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Mead_Linnea_s237572 Assignment_ 1 Semester_1_2014 Page 1

Teaching & Learning Activities to support EAL/D students

English as an Additional Language or Dialect students first language or dialect, differs from
Standard Australian English (ACARA, 2014). Successfully supporting EAL/D students in
developing SAE through curriculum capabilities, relies on teachers having an in-depth
understanding of students culture; the way students learn; non-verbal and verbal language
including sounds used, questions, mannerisms and gestures; and potential barriers such as
feelings of shame; hearing loss; lack of eye contact; and volume, pitch and speed of teacher
and student speech (The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment,
Learning context/Rationale:
Within a Year 2 classroom of 24 students, there are 4 Indigenous Wirangu EAL/D students
from The Far West Coast of South Australia who use a Western dialect (Mobile Language
Team, n.d.). These students are emerging English stage speakers and listeners, and are
familiar with some elements of Standard Australian English, determined through
sociolinguistic profiles, initial classroom work and informal assessments (ACARA, 2012, p.
9). Wirangu language students use only three phonemic vowels; therefore explicit teaching
is required to increase students knowledge of phonemic vowels used in Standard Australian
English (Wikipedia, 2013).
Key learning areas develop EAL/D students oral language and listening skills in Standard
Australian English determined by curriculum requirements, while enabling students to learn
bilingually, supported with their Aboriginal English (ACARA, 2014). Spoken, written and
gestural forms of Standard Australian English, with bilingual word walls are used to support
visual and oral learning (Arthur, Beecher, Death, Dockett and Farmer, 2012, p. 93).

The image Word walls (Arthur, Beecher, Death, Dockett and
Farmer, 2012, p. 93).
Explicit teaching of phonics and grammar for EAL/D students includes exploring English
sound-symbol relationships; analogies/words/phrases with similar/different meanings across
cultures using oral language, visual cues, scaffolding, and questioning while promoting

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cultural integration within the classroom (McTaggart, 2010, p. 27). Language and activities
enable both ways knowledge learning across cultures (Berry and Hudson, 2007, p. 25).
Further oral and visual learning activities surrounding this resource encourages enriched,
deeper learning opportunities (Nakata, 2011, p. 2).
Curriculum Area:
English: Language; Literature; Literacy.
Content Descriptors:
(ACELA1470) Understand the use of vocabulary about familiar and new topics and
experiment with and begin to make conscious choices of vocabulary to suit audience and
purpose (ACARA, 2014).
Ongoing formative assessments based on activities involve teacher observations of students
individual and group oral participation enabling informed assessment of the students
developing English language skills (Kearns, 2012, p. 407). Assessment criteria are orally
explained and modelled to the whole class.
Teaching and Learning Activities:
Activities are based on the book Shake a Leg, aim to develop critical thinking skills, and
oral language development (Pryor, 2010).
Lesson 1: Exploring illustrations
-Class think about and discuss book illustrations:
What the story is about? How are colours used? Where is the story based? Who are
the characters? What are they doing? Why do students think that?

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-Reflection on questions/answers as class views YouTube presentation

(Allen and Unwin, 2010)
Lesson 2: Whole class-Connecting with words-listening and speaking
-Shared reading of Shake a Leg. Students connect with characters, language and ideas
within the text.
-Using wh questions, students examine phrases, pronunciations and words with
similar/different meanings across cultures, using Italian words to demonstrate and scaffold
-Shake a Leg
-hunting for pizza
-deadly pizza
-youre trying to fly before you have wings
-I had to make my sauce sing
-what does fella mean? How else can we say this?
-All students practice word pronunciations orally.
-Students clap word syllables.
-Students engage with phonemic vowels in the text supported with flashcards; oral
pronunciation and further activities to support word construction using phonemic vowels
Issues to consider before and during teaching:
Emerging English students may still not understand SAE grammar/sentence structures and
pronunciations, gestures, behaviours and lesson requirements, and may not wish to contribute

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to classroom discussions, preferring to sit quietly. It is vital to ensure these students are not
excluded from discussions/activities (ACARA, 2012).
Cultural representation of the students in the classroom by creating rich visual connections
is essential enabling students to feel more comfortable in their surroundings (Grant and
Yerlo, 2011, p. 58). Therefore, artworks/images will be displayed in the classroom, including
vocabulary taught within the classroom printed in both Standard Australian English and
Aboriginal English to create a sharing of knowledge, respect and learning.
Critical to learning is constructive analysis and meaning-making, supported through oral
learning, linking contextual and conceptual understanding with words and visual
representations to encourage a deep understanding (Nakata, 2011, p. 4). Oral language
learning however, must first involve explicit and informed teaching about English as a
language to avoid students falling behind in their learning, particularly when faced with
unfamiliar learning challenges (McTaggart, 2010, p. 25). These links will assist students to
build language and knowledge, creating connections with their new world.
Open ended questions will assist in oral language skill development; however careful
designing of questions must be considered. Aboriginal Education Officers or
parents/caregivers will assist the communication process between EAL/D students, their
peers and the teacher to further develop shared skills and knowledge in listening and speaking
(SACSA, 2005, p. 12). While not always achievable, open ended questioning generally
encourages more than one word answers. Scaffolding questions related to book illustrations
and students experiences is beneficial, such as prior knowledge of pizza making; or viewing
a dance, with modified questions such as who remembers when..?. Varying questions
and building on each students contribution or indirect questioning such as I wonder
why?, then, why do you think that happened? may also encourage student elaborations
and discussion (Galloway, 2003, p. 8).
It is vital that I dont correct the speech of a speaker of Aboriginal English, but model
desired speech (Language and Communication, n.d., p 9). This might occur when asking
Aboriginal students to orally express what they see in the book with a reply being, he
dancing. I will scaffold the desired speech orally with yes, he is dancing, writing the
speech on the IWB. All students will practice the speech to model target forms of SAE
language (Galloway, 2003, p. 3).

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EAL/D students may also still write or speak in their first language, and may code switch as
they attempt to answer (McTaggart, 2010, p. 25). Students must be given more time to
process the questions as they code switch from Aboriginal English to Standard Australian
A critical part of the EAL/D teaching and learning process, is for me to conduct ongoing
assessment of students, and teaching and learning activities. Continually identifying further
gaps in students progression towards being skilled speakers and listeners in SAE, is also

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ACARA seeAustralian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Allen & Unwin (2010, September 20). Shake A Leg trailer [Video file]. Retrieved from
Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2012). Programming &
Planning in Early Childhood Settings. Victoria: Cengage Learning Australia.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012). English as an
Additional Language or Dialect Teacher Resource: Overview and EAL/D Learning
Progression. Retrieved from
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2014). English as an
Additional Language or Dialect Teacher Resource: Annotated Content Descriptions:
English Foundation to Year 10. Retrieved from
Berry, R., & Hudson, J. (1997). Making the jump: a resource book for teachers of Aboriginal
students. Kimberley, Northern Territory: Catholic Education Office.
Galloway, A. (2003). Questions: Help or Hindrance? Teachers use of Questions with
Indigenous Children with Conductive Hearing Loss. Australian Journal of Teacher
Education. 27(2). Retrieved from
Grant, E., & Yerlo, W. (2011). Indigenous design issues: Ceduna Aboriginal Children and
Family Centre. Retrieved from
Kearns, K. 2012. Supporting Education: The teaching assistants handbook. NSW:
Pearson Education.

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Language and Communication. [n.d.]. In Aboriginal Benchbook. Retrieved from
McTaggart, R. (2010). Language needs of Indigenous students: issue and strategy. QTU
Professional Magazine, (November). Retrieved from
Mobile Language Team. [n.d.]. Wirangu. Retrieved from
Nakata, M. (2011). Pathways for Indigenous Education in the Australian Curriculum
Framework. Australian Journal, 40, 1-8. Retrieved from;dn=609902657428412;res=IELIND
Pryor, B. M., & Ormerod, J. (2010). Shake a leg. NSW: Allen & Unwin.
SACSA seeSouth Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability Framework
South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability Framework. (2005). R-10
Languages: (Australian Indigenous) Teaching Resource. Retrieved from
The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2013). Capability
Framework Teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander EAL/D learners.
Retrieved from
Wikipedia, 2013. Wirangu language. Retrieved from