Anda di halaman 1dari 4

THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005)

2005 IPA

CONSONANTS (PULMONIC)
Bilabial Labiodental Dental
Plosive
Nasal
Trill
Tap or Flap
Fricative
Lateral
fricative
Approximant
Lateral
approximant

p b
m

Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex

t d

n
r
|
v
F B f v T D s z S Z
L

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Pharyngeal

Glottal

c k g q G
/
=
N

J x V X ? h H

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

VOWELS

>

Voiced implosives

Bilabial

Bilabial

Dental
(Post)alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Alveolar lateral

Dental/alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Uvular

Front

Ejectives

p
t
k
s

Close

Examples:

Bilabial

Close-mid

Dental/alveolar

Open-mid

Alveolar fricative

Voiced labial-velar approximant


Voiced labial-palatal approximant

+
`
8

Open
Alveolo-palatal fricatives

Simultaneous

S and x

SUPRASEGMENTALS

Affricates and double articulations


can be represented by two symbols
joined by a tie bar if necessary.

"

N(

b a 1 Dental
t1 d1
Creaky voiced
b0 a0 Apical
t d
Linguolabial
t d 4 Laminal
t4 d4
Labialized
tW dW ) Nasalized
e)
Palatalized
t d Nasal release
d
Velarized
t d Lateral release d
Pharyngealized t
d } No audible release d}
Velarized or pharyngealized :
Raised
e6 ( 6 = voiced alveolar fricative)
Lowered
e ( B = voiced bilabial approximant)
Advanced Tongue Root
e5
Retracted Tongue Root
e

Primary stress
Secondary stress

kp ts

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.

n9 d9
Voiced
s3 t3
0
Aspirated
t d
More rounded O7
W
Less rounded
O
Advanced
u
Retracted
e2
Centralized
e

Mid-centralized e+
6
Syllabic
n`

Non-syllabic
e8
5
Rhoticity
a

Voiced alveolar lateral flap

Epiglottal plosive

Voiceless

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one


to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Voiced epiglottal fricative

E {

Voiceless epiglottal fricative

DIACRITICS

IY
e P

Back

Velar

OTHER SYMBOLS
Voiceless labial-velar fricative

Central

Breathy voiced

foUn"tISn

e
e
e*

Long

Half-long
Extra-short

Minor (foot) group


Major (intonation) group

Syllable break

i.kt

Linking (absence of a break)

e_
e!
e@
e~
e

TONES AND WORD ACCENTS


CONTOUR
LEVEL
Extra
Rising
or
or
high

Clicks

CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)

High
Mid
Low
Extra
low

Downstep
Upstep

e
e$
e%
e
e&

Falling
High
rising
Low
rising
Risingfalling

Global rise
Global fall

Alfabeto fontico de la RFE, Revista de Filologa Espaola 2 (1915): 374-376.