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Mt thit k ci tin v thc thi mt Antenna bng thng rng phn cc trn
Chien-Hsing Lee v Yu-Han Chang


Tm tt Thng tin ny trnh by mt thit k ci tin v thc thi ca mt
ng-ten bng thng rng phn cc trn c tnh nng gim kch thc, t l hng
trc bng thng tt v suy hao phn hi bng thng tt . Mch bao gm mt dch
pha Schiffman c s dng c c mt bng rng c s khc bit pha 90
0
, v
mt i ng-ten khe v tr trc giao phn cc tuyn tnh vi nng lng bc x
tng ng c s dng thc hin mt phn cc trn bng cch kt hp theo
chiu ngang v sng phn cc theo chiu dc vi mt b chia cng sut Wilkinson.
Kt qu o cho thy 3 dB t l hng trc bng thng ca ng-ten c xut c
th t 81,5% (1,6-3,8 GHz), v suy hao phn hi bng thng 10 dB l 100% (1,48-
4,47 GHz ).
Ch dn s - ng - ten phn cc trn bng thng rng, dch pha, ng ten khe
cm, b chia cng sut Wilkinson.
I. GII THIU
Gn y, ng-ten phn cc trn (CP) c s dng rng ri trong cc h
thng truyn thng di ng. Trong trng hp sng CP, ba iu kin phi p ng,
trong c mt cp phn cc tuyn tnh (LP) sng phi c ln bng nhau, hai
sng LP phi trc giao vi nhau, v hai sng LP trc giao l kch thch c lp vi
mt dch pha 90
0
.Mc d nhiu ng-ten CP bng thng rng vi mt bng thng
3dB t l hng trc 30 ~ 77% bng thng v 10 dB phn hi suy hao 35 ~ 80%
c xut [1] - [8] v c c dnh thit k mt bng thng tt hn v rng
hn ng-ten CP, ng-ten c xut nh Hnh. 1 c ch to t chi ph thp
hn vt liu c d dng m n c th t c 3 dB t l trc bng thng 81,5% v
10 dB mt phn hi bng thng 100%. Nh thy t Hnh. 1, ng-ten bao gm
mt dch pha (SPS) Schiffman [9] v mt i ng-ten khe LP v tr trc giao. L do
s dng hai ng-ten khe cm l to ra bc x LP thng ng v th hai l
cung cp bc x LP ngang. Hai ch LP c th c thc hin
Bn tho nhn c ngy 24 thng 8 nm 2013; sa i 17 thng 1 nm 2014; c
chp nhn Ngy 20 thng 2 nm 2014 Ngy xut bn ngy 05 thng 3 nm 2014.
ngy phin bn hin ti 9 thng 5 nm 2014.
Cc tc gi vi S h thng v Hi qun Mechatronic Engineering, i hc Quc
gia Cheng Kung, i Nam 701, i Loan, Trung Hoa Dn Quc (E-mail:
chienlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw; yhjhang@hotmail.com).
2

Phin bn mu ca mt hoc nhiu trong nhng nhn vt trong thng tin ny l sn
c trc tuyn ti http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
nh danh i tng k thut s 10.1109/TAP.2014.2309962

Hnh. 1. Cu Hnh ca ng ten CP xut. (a) S ca ng-ten CP xut ; (b)
nh ca ng-ten c xut
l trc giao v c lp vi cng mt mu bc x. Do , mt Sng CP c th c
pht ra bi hai ch LP kch thch c nui bng mt b chia nng lng
Wilkinson. Hn na, mc d mt vi dch pha c pht trin da trn SPS [10]
- [14], vic thc hin mt dch pha vi di l kh khn [13] - [15]. Giao tip ny s
dng mt phng php m khng c dy dn b sung l cn thit cho cu trc mch
di v n rt d dng ch to mt mch di SPS m khng lm hng cu trc
[16]. Kch thc tng th ca ng-ten c thit k a ra nhng dng cung cp
hu ch 130x150 mm
2
, v n c in trn mt cht nn FR4 dy 1,6 mm vi
hng s in mi 4,4.
II. THIT K CA ANTENNA CP XUT
A. Cu trc ca cc khe cm Antenna
Chng ti xut mt thit k cho ng-ten khe cm LP vi mt tr khng
l 50 ohm bi mt dng vi bng nh Hnh. 2 [17]. Con ng cng hng tn s
thp vo cui bn trong ca phn ng-ten, v Hnh-U cung cp mt ng dn cho
cc cng hng trung bnh v tn s cao. N c th cng hng bng thng t 1,6
GHz n 4,0 GHz, v im cng hng ca tn s thp, trung v cao l 1,6, 2,6 v
3,8 GHz tng ng. Hnh. 2 cng cho thy bn phn phi hin ti ba tn s khc
nhau m cc tn s cng hng ca 1,6 GHz l xung quanh khe cm hnh ch nht,
3

v cc tn s cng hng ca 2,6 GHz v 3,8 GHz gn ng phn phi hnh ch
U.

B. nh hng ca chiu rng trn cc khe Antenna
Mc d cc ng dn cng hng tn s thp v phn b dng cc xut
khe cm ng-ten LP xung quanh mt khe cm Hnh ch nht, phn phi hin ti c
th ph thuc vo chiu rng nh c ch ra trong Hnh. 2. Khi tng chiu rng,
cc ng dn hin ti tr nn hp hn v cng lm tng phn b dng, dn
n s gia tang hiu ng in cm c th lm thay i s mt mt tr li. Ngc li,

Hnh 2. Hnh hc ca cc xut ng-ten khe cm LP vi m phng phn b dng
ca n tn s khc nhau.

Hnh. 3. M phng tn hao phn x ca cc ng-ten LP xut cho rng khc
nhau ca e
4


Hnh 4. M phng hiu ng in cm ca ng ten LP xut khc nhau rng
ca e
cc ng dn hin ti tr nn rng hn v cng s phn b dng gim khi
tng chiu rng. Hnh. 3 cho thy nhng m phng tn hao phn x cho cc xut
ng-ten khe cm LP nh chiu rng khc nhau, trong khi hnh. 4 cho thy cc kt
qu m phng cc hiu ng in cm t mt Biu Smith v n c th c nhn
thy rng hiu ng in cm c tng ln lm tng chiu rng e. Do , bng
thng suy hao phn x c th c iu chnh hoc rng hn hoc hp hn chiu
rng cho ph hp vi yu cu bng thng trong nghin cu ny.
BNG I
M PHNG CA KHONG CCH IN DUNG NH MT CHC NNG
CA CHIU CAO V CHIU RNG KHONG CCH B MT






C. Thit k ca b dch pha Schiffman
Nm 1958, Schiffman xut mt b dch pha bng rng 90
0
v thit k ban
u ca n c da trn cu trc truyn stripline [9]. Chng ti s dng mt
phng php khc thc b dch pha Schiffman (SPS) vi cc dng microstrip
c ghp m khng c dy dn b sung cn thit v n rt d dng ch to m
khng lm hng cu trc [16]. Bng thng trong pha khc 90
0
t 1,6-3,4 GHz l
khong 72%.
5

S dch pha Athu c l mt php tr ca phn ng dch pha ca mt phn cng
vi cng kt ni vi nhau lin k v phn ng dch pha ca mt dng thng nht
c lp i lp li di y [9], [10]:
| = K u - cos
-1
(
2
tan
2
tan
u
u

+
)
m K l t l chiu di ca mt dng ng nht vi mt kt ni, u l chiu di in
ca phn kt ni v l tr khng t l c nh ngha
0e
Z /
0o
Z l trong v kiu
tr khng chn v l ca phn kt ni tng ng. Tr khng t l gia loi tr
khng chn v tr khng l ca cc dng microstrip cng c a ra bi nhng
iu sau y:





Trong
p
C l tm in dung song song gia cc di v mt phng t,
f
C
l in dung ra do dy dn cnh,
ga
C l in dung gia hai dng di qua khng kh,
v
gd
C l in dung gia hai dng di thng qua khu vc in mi. Lu rng chiu
rng khong cch gia cc dng microstrip cng l mt yu t quan trng c th
nh hng ng k n t l tr khng ca thit k. iu ny l do in dung
ga gd
C C + s thay i trong mi quan h vi chiu rng khong cch gia chng v
nhng gi tr ny c th tip tc nh hng n cc gi tr in dung
ga gd
C C + .
Chiu rng khong cch ca cc ng-ten c trnh by trong kt ni ny thay i
0,1-0,4 mm. Nu tnh khong cch rng c ch to nh th hin trong Bng I, gi
tr m phng tng ca
ga
C v
gd
C c th thu c. Ngoi ra, mi quan h gia t l
tr khng v | c th c tm thy trong [15]. Sau khi xc nh t l tr khng,
gi tr ca
p f
C C + c th c tm thy v t tn n l
x
C .
Da trn [18], [19], phng trnh c th c bt ngun v vit nh (3)
trong v
eff
l vn tc nh sng v hng s in mi hiu dng, tng ng.
Do , cc gi tr c bit n lit k trong Bng I sau c thay th vo (3)
tm chiu rng kt hp ca cc dng microstrip, W.


(1)

(2)
6

W
1.393 0.667 ln( 1.444). (3)
W
120 2
0
W
h
C
x r
h
h
eff
t c c u
c
(
| |
| (
\ .

+ + +

=

Hnh. 5. Thit k SPS vi WPD.
D. Cc thng s ca SPS
T mt SPS vi mt s khc pha 90
0
5
0
c thit k v ch to trn mt cht
nn FR4 dy 1,6 mm v khong cch rng s 0,2 mm, gi tr ca
ga gd
C C + c th
c tm thy t Bng I l 75,29 pF. T l tr khng ca SPS c thit k l 2,5
[14] v gi tr ca
x
C c th thu c l 50,19 pF. Sau , gi tr ca W c tm
thy l khong 1,3 mm cho chiu rng khong cch 0,2 mm. SPS c thit k vi
b chia nng lng Wilkinson (WPD) bao gm mt SMD (thit b gn kt b mt)
chip in tr 100 ohm vi mt tn s trung tm l 2,6 GHz c hin th trong
Hnh. 5. Cc kt qu o c ca thit k SPS s dng Agilent N5230A phn tch
mng c th hin trong Hnh. 6. Nh thy t Hnh. 6, bin v giai on
khc bit c gia v trn mt bng thng 1,58-3,6 GHz hoc khong 78% bng
thng khong 0 dB v 90
0
5
0
tng ng.
III. Kt qu m phng v o
Chng ti s dng bung SATIMO Starlab vi thu thit b ti Trung tm
Quc gia thc hin Chip (NCIC) ti i Loan o lng cc c tnh bc x ca
ng-ten v s dng mng Agilent N5230A phn tch o lng thng s S. Hnh.
7 cho thy m phng v o lng mt phn x ca ng-ten c thit k. Cc th
hin ng-ten m phng v o mt phn x ca bng thng (S
11
> 10dB ) ca
86,8%, t 1,5-3,8 GHz v 100%, t 1,48-4,47 GHz, tng ng. Ngoi ra, Hnh. 8
cho thy m phng v o lng t l hng trc ca ng ten CP xut. Cc th
hin ng-ten thay v m phng rng v o 3dB t l hng trc bng thng
75,4%,t 1,71-3,78 GHz, v 81,5%, t 1,6-3,8 GHz, tng ng. Sau , mc tng
v hiu qu ca cc ng-ten CP xut m phng v o c hin th trong Hnh.
9. Nh thy t Hnh. 9, li ch ti thiu v ti a ca ng ten o khong 4,48 dB
ti 2 GHz v 1,64 dB ti 3,2 GHz, tng ng. Hn na, ti thiu v hiu qu bc x
ti a cho cc ng-ten l khong 29% 1,6 GHz v 94% 3,2 GHz, tng ng.
Lu rng
7


Hnh. 6. o phn ng ca bin v pha khc nhau ( S
31
S
21
) cho cc thit k
SPS.

Hnh. 7. M phng v o mt phn x ca ng ten CP xut

Hnh. 8. M phng v o t l hng trc ca ng ten CP xut.

Hnh. 9. t c v hiu qu ca cc ng-ten CP xut .
ng-ten c xut c cu trc ng ten a cng hng c th t c s cng
hng trong nhiu di tn s. V vy, hiu qu ca cc ng-ten c xut c th
8

phi chu tn s khc nhau. iu ny c lin quan n vng hiu ng ca n, bc
sng cng hng, hiu ng khp ni v nh hng.

Hnh. 10. o mu bc x ti = 0
0
cho ng-ten CP xut (a) 1,6 GHz, (b) 2,2
GHz, (c) 2,8 GHz, v 3,4 GHz.

9









Hnh. 11. o mu bc x ti = 90
0
cho ng-ten CP xut ti im (a) 1,6 GHz,
(b) 2,2 GHz, (c) 2,8 GHz, v 3,4 GHz
Php o c thc hin trong mt cn phng y phn x vi mt nh
gc l 0
0
v 90
0
. Sau , cc mu bc x o cho ng-ten c xut l 1.6, 2.2,
2.8, v 3.4 GHz ti ( mt phng X - Y) v ( mt phng X - Z) c th hin trong
Hnh. 10 v 11, tng ng. Ngoi ra, cc Hnh. 12 v 13 cho thy cc ng-ten c
xut c c im phn cc trn li cho c hai phn cc trn bn phi (RHCP) v
phn cc trn bn tri (LHCP) 1.6, 2.2, 2.8, v 3.4 GHz ti (mt phng X - Y) v
(mt phng X - Z). Hai trng thi l mi chun ha, v trc giao vi nhau.
Trn di thng ny, n c quan st thy rng trn c hai mt phng chnh,
m hnh bc x ca cc th hin ng-ten gc t l hng trc chung l thp ti gc
t 0
0
n 180
0
. Khng i xng cht t quan st v cc mu c th l do s nh
hng ngun cp khng i xng ca cu hnh ng-ten. Trong mt phng X - Y,
ng-ten c m hnh hp l tt. Tuy nhin, cc kt qu o bng mt phng X-Z

Hnh. 12. o RHCP v LHCP mu bc x ti = 0
0
cho ng-ten CP xut (a)
1,6 GHz, (b) 2,2 GHz, (c) 2,8 GHz, v 3,4 GHz.
10


Hnh. 13. o RHCP v LHCP mu bc x ti cho = 90
0
ng-ten CP xut (a)
1,6 GHz, (b) 2,2 GHz, (c) 2,8 GHz, v 3,4 GHz.
l khng tt nh trong mt phng X - Y do cu trc ca ng-ten c xut c
cu trc bt i xng. Tuy nhin, cc c tnh bc x ca ng-ten c xut
trong mt phng X - Z vn tng ng vi m hnh bc x CP. Nhng kt qu ny
cho thy ci tin ng k trong tr khng v t l hng trc bng thng trn ng-
ten bng thng rng CP khc nh tm tt trong Bng II. Trong iu kin vng ph
sng ca tn s thng thng ca S
11
> 10dB v t l hng trc < 3 dB, ng-ten
bng rng CP xut trnh by mt phn x bang thng o c khong 100% t
1,48-4,47 GHz v t l hng trc bng thng l khong 81,5% t 1,6-3,8 GHz.
IV. KT LUN
Thng tin truyn thng ny cho thy vic s dng cc thit k 90
0
Schiffman dch
pha (SPS) vi b chia cng sut Wilkinson cho php ci thin ng k suy hao phn
hi v t l hng trc bng thng cho cc ng-ten CP xut. SPS khng phi loi
b cc mt phng t bn di dng kt hp microstrip v ci t thm phn dy
dn hnh ch nht cch ly di chng.
BNG II
BIU DIN CA ANTENNA CP XUT AS SO VI KT QU THAM
KHO KHC





11


SPS c thit k cho thy mt pha khc nhau ca 90
0
5
0
trong 78% bng
thng t 1,58-3,6 GHz. Trong ch s ca tn s chung ca S
11
> 10dB v t l
hng trc (AR) < 3 dB, ng-ten bng thng rng CP xut a ra mt phn x
bng thng o 100% t 1,48-4,47 GHz v 3 dB bng thng t l hng trc 81,5%
t 1,6 n 3,8 GHz. Ti thiu v ti a li ca ng ten xut o khong 4,48
dB ti 2 GHz v 1,64 dB ti 3,2 GHz, tng ng, hiu qu bc x ti thiu v ti a
cho cc ng-ten c thit k l khong 29% 1,6 GHz v 94% 3,2 GHz , tng
ng.
Do , mc d ng-ten CP c nghin cu rng ri trong nhiu ng
dng, h vn c th c bng thng hp trong 3 dB t l hng trc v 10 dB mt
phn x . So snh vi cc ng-ten c m t trong [1] - [5], ng-ten c xut
thc hin t chi ph thp hn cc vt liu c th t c d dng trong giao tip
ny c thc nghim cho thy khng ch l mt bng thng AR rng 3 dB ca
81,5%, nhng cng c mt loi rng 10 dB mt phn x bng thng 100%.
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