bit, up to 13-channels Analog-to-Digital Converter
module (A/D) with programmable acquisition time
Dual analog comparators with input multiplexing
Special Microcontroller Features:
C compiler optimized architecture with optional
extended instruction set
100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash
program memory typical
1,000,000 erase/write cycle data EEPROM
memory typical
Flash/data EEPROM retention: > 40 years
Self-programmable under software control
Priority levels for interrupts
8 x 8 Single Cycle Hardware Multiplier
Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT):
- Programmable period from 41 ms to 131s
Programmable Code Protection
Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming
(ICSP) via two pins
In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins
Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V)
Device
Program Memory Data Memory
I/O
10-bit
A/D
(ch)
CCP/
ECCP
(PWM)
SPP
MSSP
Timers
8/16-bit
FLASH
(bytes)
# Single-
Word
Instructions
SRAM
(bytes)
EEPROM
(bytes)
SPI
Master
I
2
C
PIC18F2455 24K 12288 2048 256 24 10 2/0 No Y Y 1 2 1/3
PIC18F2550 32K 16384 2048 256 24 10 2/0 No Y Y 1 2 1/3
PIC18F4455 24K 12288 2048 256 35 13 1/1 Yes Y Y 1 2 1/3
PIC18F4550 32K 16384 2048 256 35 13 1/1 Yes Y Y 1 2 1/3
28/40/44-Pin High-Performance, Enhanced Flash USB
Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology
PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550
DS39617A-page 2 Advance Information 2003 Microchip Technology Inc.
Pin Diagrams
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB5/KBI1/PGM
RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP
RB3/AN9/CCP2*/VPO
RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO
RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL
RB0/AN12/INT0/SDI/SDA
VDD
VSS
RD7/SPP7/P1D
RD6/SPP6/P1C
RD5/SPP5/P1B
RD4/SPP4
RC7/RX/DT/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
D+/VP
D-/VM
RD3/SPP3
RD2/SPP2
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/LVDIN/C2OUT
RE0/CK1SPP/AN5
RE1/CK2SPP/AN6
RE2/OESPP/AN7
AVDD
AVSS
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2*/UOE
RC2/CCP1/P1A
VUSB
RD0/SPP0
RD1/SPP1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
40-Pin PDIP
10
11
2
3
4
5
6
1
8
7
9
12
13
14 15
16
17
18
19
20
23
24
25
26
27
28
22
21
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/LVDIN/C2OUT
VSS
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2*/UOE
RC2/CCP1
VUSB
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB5/KBI1/PGM
RB4/AN11/KBI0/RCV
RB3/AN9/CCP2*/VPO
RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO
RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL
RB0/AN12/INT0/SDI/SDA
VDD
VSS
RC7/RX/DT/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
D+/VP
D-/VM
28-Pin SDIP, SOIC
Note: Pinouts are subject to change.
* Assignment of this feature is dependent on device configuration.
2003 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39617A-page 3
PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550
Pin Diagrams (Continued)
44-Pin QFN
10
11
2
3
6
1
8
7
29
30
31
32
33
23
24
25
26
27
28
9
PIC18F4455
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
VSS
AVDD
RA5/AN4/SS/LVDIN/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RC7/RX/DT/SDO
RD4/CCP2*/P2A
RD5/SSP5/P1B
RD6/SSP6/P1C
VSS
VDD
RB0/AN12/INT0/SDI
RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL
RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO
RD7/SSP7/P1D 5
4 AVSS
VDD
AVDD
10
11
2
3
6
1
8
7
29
30
31
32
33
23
24
25
26
27
28
9
PIC18F4455
NC
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
VSS
VDD
RA5/AN4/SS/LVDIN/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
VSS
VDD
44-Pin TQFP
5
4
PIC18F4550
RC7/RX/DT/SDO
RD4/SPP4
RD5/SPP5/P1B
RD6/SPP6/P1C
RD7/SPP7/P1D
RB0/AN12/INT0/SDI/SDA
RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL
RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO
RB3/AN9/CCP2*/VPO
Note: Pinouts are subject to change.
* Assignment of this feature is dependent on device configuration.
PIC18F4550
RE0/CK1SPP/AN5
RE1/CK2SPP/AN6
RE2/OESPP/AN7
RE0/CK1SPP/AN5
RE1/CK2SPP/AN6
RE2/OESPP/AN7
PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550
DS39617A-page 4 Advance Information 2003 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
DS39617A-page 5 Advance Information 2003 Microchip Technology Inc.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is intended through suggestion only
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
No representation or warranty is given and no liability is
assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect
to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of
patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such
use or otherwise. Use of Microchips products as critical
components in life support systems is not authorized except
with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual
property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE and
PowerSmart are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
FilterLab, microID, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICMASTER, SEEVAL
and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are
registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
Accuron, Application Maestro, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-
Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort,
Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM,
PICC, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PowerCal, PowerInfo,
PowerMate, PowerTool, rfLAB, rfPIC, Select Mode,
SmartSensor, SmartShunt, SmartTel and Total Endurance are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark
of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
2003, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchips Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as unbreakable.
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break microchips code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Microchip received QS-9000 quality system
certification for its worldwide headquarters,
design and wafer fabrication facilities in
Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999
and Mountain View, California in March 2002.
The Company's quality system processes and
procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its
PICmicro

8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ

code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals,
non-volatile memory and analog products. In
addition, Microchip's quality system for the
design and manufacture of development
systems is ISO 9001 certified.
DS39617A-page 6 Advance Information 2003 Microchip Technology Inc.
AMERICAS
Corporate Office
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support: 480-792-7627
Web Address: http://www.microchip.com
Atlanta
3780 Mansell Road, Suite 130
Alpharetta, GA 30022
Tel: 770-640-0034
Fax: 770-640-0307
Boston
2 Lan Drive, Suite 120
Westford, MA 01886
Tel: 978-692-3848
Fax: 978-692-3821
Chicago
333 Pierce Road, Suite 180
Itasca, IL 60143
Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Dallas
4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160
Addison, TX 75001
Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Tri-Atria Office Building
32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Tel: 248-538-2250
Fax: 248-538-2260
Kokomo
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Kokomo, IN 46902
Tel: 765-864-8360
Fax: 765-864-8387
Los Angeles
18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090
Irvine, CA 92612
Tel: 949-263-1888
Fax: 949-263-1338
Phoenix
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Tel: 480-792-7966
Fax: 480-792-4338
San Jose
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San Jose, CA 95131
Tel: 408-436-7950
Fax: 408-436-7955
Toronto
6285 Northam Drive, Suite 108
Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1X5, Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
ASIA/PACIFIC
Australia
Suite 22, 41 Rawson Street
Epping 2121, NSW
Australia
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Unit 915
Bei Hai Wan Tai Bldg.
No. 6 Chaoyangmen Beidajie
Beijing, 100027, No. China
Tel: 86-10-85282100
Fax: 86-10-85282104
China - Chengdu
Rm. 2401-2402, 24th Floor,
Ming Xing Financial Tower
No. 88 TIDU Street
Chengdu 610016, China
Tel: 86-28-86766200
Fax: 86-28-86766599
China - Fuzhou
Unit 28F, World Trade Plaza
No. 71 Wusi Road
Fuzhou 350001, China
Tel: 86-591-7503506
Fax: 86-591-7503521
China - Hong Kong SAR
Unit 901-6, Tower 2, Metroplaza
223 Hing Fong Road
Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
China - Shanghai
Room 701, Bldg. B
Far East International Plaza
No. 317 Xian Xia Road
Shanghai, 200051
Tel: 86-21-6275-5700
Fax: 86-21-6275-5060
China - Shenzhen
Rm. 1812, 18/F, Building A, United Plaza
No. 5022 Binhe Road, Futian District
Shenzhen 518033, China
Tel: 86-755-82901380
Fax: 86-755-8295-1393
China - Shunde
Room 401, Hongjian Building
No. 2 Fengxiangnan Road, Ronggui Town
Shunde City, Guangdong 528303, China
Tel: 86-765-8395507 Fax: 86-765-8395571
China - Qingdao
Rm. B505A, Fullhope Plaza,
No. 12 Hong Kong Central Rd.
Qingdao 266071, China
Tel: 86-532-5027355 Fax: 86-532-5027205
India
Divyasree Chambers
1 Floor, Wing A (A3/A4)
No. 11, OShaugnessey Road
Bangalore, 560 025, India
Tel: 91-80-2290061 Fax: 91-80-2290062
Japan
Benex S-1 6F
3-18-20, Shinyokohama
Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi
Kanagawa, 222-0033, Japan
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122
Korea
168-1, Youngbo Bldg. 3 Floor
Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku
Seoul, Korea 135-882
Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
Singapore
200 Middle Road
#07-02 Prime Centre
Singapore, 188980
Tel: 65-6334-8870 Fax: 65-6334-8850
Taiwan
Kaohsiung Branch
30F - 1 No. 8
Min Chuan 2nd Road
Kaohsiung 806, Taiwan
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Fax: 886-7-536-4803
Taiwan
Taiwan Branch
11F-3, No. 207
Tung Hua North Road
Taipei, 105, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139
EUROPE
Austria
Durisolstrasse 2
A-4600 Wels
Austria
Tel: 43-7242-2244-399
Fax: 43-7242-2244-393
Denmark
Regus Business Centre
Lautrup hoj 1-3
Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark
Tel: 45-4420-9895 Fax: 45-4420-9910
France
Parc dActivite du Moulin de Massy
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Batiment A - ler Etage
91300 Massy, France
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Germany
Steinheilstrasse 10
D-85737 Ismaning, Germany
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Italy
Via Quasimodo, 12
20025 Legnano (MI)
Milan, Italy
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands
P. A. De Biesbosch 14
NL-5152 SC Drunen, Netherlands
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
United Kingdom
505 Eskdale Road
Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham
Berkshire, England RG41 5TU
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
07/28/03
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
H6T2, H6T2E
0PT060uPLEP$


SOES023 MARCH 1983 REVISED OCTOBER 1995
1 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
COMPATIBLE WITH STANDARD TTL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Gallium Arsenide Diode Infrared Source
Optically Coupled to a Silicon npn
Phototransistor
High Direct-Current Transfer Ratio
Base Lead Provided for Conventional
Transistor Biasing
High-Voltage Electrical Isolation . . .
1.5-kV, or 3.55-kV Rating
Plastic Dual-In-Line Package
High-Speed Switching:
t
r
= 5 s, t
f
= 5 s Typical
Designed to be Interchangeable with
General Instruments MCT2 and MCT2E
absolute maximum ratings at 25 C free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)

Input-to-output voltage: MCT2 1.5 kV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


MCT2E 3.55 kV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collector-base voltage 70 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collector-emitter voltage (see Note 1) 30 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emitter-collector voltage 7 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emitter-base voltage 7 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input-diode reverse voltage 3 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input-diode continuous forward current 60 mA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input-diode peak forward current (t
w
1 ns, PRF 300 Hz) 3 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous power dissipation at (or below) 25 C free-air temperature:
Infrared-emitting diode (see Note 2) 200 mW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phototransistor (see Note 2) 200 mW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total, infrared-emitting diode plus phototransistor (see Note 3) 250 mW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating free-air temperature range, T
A
55 C to 100 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage temperature range, T
stg
55 C to 150 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds 260 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
NOTES: 1. This value applies when the base-emitter diode is open-circulated.
2. Derate linearly to 100 C free-air temperature at the rate of 2.67 mW/ C.
3. Derate linearly to 100 C free-air temperature at the rate of 3.33 mW/ C.
Copyright 1995, Texas Instruments Incorporated
PP00u6T|0N 0ATA |nformat|on |s current as of pub||cat|on date.
Products conform to spec|f|cat|ons per the terms of Texas |nstruments
standard Warranty. Product|on process|ng does not necessar||y |nc|ude
test|ng of a|| parameters.

1
2
3
6
5
4
ANODE
CATHODE
NC
BASE
COLLECTOR
EMITTER
MCT2 OR MCT2E . . . PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
NC No internal connection
H6T2, H6T2E
0PT060uPLEP$


SOES023 MARCH 1983 REVISED OCTOBER 1995
2 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
electrical characteristics at 25 C free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT
V
(BR)CBO
Collector-base breakdown voltage I
C
= 10 A, I
E
= 0, I
F
= 0 70 V
V
(BR)CEO
Collector-emitter breakdown voltage I
C
=1 mA, I
B
= 0, I
F
= 0 30 V
V
(BRECO)
Emitter-collector breakdown voltage I
E
= 100 A, I
B
= 0, I
F
= 0 7 V
I
R
Input diode static reverse current V
R
= 3 V 10 A
I
C(on)
On-state collector current
Phototransistor
operation
V
CE
= 10 V, I
B
= 0, I
F
= 10 mA 2 5 mA
C(on)
Photodiode operation V
CB
= 10 V, I
E
= 0, I
F
= 10 mA 20 A
I
C(off)
Off-state collector current
Phototransistor
operation
V
CE
= 10 V, I
B
= 0, I
F
= 0 1 50 nA
C(off)
Photodiode operation V
CB
= 10 V, I
E
= 0, I
F
= 0 0.1 20 nA
H
FE
Transistor static forward current transfer ratio
V
CE
= 5 V,
I
C
100 A
MCT2 250
H
FE
Transistor static forward current transfer ratio I
C
= 100 A,
I
F
= 0
MCT2E 100 300
V
F
Input diode static forward voltage I
F
= 20 mA 1.25 1.5 V
V
CE(sat)
Collector-emitter saturation voltage I
C
= 2 mA, I
B
= 0, I
F
= 16 mA 0.25 4 V
r
IO
Input-to-output internal resistance
V
in-out
= 1.5 kV for MCT2,
3.55 kV for MCT2E,
See Note 4
10
11
C
io
Input-to-output capacitance
V
in-out
= 0,
See Note 4
f = 1 MHz,
1 pF
NOTE 4: These parameters are measured between both input diode leads shorted together and all the phototransistor leads shorted together.
switching characteristics
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT
t
r
Rise time
Phototransistor operation
V
CC
= 10 V, I
C(on)
= 2 mA,
5 s
t
f
Fall time
Phototransistor operation
CC
,
R
L
= 100 ,
C(on)
,
See Test Circuit A of Figure 1
5 s
t
r
Rise time
Photodiode operation
V
CC
= 10 V, I
C(on)
20 A,
1 s
t
f
Fall time
Photodiode operation
CC
R
L
= 1 k ,
C(on)
See Test Circuit B of Figure 1
1 s
H6T2, H6T2E
0PT060uPLEP$


SOES023 MARCH 1983 REVISED OCTOBER 1995
3 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
PARAMETER MEASUREMENT INFORMATION
TEST CIRCUIT A
PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPERATION
+

V
CC
= 10 V
Input
Output
(see Note B)
R
L
= 100
47
+

V
CC
= 10 V
Input
Output
(see Note B)
R
L
= 1 k
47
t
r
t
f
90%
10%
90%
10%
Output
Input
0 V
TEST CIRCUIT B
PHOTODIODE OPERATION
VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS
NOTES: A. The input waveform is supplied by a generator with the following characteristics: Z
O
= 50 t
r
15 ns, duty cycle 1%,
t
w
= 100 s.
B. The output waveform is monitored on an oscilloscope with the following characteristics: t
r
12 ns, R
in
1 M C
in
20 pF.
Figure 1. Switching Times
H6T2, H6T2E
0PT060uPLEP$


SOES023 MARCH 1983 REVISED OCTOBER 1995
4 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
0.04
0.01
0.1
0.1 0.4 1 4 10 40 100
COLLECTOR CURRENT
vs
INPUT-DIODE FORWARD CURRENT
0.4
1
4
10
40
100
I
F
Input-Diode Forward Current mA
V
CE
= 10 V
I
B
= 0
T
A
= 25 C
Figure 2 Figure 3
30
20
10
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
40
50
COLLECTOR CURRENT
vs
COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE
60
14 16 18 20
V
CE
Collector-Emitter Voltage V
Max Continuous
Power Dissipation
I
F
= 40 mA
I
F
= 30 mA
I
F
= 20 mA
I
F
= 20 mA
I
B
= 0
T
A
= 25 C
See Note A
NOTE A: Pulse operation of input diode is required for operation
beyond limits shown by dotted lines.
0.8
0.4
0.2
0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1
0.6
75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
T
A
Free-Air Temperature C
V
CE
= 0.4 V to 10 V
I
B
= 0
I
F
= 10 mA
See Note B
NOTE B: These parameters were measured using pulse
techniques, t
w
= 1 ms, duty cycle 2 %.
ON-STATE COLLECTOR CURRENT
(RELATIVE TO VALUE AT 25 C)
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE
Figure 4
H6T2, H6T2E
0PT060uPLEP$


SOES023 MARCH 1983 REVISED OCTOBER 1995
5 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
MECHANICAL INFORMATION
The package consists of a gallium-arsenide infrared-emitting diode and an npn silicon phototransistor mounted
on a 6-lead frame encapsulated within an electrically nonconductive plastic compound. The case can withstand
soldering temperature with no deformation and device performance characteristics remain stable when
operated in high-humidity conditions. Unit weight is approximately 0.52 grams.
C
L
C
0,534 (0.021)
0,381 (0.015)
6 Places
Seating Plane
L
7,62 (0.300) T.P.
6,61 (0.260)
6,09 (0.240)
0,305 (0.012)
0,203 (0.008)
3,81 (0.150)
3,17 (0.125)
5,46 (0.215)
2,92 (0.115)
1,78 (0.070)
0,51 (0.020)
2,29 (0.090)
1,27 (0.050)
2,54 (0.100) T.P.
(see Note A)
1,01 (0.040) MIN
1,78 (0.070) MAX
6 Places
9,40 (0.370)
8,38 (0.330)
Index Dot
(see Note B)
105
90
1 2 3
6 5 4
(see Note C)
NOTES: A. Leads are within 0,13 (0.005) radius of true position (T.P.) with maximum material condition and unit installed.
B. Pin 1 identified by index dot.
C. Terminal connections:
1. Anode (part of the infrared-emitting diode)
2. Cathode (part of the infrared-emitting diode)
3. No internal connection
4. Emitter (part of the phototransistor)
5. Collector (part of the phototransistor)
6. Base (part of the phototransistor)
D. The dimensions given fall within JEDEC MO-001 AM dimensions.
E. All linear dimensions are given in millimeters and parenthetically given in inches.
Figure 5. Mechanical Information
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device Status
(1)
Package
Type
Package
Drawing
Pins Package
Qty
Eco Plan
(2)
Lead/Ball Finish MSL Peak Temp
(3)
MCT2 OBSOLETE PDIP N 6 TBD Call TI Call TI
MCT2E OBSOLETE PDIP N 6 TBD Call TI Call TI
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in
a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS) or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check
http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TIs terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements
for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered
at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame
retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder
temperature.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TIs knowledge and belief as of the date that it is
provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the
accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take
reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on
incoming materials and chemicals. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited
information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TIs liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI
to Customer on an annual basis.
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com 8-Apr-2005
Addendum-Page 1
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications,
enhancements, improvements, and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue
any product or service without notice. Customers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing
orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are sold subject to TIs terms
and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in
accordance with TIs standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI
deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where mandated by government requirements, testing of all
parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for
their products and applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products
and applications, customers should provide adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right,
copyright, mask work right, or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process
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Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property
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Reproduction of information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without
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Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that
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Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application
solutions:
Products Applications
Amplifiers amplifier.ti.com Audio www.ti.com/audio
Data Converters dataconverter.ti.com Automotive www.ti.com/automotive
DSP dsp.ti.com Broadband www.ti.com/broadband
Interface interface.ti.com Digital Control www.ti.com/digitalcontrol
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Power Mgmt power.ti.com Optical Networking www.ti.com/opticalnetwork
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Mailing Address: Texas Instruments
Post Office Box 655303 Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright 2005, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1

FN2867.9
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ICM7555, ICM7556
General Purpose Timers
The ICM7555 and ICM7556 are CMOS RC timers providing
significantly improved performance over the standard
SE/NE 555/6 and 355 timers, while at the same time being
direct replacements for those devices in most applications.
Improved parameters include low supply current, wide
operating supply voltage range, low THRESHOLD,
TRIGGER and RESET currents, no crowbarring of the
supply current during output transitions, higher frequency
performance and no requirement to decouple CONTROL
VOLTAGE for stable operation.
Specifically, the ICM7555 and ICM7556 are stable
controllers capable of producing accurate time delays or
frequencies. The ICM7556 is a dual ICM7555, with the two
timers operating independently of each other, sharing only
V+ and GND. In the one shot mode, the pulse width of each
circuit is precisely controlled by one external resistor and
capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free
running frequency and the duty cycle are both accurately
controlled by two external resistors and one capacitor. Unlike
the regular bipolar SE/NE 555/6 devices, the CONTROL
VOLTAGE terminal need not be decoupled with a capacitor.
The circuits are triggered and reset on falling (negative)
waveforms, and the output inverter can source or sink
currents large enough to drive TTL loads, or provide minimal
offsets to drive CMOS loads.
Features
Exact Equivalent in Most Cases for SE/NE555/556 or
TLC555/556
Low Supply Current
- ICM7555. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 A
- ICM7556. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 A
Extremely Low Input Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20pA
High Speed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1MHz
Guaranteed Supply Voltage Range . . . . . . . . . 2V to 18V
Temperature Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.005%/C at +25C
Normal Reset Function - No Crowbarring of Supply During
Output Transition
Can be Used with Higher Impedance Timing Elements
than Regular 555/6 for Longer RC Time Constants
Timing from Microseconds through Hours
Operates in Both Astable and Monostable Modes
Adjustable Duty Cycle
High Output Source/Sink Driver can Drive TTL/CMOS
Outputs have Very Low Offsets, HI and LO
Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)
Applications
Precision Timing
Pulse Generation
Sequential Timing
Time Delay Generation
Pulse Width Modulation
Pulse Position Modulation
Missing Pulse Detector
Pinouts
ICM7555 (8 LD PDIP, SOIC)
TOP VIEW
ICM7556 (14 LD PDIP, CERDIP)
TOP VIEW
GND
TRIGGER
OUTPUT
RESET
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
V
DD
DISCHARGE
THRESHOLD
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
DISCHARGE
THRESH-
CONTROL
RESET
OUTPUT
TRIGGER
GND
V
DD
DISCHARGE
THRESHOLD
CONTROL
RESET
OUTPUT
TRIGGER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
OLD
Data Sheet August 24, 2006
2
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER PART MARKING
TEMP. RANGE
(C) PACKAGE PKG. DWG. #
ICM7555CBA 7555 CBA 0 to +70 8 Ld SOIC M8.15
ICM7555CBA-T 7555 CBA 0 to +70 8 Ld SOIC Tape and Reel M8.15
ICM7555CBAZ (Note) 7555 CBAZ 0 to +70 8 Ld SOIC (Pb-free) M8.15
ICM7555CBAZ-T (Note) 7555 CBAZ 0 to +70 8 Ld SOIC (Pb-free)
Tape and Reel
M8.15
ICM7555IBA 7555 IBA -25 to +85 8 Ld SOIC M8.15
ICM7555IBAT 7555 IBA -25 to +85 8 Ld SOIC Tape and Reel M8.15
ICM7555IBAZ (Note) 7555 IBAZ -25 to +85 8 Ld SOIC (Pb-free) M8.15
ICM7555IBAZ-T (Note) 7555 IBAZ -25 to +85 8 Ld SOIC (Pb-free)
Tape and Reel
M8.15
ICM7555IPA 7555 IPA -25 to +85 8 Ld PDIP E8.3
ICM7555IPAZ (Note) 7555 IPAZ -25 to +85 8 Ld PDIP** (Pb-free) E8.3
ICM7556IPD ICM7556IPD -25 to +85 14 Ld PDIP E14.3
ICM7556IPDZ (Note) ICM7556IPDZ -25 to +85 14 Ld PDIP** (Pb-free) E14.3
ICM7556MJD ICM7556MJD -55 to +125 14 Ld Cerdip F14.3
**Pb-free PDIPs can be used for through hole wave solder processing only. They are not intended for use in Reflow solder processing
applications.
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free products employ special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100% matte tin plate
termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are
MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
ICM7555, ICM7556
3
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
Absolute Maximum Ratings Thermal Information
Supply Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+18V
Input Voltage
Trigger, Control Voltage, Threshold,
Reset (Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V+ +0.3V to GND -0.3V
Output Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100mA
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range
ICM7555C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0C to +70C
ICM7555I, ICM7556I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -25C to +85C
ICM7556M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55C to +125C
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 2)
JA
(C/W)
JC
(C/W)
14 Lead CERDIP Package. . . . . . . . . . 80 24
14 Lead PDIP Package* . . . . . . . . . . . 115 N/A
8 Lead PDIP Package* . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 N/A
8 Lead SOIC Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 N/A
Maximum Junction Temperature (Hermetic Package) . . . . . . . +175C
Maximum Junction Temperature (Plastic Package) . . . . . . . +150C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . -65C to +150C
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . +300C
(SOIC - Lead Tips Only)
* Pb-free PDIPs can be used for through hole wave solder
processing only. They are not intended for use in Reflow solder
processing applications.
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTES:
1. Due to the SCR structure inherent in the CMOS process used to fabricate these devices, connecting any terminal to a voltage greater than
V+ +0.3V or less than V- -0.3V may cause destructive latchup. For this reason it is recommended that no inputs from external sources not
operating from the same power supply be applied to the device before its power supply is established. In multiple supply systems, the supply
of the ICM7555 and ICM7556 must be turned on first.
2.
JA
is measured with the component mounted on a low effective thermal conductivity test board in free air. See Tech Brief 379 for details.
Electrical Specifications Applies to ICM7555 and ICM7556, unless otherwise specified
PARAMETER SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS
T
A
= +25C
(NOTE 4)
-55C TO 125C
UNITS MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX
Static Supply Current I
DD
ICM7555 V
DD
= 5V 40 200 300 A
V
DD
= 15V 60 300 300 A
ICM7556 V
DD
= 5V 80 400 600 A
V
DD
= 15V 120 600 600 A
Monostable Timing Accuracy R
A
= 10K, C = 0.1 F, V
DD
= 5V 2 %
858 1161 s
Drift with Temperature
(Note 3)
V
DD
= 5V 150 ppm/C
V
DD
= 10V 200 ppm/C
V
DD
= 15V 250 ppm/C
Drift with Supply (Note 3) V
DD
= 5V to 15V 0.5 0.5 %/V
Astable Timing Accuracy R
A
= R
B
= 10K, C = 0.1 F, V
DD
= 5V 2 %
1717 2323 s
Drift with Temperature
(Note 3)
V
DD
= 5V 150 ppm/C
V
DD
= 10V 200 ppm/C
V
DD
= 15V 250 ppm/C
Drift with Supply (Note 3) V
DD
= 5V to 15V 0.5 0.5 %/V
Threshold Voltage V
TH
V
DD
= 15V 62 67 71 61 72 % V
DD
Trigger Voltage V
TRIG
V
DD
= 15V 28 32 36 27 37 % V
DD
Trigger Current I
TRIG
V
DD
= 15V 10 50 nA
Threshold Current I
TH
V
DD
= 15V 10 50 nA
Control Voltage V
CV
V
DD
= 15V 62 67 71 61 72 % V
DD
ICM7555, ICM7556
4
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
Functional Diagram
Reset Voltage V
RST
V
DD
= 2V to 15V 0.4 1.0 0.2 1.2 V
Reset Current I
RST
V
DD
= 15V 10 50 nA
Discharge Leakage I
DIS
V
DD
= 15V 10 50 nA
Output Voltage V
OL
V
DD
= 15V, I
SINK
= 20mA 0.4 1.0 1.25 V
V
DD
= 5V, I
SINK
= 3.2mA 0.2 0.4 0.5 V
V
OH
V
DD
= 15V, I
SOURCE
= 0.8mA 14.3 14.6 14.2 V
V
DD
= 5V, I
SOURCE
= 0.8mA 4.0 4.3 3.8 V
Discharge Output Voltage V
DIS
V
DD
= 5V, I
SINK
= 15mA 0.2 0.4 0.6 V
V
DD
= 15V, I
SINK
= 15mA 0.4 V
Supply Voltage (Note 3) V
DD
Functional Operation 2.0 18.0 3.0 16.0 V
Output Rise Time (Note 3) t
R
R
L
= 10M, C
L
= 10pF, V
DD
= 5V 75 ns
Output Fall Time (Note 3) t
F
R
L
= 10M, C
L
= 10pF, V
DD
= 5V 75 ns
Oscillator Frequency
(Note 3)
f
MAX
V
DD
= 5V, R
A
= 470 , R
B
= 270 ,
C = 200pF
1 MHz
NOTES:
3. These parameters are based upon characterization data and are not tested.
4. Applies only to military temperature range product (M suffix).
Electrical Specifications Applies to ICM7555 and ICM7556, unless otherwise specified (Continued)
PARAMETER SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS
T
A
= +25C
(NOTE 4)
-55C TO 125C
UNITS MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX
+
-
THRESHOLD
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
6
5
3
1
+
-
TRIGGER
2
COMPARATOR
R
GND
B
COMPARATOR
A
R
V
DD
8
OUTPUT
7
1
n
DISCHARGE
OUTPUT
DRIVERS
FLIP-FLOP
RESET
4
R
NOTE: This functional diagram reduces the circuitry down to its simplest equivalent components. Tie down unused inputs.
TRUTH TABLE
THRESHOLD VOLTAGE TRIGGER VOLTAGE RESET OUTPUT DISCHARGE SWITCH
Dont Care Dont Care Low Low On
>
2
/
3
(V+) >
1
/
3
(V+) High Low On
<
2
/
3
(V+) >
1
/
3
(V+) High Stable Stable
Dont Care <
1
/
3
(V+) High High Off
NOTE: RESET will dominate all other inputs: TRIGGER will dominate over THRESHOLD.
ICM7555, ICM7556
5
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
Schematic Diagram
Application Information
General
The ICM7555 and ICM7556 devices are, in most instances,
direct replacements for the NE/SE 555/6 devices. However,
it is possible to effect economies in the external component
count using the ICM7555 and ICM7556. Because the bipolar
NE/SE 555/6 devices produce large crowbar currents in the
output driver, it is necessary to decouple the power supply
lines with a good capacitor close to the device. The ICM7555
and ICM7556 devices produce no such transients. See
Figure 1.
The ICM7555 and ICM7556 produce supply current spikes
of only 2mA - 3mA instead of 300mA - 400mA and supply
decoupling is normally not necessary. Also, in most
instances, the CONTROL VOLTAGE decoupling capacitors
are not required since the input impedance of the CMOS
comparators on chip are very high. Thus, for many
applications, two capacitors can be saved using an ICM7555
and three capacitors with an ICM7556.
POWER SUPPLY CONSIDERATIONS
Although the supply current consumed by the ICM7555 and
ICM7556 devices is very low, the total system supply current
can be high unless the timing components are high
impedance. Therefore, use high values for R and low values
for C in Figures 2A, 2B, and 3.
RESET DISCHARGE
TRIGGER
THRESHOLD
GND
OUTPUT
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
R
N N
NPN
P
R
R
V
DD
N N N N N
P P
N N
P P P
R = 100k 20% (TYP)
TIME (ns)
400 800 600 200 0
0
100
200
300
400
500
SE/NE555
T
A
= 25C
ICM7555/56
FIGURE 1. SUPPLY CURRENT TRANSIENT COMPARED WITH
A STANDARD BIPOLAR 555 DURING AN OUTPUT
TRANSITION
GND
TRIGGER
RESET
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
V
DD
DISCHARGE
THRESHOLD
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
V
DD
10K
OPTIONAL
CAPACITOR
C
V
DD
R
FIGURE 2A. ASTABLE OPERATION
ICM7555, ICM7556
6
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
OUTPUT DRIVE CAPABILITY
The output driver consists of a CMOS inverter capable of
driving most logic families including CMOS and TTL. As
such, if driving CMOS, the output swing at all supply
voltages will equal the supply voltage. At a supply voltage of
4.5V or more, the ICM7555 and ICM7556 will drive at least
two standard TTL loads.
ASTABLE OPERATION
The circuit can be connected to trigger itself and free run as
a multivibrator, see Figure 2A. The output swings from rail to
rail, and is a true 50% duty cycle square wave. (Trip points
and output swings are symmetrical.) Less than a 1%
frequency variation is observed over a voltage range of +5V
to +15V.
The timer can also be connected as shown in Figure 2B. In this
circuit, the frequency is:
The duty cycle is controlled by the values of R
A
and R
B
, by the
equation:
MONOSTABLE OPERATION
In this mode of operation, the timer functions as a one-shot.
See Figure 3. Initially the external capacitor (C) is held
discharged by a transistor inside the timer. Upon application of
a negative TRIGGER pulse to pin 2, the internal flip-flop is set
which releases the short circuit across the external capacitor
and drives the OUTPUT high. The voltage across the capacitor
now increases exponentially with a time constant t = R
A
C.
When the voltage across the capacitor equals
2
/
3
V+, the
comparator resets the flip-flop, which in turn discharges the
capacitor rapidly and also drives the OUTPUT to its low state.
TRIGGER must return to a high state before the OUTPUT can
return to a low state.
CONTROL VOLTAGE
The CONTROL VOLTAGE terminal permits the two trip
voltages for the THRESHOLD and TRIGGER internal
comparators to be controlled. This provides the possibility of
oscillation frequency modulation in the astable mode or even
inhibition of oscillation, depending on the applied voltage. In
the monostable mode, delay times can be changed by
varying the applied voltage to the CONTROL VOLTAGE pin.
RESET
The RESET terminal is designed to have essentially the
same trip voltage as the standard bipolar 555/6, i.e., 0.6V to
0.7V. At all supply voltages it represents an extremely high
input impedance. The mode of operation of the RESET
function is, however, much improved over the standard
bipolar NE/SE 555/6 in that it controls only the internal flip-
flop, which in turn controls simultaneously the state of the
OUTPUT and DISCHARGE pins. This avoids the multiple
threshold problems sometimes encountered with slow falling
edges in the bipolar devices.
OUTPUT
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
V
DD
OPTIONAL
CAPACITOR
C
V
DD
R
A
R
B
FIGURE 2B. ALTERNATE ASTABLE CONFIGURATION
f
1
1.4 RC
------------------
(EQ. 1)
f 1.44 R
A
2R
B
C
(EQ. 2)
D R
A
R
B
R
A
2R
B

(EQ. 3)
TRIGGER
OUTPUT
RESET
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
V
DD
DISCHARGE
THRESHOLD
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
OPTIONAL
CAPACITOR
C
V
DD
18V
R
A
ICM7555
t
OUTPUT
= -ln (1/3) R
A
C = 1.1R
A
C
FIGURE 3. MONOSTABLE OPERATION
ICM7555, ICM7556
7
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
Typical Performance Curves
FIGURE 4. MINIMUM PULSE WIDTH REQUIRED FOR
TRIGGERING
FIGURE 5. SUPPLY CURRENT vs SUPPLY VOLTAGE
FIGURE 6. OUTPUT SOURCE CURRENT vs OUTPUT VOLTAGE FIGURE 7. OUTPUT SINK CURRENT vs OUTPUT VOLTAGE
FIGURE 8. OUTPUT SINK CURRENT vs OUTPUT VOLTAGE FIGURE 9. OUTPUT SINK CURRENT vs OUTPUT VOLTAGE
T
A
= 25C
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 18V
LOWEST VOLTAGE LEVEL OF TRIGGER PULSE (%V
DD
)
V
DD
= 5V
0 10 20 30 40
0
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
T
A
= 25C
T
A
= -20C
T
A
= 70C
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
400
360
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
T
A
= 25C
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V
V
DD
= 18V
-100
-10.0
-1.0
-0.1
-0.01 -0.1 -1.0 -10
OUTPUT VOLTAGE REFERENCED TO V
DD
(V)
T
A
= -20C
OUTPUT LOW VOLTAGE (V)
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V V
DD
= 18V
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
0.1
100
10.0
1.0
T
A
= 25C
OUTPUT LOW VOLTAGE (V)
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V
V
DD
= 18V
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
0.1
100
10.0
1.0
T
A
= 70C
OUTPUT LOW VOLTAGE (V)
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V
V
DD
= 18V
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
0.1
100
10.0
1.0
ICM7555, ICM7556
8
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
FIGURE 10. NORMALIZED FREQUENCY STABILITY IN THE
ASTABLE MODE vs SUPPLY VOLTAGE
FIGURE 11. DISCHARGE OUTPUT CURRENT vs DISCHARGE
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
FIGURE 12. PROPAGATION DELAY vs VOLTAGE LEVEL OF
TRIGGER PULSE
FIGURE 13. NORMALIZED FREQUENCY STABILITY IN THE
ASTABLE MODE vs TEMPERATURE
FIGURE 14. FREE RUNNING FREQUENCY vs R
A
, R
B
AND C
FIGURE 15. TIME DELAY IN THE MONOSTABLE MODE vs
R
A
AND C
Typical Performance Curves (Continued)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
T
A
= 25C
R
A
= R
B
= 10M
0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0
8
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
C = 100pF
R
A
= R
B
= 10k
C = 0.1 F
T
A
= 25C
DISCHARGE LOW VOLTAGE (V)
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V
V
DD
= 18V
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
0.1
100
10.0
1.0
T
A
= 25C
LOWEST VOLTAGE LEVEL OF TRIGGER PULSE (%V
DD
)
V
DD
= 5V
0 10 20 30 40
0
600
500
400
300
200
100
T
A
= 70C
T
A
= -20C
TEMPERATURE (C)
0 60 80
-0.1
+0.1
0
R
A
= R
B
= 10k
C = 0.1 F
40 20 -20
+0.2
+0.3
+0.4
+0.5
+0.6
+0.7
+0.8
+0.9
+1.0
V
DD
= 2V
V
DD
= 5V
V
DD
= 18V
V
DD
= 2V
T
A
= 25C
FREQUENCY (Hz)
(R
A
+ 2R
B
) 1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
10 0.1 1 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
1.0
100m
10m
1m
100
10
1
100n
10n
1n
100p
10p
1p
TIME DELAY (s)
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
10 100n 1 100 1m 10m 100m 1 10
1.0
100m
10m
1m
100
10
1
100n
10n
1n
100p
10p
1p
R
A
T
A
= 25C
ICM7555, ICM7556
9
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
ICM7555, ICM7556
Small Outline Plastic Packages (SOIC)
INDEX
AREA
E
D
N
1 2 3
-B-
0.25(0.010) C A M B S
e
-A-
L
B
M
-C-
A1
A
SEATING PLANE
0.10(0.004)
h x 45
C
H
0.25(0.010) B M M
NOTES:
1. Symbols are defined in the MO Series Symbol List in Section 2.2 of
Publication Number 95.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimension D does not include mold flash, protrusions or gate burrs.
Mold flash, protrusion and gate burrs shall not exceed 0.15mm (0.006
inch) per side.
4. Dimension E does not include interlead flash or protrusions. Inter-
lead flash and protrusions shall not exceed 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per
side.
5. The chamfer on the body is optional. If it is not present, a visual index
feature must be located within the crosshatched area.
6. L is the length of terminal for soldering to a substrate.
7. N is the number of terminal positions.
8. Terminal numbers are shown for reference only.
9. The lead width B, as measured 0.36mm (0.014 inch) or greater
above the seating plane, shall not exceed a maximum value of
0.61mm (0.024 inch).
10. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch dimensions
are not necessarily exact.
M8.15 (JEDEC MS-012-AA ISSUE C)
8 LEAD NARROW BODY SMALL OUTLINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
SYMBOL
INCHES MILLIMETERS
NOTES MIN MAX MIN MAX
A 0.0532 0.0688 1.35 1.75 -
A1 0.0040 0.0098 0.10 0.25 -
B 0.013 0.020 0.33 0.51 9
C 0.0075 0.0098 0.19 0.25 -
D 0.1890 0.1968 4.80 5.00 3
E 0.1497 0.1574 3.80 4.00 4
e 0.050 BSC 1.27 BSC -
H 0.2284 0.2440 5.80 6.20 -
h 0.0099 0.0196 0.25 0.50 5
L 0.016 0.050 0.40 1.27 6
N 8 8 7
0 8 0 8 -
Rev. 1 6/05
10
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
ICM7555, ICM7556
Dual-In-Line Plastic Packages (PDIP)
C
L
E
e
A
C
e
B
e
C
-B-
E1
INDEX
1 2 3 N/2
N
AREA
SEATING
BASE
PLANE
PLANE
-C-
D1
B1
B
e
D
D1
A
A2
L
A
1
-A-
0.010 (0.25) C A M B S
NOTES:
1. Controlling Dimensions: INCH. In case of conflict between
English and Metric dimensions, the inch dimensions control.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Symbols are defined in the MO Series Symbol List in Section
2.2 of Publication No. 95.
4. Dimensions A, A1 and L are measured with the package seated
in JEDEC seating plane gauge GS-3.
5. D, D1, and E1 dimensions do not include mold flash or protru-
sions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch
(0.25mm).
6. E and are measured with the leads constrained to be per-
pendicular to datum .
7. e
B
and e
C
are measured at the lead tips with the leads uncon-
strained. e
C
must be zero or greater.
8. B1 maximum dimensions do not include dambar protrusions.
Dambar protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
9. N is the maximum number of terminal positions.
10. Corner leads (1, N, N/2 and N/2 + 1) for E8.3, E16.3, E18.3,
E28.3, E42.6 will have a B1 dimension of 0.030 - 0.045 inch
(0.76 - 1.14mm).
e
A
-C-
E8.3 (JEDEC MS-001-BA ISSUE D)
8 LEAD DUAL-IN-LINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
SYMBOL
INCHES MILLIMETERS
NOTES MIN MAX MIN MAX
A - 0.210 - 5.33 4
A1 0.015 - 0.39 - 4
A2 0.115 0.195 2.93 4.95 -
B 0.014 0.022 0.356 0.558 -
B1 0.045 0.070 1.15 1.77 8, 10
C 0.008 0.014 0.204 0.355 -
D 0.355 0.400 9.01 10.16 5
D1 0.005 - 0.13 - 5
E 0.300 0.325 7.62 8.25 6
E1 0.240 0.280 6.10 7.11 5
e 0.100 BSC 2.54 BSC -
e
A
0.300 BSC 7.62 BSC 6
e
B
- 0.430 - 10.92 7
L 0.115 0.150 2.93 3.81 4
N 8 8 9
Rev. 0 12/93
11
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
ICM7555, ICM7556
Dual-In-Line Plastic Packages (PDIP)
NOTES:
1. Controlling Dimensions: INCH. In case of conflict between English
and Metric dimensions, the inch dimensions control.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Symbols are defined in the MO Series Symbol List in Section 2.2 of
Publication No. 95.
4. Dimensions A, A1 and L are measured with the package seated in
JEDEC seating plane gauge GS-3.
5. D, D1, and E1 dimensions do not include mold flash or protrusions.
Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
6. E and are measured with the leads constrained to be perpen-
dicular to datum .
7. e
B
and e
C
are measured at the lead tips with the leads uncon-
strained. e
C
must be zero or greater.
8. B1 maximum dimensions do not include dambar protrusions. Dambar
protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
9. N is the maximum number of terminal positions.
10. Corner leads (1, N, N/2 and N/2 + 1) for E8.3, E16.3, E18.3, E28.3,
E42.6 will have a B1 dimension of 0.030 - 0.045 inch (0.76 -
1.14mm).
e
A
-C-
C
L
E
e
A
C
e
B
e
C
-B-
E1
INDEX
1 2 3 N/2
N
AREA
SEATING
BASE
PLANE
PLANE
-C-
D1
B1
B
e
D
D1
A
A2
L
A1
-A-
0.010 (0.25) C A M B S
E14.3 (JEDEC MS-001-AA ISSUE D)
14 LEAD DUAL-IN-LINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
SYMBOL
INCHES MILLIMETERS
NOTES MIN MAX MIN MAX
A - 0.210 - 5.33 4
A1 0.015 - 0.39 - 4
A2 0.115 0.195 2.93 4.95 -
B 0.014 0.022 0.356 0.558 -
B1 0.045 0.070 1.15 1.77 8
C 0.008 0.014 0.204 0.355 -
D 0.735 0.775 18.66 19.68 5
D1 0.005 - 0.13 - 5
E 0.300 0.325 7.62 8.25 6
E1 0.240 0.280 6.10 7.11 5
e 0.100 BSC 2.54 BSC -
e
A
0.300 BSC 7.62 BSC 6
e
B
- 0.430 - 10.92 7
L 0.115 0.150 2.93 3.81 4
N 14 14 9
Rev. 0 12/93
12
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporations quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
FN2867.9
August 24, 2006
ICM7555, ICM7556
Ceramic Dual-In-Line Frit Seal Packages (CERDIP)
NOTES:
1. Index area: A notch or a pin one identification mark shall be locat-
ed adjacent to pin one and shall be located within the shaded
area shown. The manufacturers identification shall not be used
as a pin one identification mark.
2. The maximum limits of lead dimensions b and c or M shall be
measured at the centroid of the finished lead surfaces, when
solder dip or tin plate lead finish is applied.
3. Dimensions b1 and c1 apply to lead base metal only. Dimension
M applies to lead plating and finish thickness.
4. Corner leads (1, N, N/2, and N/2+1) may be configured with a
partial lead paddle. For this configuration dimension b3 replaces
dimension b2.
5. This dimension allows for off-center lid, meniscus, and glass
overrun.
6. Dimension Q shall be measured from the seating plane to the
base plane.
7. Measure dimension S1 at all four corners.
8. N is the maximum number of terminal positions.
9. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M - 1982.
10. Controlling dimension: INCH.
bbb C A - B S
c
Q
L
A
SEATING
BASE
D
PLANE
PLANE
-D- -A-
-C-
-B-
D
E
S1
b2
b
A
e
M
c1
b1
(c)
(b)
SECTION A-A
BASE
LEAD FINISH
METAL
eA/2
A
M
S S
ccc C A - B M D S S aaa C A - B M D S S
eA
F14.3 MIL-STD-1835 GDIP1-T14 (D-1, CONFIGURATION A)
14 LEAD CERAMIC DUAL-IN-LINE FRIT SEAL PACKAGE
SYMBOL
INCHES MILLIMETERS
NOTES MIN MAX MIN MAX
A - 0.200 - 5.08 -
b 0.014 0.026 0.36 0.66 2
b1 0.014 0.023 0.36 0.58 3
b2 0.045 0.065 1.14 1.65 -
b3 0.023 0.045 0.58 1.14 4
c 0.008 0.018 0.20 0.46 2
c1 0.008 0.015 0.20 0.38 3
D - 0.785 - 19.94 5
E 0.220 0.310 5.59 7.87 5
e 0.100 BSC 2.54 BSC -
eA 0.300 BSC 7.62 BSC -
eA/2 0.150 BSC 3.81 BSC -
L 0.125 0.200 3.18 5.08 -
Q 0.015 0.060 0.38 1.52 6
S1 0.005 - 0.13 - 7
90 105 90 105 -
aaa - 0.015 - 0.38 -
bbb - 0.030 - 0.76 -
ccc - 0.010 - 0.25 -
M - 0.0015 - 0.038 2, 3
N 14 14 8
Rev. 0 4/94
1
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2
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Interleaved Dual boost converter, International Journal oI circuit theory
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