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# (IQ)

S
(GUILDFORD, THURSTONE, GARNDER)

:

N (VYGOTSKY)

-
-

(. ., ,
)

THN
THN
THN , ,
TA -

## Specifying causal relations

Isolation of variables
Make the tracks so that their difference in speed is due only to weight

Verbal Analogies
1) ink : pen :: paint :: - [color, brush, paper].
2) bed : sleep :: - [paper, table, water] : --- [eating, rain, book].
3) (children : parents :: family) ::: (students : teachers :: [school, education, lesson])
4) {(tail : fish :: feed : mammals) ::: - [movement, animals,
vertebrates]} :::: {(propeller : ship :: wheels : car) ::: [vehicles, transportation, carriers]}

Syllogistic Reasoning

If animals live in a cage then they are not happy. The bird is happy =>
[the bird lives in the cage, the bird does not live in the cage, none of the
two].

If peacocks have more beautiful feathers than cocks and sparrows have
more uglier feathers than peacocks => [sparrows have more beautiful
feathers than peacocks, sparrows have more uglier feathers than
peacocks, none of the two].

If the bird is in the nest then it sings; the bird sings => [the bird is not in
the nest, the bird is in the nest, none of the two].

If elephants are heavier than horses and if elephants are heavier than
dogs => [horses are heavier than dogs, elephants are heavier than dogs,
none of the two].

Class inclusion

Raven-like matrices

Mathematical Reasoning

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS
9*3=6
(2 # 4) @ 2 = 6
(3 * 2 @ 4) # 3 = 7
(3 # 3) * 1 = (12 @ 3) \$ 2

NUMERICAL ANALOGIES
6 : 12 :: 8 : ?
6 : 3 :: 8 : ?
3 : 9 :: 6 : ?
3 : 1 :: 6 : ?
6 : 8 :: 9 : ?
6 : 4 :: 9 : ?

ALGEBRAIC REASONING
Specify x, given that x = y + 3 and y=1
Specify m given that m = 3n + 1 and n = 4
Specify x, given that x = y + z and x + y + z = 20).

Cognitive self-representation
(scale: 1 7)

## I make decisions quickly

I learn fast
I can easily remember a new phone number
I can easily monitor (or change) my thoughts (or emotions etc.)
I can easily see the relation between things which appear unrelated
I immediately solve everyday problems involving numbers
When something I use spoils, I try to think of all the possible reasons that
might have caused it
To find out which of my guesses is correct, I proceed to methodically
consider each time only the things my guess proposes
I retain a very clear picture of things
I orient myself easily in a strange place if I am given instructions
I understand easily the intentions of others before they express them
I am interested in understanding others' problems

Quant_1
.783

Quant_1
.885

.655

Quant

Quant

.645

.176

.721*

1.00*

Verbal_1

Verbal_1
.329

.573

Verbal

gr

1.000
Verbal_2

Quant_2
1.000

.80
3

.520

.419

Quant_2

.429

.979*

Ggrand

gpc

.959

.772*

Verbal

.857

.735

.596

.670

.711*

.664*

Verbal_2
.441

.505
.619*
.908

.829*

Spatial_1
.414

Spatial_1

gmc

Spatial

Spatial

.825

.688
Spatial_2

.141

.383
.853*

.452*
.949

.695*

.204

.483

Spatial_2
.727

WM

PrEff

.830

.020

.900

.597

.851*

.525*

Speed

Control

WM_ph

WM_v

WM_ex

.690

.724

.356

.088

.275

The confirmatory factor analysis for processing efficiency and capacity, and self-representation of the cognitive processes.
Note 1: Free parameters are denoted by bold characters.
Note 2: Significant coefficients are denoted by an asterisk.
Note 3: Numbers in squares and circles indicate variance accounted for.

Spatialr

Spatialpc

Ggrant

1.00

.38

.36

1.00

Quantr

Quantpc
.79

.94
.52

gr

1.00

gpc

.52

Causalr

Causalpc
.91
-.23

gem
Socialr

.61

-.41

.020

Understanding
Emotions

Socialpc

-.14

Emotional
Apathy

.87

Emotional
self concept

.73

.57

Social
emotionality

The best fitting model to the performance and self representation attained at the batteries of the second study.
Note 1: 2 (305) = 486.824, CFI = .918, p < .001, RMSEA = .049, 90% confidence interval = .041-.057
Note 2: All but the gem Understanding emotions relations are significant.

Constructive
emotionality

.77

Spatial3

.57
.98
PD1

.94

.75

-.62
PC1

-.28

STS2

.59

.95
ExWM2

Math3

.90
.76
.55

Reason3

Spatial3
.86
.58
.98
PD1

.94

.80

-.63
PC1

-.28

STS2

.63

.82
ExWM2

.74

Reason2
.82

1.00
Math3

p q, -p,
p q, q,

:
p q, -q, p

:
p q, p, q

Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
650

600

550

500
Level 1

Level 2

## Speed of Processing Mean RT (ms)

700

Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Level 3

Level 1

Reasoning Level

2000

Level 3

7
Inductive Reasoning

1900

Deductive Reasoning

1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000

Capacity

## Control of Processing Mean RT (ms)

Level 2
Reasoning Level

Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 1

Reasoning Level

## Developmental level of reasoning as a function of processing efficiency

and working memory

Level 2
Reasoning Level

Level 3

-1

-2
108

120

132

144

156

AGE IN MONTHS

168

180

192

-1
108

114

120

126

132

138

144

150

156

162

168

MONTHS

## Development of different processes according to dynamic systems modelling

assuming presence of absence of interaction between processes.

174

180

186

DOMAINS

WM

Infancy: Core
operators

Infancy: 1
Preschool: 2
Early childhood: 3

Episodic
integration

Preschool: dual

HYPERExecutive control

Implicit

metarepresentation

representation
Early childhood:
Logical necessity

Mental
Problem solving

Self-awareness
models

suppositional
thought
Principled thought

INFERENCE

Systematic thought

Conceptual
change

Analogy by similarity
Implicit reasoning
Modus ponens
Modus tolens
Fallacies

COGNITION

Metarepresentation

Thinking as
internal mental
activity
Stream of
consciousness and
inner speech
Constructive
nature of thought
Differentiation
between different
thought domains
Differentiation
between processes
and underlying
rules

## General developmental trends

0-2: ,

3-4:

, -,

7-8:

12-13:

24-26: ,

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.
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(.., ,
, ,
, .)

-

1.0,
2,
3,
4,
5,
1 < 2 < 3 <4 < ...
1.1, ..1,9

2.1,

2.9

31,, 3,9

4.1, 4,9,

4 . . .

0-2

,
,

:
1+ 1= 2

2-3

- .

,
(, ),

(, )

3-4

-
= > &

5-6

- +
+ &
=

7-9

(, ,
.)
8 ? 3 = 5 + 5 = 8
= >

10-12

2 / 4 = x ? 8;
x, x = + 3, = 1

13-14

, 4/ 5 7/ 8

x, x = + z x + + z = 20;
L + M + N = L + P + N

15-16

, = 3 + 1 & = 4

, (Gf)
(: 7 to 12)

, (Gf), IQ, -
(: 10 to 18)

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24-26: ,

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