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1

SIFAT FISIKA
BATUAN dan FLUIDA
Sifat fisik Batuan:
Porosity
Pore size distribution
Permeability
Formation compressibility
Sifat statis batuan-fluida (interaksi batuan & fluids di dalam pori):
Wettability & contact angle
Capillary pressure & interfacial tension
Irreducible & connate water saturation
Residual oil saturation
Sifat Dinamis batuan-fluida (interaksi batuan & fluida):
Relative permeability
Mobility
Saturation distribution during immiscible fluid displacement
Sifat Fisik Batuan Reservoir
2
Original or primary porosity - dibentuk bersamaan dgn
pengendapan batuan, terkompaksi dan tersemen bersama menjadi
matriks
Induced or secondary porosity - berkembang akibat proses geologi
yang terjadi setelah pengendapan
Total porosity - total rongga batuan dibagi bulk volume batuan
Effective porosity - ratio rongga yang saling berhubungan
terhadap bulk volume batuan
Properties of the Rock Material
Porosity
3
Properties of the Rock Material
Porosity
4
Volume Bulk
Volume Void
Porosity = =|
Volume Bulk
Volume Pore cted Interconne
Porosity Effective e = = |
Volume Bulk
Volume Pore Total
Porosity Total T = =|
grains cemented beween volume Void
grains solid by occupied Volume Rock Volume Bulk
+
=
Properties of the Rock Material
Porosity
Sandstones
| = 1% - 38%
| rata-rata = 20%
Limestone & dolomite
| rata-rata = 10%
5
Pore Space in Packing of Uniform Spheres
Persamaan Darcys untuk aliran horizontal linear melalui
media pori
Properties of the Rock Material
Permeability Persamaan Darcys
6
A
Q
Q
Ap
p
1

p
2

L
( )
L
p p

A k
q
1 2

-
-
=
( )
2 1
p p A
L q
k

- -
=
dimana:
q = volumetric rate (cm
3
/sec)
k = permeability (darcies)
A = area (cm
2
)
m = viscosity (cp)
p
1
= upstream pressure (atm)
p
2
= downstream pressure (atm)
L = length of porous media (cm)
Batuan memiliki permeabilitas satu Darcy akan
mengalirkan fluida berviskositas satu centipoise melalui
luasan satu cm2 dengan laju alir satu centimeter cubic
per detik pada gradient tekanan sebesar satu
atmosphere per cm.
Biasanya 1 Darcy terlalu besar untuk ukuran batuan reservoir, sehingga millidarcy, merupakan satuan
yang biasa digunakan
1000 md = 1 D
Properties of the Rock Material
Permeability Persamaan Darcys
7
Persamaa Darcys untuk aliran horisontal / linier :



q = volumetric flow rate of liquid (bbl/day)
k = permeability (md)
A = flow area (ft
2
)
p
1
= upstream pressure (psi)
p
2
= downstream pressure (psi)
= fluid viscosity (cp)
L = thickness of porous media (ft)
Properties of the Rock Material
Permeability Persamaan Darcys
8
( )
L
p p A k 1.1271x10
q
2 1
3
-
- - -
=

Asumsi persamaan Darcys adalah:
Aliran Incompressible flow
Viskositas konstan
Aliran laminar sangat pelan
Aliran Steady state
Properties of the Rock Material
Permeability Persamaan Darcys
9
Ketika menggunakan persamaan Darcys, apakah
batasab tersebut sepenuhnya dapat terpenuhi untuk
mendapatkan permeability menjadi akurat ?
Permeabilitas
Sifat batuan & bukan fluida yang mengair melaluinya,
menyebabkan fluida 100% mensaturasi seluruh pori batuan
Permeabilitas Absolute
Permeabilitas batuan yang di saturasi satu jenis fluida
Permeabilitas Effective
Permeabilitas batuan bila pada batuan tersebut disaturasi oleh
lebih dari satu fluida
Jumlah dari permeabilitas effective utk fluida yang berlainan
selalu < permeabilitas absolute-nya
Properties of the Rock Material
Permeabilitas Absolute dan Effective
10
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Wettability
Sudut kontak < 90 (water-wet)
Sudut kontak > 90 (oil-wet)
Sudut kontak = 90 (neutral)
11
Forces in Equilibrium at Oil-
water Interface
Wettability - kecenderungan satu fluida ter-adesi di
permukaan padatan dibandingkan fluida taktercampur
lainnya
Pada umumnya reservoirs, merupakan:
25% water-wet
25% oil-wet
50% intermediate or mixed wettability





Efficiency Pendesakan fluida nonwetting mendesak fluida
membasahi biasanya lebih kecil dibandingkan fluida wetting
terhadap non-wetting
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Wettability
12
Oil Wet Water Wet
Sand Grain
Water
Oil
Sand Grain
Water
Oil
Drainage - apabila fasa non-wetting displaces fasa wetting
Imbibition apabila fasa wetting displaces fasa non-wetting
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Wettability
13
Wettability dapat diidentifikasi dengan cara:
Apabila air produksi memiliki komposisi sama dengan air
conat, reservoir bersifat water-wet.
Apabila air produksi sama dengan air injeksi, ada dua
kemungkinan:
Reservoir adalah oil-wet.
Air injeksi melewati zona porous yang sangat tipis atau
fracture, dan karenanya tidak mempunyai kesempatan
kontak secara cukup dengan connat water kecuali pada
sistem dengan proses water breakthrough yang lama
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Wettability
14
Capillary pressure - perbedaan tekanan antar muka dua fluida
tidak membasahi pada sistem kapiler (porous)
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure
15
Hubungan antara saturasi air, S
w
, pada setiap titik di media pori
dengan tekanan kapiler-nya didefinisikan sebagai capillary-pressure
curve
Dua tipe:
Drainage curves - memperlihatkan perubahan saturasi fasa non-
wetting mendesak fasa wetting
Imbibition curves - memperlihatkan perubahan saturasi fasa
wetting mendesak fasa non-wetting
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure
16
Capillary Pressure
Curve menyatakan
distribution air di
dalam reservoir
Terdapat interval
saturation yang secara
gradual berubah dari
100% hingga saturasi
air konate < 20%
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure
17
Example of a typical capillary pressure curve and the corresponding
vertical fluid distribution in the reservoir
Layer yang kurang permeabel memiliki zona transisi yang
lebih lebar dan Saturasi air konat lebih besar
Kesalahan dalam menentukan Tekanan Kapiler dapat
menyebabkan estimasi OOIP yang optimistik
Capillary pressure curves menyatakan sifat sample & kehati-
hatian diperlukan ketika scaling up ke skala reservoir
Untuk menjamin distribusi saturasi dari data pengukuran
tekanan kapiler, saturasi harus dikalibrasi terhadap logs
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure
18
OWC
D
e
p
t
h
Water Saturation, S
wc
Top of OW
Transition Zone
5000
5800
0 100%
S
w
= S
wir
OWC
D
e
p
t
h
Water Saturation, S
wc
Top of OW
Transition Zone
5000
5800
0 100%
S
w
= S
wir
OWC
D
e
p
t
h
Water Saturation, S
wc
Top of OW
Transition Zone
5000
5800
0 100%
S
w
= S
wir
OWC
D
e
p
t
h
Water Saturation, S
wc
Top of OW
Transition Zone
5000
5800
0 100%
S
w
= S
wir
Static Rock-Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure
19
Irreducible water saturation, S
wir

Minimum saturation pada capillary pressure curve vertical
Maximum saturation tanpa aliran air
Connate water saturation, S
wc

Saturasi air asli dalam reservoir yang dapat lebih besar atau sama
dengan S
wir

Jika S
wc
> S
wir
berarti fasa mobile
Pada beberapa perhitungan reservoir, irreducible & connate water
saturations dapat diasumsikan identik
Dipengaruhi oleh wettability batuan - cenderung lebih rendah pada
batuan oil-wet dibandingkan pada water-wet rocks
Irreducible & Connate Water Saturation
20
Relative permeability - perbandingan permeabilitas effective terhadap
permeabilitas absolute-nya

Persamaan Darcy's, aslinya diformulasikan untuk digunakan pada media pori yang
disaturasi hanya dengan satu fluida . . yaitu air
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Relative Permeability
21
abs
eff
r
k
k
k =

Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Relative Permeability
22
(

ds
dz
g -
ds
dp

A
k
- = q
o
o
o
o
o
(

ds
dz
g -
ds
dp

A
k
- = q
g
g
g
g
g
(

ds
dz
g -
ds
dp

A
k
- = q
w
w
w
w
w
k
k
=
k
o
ro
k
k
=
k
g
rg
k
k
=
k
w
rw
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Pengaruh Wettability pada Relative Permeability
23
Examples of relative permeability curves
Kharakteristik water-oil relative permeability untuk water-
wet & oil-wet reservoirs:
24
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Water
Oil
Water Sat., % PV
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

Typical water/oil relative permeability
characteristics - strongly water-wet rock
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 20 40 60
Water Sat., % PV
80 100
Water
Oil
Typical water/oil relative permeability
characteristics - strongly oil-wet rock
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

Craig rules of thumb
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Pengaruh Wettability pada Relative Permeability
25
Water-Wet Oil-Wet
Connate water saturation Usually greater than 20
-25%PV
Generally less than
15%PV
Frequently less than
10%PV
Saturation at which oil and
water relative permeabilities
are equal
Greater than 50%
water saturation
Less than 50% water
saturation
Relative permeability to water
at maximum water saturation
(i.e., floodout)
Generally less than
30%
Greater than 50% and
approaches 100%
Ini adalah oil-water
relative permeability
plot untuk "T" Sand di
lapangan KB
Menggunakan Craig
rules of thumb, apa
jenis batuan reservoir
T sand ?
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Pengaruh Wettability pada Relative Permeability
26
core sample dari lab:








Calculate k
rw
, k
rog
, k
row
, and k
ro
for the values of S
w
listed in the table in
your manual. This is an oil-water system.
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Pengaruh Wettability pada Relative Permeability
27
S
wir
Irreducible water saturation 0.20
S
orw
Residual oil saturation to water 0.48
S
wc
Connate (initial) water saturation 0.20
S
gc
Critical gas saturation 0.00
S
org
Residual oil saturation to gas 0.54
e
w
Exponent for k
rw
equation 1.6
e
ow
Exponent for k
row
equation 2.0
e
g
Exponent for k
rg
equation 2.0
e
og
Exponent for k
rog
equation 3.0
k
rwro
Water relative permeability at residual oil (to water) 0.02
k
rocw
Oil relative permeability at connate water saturation 0.73
k
rgro
Gas relative permeability at residual oil (to gas at connate water
saturation)
0.3
Pada persamaan Darcys, mobility sebagai berbanding lurus
dengan kecepatan alir fluida dan berbanding terbalik terhadap
gradien tekanan
Jadi water mobility is:

dan oil mobility is:

Mobility - ukuran seberapa mudah satu fluida melalui reservoir
pada kondisi batuan dan fluida tertentu
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Mobility
28
w
w

k
o
o

k
Miscible displacement - apabila dua fluida dapat bercampur
secara proporsional dan tak terpisahkan menjadi dua fasa
Minyak dan Air tidak dapat bercampur, sehingga merupakan
fluida tak tercampur.
Immiscible displacement apabila air mendesak minyak seperti
pada water drive atau project injeksi air.
Secara Umum, karena air mendesak minyak, maka akan terjadi
distribusi saturasi yang seragam pada suatu daerah diskontinuitas
saturasi didepannya setelah pemindahan oleh air.
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Distribusi Saturasi Selama Pendesakan Fluida
Tak Tercampur
29
Penampang bagian
water drive reservoir
dengan distrbusi
saturasi uniform.
Hubungan saturasi
terhadap jarak
distance diperlihatkan
pada gambar bawah.
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Distribusi Saturasi Selama Pendesakan Fluida Tak
Tercampur
30
Schematic of Saturation Profile (After Slider)
Slider, H. C., Practical Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Methods, Petroleum Publishing Corp.
Minyak bergerak kearah sumur produksi dan air masuk dari
aquifer atau sumur injeksi, distibusi saturasi akan berubah
terhadap :
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Distribusi Saturasi Selama Pendesakan
Fluida Tak Tercampur
31
Fluid Displacement Characteristics
with Initial Distribution (After Slider)
Fraksi fluida
pendesak
dibelakang front
akan meningkat
terhadap jarak
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Perhitungan Saturasi Selama Pendesakan
32
Example oil-water relative permeabilities
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
Fraksi air f
w
disebut water cut
Dasar fractional flow :
Metode Analitis didasarkan
pada material balance dari 2
fasa fluida incompressible
Assumsi system reservoir
homogeneous
33
Example of Fraction Flow Curve (After Slider)
Fractional flow untuk air mendesak minyak:


Sesuai persamaan, asumsi aliran horizontal & tekanan kapiler
diabaikan :


If gravity effects (densities of the fluids) & non-horizontal
flow (dip of the reservoir) are significant:

Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
34
o w
w
w
q q
q
f
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
o
w
rw
ro
wNO

k
k
1
1
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
o
w
rw
ro
t o
ro
w

k
k
1
q
sina KA 0.000488k
1
f
A water drive reservoir is of such size & shape that water
encroachment to first line of producers can be treated as linear
flow. The water drive is sufficiently active that fluid flow is
steady state. The withdrawal rate from the reservoir averages
2,830 reservoir BPD. Reservoir data are as follows:
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
35
Item Symbol Value
Average formation dip,

o 15.5
Average width of reservoir, feet 8000
Reservoir thickness, feet 30
Average cross-sectional area, feet
2
A 240,000
Permeability, mD K 108
Connate water (irreducible water) saturation, % Swc 16
Reservoir oil specific gravity

o
1.01
Reservoir oil viscosity, cps

o
1.51
Reservoir water specific gravity

w
1.05
Reservoir water viscosity, cps

w
0.83
Calculate the fractional flow for this reservoir
corresponding to the saturations listed above for:
Inclusion of dip and gravity effects
Excluding dip and gravity effects
Use oil viscosity of 8.6 cps & exclude dip/gravity effects
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
36
Relative Permeability Data:
S
w
, % k
rw
k
ro
79 (1 S
orw
) 0.63 0.00
75 0.54 0.02
65 0.37 0.09
55 0.23 0.23
45 0.13 0.44
35 0.06 0.73
25 0.02 0.94
16 (S
wc
) 0.00 0.98
37
Welge Method
1. Estimate OOIP
2. Plot relative permeability curves
3. Estimate average reservoir dip
4. Calculate & plot fractional flow curve, f
w

5. Determine water saturation at breakthrough, S
wbt
, from fractional
flow curve
6. Determine average S
w
behind the flood front at time of
breakthrough
7. Calculate the slope of the fractional flow curve for each water
saturation on the relative permeability table
8. Calculate the pore volumes of cumulative injected water required to
obtain each water saturation
9. Calculate the cumulative water injection (BBLS) required to obtain
each water saturation
10. Calculate the time needed to obtain each water saturation
11. Calculate oil & water production rates for each water saturation
12. Plot oil & water rate versus time
13. Calculate mobility ratio (favorable or adverse?)
Ch 2 - 37
1. Estimate OOIP
2. Plot relative permeability curves
3. Estimate average reservoir dip
4. Calculate and plot fractional flow curve, f
w

5. Determine water saturation at breakthrough, S
wbt
., from fractional
flow curve
6. Determine average S
w
behind the flood front at time of
breakthrough
7. Calculate the slope of the fractional flow curve for each water
saturation on the relative permeability table
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
38
8. Calculate the pore volumes of cumulative injected water required
to obtain each water saturation
9. Calculate the cumulative water injection (BBLS) required to obtain
each water saturation
10. Calculate the time needed to obtain each water saturation
11. Calculate oil and water production rates for each water saturation
12. Plot oil and water rate versus time
13. Calculate mobility ratio (favorable or adverse?)
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
39
Key points about fractional flow
curves
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
40
q
w

q
o
, q
w

s
w

x
Same S
bt
for all fronts
Average saturation behind the flood front is
always greater than S
w
at the front
Saturation ahead of the flood front is S
wc
Sharp front
Key points about fractional flow curves
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
41
Fractional Flow Curves
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Water Saturation, S
w

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

F
l
o
w
,

f
w

o
/
w
= 0.5

o
/
w
= 10

o
/
w
= 2
0.5 2.0 10.0
S
w
at breakthrough
S
w
behind the front
S
w
should be as
close to 1 as
possible for best
sweep efficiency
Key points about fractional flow
curves
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
42
At breakthrough: (tangent) f of slope Maximum
S
f
w
w
w
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
bt
Behind the flood front:
1 2
1 2
bt
w w
w w
w w
w
w
S S
f f
S S
S
f

= >
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
At the flood front::
0.0 S S
S
f
bt w w
w
w
= <
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
Which of these fluid
displacement plots
illustrates the best
waterflood candidate?
Dynamic Rock-Fluid Properties
Penentuan Kurva Fractional Flow
43
Saturation Profile (Flood Front)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
X
S
w

0.5

w
o
=
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
X
S
w

2.0

w
o
=
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
X
S
w

10.0

w
o
=