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Title

Meiosis in Lilys anther.


Introduction
Meiosis is a singularly important biological event that not only maintains a constant
chromosome number for most species of plants or animals, but also provides a means of
genetic variability because of crossing over and the subsequent exchange of genetic materials.
Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half during the formation of gametes in
animals and spores in plants. This process involves two successive nuclear divisions that
produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction division. It is this first division that reduces
the chromosome number from diploid to haploid and separates the homologous pairs. Meiosis
I accounts for approximately 90% of the time a cell spends in the entire process. Meiosis II, the
second division, separates the sister chromatids. The result is four haploid gametes. When
haploid gametes unite during fertilization, the resulting zygote is diploid, having received one
chromosome of each pair from each parent.
Meiosis takes a good deal of time, and differs from species to species--in human males,
the entire process lasts 24 days. In lilies, it takes seven days.
Mitotic cell division produces new cells genetically identical to the parent cell. Meiosis
increases genetic variation in the population. Each diploid cell undergoes meiosis that can
produce 2n different chromosomal combinations, where n is the haploid number. In humans
the number is 223 which are more than eight million different combinations. In addition, the
potential variation is even greater because, during meiosis I, each pair of chromosomes
(homologous chromosomes) comes together in a process known as synapsis. Chromatids of
homologous chromosomes may exchange parts in a process called crossing over. The relative
distance between two genes on a given chromosome can be estimated by calculating the
percentage of crossing over that takes place between them.

Objective
1. Observe and identify the stage of meiosis in Lilys anther.
2. Observe and identify the stage of meiosis from the given slide.
Material
Microscope, Slide of Lilium second division, Slide of cross-section of ovary, second division.

Procedure
1. Slide of Lilium second division and Slide of cross-section of ovary second division was
observed by microscope.
2. The stage of meiosis process was recorded.

Observation
Meiosis I
Observed Stage Theory Stage Description
Prophase I



Each duplicated chromosomes
is in threadlike form but start to
condense. It pairs with its
homologous and 2 typically
swap segments. The swapping
called crossing over. Some of
microtubules of a newly
forming spindle become
attached to each
chromosomes centromere.
Metaphase I

As in mitosis, motor proteins
attached to microtubules move
the chromosomes and move
the spindle poles apart. They
thug the chromosome into
position midway between the
spindle poles. Thus, the spindle
becomes fully formed, owing to
dynamic interaction among the
motor proteins, microtubules
and chromosomes themselves.
Anaphase I

Microtubules extending from
the poles and overlapping at
the spindle equator lengthen
and push the poles apart. Other
microtubules extending from
the poles to the chromosomes
shorten, thereby pulling each
other away from its
homologous partner. This
motions move the homologous
partners to opposite poles.
Telophase I

The cytoplasm of the cell
divides at some point. There
are now two haploid cells (n).
Each cell has one of each type
of chromosomes that was
present in the parent (2n) cell.
They are still at duplicate stage.

Meiosis II
Observed Stage Theory Stage Description
Prophase II

Microtubules have already
moved one member of the
centrioles pair to the opposite
pole of the spindle in each of
the two daughter cells. Now the
prophase II, microtubules
attached to the chromosomes
and the motor protein drive the
movement of chromosome
towards the spindle equator.
Metaphase II

In each daughter cell,
interactions among motor
proteins, spindle microtubules,
and each duplicated
chromosomes have move all of
the chromosomes so that they
are positioned at the spindle
equator midway between the
two poles.
Anaphase II

The attachment between the
two chromatids of each
chromosomes breaks. Each of
former sister chromatids is now
a chromosomes in its own
eight. Motor proteins drive the
movement of the newly
separated chromosomes to
opposite poles of the spindle.
Telophase II

By the time telophase II is over,
there will be four daughter
nuclei. When cytoplasmic
division is completed, each
new, daughters nuclei will have
a haploid chromosome number
(n). All of the chromosome will
now be in the unduplicated
site.


Discussion
Meiosis is the process that occurs for reproduction. Such as meiosis occur at Lily anther.
But there is another part that we can find the meiosis process is Lilys ovary. Meiosis reduces
the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid. Meiosis, like mitosis, s preceded by
the replication of chromosomes. However, this single replication is followed by not one but two
consecutive cell divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II. These two divisions result in four
daughter cells, each with only half as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
To identify the meiotic division that occurs in the Lilium anther is meiosis process is not
starting with interphase but it start with prophase and it has 4 daughter nuclei with 2
chromosomes. The significance of meiotic process in organism is to contribute genetic variation
in which during the metaphase I the chromosome may line up at equator in any number of
ways. The differences between mitotic and meiotic process that occur in Lily are in mitosis only
single division of mother cell that produce 2 daughters cell, but in meiotic two division of
mother cell that produce 4 daughters cell. Then, a mitotic mother cell can be haploid or diploid,
but in meiotic mother cell only in haploid. In mitosis, there is no pairing chromosome, while in
meiosis, during prophase I, it completed pairing of all homologous chromosomes.

Conclusion
For meiosis II, the process started with prophase II then it continues with metaphase II,
anaphase II and telophase II. At the end of the process, it produces 4 daughter nuclei with two
chromosomes.

References
http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa101900a.html
BIOLOGY, EIGHT EDITION, CAMPBELL.REECE.