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I declare that this thesis entitled The Relationship between Leadership Style and
Motivation level is the result of my own research except as cited in the references.
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Apple Incorporation is a multinational company that creates and sells
consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers, in 363 stores
worldwide, with global sales of about US$16 billion. The company's well-known
products like Macintosh line of computers, iPod, iPhone and the iPad are mainly
recognized as a source of competitive edge due to high brand awareness related to
these products. Apple also sells other branded products like, Mac OS X, iTunes, iLife,
iWork, Aperture, Final Cut Studio, Logic Studio, Safari browser and iOS.
People witness, on average, hundreds of images on a daily basis. With proliferating
and interchangeable product and service offerings, brands are impetus for product
purchasing. Brands often express selfidentity for the consumer as well as lifestyle,
status, and sometimes even belonging. For a brand to be successful, the company
must be able to differentiate their particular brand(s) from similar brands despite the
fact that they may contain the same ingredients. The companies must communicate a
corporate identity containing the core mission, strategic vision and corporate culture
that the important stakeholders can recognize in order to build or maintain a
favourable relationship. The main objective of this study is to analyze the importance
of using marketing strategies of branding in Apple Inc. The study will help to find
out about the related benefits of branding mainly. The details of the study will help
us to learn about the consumer's awareness about the brand and how their loyalty can
be increased in order to gain a competitive edge. Also, analyzing the importance of
branding can help us to find out about the Apple brand's strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats, by using SWOT analysis tool and by using STP process,
we can know how to segment the market, target the customers and position the
products/services. Whereas, by using 4 Ps of marketing mix, we can find out about
the branded product, its price, promotion and placement. In this thesis I examine
which corporate identity the multinational company Apple Inc. communicates
through selected communication material and whether it corresponds to the 15 image
perceived by a group of random consumers. The thesis is conducted by the means of
a quantitative analysis from a hermeneutic perspective, and is based on selected

communicated material from Apple. My starting point is in the two advertising
campaigns Think Different and Why Youll Love a Mac, and two statements
from former Chief Executive Officer (CEO) John Sculley and existing CEO Steve
Jobs. Furthermore, I made a personal consumer study in 20 shape of a questionnaire.
Therefore, since the competition in the technology industry is increasing, 'A study on
using marketing strategy of branding in Apple' will help the company in staying at
the top of consumer's mind, to cope up with the changes, to gain competitive edge, to
attain goals set by the company, to make improvements for the future related to
products, its pricing strategy, communications used to promote and the placement of
the product. Therefore, it will help us to evaluate whether branding will affect Apple
Inc's success rate or not.Finally, I have investigate the relationship between
Leadership Style and Motivation level. All of the results that I obtain are clearly
stated in the thesis below.


DECLARATION .................................................................................. ii
ABSTRACTS ...................................................................................... iii
Table of Contents .................................................................................. v
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................. vii
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................... viii
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1
nd Error!
Bookmark not defined.
1.2 Problem statement ......................................................................... 8
1.3 Significant of the Study ................................................................. 10
2. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 14
2.1 Definition and motivation theory ................................................. 14
2.2 Definition, concept and Leadership Theory .................................. 16
2.3 Path Goal Theory .......................................................................... 17
2.4 Need for Achievement Theory ...................................................... 20
2.5 Directive Leadership Style............................................................. 21
2.6 Supportive Leadership Style ......................................................... 22
2.7 Participative Leadership Style ....................................................... 23
2.8 Achievement Oriented Leadership Style ...................................... 25
2.9 Relationship between Leadership Styles and Motivation ............ 26
3. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................. 27

3.1 Research Design ............................................................................ 27
3.2 Population and Sampling Technique ............................................ 28
4. RESEARCH FINDING ............................................................................ 29
4.1 Response Rate............................................................................... 30
4.2 Descriptive Demographic Profile .................................................. 30
4.3 Descriptive Analysis ...................................................................... 31
4.4 Reliability Analysis......................................................................... 35
4.5 Correlation Matrix......................................................................... 36
4.6 Regression Analysis ....................................................................... 37
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ............................................ 40
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 40
5.2 Discussion of Finding .................................................................... 40
5.3 Limitation of Study ........................................................................ 41
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research .................................................. 42
5.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................... 47
6. REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 48
Appendices 52



4.1 Demographic Profile 30
4.2 Leadership style 32
4.3 Reliability Analysis 35
4.4 Reliability Test 35
4.5 Correlation between leadership styles and the level of staff motivation 37
4.6 Multiple Regression Analysis 38



3.1 Required Sample Size 1





It's ironic that when you ask leaderseven good oneswhat constitutes
leadership, you often get vague, disparate, and vapid responses. You'd think that of
all people, this population would offer crisp and concrete definitions of their own
crucial work. Instead, you get references to energizing, visioning, pathfinding,
modeling, and a dozen other tangents of real leadershipbut almost no reference to
the central task of leaders: influencing.
This is especially disconcerting in an era where Fortune 500 companies are
crumbling under the weight of financial strain and once powerful and confident
leaders are crawling to Washington begging for bailouts. The vast majority of today's
crises are the natural consequence of ineffective or misdirected influence. Either
leaders have been incapable of influencing their employees to create value for
customers (e.g. the U.S. auto industry), or they've exerted influence that has driven

employees to unconscionable behavior bringing the global economy to its knees (i.e.
the financial sector). Today more than ever, we ought to see clearly that leadership
isn't a combination of fuzzy concepts and proclivities. Leaders are responsible for
intelligently and ethically influencing behavior in a way that creates value.
Fortunately, not all leaders are missing the mark. I recently met one of the
few leaders who, in my experience, has a concrete expression of leadership on the tip
of his tongue. Tim Tassopoulos, chief operating officer of Chik-fil-A, says it this
way: Leadership is intentional influence.
I couldn't agree more. For 20 years my colleagues and I have worked with
leaders to help them increase their capacity for influencing change. But it came as a
surprise to us that prior to helping them learn how to influence, we had to draw their
attention to it as their core work.
Tim, on the other hand, understands that it all comes down to whether one of
his 50,000 front-line associates with a few discretionary minutes decides to lean
against a wall or walk out to the dining area and clean tables. Tim's success or failure
as a leader does not come down to whether he is charismatic, visionary, or
inspirational. It comes down to whether, at the end of the day, people behave in ways
that improve results. Period.
With that said, the second biggest problem leaders face is that few of them
have any systematic way of even thinking aboutmuch less practicinginfluence.
Oh, we complain about it a lot. All leaders can point to dysfunctional, political,
unproductive behaviors in their organizations. For example:
Fiefdoms. Most leaders complain that people in their companies put the
interests of their department over the interests of the company. In one Fortune 500
company, the training department encouraged a vendor to sue another division of the
company to prevent that division from cutting separate deals with the vendor, which
would have threatened the training department's monopoly.
Compliance. In U.S. hospitals, 2 million patients will be infected this year by
the very caregivers who are trying to heal them. An enormous percentage of these
infections could be avoided if leaders could just find a way to influence people to
wash their hands consistently. Compliance rates today hover somewhere between 30%
and 50%!
Silence. More than 90% of respondents in a recent study we conducted at
VitalSmarts reported they are currently working on a cross-functional initiative that

they are certain will fail. Our research showed that the primary cause of these failures
is silence. People see lots of problems in their initiatives, but they work in
organizations where it's not O.K. to speak up about them. Our study found that this
pattern of problem behavior is a root cause of more than 85% of project failures.
Given that few leaders can even define leadership, it's no surprise that their
performance is mediocre at best. We recently studied the successes and failures of
more than 1000 leaders from 50 global companies to influence strategically critical
behavior change in their companies. We were stunned to discover that fewer than 1
in 20 had any evidence of success in spite of their belief that change was crucial. As
we combed through the data, some key insights emerged that help us understand why
so few leaders either grasp or exert influence well:
Leaders confuse talking with influencing. Many leaders think influence
consists of little more than talking people into doing things. It's no wonder most
influence efforts start with PowerPoint presentations. But profound, persistent, and
overwhelming problems demand more than verbal persuasion. Anyone who's ever
tried to talk a smoker into quitting knows there's a lot more to behavior change than
Leaders make the same mistake when they publish platitudes in the form of
Mission and Values statements, give a few speeches on why these values are crucial,
and then assume their job is done.
Leaders believe in silver bullets. When leaders actually attempt to influence
new behavior, it's common for them to look for quick fixesto fall into the trap of
thinking that deeply ingrained bad habits can be changed with a single technique.
The failure mode is to rely on any single approach.
Some host star-studded retreats. Others hand out inspiring posters and color-
changing mugs and think people will line up for change. Still others believe it's all
about incentives, and so they tinker with the performance-management system or tie
new behaviors to executive bonuses. The research shows that when leaders rely on
just one simple source of influence to drive change, they almost always fail.
In the future, I'll use this column to share what we've learned from leaders
who don't suffer in ignorance about influence. Over the past 20 years, my colleagues
and I have sought out and studied a different kind of leader. We've tried to find those
who had remarkable abilities to influence changerapidly, profoundly, and

We've studied up close the methods used by one remarkable influencer
whowith no formal authorityhas changed behavior in thousands of U.S.
hospitals. We've looked first hand at one influencer who has saved 5 million lives
from AIDSsimply by influencing behavior change in a country of 60 million
people. We worked with a corporate chief who within 12 months influenced deeply
entrenched habits in employees with an average of 26 years tenure.
What we've learned is that when you know what you're doing, change can
happen relatively quickly. And it all starts with gaining greater clarity about what
leadership really means, then finding a way of thinking about the fundamental
principles of influence.
Leaders lack a theory of influence. Very few leaders can even answer the
question, "How do you change the behavior of a large group of people?" And yet,
this is what they're ultimately paid to do. It isn't just about making a decision; it's
about getting people aligned to execute the decision. And this means influence.
Imagine discovering just as the anesthesia is taking effect that your heart surgeon
the one hovering over your chest with a scalpelis working off a "gut hunch" about
how to conduct a bypass. Unless leaders become articulate about a repeatable and
effective way of influencing profound, rapid, and sustainable behavior change
they'll continue to rack up predictably high failure rates at leading change
Leaders act as if it's not their job to address entrenched habits. Most leaders put a
great deal of time into crafting strategy, selecting winning products, and engaging
with analysts, shareholders, and major customers. But few realize the success or
failure of their grand schemes lies in influencing the behavior of the hundreds or
thousands of people who will have to execute the big ideastheir employees.
By contrast, the most influential leadersthe 5% who succeed consistently at
influencing profound and essential behavior changespend as much as half of their
time thinking about and actively influencing the behaviors they know will lead to top
performance. The 95% who dither and fail tend to delegate what they dismiss as
"change management" to others, most often leaders in human resourceswho often
lack the credibility to influence real change. The average leader spends little, if any,
of his or her time on active efforts to create behavior change. Consequently, nothing
Performance is a function of the three factors acting together. Ability has to
do with whether a person can do a task. Motivation is a measure of whether a person

wants to do it. Opportunity is about accessibility; a person cant do a task if she is not
given a chance or if she is denied access to necessary resources or amenities.
This framework looking at human performance as being influenced by
multiple factors reflects the difficult and variable nature of our work today. All of
these factors must be supported by the work environment in order for peoples best
work to occur. So, how can the workplace help?
According to Judith Heerwagen, a former scientist with the Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory who is now a program expert with the General Services
Administration, productivity and the workplace are related in these ways
In this section, we discuss what motivation is and why it is important, and
how motivation affects behaviour, human relations, and performance. Motivation is
defined as the intention of achieving a goal, leading to goal directed behaviour.
When we refer to someone as being motivated, we mean that the person is trying
hard to accomplish a certain task. Motivation is clearly important for someone to
perform well. However, motivation alone is not sufficient.
Ability is having the skills and knowledge required to perform the job is also
important and is sometimes the key determinant of effectiveness. Finally,
environmental factors having the resources, information, and support one needs to
perform well are also critical to determine performance.
A building can affect opportunity by providing equitable access to
conditions that reduce health and safety risks, equitable access to amenities and
compensatory design options where inequities exist and are difficult to eliminate
A building can positively affect ability by providing comfortable ambient
conditions, by enabling individual control and adjustment of conditions, and by
reducing health and safety risks. Negative impacts on ability to do work are
associated with conditions that are uncomfortable, distracting, hazardous or noxious.
A building can positively affect motivation by providing conditions that
promote positive affective functioning, psychological engagement and personal
control. Moods create the affective context for thought processes and behaviors and
are directly tied to motivation.
Motivation is the internal process leading to behavior to satisfy needs.

Have you ever wondered why people do the things they do? The primary
reason people do what they do is to meet their needs or wants. The process people go
through to meet their needs is
Need Motive Behaviour Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction
What makes employees willing to go the extra mile to provide excellent
service, market a companys products effectively, or achieve the goals set for them?
Answering questions like this is of utmost importance to understand and manage the
work behaviour of our peers, subordinates, and even supervisors. As with many
questions involving human beings, the answers are anything but simple. Instead,
there are several theories explaining the concept of motivation.
Performance = motivation x ability x environment
According to this equation, motivation, ability, and environment are the major
influences over employee performance. Performance is a function of motivation,
ability, and the environment in which you work. Zappos seems to be creating an
environment that encourages motivation and builds inclusiveness. The company
delivers above and beyond basic workplace needs and addresses the self-
actualization needs that most individuals desire from their work experience. CEO
Tony Hsieh believes that the secret to customer loyalty is to make a corporate culture
of caring a priority. This is reflected in the companys 10 core values and its
emphasis on building a team and a family. During the interview process, applicants
are asked questions relating to the companys values, such as gauging their own
weirdness, open-mindedness, and sense of family. Although the offer to be paid to
quit during the training process has increased from its original number of $400, only
1% of trainees take the offer. Work is structured differently at Zappos as well. For
example, there is no limit to the time customer service representatives spend on a
phone call, and they are encouraged to make personal connections with the
individuals on the other rather than try to get rid of them.
Although Zappos pays its employees well and offers attractive benefits such
as employees receiving full health-care coverage and a compressed workweek, the
desire to work at Zappos seems to go beyond that. As Hsieh would say, happiness is
the driving force behind almost any action an individual takes. Whether your goals
are for achievement, affiliation, or simply to find an enjoyable environment in which
to work, Zappos strives to address these needs.

Although Zappos has over 1,300 employees, the company has been able to
maintain a relatively flat organizational structure and prides itself on its extreme
transparency. In an exceptionally detailed and lengthy letter to employees, Hsieh
spelled out what the new partnership with Amazon would mean for the company,
what would change, and more important, what would remain the same. As a result of
this type of company structure, individuals have more freedom, which can lead to
greater satisfaction.
The topic of motivation plays a central role in the field of management, as it
is one of the most popular management topics. Motivation derives from the Latin
word for movement, and it has been widely acknowledged as a critical determinant
of our behavior. Motivation affects how and to what extent we utilize our skills and
abilities. Unmotivated employees are less willing to be cooperative and supportive,
and they may decrease work effort, time on the job, productivity, and performance.
Thus, we need to motivate employees to boost productivity. Jeff Taylor, founder of, said that to be successful, you have to be able to motivate others. To
this end, researchers are studying the factors that energize, direct, and sustain work-
related behavior, and you will learn about their motivation theories in this chapter.
Despite their difficulties because they cant simply buy motivation,
organizations are designing incentive systems to motivate employees. Self-
motivation is one of the most important skills companies look for when hiring. Thus,
your ability to motivate yourself and others is critical to your career success, and the
goal of this chapter is to increase your ability to do so.
Based on the expiratory study done by most of the staff, they consented with
the statement that the level of motivation is equivalent with the leadership styles of
the mangers.
Be a yardstick of quality. Some people aren't used to an environment where
excellence is expected by Steve Jobs.



Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented
behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water
to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. The act or process of giving
someone a reason for doing something and it is also called as the act or process of
motivating someone. Motivation is a desire or willingness to do something;
enthusiasm. It is a force or influence that causes someone to do something. There are
three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity.

All levels of management perform these functions, but the amount of time a manager
spends on each function depends on the level of management and the needs of the
organization. Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their
responsibilities. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions:
planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.

A manager needs to be a good leader. While a manager organizes and plans, the good
leader must also inspire employees with a vision for the organization. A manager
needs to be an effective communicator and liaison between employees, customers,
and other managers of the organization. A manager needs to be an effective
negotiator. When organizations are developing or undergoing change, the manager is
often required to negotiate with competitors, contractors, suppliers, and employees.
A manager must act as a figurehead that reinforces the mission and vision of an
organization to employees, customers, and other stakeholders.

Leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organizations and their
success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employee
motivation. They shape institutional strategies including their execution and
effectiveness. Leaders can appear at any level of an institution and are not exclusive
to management. Successful leaders do, however, have one thing in common. They
influence those around them in order to reap maximum benefit from the
organizations resources, including its most vital and expensive: its people. Libraries

require leadership just like business, government and non-profit organizations.
Whether a public, special or academic library, that librarys leaders directly affect
everything from patron experience to successfully executing stated missions,
including resource allocation, services offered and collection development strategies.
In fact, the influence of leaders and their effectiveness in moving people to a shared
vision can directly shape the librarys people, its materials, how patrons use or
interact with them and whether or not that experience is beneficial. With leadership
potentially playing such a vital role in the success of information centers and patron
experiences, it is useful to consider the different types of leaders and their potential
impact on libraries as organizations.

Current leadership theories describe leaders based upon traits or how influence and
power are used to achieve objectives. When using trait-based descriptions, leaders
may be classified as autocratic, democratic, bureaucratic or charismatic. If viewing
leadership from the perspective of the exchange of power and its utilization to secure
outcomes, leaders are situational, transactional or transformational. Understanding
these different tropes can provide a vocabulary for discussion that can lead to
meaningful, desired results. It bears noting that not all leaders are created equal, and
leadership quality may vary enormously across industries or simply within an
organization. In addition, identifying an individual leaders style is central to
evaluating leadership quality and effectiveness especially as it relates to
organizational goals. Below is a brief examination of each common leadership style
listed above and their potential impact on a group as well as their relative usefulness.

Leadership style impacts the organization by affecting employee morale,
productivity, decision-making speed, and metrics. Successful leaders carefully
analyze problems, assess the skill level of subordinates, consider alternatives, and
make an informed choice. By choosing the most appropriate leadership style for the
situation, an effective leader provides a lasting impact. Leaders establish a clear
distinction between subordinates and superiors.

When leaders use a coaching style instead, subordinates feel safer and encouraged to
focus on their own development, which ultimately helps the company for the long
term by increasing employee morale, retention and satisfaction. A leader engages

with employees to figure out the best way to accomplish the companys strategic
goals. This includes decreased errors, minimized waste, and increased customer
satisfaction. Participative leaders run team-building exercises to promote cultural
awareness and diversity, which can improve productivity by allowing the team to
recognize each others strengths and value.


There are a number of different styles of leadership and management that are
based on different theories. The individuals style will be use based on a combination
of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the organizational culture and
norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.
Different motivational theories can directly impact an employees
contribution to the overall success of an organization. Additionally, motivational
theories can influence the behaviors and leadership methods within an organization.
The result of employee motivation combined with leadership theories will influence
employee satisfaction. This article will review factors that are directly attributed to
employee satisfaction.
According to Watkiss (2004), motivation is the way to drive person into
doing something. Much of the driven are the thought of a potential reward, or a
consequence of not doing something. Motivation is the forces the people do
something: this is a result of the individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that
individual has the inspiration to complete the task. Motivation refersto the initiation,
direction, intensity and persistence of human behaviour. Based on the definition of
Watkiss (2004), it can be concluded that the motivation is the idea and initiative to
encourage and drive the individual to do something or to performance better jobs.
Ormrod (2003) stated that the main reason of existence for organizations is not
merely to survive, but also to gain profit and the companies enable to competitive

weather in locally or globally. In order to achieve these missions, companies have to
satisfy the employees who are considered asa cornerstone in many companies. Thus,
the employees would have a high morale, self-esteem and also feel comfortable
toward the place where they work in. However, it is hard to argue that a motivated
workplace means that the organizations would get high performance, or maybe
would increase revenue. However, managers is necessary to take actions in order to
satisfy employees and thereby, it is suppose to increase the employees motivation.
After increasing motivations, the employees will work harder and feel that they are
responsible to achieve all targets and goals that ordered by supervisors. In other
words mean that, employees would be fell that the organization as belong to them.
For an instance, motivation in the education process can have many effects on
how students learn and their behaviour to the course matter (Ormrod, 2003). It can
direct behaviour toward particular goals and lead to increased effort and energy.
It also can help the organization involved in determining the level of it. It is
to help the managers to find his or hers leadership styles and increases the leadership
qualities. Leadership is a fundamental aspect of the human condition. Leadership
today is more difficult and more necessary than before. The health and growth of any
organization rises and falls on leadership. Studying leadership will make us better
followers. Leadership skills can be learned in a systematic and thorough way.


Apple started in 1976 as a computer company. In the last decade, however,
Apple has expanded into a very intricate company that specializes in much more than
just computers. In 2001, Apple broke the barrier with the iPod, eventually becoming
the dominant market leader in music players. As well, Apple joined the phone
industry in 2007 with the iPhone, which has also been widely successful.

Apple is a consumer goods company, and therefore evaluating its value
requires understanding its products and consumers. This can be very difficult
because Apple competes with many different companies throughout the different
industries it takes part in.
Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics
industry." One of the most unique things about Apple is that it has a very strong
customer base. This is extremely important in understanding Apple!
Apple is probably the most well-known company when it comes to the
making of technology that is cutting edge and something that everyone wants to have
in their possession. Apple Computer first came to be a company in 1976 when Steve
Jobs and Steve Wozniak when they released the Apple I and was located in
Cupertino, California. These two young men dropped out of college, and were often
viewed as outcasts in most of the places that they were at, including schools, which
could have been the reason that they dropped out of college. As most people have
heard, Apple really started in the basement or garage, depending on who the person
talks to rather than at some expensive business location. Which is perhaps the reason
so many people were first intrigued by the brand and could be the reason that the
computers were such a success, they were created by guys that knew what they
wanted and passed this on to the rest of the world. And what they wanted was
something that other people wanted as well.
The first order that the two built is somewhat of an amazing feat that was the
beginning of the company. After being introduced to one another, they made a
working model of their computer and took it to a nearby computer store in order to
try to make it onto the market. The owners of the store ordered fifty of the machine
that was to be fully assembled and ready to go, which seemed to be an impossible
feat. However, they did succeed as they bartered and promised many IOU's to
companies to get the parts that they would need since they had no money to buy
these on their own. They finished all fifty machines in thirty days and took them to
the store to sell, which they received around five hundred dollars a piece for these
machines. They were a hit with those that came to the store.
Now, Apple is a brand that most people automatically know all over the
world. They are known for their innovative technology that is usually the first of its
kind on the market and something that all people love to own and make their lives a
bit easier with the advancements that they gave people. The company continued to

stay on top of their game and improve upon their technology, they produced such
things as the iMac, which really did help to propel the company in the eyes of many
The first home computer with a GUI or graphical user interface was the
Apple Lisa. The very first graphical user interface was developed by the Xerox
Corporation at their Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the 1970s. Steve Jobs,
visited PARC in 1979 (after buying Xerox stock) and was impressed and influenced
by the Xerox Alto, the first computer ever with a graphical user interface. Jobs
designed the new Apple Lisa based on the technology he saw at Xerox.
With the 1984 Apple Macintosh Steve Jobs made sure developers created
software for the new Macintosh Computer. Jobs figured that software was the way to
win the consumer over.





Motivation is internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in
people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make
an effort to attain a goal.
Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious
factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the
goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are
the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends
extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class.
Motivation is also a feeling of enthusiasm or interest that makes you
determined to do something. Motivation is the desire that fuels a person to do certain
things based on the wants and needs of a person. If a person wishes to meet these
wants and needs, then it necessitates him to motivate himself so that he can make
certain moves. A person is unique and apart from another so his wants and needs
vary greatly from that of the other. The same is true for the people's levels of
The different wants and needs in every person vary in intensity based on the
focus, goals, and the total human psyche of the person. This is why the motivation of
a person is unique despite having similar wants and needs with others.
The decision to increase your motivation is the key to the bringing a greater
sense of it for yourself. This can be done by putting greater focus on the things that

you want to achieve until you actually accomplish them. The stronger your focus is
on the goal, the greater the motivation will be.
The truth of the matter is if you are unable to keep track of your goals, it can
be generalized that you do not really desire to achieve it. Motivation can come
naturally, and no amount of inspirational talk will set you to action if you really are
not into taking the goal seriously.
Setting goals that stir positive feelings within you are important to keep
yourself motivated. Once you have found these, focus yourself on being able to get a
hold of them. There will be a lot of distractions so pick up at a comfortable pace and
make things happen.
The definition of motivation involves the total understanding of the self.
Receiving rewards is one reason for being motivated, but beyond that is a set of
benefits that are more valuable than concrete rewards. These can be enhanced work
output, more productivity, better work habits, and an increased of understanding of
According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to
stay motivated in the face of challenges and negative people. Setbacks and
unsupportive colleagues or friends will make you even more determined when you
know how to stay motivated, avoid the criticism, endless nagging and moaning of
those around you. When you easily and effortlessly get things done you give people
little reason to criticize you. In fact they are likely to give you more freedom to do
things your way, start new projects with enthusiasm and stay motivated over time.
When you can see things through to completion you will have renewed confidence in
your ability to succeed, stop things getting any worse. When you know how to be
highly motivated in a matter of seconds, you can turn around situations you have
neglected in the past, feel in charge of you life. As you get more done with ease you
will have order where you used to have chaos. You will know what you want and
feel compelled to move ahead and get it, develop leadership skills and positively
affect those around you. Your drive and enthusiasm will touch everyone you deal
with. People will turn to you for leadership and guidance, enjoy a more harmonious
home life. Imagine hearing praise and gratitude for all the little things you get done
around the house. You will enjoy a satisfying feeling of accomplishment at the end
of each evening, eliminate problems while they are small. You will deal with
potential problems and concerns sooner rather than later. This habit alone will put

you back in control, save money by getting things done on time. You will eliminate
those late fees, fines and charges that procrastinators waste their hard earned money
on, put an end to regrets. Become the kind of person who jumps on opportunities.
And enjoy the excitement and passion you feel when you are giving 100%,
understand what motivates you and enjoy greater success. When you discover your
unique motivation blueprint getting ahead will never be a mystery again. You can
fire up your motivation engine whenever you choose to, move ahead quickly in your
career. When you can calmly and efficiently get your work done, you position
yourself for more responsibility and a higher salary, earn the respect of your boss and
colleagues. As a dependable and productive member of the team people will
appreciate you and seek your valuable advice on important matters and Feel fantastic
about yourself. As a motivated self-starter your self-esteem will soar, you will
accomplish much more, have greater success and live a full life.


In a research on leadership,_(Stodgill(1974) has identified more than eleven
explanations on leadership which has different foundation. Many definitions have
been identified by researchers for example Stoggil (1950) explained that leadership is
a process to influence people to achieve certain goals and target; Tannembum &
Massarik (1957) explained that A frame of reference. Management
Science (October): 1-19t ).
Individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amounts of rewards they
receive for their efforts but also the praising from employer. We lead when we
manage a football team or teach a classroom of children. We lead our own children
when we are parents, and we lead when we organize anything. We certainly lead
when we manage projects, or develop a new business. We lead the moment we take
the first supervisory responsibility at work, and we may lead even before we assume
official responsibility to do anything. A vicar or preacher leads a congregation. A

writer or visionary may lead when he or she puts pen to paper and creates a book, or
poem, or article which inspires and moves others to new thoughts and actions. A
monarch and a president are both leaders. So is a local councillor, and so can be a
community fund-raiser. A ruthless dictator is a leader. So was Mother Theresa, and
so was Mahatma Gandhi.
We can find leadership in every sort of work and play, and in every sort of
adventure and project, regardless of scale, and regardless of financial or official
authority. And so, given the many ways in which leadership operates, it is no surprise
that leadership is so difficult to define and describe.
Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an
objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and
coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such
as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills.
To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain
things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired
through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and
studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.
The difference of staffs perceptions might be influenced by gender, age,
status, academic qualifications, work tenure, educational level, family background,
interest and so on. Its clear that the perceptions of staffs on their managers
leadership style can be influenced with so many factors and it plays an important role
is determining the climate success organization and the level of achievement of the
organization itself.


The Path-Goal model is a theory based on specifying a leader's style or behavior that
best fits the employee and work environment in order to achieve goals (House,

Mitchell, 1974). The goal is to increase an employee's motivation, empowerment,
and satisfaction so that they become productive members of the organization.
Leadership concept that the subordinates accept a leader's behavior only so
far as they view it as resulting in immediate or future benefit. Thus, a leader's main
function is to 'clear a path' to the realization of the subordinates' goals; he or she must
choose the behavior patterns that are most applicable in helping the subordinates get
what they want.
Path-Goal is based on Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory in which an
individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be
followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the
individual. The path-goal theory was first introduced by Martin Evans (1970) and
then further developed by House (1971).
Leaders can take a strong or limited approach in these. In clarifying the path,
they may be directive or give vague hints. In removing roadblocks, they may scour
the path or help the follower move the bigger blocks. In increasing rewards, they
may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold.
In fact, leader should clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go,
remove roadblocks that are stopping the things going there and Increasing the
rewards along the route. There are four style of leadership which are supportive,
directive, participative and achievement-oriented leadership.

Supportive leadership
Considering the needs of the follower, showing concern for their welfare and
creating a friendly working environment. This includes increasing the follower's self-
esteem and making the job more interesting. This approach is best when the work is
stressful, boring or hazardous. The leader make work pleasant for the workers by
showing concern for them and by being friendly and approachable. It is most
effective in situations in which tasks and relationships are physically or
psychologically challenging. Good relations are promoted with the group and
sensitivity to subordinates' needs is shown.

Directive Leadership
Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance
along the way. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at

specific times. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity
decreased (by telling them what they should be doing).
This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower
is inexperienced. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and
hence is appropriate to the situation.
The leader informs her followers on what is expected of them, such as telling
them what to do, how to perform a task, and scheduling and coordinating work. It is
most effective when people are unsure about the task or when there is a lot of
uncertainty within the environment. Specific advice is given to the group and ground
rules and structure are established. For example, clarifying expectations, specifying
or assigning certain work tasks to be followed.
Participative leadership
Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making
decisions and taking particular actions. This approach is best when the followers are
expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. The
leaders consult with their followers by consulting with them before making a
decision on how to proceed. It is most effective when subordinates are highly trained
and involved in their work. Decision making is based on consultation with the group
and information is shared with the group.
Achievement-oriented leadership
Setting challenging goals, both in work and in self-improvement (and often
together). High standards are demonstrated and expected. The leader shows faith in
the capabilities of the follower to succeed. This approach is best when the task is
The leader sets challenging goals for his followers, expects them to perform
at their highest level, and shows confidence in their ability to meet this expectation.
It is most effective in professional work environments, such as technical, or scientific;
or in achievement environments, such as sales. Challenging goals are set and high
performance is encouraged while confidence is shown in the groups' ability.
The path-goal theory by House(1971), also known as the path-goal theory of
leader effectiveness or the path-goal model, is a leadership theory in the field.
The original path-goal theory identifies achievement-oriented, directive,
participative and supportive leader behaviors.

The directive path-goal clarifying leader behaviour refers to situations where
the leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to
perform their tasks.


Need for Achievement (n Ach) is the degree to which someone is motivated
to set and reach goals. People with a high n Ach are usually driven to succeed for
internal reasons such as personal satisfaction rather than by external pressures.
Personality trait characterized by an enduring and consistent concern with
setting and meeting high standards of achievement. This need is influenced by
internal drive for action (intrinsic motivation), and the pressure exerted by the
expectations of others (extrinsic motivation). Measured by thematic appreciation
tests, need for achievement motivates an individual to succeed in competition, and to
excel in activities important to him or her.
These individuals work hard to meet their goals and tend to take on tasks that
are moderately difficult to accomplish. If they choose a goal that is too easy, the
achievement is not very rewarding, and if they chose something that is too difficult,
success may not be obtainable. Say someone with a high n Ach is just beginning to
set high standards for themselves in fitness. They may aim to run a 5k (3-mile) race,
but they would shy away from a longer race until they have become a more
experienced runner, so they arent setting themselves up for failure.
People high in N-Ach are characterized by a tendency to seek challenges and
a high degree of independence. Their most satisfying is the recognition of their



The directive leadership style is one of four leadership behaviours identified
by the path-goal theory of leadership. Directive leadership is characterized by setting
clear objectives and rules for your subordinates and ensuring that your expectations
and directions are clearly defined and understood by your subordinates. Directive
leadership may be advisable when subordinates are unskilled or inexperienced at a
complex task. It may backfire if imposed upon highly skilled and experienced
employees who are extremely competent to perform the task.
An instructional type of managerial style characterized by a leader who tells
subordinate staff what they are expected to do and how to perform the expected tasks.
A directive leadership style might be helpful for a manager within a business where
their subordinate staff members have jobs that are not particularly specialized and so
they need more guidance to avoid uncertainty.
Directive leadership is one of five models of leadership described by Bernard
Bass. Directive leadership is a style of leading people in a business or project. It is
probably the most common form of leadership existing in large businesses today. It
is very common in traditional business and traditional cultures. This style of
leadership consists of a manager or superior person directing subordinates to
complete or work on a task at hand. The manager will tell the employee exactly what
to do and how to do it. He or she will have specific standards and will demand that
they be met. The manager leads with total authority. The military is a good example
of directive leadership. However, in business, it does not always work as well.
Directive leadership does not allow an employee to reach their potential, nor does it
allow the employee to express their independent thoughts or creativity.
Directive leader is a leader who is very strict, autocratic, makes use of his
power of influence from his position to control reward and force the followers to
comply with his instruction (Blau & Scott, 1963; Jogulu & Wood, 2006).



Supportive Leadership is one of the leadership styles found in path-goal
theory. A supportive leader try to decrease employee stress and frustration in the
workplace. This method is effective when your work tasks are dangerous, tedious
and stressful, but is not really effective if your work tasks are intrinsically motivating
because you don't need to be motivated to do the work.
Supportive leadership is a kind of leadership, where you listen to your
workers and help them out when they need help. Supportive leadership is an opposite
of autocratic leadership and is much more successful in many fields of work. But, not
in all, of course.
The leadership style I use to follow is Supportive leadership because
according to me the followers are as important as task. The goals can only be achieve
with the help of followers if followers are facing any problem either in their personal
life or under organization roof the affection of that problem can be clearly measured
from their task results. Moreover I use self-made theory in my leadership which is
'Get addict an achieve ', according to this a person can achieve anything but the
conditions is that the person must be addicted to it. If followers are facing any
grievances they cant be addicted towards achievement. Supportive leader in my way
does not only mean handling grievances of followers but I call myself supportive
leader because I plan my tactics towards achieving a goal according to the followers
ability and skills moreover according to their willingness and motivation towards
work. Supportive leadership is ''It leads people: It doesn't drive them. It involves
them: It doesn't coerce them. It never loses sight of the most important principle
governing any project involving human beings: namely, that people are more
important than things'', ( Kriyananda, 4/12/09 ). Supportive
leadership is working along with followers guiding them helping them instead of
working ahead of them. Human beings are most important aspect of this type of
leadership. According to me this leadership can be done effectively if leaders treat
followers as one who work with him rather work for him. Being the basket ball
captain for two consecutive years I applied my leadership style and maintained a

Supportive leadership is a reference to a particular leadership style for
business. As management styles became more complex in the 1970s and 1980s,
theories began to grow up. Businesses started looking not only at the techniques of
management but at the different types of leaders found in business and what
categories those leaders fell into. By the 1990s, concepts such as supportive
leadership had become widely accepted. Supportive leadership is a naturally organic
and emotionally sensitive style; like other styles, it is especially useful in certain
circumstances, but the company must adopt a culture that encourages such styles for
them to be effective.
In supportive leadership, the manager is not so interested in giving orders and
managing every detail as in giving employees the tools they need to work themselves.
While delegation is a vital part of supportive leadership, managers do not simply
assign tasks and then receive the results. Instead, they work through the tasks with
employees to improve skills and talent until the manager does not need to worry
about a task being done correctly and the employee is fully empowered in a
particular area.


Lewins study found that participative leadership, also known as democratic
leadership, is generally the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer
guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input
from other group members. In Lewins study, children in this group were less
productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were
of a much higher quality.
Participative leadership is a style of leadership that involves all members of a
team in identifying essential goals and developing procedures or strategies to reach
those goals. From this perspective, this leadership style can be seen as a leadership
style that relies heavily on the leader functioning as a facilitator rather than simply

issuing orders or making assignments. This type of involved leadership style can be
utilized in business settings, volunteer organizations and even in the function of the
Participative leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the
final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the
process and are more motivated and creative.
One of the main benefits of participative leadership is that the process allows
for the development of additional leaders who can serve the organization at a later
date. Because leaders who favor this style encourage active involvement on the part
of everyone on the team, people often are able to express their creativity and
demonstrate abilities and talents that would not be made apparent otherwise. The
discovery of these hidden assets help to benefit the work of the current team, but also
alerts the organization to people within the team who should be provided with
opportunities to further develop some skill or ability for future use.
One potential disadvantage of participate leadership is the time factor. This
leadership style does often involve the need for more time before action is taken.
This is only natural, since the very nature of this leadership style means allowing
input from every member of the team. However, the extra time necessary for this
process often leads to decisions that ultimately benefit everyone to a greater degree
than faster decisions that are more limited in scope.
Participative leadership also expands the range of possibilities for the team.
When leadership styles that essentially leave all the direction and decision making in
the hands of one individual, it is much more difficult to see a given approach from
several different angles. When the leadership style encourages others to be involved
in the decision making process, a given course of action can be approached from a
variety of perceptions. This can often point out strengths or weaknesses to the
approach that would have gone unobserved and thus unresolved without this type of
participatory brainstorming and decision making.
Effective participative leadership allows the talents and skills of all the team
members to be utilized in arriving at decisions and taking courses of action. While
the team leader is usually still responsible for making the final decision, this sharing
of functions within the team provide the perfect environment for everyone to provide
input that has the potential to make that final decision more well-rounded and
ultimately profitable for the company as a whole.


Management which sets challenging goals, assists in training, emphasizes
improvement, and expects the highest levels of performance.
Achievement-oriented leadership, however, is head of the class when it
comes to sustaining the productivity of teams long term. This leadership style, unlike
the others, engages the passion and drive of the individual team members and
motivates them from inner levels. Work become more than a paycheck and hours
ticking past on the clock. Achievement-oriented leadership builds within team
members individual and collective goals to accomplish. The goals are more than
numbers of widgets produced or profits made, but are personal achievements, career
oriented. The goals are established in personal, team, and corporate vision and
mission statements. Each individual and the team creates objectives to meet their
goals and action plans that will give concrete steps to move them toward success.
Achievement-oriented leaders always learn. They always take risk. They
never gamble. (There is a difference.) They always teach and mentor others. They
understand that failure to adapt and change means death and destruction on a
competitive battlefield. Either products are always changing or consumers are
changing, so businesses must adapt or die.Achievement -oriented leaders put the
right people on the bus and go to great lengths to keep them there. They never
change the deal with their employees (except to make it sweeter). They share success.
They set stretch goals and achieve them. It is fascinating to watch those leaders work
with their teams. They are unstoppable!
Achievement-oriented leadership, however, is head of the class when it
comes to sustaining the productivity of teams long term. This leadership style, unlike
the others, engages the passion and drive of the individual team members and
motivates them from inner levels. Work become more than a paycheck and hours
ticking past on the clock. Achievement-oriented leadership builds within team

members individual and collective goals to accomplish. The goals are more than
numbers of widgets produced or profits made, but are personal achievements, career
oriented. The goals are established in personal, team, and corporate vision and
mission statements. Each individual and the team creates objectives to meet their
goals and action plans that will give concrete steps to move them toward success.


There are a number of different styles of leadership and management that are
based on different theories. The individuals style will be use based on a combination
of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the organizational culture and
norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.
Idealized influence: describes managers who are exemplary role models for
associates. Managers with idealized influence can be trusted and respected by
associates to make good decisions for the organization. Intellectual Stimulation:
describes managers who encourage innovation and creativity through challenging the
normal beliefs or views of a group. Managers with intellectual stimulation promote
critical thinking and problem solving to make improvement of organization
Inspirational motivation: describes managers who motivate associates to
commit to the vision of the organization. Managers with inspirational motivation
encourage team spirit to reach goals of increased revenue and market growth for the
organization. Individual consideration: describes managers who act as coaches and
advisors to the associates. Managers with individual consideration encourage
associates to reach goals that help both the associates and the organization.





A research design encompasses the methodology and procedures employed to
conduct scientific research. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive,
correlational, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type
(e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research question, hypotheses,
independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data
collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.
The research design is also the framework for conducting the marketing
research project that clarified the necessary procedure in order to obtain the
information needed to solve all the marketing problem.
In order to collect as much data as possible a combination of descriptive and
analytical research designs based on result from the questionnaire, observation and
interview were used by the researcher to analyses the influence of leader on
competitive market, concept of motivation in organization and the ways that human
performances on a job can be link with ability and motivation in Apple Inc.
The method has been used is to distribute the questionnaire throughout the
staff in order to collect a better result. The reason for choosing this method is

because this is the most effectives way to study the relationship between leadership
style and motivational level. The raw data was analyze according to the research


The population of this study are all the staff from Apple Inc. The population
chosen consider those who have had experiences working in such a high
technological company like Apple Inc. The Sampling technique used in this research
was the convenience sampling. Apple Inc. has more than 20,000 staffs in Cork in the
south of Ireland.

Figure 3.1 Required Sample Size



A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences,
perceptions, or attitudes of some sample of individuals. As a data collecting
instrument, it could be structured or unstructured.
The questionnaire is most frequently a very concise, preplanned set of
questions designed to yield specific information to meet a particular need for
research information about a pertinent topic. The research information is attained
from respondents normally from a related interest area. The dictionary definition
gives a clearer definition: A questionnaire is a written or printed form used in
gathering information on some subject or subjects consisting of a list of questions to
be submitted to one or more persons.
The method of questionnaire have some advantages of in Economy - Expense
and time involved in training interviewers and sending them to interview are reduced
by using questionnaires. Uniformity of questions - Each respondent receives the
same set of questions phrased in exactly the same way. Questionnaires may,
therefore, yield data more comparable than information obtained through an
interview. Standardization - If the questions are highly structured and the conditions
under which they are answered are controlled, then the questionnaire could become
standardized. The disadvantages of questionnaire are respondents motivation is
difficult to assess, affecting the validity of response.



The laminated random sampling technique was used and a total of 100
samples size were selected out of 100 populations. 100 questionnaires were received
that is representing 90% of response rate. The sample size was reasonable and
beyond the target that we set early and exceed our expectation. This is to allow
further analysis that was surpass the demand.


The demographic profile is in Table 4.1. The distribution of respondents
includes 65% male and 35% female. The age of respondents was from below 30
years 35%, 45% between 30 to 40 years, 20% between 40 to 50 years. While for
years of experience 30% out of the 50 respondents that we carried out for
questionnaire have less than 5 years of experience, 30% between 6 to 10 years, 28%
between 11 to 15 years, and 12% have more than 16 years of experience.

For the level of education, 45% stand for those who have SPM/MCE/Others, 30% of
the respondents have STPM/HSE/DIPLOMA, 18% of the respondents have degree,
and only 7% of them have held a Masters Degree. In term of marital status, 42% of
them are single, 38% of the respondents are married and only 20% of them are

Frequency Percentage (%)

Table 4.1 Demographic Profile


Male 65 65
Female 35 35

<30 35 35
31-40 45 45
41-50 20 20

Length of Service:
<5 30 30
6-10 30 30
10-15 28 28
>16 12 12

SPM/MCE 45 45
30 30
Degree 18 18
Masters Degree 7 7

Single 42 42
Married 38 38
Widowed 20 20

Design of minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation of each item
can be refer rend to the table 4.2 below. Based on the table, it reveals that the
minimum value for the directive leadership style is 1 and maximum is 5. In term of
mean and standard deviation of the directive leadership style are 2.57, 4.13, 1.144
and 1.336 respectively.
For supportive leadership style, the minimum mean will be 3.34 and the
highest are 4.44. For standard deviation is 0.991 and 1.386 respectively.
For minimum value for participative leadership style will be 1 and the
maximum is 5, in addition to that the mean and standard deviation of the variable is
between 3.67 to 4.44 and 3.67 and 1.040 and 1.264 respectively.
The achievement oriented leadership style, the mean and standard deviation
of the variable is between 3.49 to 4.13 and 1.021 to 1.165.
For motivation achievement based on individual perception the minimum
values of variable range from 1 to 2 and the maximum variable is 5. Mean and
standard deviation of the variable is between 2.53 to 4.59 and 0.906 to 1.335.

Variable/construct Mean Std. Deviation
Directive 3.58 1.145
1. He has the final word in the office
3.73 1.336
2. He emphasizes that all rules and
2.57 1.144
3. He give clear explanations of what is
expected of other
3.65 1.224
4. He give subordinates explicit
instructions for how to do their work.
4.13 1.246
5. He show interest in subordinates
personal concerns
3.82 1.306

Supportive 3.83 1.190
1. He often mingle with the staff. 3.73 1.386

2. He often spent time as necessary to
hear complaint from staff
4.44 0.991
3. Providing guidance without pressure
is the
key to being a good leader
3.62 1.259
4. As a rule, leaders should allow
to appraise their own work.
3.34 1.072
5. Leaders should give subordinates
freedom to solve problems on their own
4.01 1.240

Participative 4.08 1.110
1. He is very responsive and easy to be
invited to discuss.
3.67 1.264
2. He easily understood. 4.13 1.105
3. When things go wrong and he need to
create a strategy to keep a project or process
running on schedule, he call a meeting to get his
employee's advice.
4.33 1.046
4. To get information out, He send it by
email, memos, or voice mail; very rarely is a
meeting called. His employees are then
expected to act upon the information.
3.84 1.040
5. He want to create an environment
where the employees take ownership of the
project. I allow them to participate in the
decision making process.
4.44 1.096

Achievement Oriented 3.87 1.103
1. He determines the duties of staff. 3.91 1.113
2. He describes the conditions and tasks,
and clearly what is expected.
3.49 1.021

3. He explain the level of performance
that is expected of subordinates.
3.82 1.165
4. He give vague explanations of what is
expected of subordinates on the job.
4.13 1.107
5. He consistently set challenging goals
for subordinates to attain.
4.01 1.110

Motivation Level 3.45 1.178
1. 1. I feel annoyed when thinking about
the things I would like to do new work.
4.59 0.906
2. I am ambitious in my career. 2.88 1.233

3. I am energized when
people count on me for ideas.

4.39 0.947
4. When involved in group projects, my
team members problems are my problems.
3.01 1.211
5. I find pleasure in recognizing and
celebrating the accomplishments of others.
2.90 1.125
6. As a practice, I ask people
challenging questions when we are working on
projects together.
3.01 1.211
7. I take delight in complimenting
people I work with when progress is made.
4.11 1.190
8. I find it easy to be the cheerleader for
others, when times are good and when times are
3.82 1.179
9. Team accomplishment is more
important to me than my own personal
3.21 1.327
10. When involved in group projects, I
am inclined to let my ideas be known.
2.53 1.335
Table 4.2 leadership style


According to Hinton (2004), recommended four cut-off points for steadiness,
which includes outstanding reliability (0.90 and above), high reliability (0.70 0.90),
moderate reliability (0.50 0.70), and low reliability (0.50 and below).

0.00 0.50 Low Reliability
0.50 0.70 Moderate Reliability
0.70 0.90 High Reliability
0.90 1.00 Outstanding
Table 4.3 Reliability Analysis

Based on table 4.3, there are five constructs; directive, supportive,
participative, achievement-oriented, and motivation level shown Cronbachs Alpha
values of 0.865, 0.914, 0.970, 0.974 and 0.883 respectively. None of constructs
confirm low reliability. The high Cronbachs Alpa values for all establish contain
that they are inwardly uniform. That means all element of each establishes are
measuring the identical content creation. In the nutshell, the higher the Cronbachs
Alpha value of a construct, the higher the reliability is of measuring the same

of Items
Alpha (a)
Direc 100 5 0.865 High Reliability

100 5 0.914 Outstanding
100 5 0.970 Outstanding
100 5 0.974 Outstanding
of Staff
100 10 0.883 Outstanding
Table 4.4: Reliability Test


Correlation analysis was used to conclude and decide relationships between
two variables measured. Toward this end, Pearson correlation test was used to
diagnose whether leadership styles and motivation level are relevant to each other.
Table 4.4 presents the correlation matrix results.
Table 4.4 shows the relation of independent variables with motivation level.
For finding the relation, significant level, *p< 0.05 and **p< 0.01were chosen.
The value of correlation coefficient, r for directive leadership style is 0.356
with p< 0.05 which show a moderate relationship with the level of staff motivation.
It is found that the value of correlation coefficient, r for supportive leadership
style is 0.369 with p< 0.01, show a strong relationship with the level of staff
Participative leadership style carry correlation coefficient value, r of 0.35 2
with p< 0.05 which show a moderate relationship with the level of staff motivation.
For achievement oriented leadership style, the coefficient value,r is 0.430
with p< 0.01 which show a strong relationship with the level of staff motivation.

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

Constructs Directive Supportive Participative Achievement Motivation
(**) (**) (**) (*)
Directive 1 0.691 0.717 0.799 0.356
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.012
(**) (**) (**)
Supportive 1 0.877 0.676 0.369
0.000 0.000 0.009
(**) (*)
Participative 1 0.736 0.352
0.000 0.012
Achievement 1 0.430
Motivation 1
Table 4.5: Correlation between leadership styles and the level of staff


In this study, multiple regression analysis was applied. Each variable from
factor scores were used in the analysis. Table 4.5 shows the results of multiple
regression analysis of the research. The findings showed that leadership styles were
not significant and negatively correlate with level of motivation of staff. The R

0.184 indicates that 18.40% of the variance in variable level of motivation of the
staff (dependent variable) can be explained by leadership styles.
Beta coefficient, the achievement oriented has the highest B, =0.225,
followed by supportive leadership style = 0.111, directive =0.024 and the lowest
is participative leadership style is = - 0.003.That means, one unit increase in
directive leadership style will lead to 0.024 increase in the level of motivation, for
supportive leadership style one unit increase will lead to 0.0111 increase in the level
of motivation, one unit increase in participative will lead to -0.003 change in the
level of motivation of staff, and one unit increase in achievement oriented will lead
to 0.225 increase to the level of motivation of staff. The findings explain that the
components of the leadership styles do not explain the level of motivation of the staff.


=0.103 F= 2.499 *p < 0.05

Dependent Variable : Level of staff Motivation


Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
(Constant) 2.268 0.446 5.430 0.000
Total Score Directive 0.024 0.186 0.031 0.144 0.984
Total Score Supportive 0.101 0.177 0.161 0.691 0.585
Total Score Participative -0.003 0.191 -0.055 -0.020 1.082
Total Score Achievement 0.225 0.170 0.312 1.456 0.210

Table 4.6: Multiple Regression Analysis (n=50)

Chapter 5:



This chapter target to discuss the outcome shown in the previous chapters by
setting against them with those finding principles and earlier investigation in the
common field. Moreover, the investigations confines and recommendations for the
future research and practice are shown in this chapter.


The objectives of this investigation were to determine the relationship
between leadership style and motivation level. It is a study of Apple Incorporation.
The outcome of this investigation gives that the leadership styles are supported to the
level of staff motivation. The independents variables had correlation with the level of
the staff motivation that is illustrated in Table 4.2 in the preceding chapter.
Based on the analysis of the research, (Sample: the leadership styles of the
manager of the Apple Incorporation) is significant with the leadership style which
has been practiced by Chief Executive Officer of Apple Incorporation in the District

of Johor Bahru, Johor, James Liow 1992). Analysis from the research found that the
most dominant leadership is achievement oriented followed by supportive, directive,
participative and achievement oriented.
In discussing the results, the researchers prefer to discuss each hypothesis
separately in order to get an accurate and complete perceptive of the relationship
between leadership style and motivation level.
The results revealed that the respondents perceived the all four leadership
styles of the manager have relation with their level of motivation towards their jobs.
Furthermore, the results revealed that there is significant relationship between
leadership style and motivation level.
What is remarkable here is that this findings correlates strongly with the
arguments that say that relationship between leadership style and motivation level
can be both influential and no influential with staffs motivation and his or her
leadership styles depends on his or her choice of the style that suits the situation or
the company.
For example, the researchers of University Malaya claimed that the
leadership styles of leader had relationship with staffs motivation but depending on
their jobs according to the job description and the organizational chart that informs
employees what, when and how tasks should be done.


One of the limitations in research includes lack of adequate information on a
particular subject. Research equipments are very hard or expensive to acquire leading
to formulation mere assumptions. Another hindrance is poor or inaccessibility to the
region of study.
Some of the limitations of doing a research include access of information,
availability of enough resources and time management. The availability of experts in

editing and guidance may also be minimal where support from friends or
organisation may not be enough.
The limitations of the study are those characteristics of design or
methodology that impacted or influenced the application or interpretation of the
results of your study. They are the constraints on generalizability and utility of
findings that are the result of the ways in which you chose to design the study and/or
the method used to establish internal and external validity.
Another limitation related to building the evidence about survival of
consciousness is sitters and their families dont necessarily know everyone in
spirit. Not knowing all of your extended family members limits your ability to
verify statements communicated by the Medium. When information related to a
discarnate is not verified, this result could be related to the sitters limitations but it
may also be related to the Medium. These challenges however highlight the
limitations of spirit communication and in general further highlights the complexity
of studying the A study of Apple Incorporation.
Limitations in research methods vary depending on the type of method used
and how it was conducted. They include language barriers; you might want to do a
research on something that is in a language which you do not understand and the
production of a translator is not available. You might also be short of the research
materials and others are not immediately available among others.
Limitations are influences that the researcher cannot control. They are the
shortcomings, conditions or influences that cannot be controlled by the researcher
that place restrictions on your methodology and conclusions. Any limitations that
might influence the results should be mentioned.


From this research, the researcher recommends a several means that could be
taken to improve staffs motivation by concentrating on leadership styles:

According to Marketing minds (2012), Apple Inc. uses the Apple brand to
compete across several highly competitive markets, including the personal computer
industry with its Macintosh line of computers/laptops and related software, the
consumer electronics industry with products such as the iPod, digital music
distribution through iTunes Music Store, the smart phone market with the Apple
iPhone, magazine, book, games and applications publishing via the AppsStore for
iPhone and the iPad tablet computing device, and movie and TV content distribution
with Apple TV. The company is also establishing a very strong marketing presence
relative to the rival (Google) in the advertising market, via its business Apps and iAd
network. Steve Jobs, the co-Founder of Apple, described the company as being a
"mobile devices company", largest in the world as their revenues are bigger than
Nokia, Samsung, or Sony's mobile devices business.
The story started two months ago when Google released its first smart phone.
This new smart phone made by a Taiwanese company called HTC and the phone
called Nexus One. After three weeks Apple Company said, is going to sue the
manufacturer of smart phones HTC. On March 2 Apple filed complaint against HTC.
The company which has been releasing iPhone since 2007 believes that HTC
illegally used 20 patents of Apple. These patents are related to user interface,
architecture and hardware of iPhone. Apple Company filed a lawsuit in U.S. District
Court in Delaware and an objection presented to the International Trade Commission
in U.S.A too.
In response to these accusations made by Apple Company against HTC
company. The HTC denied Apples allegations and declared to fight the suit. In other
response, HTC said it has been making phones for a far longer time than Apple,
including a touch screen device called the XDA that predates the iPhone by about 5

The implications here appear to be that HTCs technological primary somehow goes
against Apples claims that the company violated 20 of its patents. And while its
certainly possible that that might be the case, its hard to accept that argument
without a list of patents to back it up.


Here some of the patents that Apple Company accusing HTC Company used them
for its new Nexus phone manufactured for Google. They are Multi-touch Screen,
Multifinger gestures, device integration, and multitasking accelerometer patents.
What is Android? Android is a software installed in the mobile devices that includes
an operating system, middleware and key applications. The Android SDK provides
the tools and APIs necessary to begin developing applications on the Android
platform using the Java programming language.

Today in the market consumer have a lot of options for every product,
whether it be an IT product or Home PCs or consumer durables or a FMCG product.
This study may be helpful for company to know about the factors affecting the
consumer behavior and patterns of the consumer. It may also be helpful to know the
specific requirement of customer so that the customer can be easily satisfied.
Moreover, this study helps to know the buying habits and patterns of customer. The
study will help the company to understand the relationship that a consumer have with
their Apple product. It will help to ascertain the reason which makes the undisputed
leader in almost every segment in which they operate.
All Apple Professional Development facilitators are educators themselves.
That gives them a unique view: they know whats important in the classroom, so they
can ensure that you learn about your Apple products and how they can best serve you
and your students. We have created workshops in the following categories:
These curriculum-focused workshops help teachers apply their skills with
Apple products to specific areas and disciplines to produce effective personal
learning for their students.
Focused on technology skills, these foundational workshops help teachers
become confident and comfortable integrating Apple products into their teaching
These workshops for school leaders and Education decision-makers focus on
issues important to success such as visioning and planning.
Our research investigated the role of social norms in an extended theory of
planned behavior (TPB) in the explanation of prostate/colorectal cancer screening
(CS) intention and the prediction of CS uptake among men.

Apple is well known for giving its customers things that they need, but didn't
know they needed, until the product shipped. In that spirit, Apple is in a unique
position to make further gains with that philosophy, especially as other companies
pull back, reduce R&D, or get out of some markets completely.

I written before about how Apple's financial position gives it a unique
competitive advantage over the competition. That discussion pointed to how Apple
can pay cash for components, get to the front of supplier delivery schedules, then
through volume, drive prices down, putting extreme price pressure on the
competition while they develop the next generation with R&D dollars.
Even as Apple does this, they are mindful of their brand. Selling cheap
products doesn't sit well with Apple, and they definitely don't want to undercut or
cannibalize other product lines.
So if one asks the question about what Apple can deliver in a time when
customers are watching every penny, it's silly to envision a cheaper, stripped down
version of a product that's already doing well. Instead, as Apple ponders how to
deliver new products to cost conscious customers, the company tends to think about
holes in the market that can be exploited with their technology -- but which don't
undercut current products.
There are other considerations as well. For example, the iPod touch doesn't
have a camera or an FM radio. Other than the CPU, it doesn't radiate and can
therefore be used in corporate or government environments that would otherwise
forbid a device that could be a security concern. Our fantasies often neglect to
consider such things. Because people expect to use their iPhone anywhere, that
device has a different set of design constraints.
Availability of multi-modal logistics services has been introduced and
occupational safety and health management system elaborated. The DTPB can
provide a useful framework for evaluating interventions to increase logisticians
motivations to safety performance. The overriding aim of this study was to design
and pilot test a questionnaire for subsequent use in a large-scale survey. This study
describes the early stages of a research: questionnaire development and a pilot study.
The main results of this pilot study that the questionnaire proved to be reliable, and
the analysis, although preliminary, provided strong support for the predictive power
of the DTPB. The evaluation led to minor changes in the questionnaire. Currently,

the relevant literature surrounding the DTPB reveals a lack of research that utilizes
empirically validated theories in the field of logistics safety. There is therefore a need
to consider more practical issues that emerge when applying the theory. As is often
the case with the DTPB questionnaire, the participants thought the questionnaire was
rather long. This is important, given that lengthy questionnaires can impact on data
quality through reduced completion rates due to factors such as lowered participant
motivation. The length of the questionnaire could be accommodated thereby
encouraging participation. Another comment levied at the DTPB questionnaire is that
it appears rather repetitive. Indeed, responses received in the present context included
weve answered that already. Alternatively, it may be better to group the outcomes
and behavioural belief statements and address the issue of similarity.
Although the key purpose of this study was to develop and pilot a
questionnaire and not to generalize its findings, it is of interest to note that the
occupational doctors advice has significant relationship to safety performance. One
possible reason is that occupational safety and health information is not easily
available thereby increasing the reliance of the workers on the occupational doctors
advice. This finding together with the significant influence of peer culture within the
DTPB framework would seem to strengthen the view that increasing exposure of
logisticians to occupational safety and health may encourage more positive
subjective norms and implies that contact with occupational doctors may encourage
the logisticians to work safely.
Deeper interpretation suggests that peers causal attributions regarding safety
performance in their workplace may exert a comparatively strong influence over
logisticians safety. It also adds weight to the suggestion that occupational safety
and health training should form part of the logistics companys annual training plan
and, as such, supports the view that occupational safety and health intervention
programmes are required.
He findings from questionnaire pilot test seem to corroborate previous
research by suggesting that subjective norms is a key issue to be addressed in any
occupational safety and programme, as is the case of the logistics sector. The result is
in line with the results reported by Hamilton and White, Paris and Van den Broucke
and Fogarty and Shaw who found subjective norms to be important in affecting
adoption of a system. As such, it would seem that efforts should be made to enhance
knowledge and in particular to highlight the benefits of safety performance for both

the employer and the employee. Although these findings serve to highlight what
might form the basis of an intervention, there is a need to replicate the findings in a
larger sample as the small number of sample may restrict the generalizability of the
findings. Secondly, the safety performance construct is self-reported. Asymmetry of
information at the workplace may influence the respondents accurate information
on safety performance.


To sum it up, the study has revealed the following findings:
In general, the study has managed to add to the existing body of knowledge in
furthering our understanding to the relationship between leadership style and
motivation level of Apple Inc. The research also able to act as reference to the future
research, sincere recommendations and suggestions given to ensure that the company
can improve and in line with Apple Incorporations motto "Byte into an Apple",
Simplicity is the Ultimate Sophistication, Soon there will be 2 kinds of people.
Those who use computers, and those who use Apples." (Early 1980s), The Computer
for the rest of us, The Power to Be Your Best, Think different.", Switch, Get a Mac,
designed by Apple in California.



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Appendix 1: Research Interview Questions: The Directors


Apple Inc.


Research Topic:

To study the relationship between leadership style and motivation level

This survey is conducted to fulfil the need for certification of
Bachelor in Management ( Marketing)
I would like to thank you for your cooperation to participate in this survey.
Your response is crucial for the success of this survey.


1. When faced with a challenge, my first thought is, ' Who can I enlist to
help?' and not ' What can I do?'
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
2. When my team, committee, or organization fails to achieve an
objective, my first assumption is that it's some kind of leadership issue.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
3. I believe that developing my leadership skills will increase my
effectiveness dramatically.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
4. I rely on influence rather than on my position or title to get others to
follow me or do what I want.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
5. During discussions or brainstorming sessions, people turn to me and
ask for my advice.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
6. I rely on my relationships with others rather than organizational
systems and procedures to get things done.
0 1 2 3

Never Rarely Occasionally Always
7. I have a concrete, specific plan for personal growth that I engage in
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
8. I have found experts and mentors for key areas of my life with
whom I engage on a regular basis.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
9. To promote my professional growth, I have read at least six books (or taken
at least one worthwhile class or listened to twelve or more audio lessons) per
year for the last three years.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
10. I spot problems, obstacles, and trends that will impact the outcome of
initiatives my organization puts into place.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
11. I can clearly see a pathway for the implementation of a vision, including not
only the process but also the people and resources needed.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
12. I am called upon to plan initiatives for my organization.

0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
13. Rather than being annoyed when team members have issues preventing them
from doing their jobs effectively, I see the issues as an opportunity to serve
and help those people.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
14. I look for ways to make things better for the people I lead.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
15. I find great personal satisfaction in helping other people become more
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
16. The people I lead confide in me regarding sensitive issues.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
17. When I tell someone in my organization that I will do something, s/he can
count on me to follow through.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
18. I avoid undermining others or talking behind their backs.
0 1 2 3

Never Rarely Occasionally Always
19. People are naturally drawn to me and often want to do things with me just to
spend time with me.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
20. I go out of my way to show respect and loyalty to the people I lead.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
21. I make courageous decisions and take personal risks that could benefit my
followers even if there is no benefit to me.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
22. I can easily gauge morale, whether in a room full of people, on a team, or in
an organization.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
23. I often take the right action as a leader even if I cannot explain why.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
24. I can read situations and sense trends without having to gather hard evidence.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

25. I am satisfied with the caliber of people who report to me or work with me.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
26. I expect the people I attract to be similar to me in values, skills, and
leadership ability.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
27. I recognize that no personnel process can improve the quality of people I
recruit compared to improving myself.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
28. When I am new to a leadership situation, one of the first things I try to do is
to develop a personal connection with the individuals involved.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
29. I know the stories, hopes, and dreams of the people I lead.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
30. I avoid asking people to help accomplish the vision until we have built a
relationship that goes beyond the nuts and bolts of our work together.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

31. I am strategic and highly selective about which people are closet to me
personally and professionally.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
32. I regularly rely on some key people in my life to help accomplish my goals.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
33. I believe that 50 percent or more of the credit for my accomplishments goes
to the people on my team.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
34. I embrace change easily and become dissatisfied with the status quo.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
35. I believe that no matter how talented the people who work for me are, my
position is secure.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
36. It is my regular practice to give people I lead the authority to make decisions
and take risks.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

37. If I observe an undesirable action or quality in team members, I check for it
in myself first before addressing it with them.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
38. I am continually working to try to make my actions and words consistent
with one another. 0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
39. I do what I should rather than what I want because I am conscious that I am
setting an example for others.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
40. I recognize that a lack of credibility can be as harmful to an organization as a
lack of vision.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
41. I wait until I see that most of the people on the team have confidence in me
before asking for a commitment to the vision.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
42. Even when my ideas are not very good, my people tend to side with me.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

43. When I lead a team, I feel ultimate responsibility for whether it achieves its
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
44. If members of my team are not unified in their efforts to achieve the vision, I
take action to get them on the same page.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
45. I make personal sacrifices to help ensure victory for my team, department, or
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
46. I am enthusiastic and maintain a positive attitude every day for the sake of my
team members.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
47. Whenever I make a major leadership decision, I consider how that decision
will impact momentum in my team, department or organization.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
48. I initiate specific actions with the purpose of generating momentum when
introducing something new or controversial.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

49. I avoid tasks that are not required by my leadership, don't have a tangible
return, or don't reward me personally.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
50. I set aside time daily, monthly and yearly to plan my upcoming schedule and
activities based on my priorities.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
51. I delegate any task for which a team member can be at least 80 percent as
effective as I could be.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
52. I know making trade-offs is a natural part of leadership growth, and I make
sacrifices to become a better leader as long as they don't violate my values.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
53. I expect to give more than my followers do in order to accomplish the vision.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
54. I will give up my rights in order to reach my potential as a leader.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

55. I expend as much effort figuring out the timing for an initiative as I do
figuring out the strategy.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
56. I will launch something using a less-than-ideal strategy because I know the
timing is right.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
57. I can sense whether or not people are ready for an idea.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
58. I believe that I can grow my organization more rapidly by developing leaders
than by any other method.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
59. I spend a significant amount of time every week investing in the development of
the top 20 percent of my leaders.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
60. I would rather see leaders I develop succeed out on their own than keep them
with me so that I can keep mentoring them.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always

61. I possess a strong sense of why I am in my position and why I am leading.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
62. In each position I've held, I have identified people who can carry on after me,
and I have invested in them.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always
63. One of my strongest motivations is to leave any team I lead better than I found it.
0 1 2 3
Never Rarely Occasionally Always


NRIC : 920713-01-6187
No H/P : +60167799149

1. There are EIGHT primary means to expand globally. Explain carefully.
Technology transfer (joint venture)When firms choose to enter the
global market, they may need to decide whether to sell their technology or
produce it abroad themselves.
Producing technology overseas can involve significant risk and
investment. On the other hand, having a partner firm in the target country or
region produce and distribute your product can reduce your entry costs. The costs
of technology development and production often lead young firms to build
alliances and joint partnerships and to focus on niche markets. However, there is
a risk you'll lose control of the technology because the partner firm will gain
insight into how you produce the product.
Technology licensingPerhaps the most common means to enter a
foreign market is to secure an agent to represent the company abroad. Here, the
entrepreneur may decide that he or she is better off letting a foreign company
produce and sell the product, perhaps rebranded under its own name, and taking a
royalty as compensation. Licensing reduces risk from an operational perspective.
While this is an excellent means of generating revenue and conserving resources,
it also is a lost opportunity to extend your own brand into new markets.
OutsourcingOutsourcing allows businesses to handle key attributes
of their products while handing over the responsibility for development and
manufacturing to a subcontractor. The outsourced production may be sent back to
the company's home country for sale. It is often the first logical step as a firm
seeks to expand globally. This is basically the strategy that P'kolino is
considering, and the primary reason to look at global outsourcing is cost savings.


ExportingThe cheapest and easiest way to enter new markets is to
sell from your headquarters. However, as always there are trade-offs. First, it is
harder to establish a critical mass in the country if you don't have anyone on the
ground, and as mentioned earlier, you may incur additional costs in after-sales
support. Your customers also may have difficulty contacting you or providing
information about the market and their needs. You incur the transportation costs
and risks of getting your products through the target country's customs. A second
alternative is to hire a sales representative in the target country. The advantages
are that sales representatives have deep knowledge of the country and
presumably a strong network they can leverage in selling the product However,
agency theory suggests there are risks to consider. First, it is difficult for you to
confirm that agents are as skilled as they might claim (which is referred to as
adverse selection). Second, it is difficult to ensure that the agent is honoring the
contract (which is referred to as moral hazard).
Foreign direct investment (FDI)Under this strategy, companies set
up a physical presence in the countries of interest, whether that is a sales office,
retail outlets, production facilities, or something else. The startup retains control
of the assets and facilities, an issue that can prove expensive. The primary means
of FDI are acquiring foreign assets and building and expanding current facilities
overseas. FDI is usually beyond the means of most early-stage companies.
French clothing line Chlo'e tested the Chinese market by exporting the product
first through retail stores. Then, once it learned that Chinese customers liked the
product, it started to establish its own retail outlets in Beijing and then Shanghai.
Today Asia accounts for 20%-30% of the sales of this high-end fashion
house, with over 60 locations in the Asia Pacific. It plans to branch out slowly
from those locations. Similarly, Jeff Bernstein started Emerge Logistics by using
China's bureaucratic red tape and the unwillingness of American companies to
invest in Chinese facilities to his advantage. Bernstein's logistics company has 14
customers such as Harley-Davidson, Mercedes-Benz, and Siemans. For example,
Mercedes-Benz needed to ensure effective, reliable after-market parts support for
luxury vehicles sold in China. Emerge provided a warehousing facility, customs
clearance management, and local delivery to dealers and distributors throughout

FranchisingSome see franchising as a low-risk method of entering a
foreign market because it allows the firm to license an operational system. Yet
there can be difficulties in monitoring the international franchisee and ensuring
that it protects the company's brand (moral hazard). Until recently, the Chinese as
a whole had a dim view of franchises. The media in China highlighted several
news stories about franchise owners receiving payment but failing to provide
services. And as a parent company, KFC had difficulties in convincing its
franchisees in China to collectively bargain in order to receive lower prices from
suppliers. In 2004, A&W All - American Restaurants closed all of its eight
locations in China after several disputes with its franchisee. Virginia Ferguson, a
spokeswoman for A&W Restaurants International, said, "We have uniform
franchise standards around the globe and worked diligently with the owner for
over a year to rectify problems and reinstate the licenses, but unfortunately the
issues were not resolved."
Venture financingAccording to Dickson, venture capital is both an
enabling and an enacting mechanism. What he means is that the available capital
and expertise provided by venture capitalists may enable a firm to go
international using any of the previously mentioned means to enter a market
However, research suggests that venture capital often leads to mergers and
acquisitions with foreign companies.
Merger and acquisition (M&A)For some businesses, buying an
overseas firm may be the most efficient manner to enter a foreign market. You
gain an instant presence in the country with an established infrastructure. M&As
also allow an entrepreneurial company to grow and expand quickly. Some
research shows that firms that use acquisitions for expansion have a higher
survival rate than do those that choose a startup. The capital required means that
the firm must secure venture capital or go public; thus, this method is beyond the
means of most early-stage entrepreneurs.


As the world becomes increasingly connected, entrepreneurs need to look
beyond their home borders to see whether they can expand on their initial
opportunity. While it is more difficult to enter and operate in a country that you
are not familiar with, technology and increasing trade are reducing the
knowledge gap. As research points out, more and more entrepreneurs are
becoming global early in their companies' lives. As an entrepreneur, you need to
be aware of your options, and the Dickson model provides a solid framework for
understanding them.