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ADALAH :
BAGAIMANA MEMPRODUKSIKAN FLUIDA
DARI RESERVOIR KE PERMUKAAN, DIMANA
SASARAN UTAMANYA ADALAH BESARNYA
LAJU PRODUKSI (Q), YANG AKAN
DIPEROLEH DARI RESERVOIR DAN
MERUPAKAN LAJU PRODUKSI OPTIMUM.
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METODA PRODUKSI DIBAGI 2 :
(NATURAL FLOWING WELL)
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TAHUN 1892 DITEMUKAN
LAPANGAN MINYAK LEDOK - 1,
DI CEPU


KARENA TEKANAN RESERVOIR
MASIH CUKUP TINGGI, MAMPU
MENDORONG FLUIDA SAMPAI
PERMUKAAN

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SUMUR DIKATAKAN FLOWING APABILA;
1. TENAGA DORONG DARI RESERVOIR
CUKUP BESAR, MAMPU MENGATASI
HAMBATAN YANG DILALUINYA, MULAI
DARI RESERVOIR SAMPAI SEPARATOR
(Pr Pwf Pt Pfl Psep)
3. UMUMNYA DITEMUI PADA AWAL SUMUR
DIPRODUKSIKAN
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ALIRAN FLUIDA DARI
RESERVOIR TANKI
PENAMPUNG
Pr
Pt
Pfl
Pwf
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9
10
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2. ARTIFICIAL LIFT (PENGANGKATAN BUATAN)
a. GAS LIFT (SEMBUR BUATAN) (McMurry, Camco, Otis)
b. POMPA :
- ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP (ESP) (Reda,ODI, Centrilift)
- SUCKER ROD PUMP (POMPA ANGGUK)
- HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT (HPU)
- PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP (PCP)
13
Sucker Rod
Pump
ESP
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Progressive
Cavity
Pump
Gas Lift
15

Tubing
Centrifugal Pump
Intake
Protector
Electric Motor
Surveyor
Junction Box Transformer
VSD
Cable
Casing
Figure :
Electric Submersible Pump
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PERALATANDIBAWAHPERMUKAANPCP
RODCENTRALIZER
STATOR
Dan
ROTOR
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19
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OIL WELL
DRY GAS
DRY GAS
GAS TURBINE
HIGH PRESSURE
LOW PRESSURE
LIQUID
FLARE STACK
IF GC & VRU OFF
SEPARATOR
LIQUID
GAS BOOT
VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT
GAS COMPRESSOR
VAPOR
DEHYDRATION
GAS WELL
GATHERING STATION
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OIL WELL
DRY GAS
DRY GAS
GAS TURBINE
HIGH PRESSURE
LOW PRESSURE
LIQUID
FLARE STACK
IF GC & VRU OFF
SEPARATOR
LIQUID
GAS BOOT
VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT
GAS COMPRESSOR
VAPOR
DEHYDRATION
GAS WELL
GATHERING STATION
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INJECTION
GAS
TO
SEPARATOR/
STOCK TANK
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

W
e
l
l

=

7
0
0
0

F
e
e
t

Pwf
Pr
Fluid Level
= ..?.. Ft
Pt
INJECTION GAS
TO
SEPARATOR/
STOCK TANK
PRINSIP KERJA GAS LIFT

PRINSIP KERJA DARI GAS LIFT
ADALAH, GAS YANG
DIINJEKSIKAN MELALUI
ANNULUS CASING AKAN
BERCAMPUR DENGAN FLUIDA
DALAM KOLOM TUBING
MELALUI KATUP-KATUP GAS
LIFT.
G,O,W
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PRINSIP KERJA GAS
LIFT
PRINSIP KERJA DARI
GAS LIFT ADALAH,
GAS YANG
DIINJEKSIKAN
MELALUI ANNULUS
CASING AKAN
BERCAMPUR DENGAN
FLUIDA DALAM
KOLOM TUBING
MELALUI KATUP-
KATUP GAS LIFT,
GAS
IN
G,O,W
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GAS LIFT :
Fluida Terangkat Kepermukaan Karena :
1.Dorongan Gas Bertekanan Tinggi
Melalui Katup-katup Gas Lift

2.Fluida Dalam Tubing Lebih Ringan,
Karena :
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- DENSITAS MENJADI LEBIH KECIL
3. TEKANAN ALIR DASAR SUMUR

(PWF) MENJADI LEBIH RENDAH
- VISCOSITAS LEBIH RENDAH
- PERBANDINGAN GAS DAN CAIRAN

(GLR,GOR) LEBIH BESAR DIBANDING

FLUIDA RESERVOIR
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PARAMETER DASAR DALAM
PERENCANAAN GAS LIFT
1. PRODUCTIVITY INDEX (PI)
2. GRADIENT TEKANAN STATIK CAIRAN
3. GRADIENT TEKANAN GAS
4. TEMPERATUR DIDALAM SUMUR
5. KAPASITAS PRODUKSI
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1. PRODUCTIVITY INDEX (PI)
PI : Adalah Kemampuan Sumur Berproduksi
(Q) Perhari Pada Perbedaan Tekanan
Antara Tekanan Alir Dasar Sumur(Pwf)
Dengan Tekanan Reservoir (Pr)

Q
PI = , BPD/PSI
SBHP FBHP
Q = LAJU ALIR PRODUKSI, B/D
SBHP = Pr = P. STATIK DASAR SUMUR, PSI
FBHP = Pf = P. ALIR DASAR SUMUR, PSI
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2. GRADIENT TEKANAN CAIRAN
BAHWA TEKANAN DI SETIAP KEDALAMAN
AKAN SELALU BERBEDA AKIBAT OLEH
BERAT KOLOM FLUIDA

ADA 2 (DUA) JENIS GRADIENT, YAITU :
1. GRADIENT TEKANAN STATIK
2. GRADIENT TEKANAN ALIR
(DINAMIS)
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ADA BEBERAPA CARA YANG
DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENENTUKAN
GRADIENT TEKANAN
1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
GRAD. TEK. AIR MURNI = 0,433 PSI/FT
GRAD. TEK. STATIK CAIRAN ADALAH ;
= 0,433 X SG CAIRAN

2. BERAT JENIS CAIRAN
BJ AIR MURNI = 8,34 LB/GAL (PPG)
GRAD. TEK CAIRAN = 0,052x BJ CAIRAN
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3. API GRAVITY

o
API AIR MURNI = 10
GRAD. TEK. CAIRAN ADALAH :
API
x
o

5 , 131
5 , 141
433 , 0
CONTOH - CONTOH PERHITUNGAN
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MENURUT CRAFT & HOLDEN, BHP DIBAGI 3:

1. DISEBUT TINGGI, BILA BHP MAMPU
MENGANGKAT FLUIDA 70 % DARI
KEDALAMAN SUMUR
2. DISEBUT RENDAH BILA BHP HANYA MAMPU
MENGANGKAT FLUIDA 40 % DARI
KEDALAMAN SUMUR
3. DISEBUT SEDANG/MENENGAH BILA BHP
ANTARA KEDUA HARGA TERSEBUT.
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KEDALAMAN, Feet
Diketahui :
Tekanan Injeksi
Gas di Surface =
600 Psi
Depth = 8000 Ft
Pinj. @ 8000 ft =
710 Psi
Temp. @ 8000 ft
= 198
o
F
37


Diketahui :
Tekanan Injeksi Gas
di Surface = 950 Psi
Depth = 11.000 Ft
Pinj. @ 11000 ft =
1.170 Psi
Temp. @ 11000 ft =
246
o
F
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Proses Perencanaan Gas Lift
Menyangkut Beberapa Hal Pokok,
Diantaranya :
Pemilihan Jenis Valve
Penentuan Spasi Valve
Penentuan Tekanan Kerja Valve
Ukuran Tempat Port Tempat Gas
Lewat Sesuai Dengan Jumlah Gas Harus
Diinjeksikan.
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R =
1 - R
1
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CASING PRESSURE
OPERATED
DIGUNAKAN GAS
NITROGEN UNTUK
MENGISI DOME (BELLOW)
GERAKAN BELLOW
MENGAKIBATKAN STEM
DAN BOLA BUKA/TUTUP
LUAS AB > LUAS AP
TEKANAN CASING
LEBIH DOMINAN UNTUK
BUKA / TUTUP
Stem
Bellows
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PRESSURE OPERATED
DIGUNAKAN GAS
NITROGEN UNTUK
MENGISI DOME (BELLOW)
GERAKAN BELLOW
MENGAKIBATKAN STEM
DAN BOLA BUKA/TUTUP
LUAS AB > LUAS AP
TEKANAN CASING
LEBIH DOMINAN UNTUK
BUKA / TUTUP
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Gambar : Fluid Valve Under
Operating Conditions (Valve Closed)
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Gambar : Fluid Valve Under Operating
Conditions (Valve Open)
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FIGURE : FLUID-OPERATED
FIGURE : PRESSURE OPERATED
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FLUID OPERATED
VALVE
TEKANAN
DIDALAM TUBING
LEBIH DOMINAN
UNTUK
BUKA/CLOSE
VALVE
BIASANYA ADA
TAMBAHAN SPRING
DIBAWAH DOME
BERFUNGSI
UNTUK MENGATUR
VALVE SETTING
PRESSURE

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Balance valve

Jenis balance
valve, tidak
dipengaruhi oleh
tekanan fluida
didalam tubing.
Valve ini terbuka
dan tertutup pada
tekanan yang
sama.
Gambar :
menunjukkan
jenis balance
valve.
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Spread
Perbedaan antara tekanan gas yang diperlukan
pada saat valve akan terbuka dan akan tertutup
biasa disebut Spread (P)

Spread (P) = Pvo Pvc

Pd - Pt . R
= ------------- - Pd
1 R

Pd - Pt . R (1 - R) . Pd.
= -------------- - ---------------
1 - R 1 R

Pd - Pt . R - Pd + R . Pd.
= --------------------------------
1 R

= ( Pd - Pt ) . R / ( 1 - R )

Spread (P) = ( Pd - Pt ) . TEF
50
Sebuah valve yang dipasang pada kedalaman 6.000 ft,
mempunyai tekanan dome setting 700 psi. Tekanan tubing
pada kedalaman tersebut 500 psi.

Bila ukuran port Ap = 0,1 inch2 dan luas penampang bellows
Ab = 1,0 inch2, Tentukan Pc untuk membuka valve.

Jawab :
Pd = 700 psi
Pt = 500 psi
Ab = 1 inch2, Ap = 0,1 inch2
R = Ap / Ab = 0,1
TEF = R / (1 - R)
= 0,1 / (! - 0,1)
= 0,1111
Spread (P) = (Pd - Pt) . TEF
= (700 - 500) . 0,1111 = 22 psi

Tekanan casing untuk membuka valve = 700 + 22 = 722 psi
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Sebuah valve yang dipasang pada kedalaman 7.000 ft,
mempunyai tekanan dome setting 850 psi. Tekanan tubing
pada kedalaman tersebut 600 psi.

Bila ukuran port Ap = 0,0792 inch2 dan luas penampang
bellows Ab = 0,77 inch2, tentukan Pc untuk membuka valve.

Jawab :
Pd = 850 psi
Pt = 600 psi
Ab = 0,77 inch2, Ap = 0,0792 inch2
R = Ap / Ab = 0,103
TEF = R / (1 - R)
= 0,103 / (1 - 0,103)
= 0,1148
Spread (P) = (Pd - Pt) . TEF
= (850 - 600) . 0,1148 = 29 psi

Tekanan casing untuk membuka valve = 850 + 29 = 879 psi
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1. INSTALASI TERBUKA
(OPEN INSTALLATION
DILENGKAPI DENGAN
KATUP GAS LIFT
TIDAK MEMAKAI PACKER
TIDAK MEMAKAI S.V.
DIGUNAKAN PADA SUMUR
DENGAN PI & BHP TINGGI
TIPE INSTALASI
SUMUR GAS LIFT
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2. INSTALASI SETENGAH
TERTUTUP (SEMI CLOSED
INSTALLATION)
DILENGKAPI DENGAN KATUP
GAS LIFT
DIPASANG PACKER
TIDAK MEMAKAI S.V.
DAPAT DIGUNAKAN PADA
SUMUR DENGAN PI TINGGI &
BHP RENDAH
TIPE INSTALASI
SUMUR GAS LIFT
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3. INSTALASI TERTUTUP
(CLOSED INSTALLATION)
DILENGKAPI DENGAN KATUP
GAS LIFT
DIPASANG PACKER
MEMAKAI STANDING VALVE
DIGUNAKAN PADA SUMUR
DENGAN PI & BHP RENDAH
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GAMBAR : PENGAMBILAN MINYAK DARI
TEMPAT PEMISAHAN
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UNSAFE
BEHAVIOR!!!
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GAMBAR :
PENGAMBILAN MINYAK
DENGAN TRUCK
PETUGAS
MENDORONG
PIPA KE
PENUMPAHAN
PULLEY DAN
WIRE ROPE
TRUCK
LUBANG
SUMUR
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LOKASI SUMUR TIMBA
LAPANGAN WONOCOLO
PETUGAS
TRUCK UNTUK
MENIMBA MINYAK DARI
SUMUR
TEMPAT
PENUMPAHAN
MINYAK DARI SUMUR
TEMPAT
PEMISAHAN AIR
DAN MINYAK
BAK
PENAMPUN
G AIR
FORMASI
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GAMBAR : PENGISIAN MINYAK KE MOBIL TANKI
BAK
PENAMPUNGAN
MINYAK
PIPA PENYALUR
MINYAK KE TANKI
JALAN
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ADA 2 (DUA) CARA METODA GAS LIFT :
1. CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT :
- VOLUME YANG KONTINYU DARI GAS BERTEKAN-
AN TINGGI DIINJEKSIKAN KEDALAM FLUIDA
DALAM TUBING
- GAS MENURUNKAN TEKANAN ALIR DASAR
SUMUR(PWF)

- DIGUNAKAN PADA SUMUR YANG MEMPUNYAI
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX (PI) TINGGI

- P STATIS DASAR SUMUR (PWS) TINGGI
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2. INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT
- PENGATURAN DISESUAIKAN BESAR
NYA FLUIDA YANG MENGALIR DARI
FORMASI KEDASAR SUMUR


- GAS DIINJEKSIKAN SECARA TERATUR
PADA INTERVAL WAKTU TERTENTU
- DIGUNAKAN INTERMITTER FLOW
YAITU JUMLAH CYCLE INJEKSI
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CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT

INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT
65
66 Figure:
67
Refer to figure, which is typical well to be unloaded
continuously. Note that there 4 (four) valves in the
tubing string and their respective surface operating
pressure are 625, 600, 575, and 550 psi. Assume that
the well is initially standing with kill all the way to the
surface. The follow the unloading process.
1. Inject gas slowly through a choke to the annulus.
Immediately the kill fluid will start coming out of the
tubing string. A solid stream of fluid will be unloading.
The well must be kicked off very slowly so fluid passing
through the valves will not damage them and so excess
pressure differential will not will not be placed on the
valve bellows.

68
2. As gas is continuously applied to the annulus, a
gradual increase in casing pressure is required to keep
fluid moving out the tubing string. This fluid is
being U-tube from the annulus to the tubing.
3. Valve 1 (pressure setting 625 psi) will eventually be
uncovered, where upon gas is injected into the
tubing string. This can be noted at the surface by an
immediate increase in the velocity of the stream of
fluid coming out the tubing string.

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4. A mixture of gas and liquid will now be coming out
the surface and the casing pressure will level off at the
625 psi (surface operating pressure of valve 1).
5. Gas injection in to the annulus will continue, forcing
the liquid level in the annulus to lower until valve 2
(600 psi) is uncovered.
Valve 2 can be uncovered because the fluid gradient
in the tubing string from level 1 to the surface has
been lightened considerably by the gas.
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6. For example, if the original kill fluid had a gradient of
0,5 psi/ft, it may now have been lowered to 0,1 psi/ft
in the tubing string by the injection of gas. It
distance to valve 1 is 1250 ft has been change from :
(1250 x 0,5) = 625 psi to (1250 x 0,1 psi/ft) = 125 psi
A difference before and after injection gas is
(625 125) psi = 500 psi
The pressure in the tubing string after gas start
passing through valve 1 is 50 psi :
(surface pressure) + (1250 x 0,1) = 50 + 125 = 175 psi
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This leaves : (625 175) psi = 450 psi with which to work
down the hole to valve 2. This also determines the
spacing of valve 2 which is (450/0,50) = 900 ft.
Therefore, valve 2 is located at (1250 + 900) ft = 2150 ft.
7. As soon as valve 2 is uncovered, gas will be injected
through it at 2150 ft. Also, the casing pressure will drop
to 600 psi since valve 2 is set 25 psi less than valve 1. The
gradient in the tubing string will now be lowered to 0,10
psi/ft from valve 2 to the surface, or the pressure in the
tubing at valve 2 will be :
50 psi (surface) + (0,1 x 2150) = (50 + 215) = 265 psi
72
His now leaves a difference of (600 265) = 335 psi
with which to work down to valve 3 located at :
(335/0,50) = (670 + 2150) ft = 2820 ft.
8. Gas is continuously injected until valve 3


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6.1. GAS LIFT MANDREL

The gas lift mandrel is a device installed in the
tubing string of a gas lift well or which a gas lift
valve is fitted. The type of mandrel can be
divided into 2 (two) types:

6.1.1. Conventional Mandrel

In conventional gas lift mandrel, the gas lift valve is
installed as the tubing is placed in the well. Thus,
to replace or repair the valve, the tubing string
must be pulled out.
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Figure:
Conventional
Mandrel
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77
KONVENSIONAL
- Katup gas lift dipasang
pada SPM di rangkaian
tubing string
Bila terjadi kerusakan pada
katup gas lift, maka untuk
mengganti/
memasang,tubing string
harus dicabut
- Dilakukan perawatan
sumur
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Side Pocket Mandrel

Several types of retrievable mandrels
are available, but the most common is
the side pocket mandrel. In the side
pocket mandrel, the gas lift valve is
installed and removed by wire line
79
Figure :
Type of
Retrievable Side
Pocket Mandrel
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81
Running/Pulling Tool Running/Pulling Tool
Figure :
Wire Line Tool String
Running/Pulling Tool
Figure :
Wire Line Tool
String
Running/Pulling Tool
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83
RUNNING PROCEDURE

In the running procedure, the valve latch and kick over
/ selector tool are made up on to the slick line tool
string and lowered through the tubing until the tool is
below the selected mandrel
(Figure. a.)

The kick over tool / selector tool is slowly raised
through the tubing until the finger on the tool contacts
the orienting sleeve slot and stops.
Tension is pulled on the slick line tool string until the
tool releases and kick over
(Figure b).
84
Running Procedure

In the running procedure, the valve latch and
kick over / selector tool are made up on to the
slick line tool string and lowered through the
tubing until the tool is below the selected
mandrel (Figure. a.)

The kick over tool / selector tool is slowly
raised through the tubing until the finger on
the tool contacts the orienting sleeve slot and
stops. Tension is pulled on the slick line tool
string until the tool releases and kick over
(Figure b).

The tools are then lowered until a loss of
weight indicates that the tool has located the
side pocket of the mandrel.
Downward jarring drives the valve and latch in
to the side pocket mandrel
(Figure c)

Upward jarring shears a pin in the latch and
releases the running tool from the valve and
latch. The tool string can then retrieved from
the well (Figure d).
c b d a
85
Running Procedure (continued)

The tools are then lowered until a loss of weight
indicates that the tool has located the side pocket
of the mandrel. Downward jarring drives the valve
and latch in to the side pocket mandrel
(Figure c)

Upward jarring shears a pin in the latch and
releases the running tool from the valve and latch.
The tool string can then retrieved from the well
(Figure d).
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PULLING PROCEDURE

1. Prepare pulling tool and kick over tool. Connect to
the bottom of tool string and slot on the lubricator.

2. Pull it down in the tubing until the position is
under the mandrel that we choose. The depth can
be decided according the record of the well data
and depth indicator on the wire line unit.

3. Pull it up slowly until it stop, in means locating
finger on the kick over tool contact with the top
side of slot on orienting sleeve of mandrel
87
Pulling Procedure (continued)

4. Pull it up with additional force 50 lbs bigger than
load of the tool and wire of kick over tool wire line
will bend trough the side pocket.

5. Pull it down slowly until the load decreases. It
shows that the tool is already bend and in the side
pocket. If is not, step 2,3,4 must be repeated.

6. Jar down to place pulling tool on the latch of gas
lift valve.

7. Jar down; it will pull up gas lift valve out from the
side pocket.
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89


PERENCANAAN SUMUR GAS LIFT

VALVE SEBAGAI TITIK INJEKSI ATAU
BIASA DISEBUT OPERATING VALVE
HARUS DILETAKKAN SEDALAM MUNGKIN
SESUAI :

TEKANAN INJEKSI GAS YANG
TERSEDIA

RATE GAS DAN PRODUKSI MINYAK /
LIQUID YANG DIINGINKAN
90


VALVE-VALVE YANG BERTINDAK SEBAGAI
UNLOADING ;

HANYA MERUPAKAN SARANA MENUJU KE
OPERATING VALVE.
UNLOADING VALVE DALAM KEADAAN
NORMAL HARUS SELALU TERTUTUP.
HANYA SATU VALVE SAJA YANG TERBUKA
YAKNI OPERATING VALVE.
SEMUA VALVE DI SET DI PERMUKAAN PADA T=
60
O
F
91


Pada perencanaan sumur gas lift
ada 2 (dua) kondisi :

a.Kondisi Ideal

b. Kondisi tidak ideal.
92


Ada 4 (empat) tahap saat merencanakan
sumur gas lift :

A. Penentuan titik injeksi
B. Penentuan jumlah gas yang
diinjeksikan
C. Penentuan spasi valve
D. penentuan tekanan setting buka/
tutup valve
93


94


Contoh :

Data kedalaman sumur 8.000 ft (pertengahan perforasi)
Pr = 1.920 psi
Rate liquid yang diinginkan : 800 BFPD
Ukuran tubing : 2 7/8 inch OD
Pwh = 120 psi
P.I. = 4 BPD/PSI
Gravity gas = 0,7
GLR formasi = 600 SCF/BBL
Temperatur dasar sumur = 170 0F @ 8.000 ft.
Temperatur dipermukaan = 110 0F
Tekanan operasi yang tersedia dipermukaan = 1.050 psi
Pko = 1.000 psi, Pso = 900 psi
Killing fluid gradient = 0,40 psi/ft
Pada saat loading dialirkan ke separator dengan tekanan 30 psi.

Ditanya : Buat rancangan gas lift
a. Titik injeksi gas POI
b. Spasi valve
c. Tekanan setting valve
95


96
97


98


111
Gambar
Single String With Single Packer
112
GAMBAR :
SUMUR PRODUKSI
TOTAL INDONESIE
113
OFFSHORE PRODUCTION
PLATFORM