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RemovablePARTIAL

DENTURE THEORYAND
PRACTICE
Mostafa Fayad
Lecturerof Removable Prosthodontic
Faculty Of Dental Medicine
Al-Azhar University
Cairo-Egypt
2011
2nded
Table of contents
Subjects
1 OBJECTIVES AND CLASSIFICATION
2 BIOMICHANICS OF RPD
3 PARTIAL DENTURE DESIGN
4 DENTAL SURVEYOR
5 Denture base
6 RESTS AND REST SEATS
7 CONNECTORS
8 attachment
9 Direct retainers
10 INDIRECT RETAINERS
11 Stress breaker
12 ARTIFICIAL TEETH
13 LABORATORY PROCEDURES
14 Diagnosis of pd patients
15 PREPARATION OF MOUTH
16 IMPRESSIONS FOR REMOVABLEPD
17 ESTABLISHING OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIPS
18 trial denture stage of treatment
19 Delivery of the RPD fayad
20 POST INSERTION COMPLAINTS RPD
21 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRE OF RPD
22 Damaging effect
23 PERIODONTAL CONSIDERATIONS
24 Esthetic solutions in RPD
25 Phonitecs in RPD
26 Other Forms of the RPD
27 Swing lock
28 Removable Partial Overdenture
29 Rotational path
30 Temporary RPD
31 RPD in maxillofacial prosthesis
32 C.D opposing P.D
33 MS.ACTIVETY &P D
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OBJECTIVES AND CLASSIFICATION OF PARTIAL DENTURES
TERMINOLOGY
Prosthesis: Is an artificial replacement of an absent part of the human body.
Prosthetics: The art and science of supplying an artificial replacement for missing
parts of the human body.
Appliance used only for device worn by patient in course of treatment. e.g.
orthodontic appliance and splint
Prosthodontics: The branch of dentistry pertaining to the restoration and
maintenance of oral functions, comfort, appearance, and health of the patient by
the restoration of natural teeth and/or the replacement of missing teeth and
contiguous oral and maxillofacial tissue with an artificial substitute.
Dentulous Patients: Patients having a complete set of natural teeth.
Edentulous Patients: Patients having all their teeth missing.
Partially Edentulous Patient: Patients having one or more but not their entire
natural teeth missing.
Removable Partial Denture (RPD): An appliance that restores one or more but
not all of the missing natural teeth and associated oral structures for partially
edentulous patients.
Abutment: A tooth, a portion of a tooth, or that portion of a dental implant that
serves to support and/or retain prosthesis.
Free End Edentulous Area (Distal extension edentulous area): An edentulous
area, which has an abutment tooth on one side only.
Bounded Edentulous Area: An edentulous area, which has an abutment tooth on
each end.
Dental cast: a positive life size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity.
The word cast is preferable than word model which used only for demonstration
Andrews Bridge : The combination of a fixed dental prosthesis incorporating a
bar with a removable dental prosthesis that replaces teeth with the bar area,
usually used for edentulous anterior spaces. The vertical walls of the bar may
provide retention for the removable component. By James Andrews.
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Gillett Bridge: Eponym for a partial removable dental prosthesis utilizing a
Gillett clasp system, which was composed of an occlusal rest notched deeply into
the occlusal axial surface with a gingivally placed groove and a circumferential
clasp for retention. The occlusal rest was custom made in a cast restoration.
MORA Device : Acronym for mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance,
a type of removable dental prosthesis with a modification to the occlusal surfaces
used with the goal of repositioning.
Angle of Gingival Convergence : According to Schneider, the angle of gingival
convergence is located apical to the height of contour on the abutment tooth. It
can be identified by viewing the angle formed by the tooth surfaces gingival to the
survey line and the analyzing rod or undercut gauge in a surveyor as it contacts
the height of contour.
Continuous Gum Denture : An artificial denture consisting of porcelain teeth
and tinted porcelain denture base material fused to a platinum base.
Fulcrum Line : It is an imaginary line, connecting occlusal rests, around which a
partial removable dental prosthesis tend to rotate under masticatory forces. The
determinants for the fulcrum line are usually the cross arch occlusal rests located
adjacent to the tissue borne components.
Semi precision Rest : A rigid metallic extension of a fixed or removable dental
prosthesis that fits into an intracoronal preparation in a cast restoration.
Nesbit Prosthesis : Eponym for a unilateral partial removable dental prosthesis
design, that De. Nesbit introduced in 1918.
Resilient Attachments : An attachment designed to give a tooth borne/soft tissue
borne removable dental prosthesis sufficient mechanical flexion, to withstand the
variations in seating of the prosthesis due to deformation of the mucosa and
underlying tissues without placing excessive stress on the abutments.
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Partial Dentures:
Partial dentures are appliances restoring one or more but not the whole set of
natural teeth . These Appliances maybe in form of:
I- Fixed partial prosthesis ( bridge ):
An appliance which restores one or more missing teeth it is cemented to the
neighboring natural teeth and cannot be removed by the patient.
II- Removable partial prosthesis:
An appliance which restores missing teeth and the associated oral structures
for a partially edentulous patient " it can be removed by the patient .
Removable partial dentures may restore :
(a) Bounded edentulous area : which has an abutment tooth on each end.
(b) Free end edentulous area : which has an abutment tooth on one side
only . They are called distal- extension partial dentures.
III- Partial over dentures :
Partial over dentures are removable partial dentures that are constructed to overly
and gain additional support from either :
i. Natural teeth that are reduced in height and contour or :
ii. Implants inserted in the edentulous areas .
IV- Removable partial Dentures for Maxillo facial Defects :
These are removable prostheses restoring tissue defects which are either
developmentally or traumatically acquired. They are usually retained by clasps
on the remaining natural teeth.
Types of removable partial dentures :
( 1 ) Unilateral partial dentures : Partial dentures which restore teeth on one side of
the arch without being extended to the opposite side
( 2 ) Bilateral partial dentures : partial dentures restoring missing teeth and
extended on both sides of dental arch .
According to retention to natural teeth
a- Extra coronal retention
b- Intracranial retention
According to material
-Metallic - acrylic -flexible
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CONSEQUENCES OF TOOTH LOSS
1- A loss of ridge volumeboth height and widthcan be expected
Bone loss is greater in the mandible than the maxilla, more pronounced
posteriorly than anteriorly, and it produces a broader mandibular arch while
constricting the maxillary arch.
2- Alteration in the oral mucosa
The attached gingiva of the alveolar bone can be replaced with less keratinized
oral mucosa, which is more readily traumatized.
3- Aesthetic impact
Facial features can change Secondary to altered lip support and/or reduced
facial height as a result of a reduction in occlusal vertical dimension.
4- Reduction in masticatory efficiency
It is the ability to reduce food to a certain size in a given time frame. It has
been shown that there is a strong correlation between masticatory efficiency
and the number of occluding teeth in dentate individuals.
5.T.M.J.dysfunction
6. Tipping, migration, rotation and superimposition of remaining teeth.
7.Altered speech
OBJECTIVES OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES
1- Preservation of the Remaining Tissues:
A- Preservation of the health of the remaining teeth.
The loss of teeth leads to migration, tilting or drifting of the remaining
natural teeth into the edentulous spaces, such movements leads to
unequal distribution of load on the remaining teeth.
B- Prevention of muscles and TMJ Dysfunction. Absence or movements of
posterior teeth may cause:
Changes in the pattern of mandibular closure.
Change in maxillomandibular relations of the mandible and maxilla.
Consequently muscles and TMJ Dysfunction may arise.
Preservation of the residual ridge. By preventing rapid bone
resorption which may happen due to lack of function.
Preservation of the tongue contour and space.
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2 Restore the Continuity of the Dental Arch to Improve Masticatory Function:
A reduction of the number of teeth leads to a decrease in the chewing
efficiency and greater effort on the digestive organs leading to digestive
disorders, accordingly replacing lost teeth will greatly improve the chewing
capability of the patients, distribute the load over the entire arch and improve
the balance over the whole masticatory system.
3- Improvement of Esthetics, and Providing Support to Lips and Cheeks:
Teeth and the alveolar ridge give support to the musculature of the lips and
cheeks. Non-replacement of the missing teeth gives the patient a senile
appearance characterized by nose-chin approximation and wrinkles around the
lips. Missing teeth can be replaced with predictable results using partial
denture.
4- Restoration of Impaired speech:
Anterior teeth play an essential role in phonetics, particularly in the production
of labio and linguo-dental sound. Loss or wrong position of anterior teeth and
subsequent alveolar ridge resorption can result in phonetic impairment.
Proper replacement of artificial teeth in relation to the lip, tongue and alveolar
ridge, also the proper contouring of dentures help in restoration of speech
defects.
5- Enhance psychological comfort:
Partial dentures should restore and correct the appearance for the
psychological benefits of the patient, by providing socially acceptable
esthetics. A comfortable prosthesis will encourage and help in patient
rehabilitation .
There is no perfect removable appliance, so "best possible" is defined as meeting, as
closely as we can, the following criteria:
It restores the lost occlusal function caused by the patient's missing teeth,
it minimizes the stress placed on abutment teeth to ensure their longevity,
it minimizes the trauma to the supporting and surrounding tissue and bone,
it's self-cleaning and does not produce food entrapment areas,
it's comfortable for the patient to use and wear, and
it meets the particular esthetic needs of your patient.
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Indications for removable partial dentures
1. No abutment tooth posterior to edentulous space (Free end edentulous area)).
2. After recent extraction, to improve esthetics, or for patient satisfaction.
3. Long edentulous bounded span, too extensive for fixed restoration.
4. Periodontally weak teeth not sufficiently sound to support fixed- partial denture.
5. With excessive loss of residual bone, using of labial flange to restore lost tissues.
6. Need of bilateral bracing (cross arch stabilization).after periodontal diseases
treatment, fixed prosthesis provide only antero-posterior stabilization(not
mediolateral) .
7. Enhancing esthetics in anterior region, by the use of translucent artificial teeth
instead of dull fixed partial denture pontic.
8. Young age (less than 17 years).
9. Geriatric patients
10. Immediate replacement.
11. Economic considerations, attitude and desire of the patient.
12. Physical problems.
13. Unfavorable maxillo-mandibular relation.
Contraindication
1- Large tongue. 2- Mentally retarded.
3 Poor oral hygiene.
Advantages of removable partial denture over fixed partial denture:
1- They can be constructed for any case whilst fixed P.D. are confined to short
spans bounded by healthy teeth and with a normal occlusion.
2- Cheaper than fixed partial denture.
3- They are more easily cleaned.
4- They are more easily repaired.
5- No tooth reduction is required.
Disadvantages of a removable partial denture:
1- It can cause caries: by harboring food debris in close contact with the natural
teeth a partial denture may promote caries. This will depend on several factors:
a) The age of the patient, up to the age of 25 years caries susceptibility is
greatest, there after it tends to decrease.
b) The oral hygiene of the patient.
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c) The design of the denture: well designed dentures will cause for less
damage to the mouth than those of through less design.
2- It can damage the supporting tissues of the teeth and gum margins by:
a) Fitting too closely into the gingival tissues: through and causing mechanical
injury to it.
b) Allowing food to pack down between the denture and the teeth.
3- It may loosen the natural teeth by leverage: clasps which grip the teeth too
tightly or indirect retainers which are badly placed may cause excessive stresses to
be induced in the natural teeth .
4- It can cause traumatic damage to the palate.
5. Clasps can be unesthetic, particularly if placed on visible tooth surfaces.
HAZARDS OF IMPROPERLY DESIGNED PARTIAL DENTURE See damaging effect
1- Stagnation of food around component parts of partial denture in contact with
tooth surfaces that are not readily cleaned causes tooth decay .
2- Induce stresses . If these stresses exceed the physiologic limits of tissue
tolerance, pathologic and destructive changes may occur:
a) Excessive stresses on abutment teeth cause periodontal membrane
destruction, pocket formation, mobility, and even loss of these teeth.
b) Inflammation, ulceration and gingival recession may occur due to excessive
stresses and undue coverage of tissues with the restoration. Inadequate support
causes displacement of denture towards the tissues causing gum stripping.
c) Stresses may also cause bone resorption and loss of the bony foundation
necessary to support the prosthesis.
3- Improper occlusion or presence of premature contact may cause T.M.J. disorders.
Phases of partial denture service
1- Education of patient: the process of informing a patient about a health matter to
secure informed consent, patient cooperation, and a high level of patient compliance.
Patient education should begin at the initial contact with the patient and continue
throughout treatment.
2- Diagnosis, treatment planning, design, treatment sequencing, and mouth preparation.
3- Support for Distal Extension Denture Bases.
4- Establishment and Verification of Occlusal Relations and Tooth Arrangements.
5- Initial Placement Procedures.
6- Periodic Recall.
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REASONS FOR FAILURE OF CLASP-RETAINED P.D.
Diagnosis and treatment planning
1. Inadequate diagnosis
2. Failure to use a surveyor or to use a surveyor properly during treatment planning
Mouth preparation procedures
1. Failure to properly sequence mouth preparation procedures
2. Inadequate mouth preparations,
3. Failure to return supporting tissue to optimum health before impression procedures
4. Inadequate impressions of hard and soft tissue
Design of the framework
1. Failure to use properly located and sized rests
2. Flexible or incorrectly located major and minor connectors
3. Incorrect use of clasp designs
4. Use of cast clasps that have too little flexibility, are too broad in tooth coverage, and
have too little consideration for esthetics
Laboratory procedures
1. Problems in master cast preparation
a. Inaccurate impression
b. Poor cast-forming procedures
c. Incompatible impression materials and gypsum products
2. Failure to provide the technician with a specific design and necessary information .
3. Failure of the technician to follow the design and written instructions
Support for denture bases
1. Inadequate coverage of basal seat tissue
2. Failure to record basal seat tissue in a supporting form
Occlusion
1. Failure to develop a harmonious occlusion
2. Failure to use compatible materials for opposing occlusal surfaces
Patient-dentist relationship
1. Failure of the dentist to provide adequate dental health care information, including
care and use of prosthesis
2. Failure of the dentist to provide recall opportunities on a periodic basis
3. Failure of the patient to exercise a dental health care regimen and respond to recall
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CLASSIFICATION OF PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS ARCHES
Need for classification:
1- To differentiate between different partial denture.
2- It facilities writing or speaking about partial denture designs and referral or
prescription writing to the laboratory thus facilitating communication.
3- To formulate good treatment plane.
4- To anticipate difficulties commonly to occur for each class.
Requirements of an Acceptable Classification:
Classifications are important to facilitate communication between the dentist and the
laboratory technician. Acceptable classification should satisfy the following
requirements:
1.Permit immediate visualization of the type of partially edentulous arch.
2.Permit immediate differentiation between bounded and free extension PD.
3. It should be universally accepted.
4. Serve as guide to design used.
Classifications
a- Classification according to the extent of the RPD:
1- Unilateral RPD (Removable Bridge): which restore missing teeth on one side of
the arch without being extended to the other side. This unilateral design provides
least amount of tooth preparation and least amount of tooth and soft tissue contact.
For unilateral removable partial denture to be successful:
1. Clinical crown of abutment tooth must be long enough to
resist rotational forces.
2. The buccal and lingual surfaces of the abutment tooth must be
parallel to resist tipping forces.
3. Retentive undercuts should be available on both the buccal
and lingual surfaces of each abutment.
Unilateral removable partial denture should be used with caution. as the chance of
the denture becoming dislodged and aspirated is too great.
Bilateral RPD: which restore missing teeth and extended on both sides of the
dental arch.
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B- Cummer's classification :
This classification mainly based upon various the position of the
direct retainer of the finished restoration .
The direct retainer may be diagonally, diametric, unilaterally or
multilaterally placed.
It describes the restored rather than the unrestored arch, so it
is of line value because it follows denture design .
C - Bailyn classification :
It is based on the support afforded to the denture :
o Tissue born prosthesis : the denture is enterily supported by the
mucosa and the underlying bone .
o Tooth born prosthesis : the denture is entirely supported by
abutment teeth .
o Tooth tissue supported prosthesis : the denture is supported bu
both abutment teeth and moucosa.
D- Fridman's classification :
Fridman classified partial dentures in to :
Group A for anterior restoration
Group B- For bounded posterior restoration
Group C- For posterior free end restoration (c= cantilever) .
E - Osborne and Lammie (1974)
Class I: Denture supported by mucosa and underlying bone
Class II: Denture supported by teeth
Class III: Denture supported by a combination of mucosa and tooth.
Class IV: Denture supported by implants.
F.Beckett and Wilson
Class I: Bounded saddle and the abutment cant support the saddle
Class II: Free end saddle
A. Tooth and tissue support
B. Tissue support
Class III: Bounded saddle and the abutment can support the saddle
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Skinner's Classification
He introduced the classification in 1959. He said that about 1,31,072
combinations of partially edentulous arches are possible.
His classification is based on the relation of the edentulous arches to the
abutment teeth.
Class I: Abutment teeth are present anterior and posterior to the edentulous
space. It may be unilateral or bilateral.
Class II: All the teeth are present posterior to the denture base which
functions as a partial denture unit. It may be unilateral or bilateral.
Class III: All abutment teeth are anterior to the denture base which
functions as a partial denture unit. It may be unilateral or bilateral.
Class IV: Denture bases are located anterior and posterior to the remaining
teeth, and these may be unilateral or bilateral.
Class V: Abutment teeth are unilateral in relation to the denture base, and
these may be unilateral or bilateral.
H- Kennedy's Classification:
Dr. Edward Kennedy proposed this classification in 1923. This is the most
popular classification. It is based on locations and number of edentulous areas.
Class I: Bilateral edentulous areas (free-end saddles) located posterior to the
remaining natural teeth.72%
Class II: A unilateral edentulous area (free-end saddle) located posterior to the
remaining natural teeth.14%
Class III: A unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth remaining both
anterior and posterior to it.8,5%
Class IV: A single, but bilateral (crossing the midline ), edentulous area
located anterior to the remaining natural teeth.3%
Applegate later added two classes
Class V: A unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth remaining both anterior
and posterior to it but the anterior abutment is not suitable for support.
Class VI: A unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth remaining both anterior
and posterior to it with abutments capable for total support.
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FISET'S ADDITIONS
Class VII A partially edentulous situation in which all remaining natural
teeth are located on one side of the arch, or of the median line
Class VIII A partially edentulous situation in which all remaining natural
teeth are located in one anterior corner of the arch
Class IX A partially edentulous situation in which functional and
cosmetic requirements or the magnitude of the interocclusal distance
require the use of a telescoped prosthesis (partial or complete).The
remaining teeth are capable of total or partial support for the prosthesis.
Class X A partially edentulous situation in which the remaining teeth are
incapable of providing any support. If the teeth are kept to maintain
alveolus integrity, the arch must be restored with an OVERDENTURE
which is a complete denture supported primarily by the denture
foundation area
The numeric sequence of the classification system is based on the frequency
of occurrence of each class. Class I being the most common While class IV is the
least common. This classification was then modified by Applegate .
Why a unilateral edentulous area is considered as class II?
Because it include features of both class I and class III especially if
modification is present.
Advantages
1- It is the most widely used method of classification of the partially
edentulous arches.
2- It is simple and can be easily applied to nearly all partially edentulous
bases.
3- It permits immediate visualization of the partially edentulous arch and
permits a logical approach to the problems of design.
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Applegate's Rules for Applying the Kennedy Classification:
Applegate has provided the following eight rules governing the application of
the Kennedy system.
Rule (1) : Classification should follow rather than precede any extraction of
teeth that might alter the original classification.
Rule (2) : If the third molar is missing and not to be replaced, it is not
considered in the classification.
Rule (3) : If a third molar is present and is to be used as an abutment, it is
considered in the classification.
Rule (4) : If a second molar is missing and is not to be replaced (that is, the
opposing second molar is also missing and is not to be replaced ), it is not considered
in the classification.
Rule (5) : The most posterior edentulous area or areas always determine the
classification.
Rule (6) : Edentulous areas other than those determining the classification are
referred to as modification spaces and are designated by their number.
Rule (7) : The extent of the modification is not considered, only the number of
additional edentulous areas.
Rule (8) : There can be no modification areas in Class IV arches. Any
edentulous area lying posterior to the "single bilateral area crossing the midline"
would instead determine the classification.
Class IV Partial dentures especially those having long edentulous areas are
considered mesial extension bases. They require the same denture design principles as
class I partial dentures.
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ACP classification system for partial edentulismJ Prosthodont 2002;11:181-193.
Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index ( PDI )
The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) has developed a classification
system for partial edentulism based on diagnostic findings. Four categories of partial
edentulism are defined, Class I to Class IV, with Class I representing an
uncomplicated clinical situation and class IV representing a complex clinical
situation. Each class is differentiated by specific diagnostic criteria.
Diagnostic Criteria
1. Location and extent of the edentulous area(s)
2. Condition of abutments
3. Occlusion
4. Residual ridge characteristics.
Class I
It is characterized by ideal or minimal compromise in the location and
extent of edentulous area (which is confined to a single arch), abutment
conditions, occlusal characteristics, and residual ridge conditions. All 4 of the
diagnostic criteria are favorable.
1. The location and extent of the edentulous area are ideal or minimally
compromised:
The edentulous area is confined to a single arch.
The edentulous area does not compromise the physiologic support of the
abutments.
The edentulous area may include any anterior maxillary span that does
not exceed 2 incisors, any anterior mandibular span that does not exceed
4 missing incisors, or any posterior span that does not exceed 2 premolars
or 1 premolar and 1 molar.
2. The abutment condition is ideal or minimally compromised, with no need for
preprosthetic therapy.
3. The occlusion is ideal or minimally compromised, with no need for
preprosthetic therapy; maxillomandibular relationship: Class I molar and jaw
relationships.
4. Residual ridge morphology conforms to the Class I complete edentulism
description.
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Class II
This class is characterized by moderately compromised location and extent
of edentulous areas in both arches, abutment conditions requiring localized
adjunctive therapy, occlusal characteristics requiring localized adjunctive
therapy, and residual ridge conditions.
1. The location and extent of the edentulous area are moderately
compromised:
Edentulous areas may exist in 1 or both arches The edentulous areas
do not compromise the physiologic support of the abutments.
Edentulous areas may include any anterior maxillary span that does
not exceed 2 incisors, any anterior mandibular span that does not exceed
4 incisors, any posterior span (maxillary or mandibular) that does not
exceed 2 premolars, or 1 premolar and 1 molar or any missing canine
(maxillary or mandibular).
2. Condition of the abutments is moderately compromised:
Abutments in 1 or 2 sextants have insufficient tooth structure to retain
or support intracoronal or extracoronal restorations.
Abutments in 1 or 2 sextants require localized adjunctive therapy.
3. Occlusion is moderately compromised:
Occlusal correction requires localized adjunctive therapy.
Maxillomandibular relationship: Class I molar and jaw relationships.
4. Residual ridge morphology conforms to the Class II complete edentulism
description.
Class III
This class is characterized by substantially compromised location and extent
of edentulous areas in both arches, abutment condition requiring substantial
localized adjunctive therapy, occlusal characteristics requiring reestablishment of
the entire occlusion without a change in the occlusal vertical dimension, and
residual ridge condition.
1. The location and extent of the edentulous areas are substantially
compromised:
Edentulous areas may be present in 1 or both arches.
Edentulous areas compromise the physiologic support of the abutments.
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Edentulous areas may include any posterior maxillary or mandibular
edentulous area greater than 3 teeth or 2 molars, or anterior and posterior
edentulous areas of 3 or more teeth.
2. The condition of the abutments is moderately compromised:
Abutments in 3 sextants have insufficient tooth structure to retain or
support intracoronal or extracoronal restorations.
Abutments in 3 sextants require more substantial localized adjunctive
therapy (ie, periodontal, endodontic or orthodontic procedures).
Abutments have a fair prognosis.
3. Occlusion is substantially compromised:
Requires reestablishment of the entire occlusal scheme without an
accompanying change in the occlusal vertical dimension.
Maxillomandibular relationship: Class II molar and jaw relationships.
4. Residual ridge morphology conforms to the Class III complete edentulism
description.
Class IV
This class is characterized by severely compromised location and extent of
edentulous areas with guarded prognosis, abutments requiring extensive therapy,
occlusion characteristics requiring reestablishment of the occlusion with a change
in the occlusal vertical dimension, and residual ridge conditions.
1. The location and extent of the edentulous areas results in severe occlusal
compromise:
Edentulous areas may be extensive and may occur in both arches.
Edentulous areas compromise the physiologic support of the abutment
teeth to create a guarded prognosis.
Edentulous areas include acquired or congenital maxillofacial defects.
At least 1 edentulous area has a guarded prognosis.
2. Abutments are severely compromised:
Abutments in 4 or more sextants have insufficient tooth structure to retain
or support intracoronal or extracoronal restorations.
Abutments in 4 or more sextants require extensive localized adjunctive
therapy.
Abutments have a guarded prognosis.
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3. Occlusion is severely compromised:
Reestablishment of the entire occlusal scheme, including changes in the
occlusal vertical dimension, is necessary.
Maxillomandibular relationship: class II division 2 or Class III molar and
jaw relationships.
4. Residual ridge morphology conforms to the class IV complete edentulism
description.
Other characteristics include severe manifestations of local or systemic
disease, including sequelae from oncologic treatment, maxillomandibular
dyskinesia and/or ataxia, and refractory patient (a patient who presents with
chronic complaints following appropriate therapy).
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Implant-Corrected Kennedy (ICK) Classification System for Partially
Edentulous Arches J ournal of Prosthodontics 17 (2008) 5025
Guidelines for the new classification system
The new classification system will follow the Kennedy method with the
following guidelines:
(1) No edentulous space will be included in the classification if it will be restored
with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis.
(2) To avoid confusion, the maxillary arch is drawn as half circle facing up and
the mandibular arch as half circle facing down. The drawing will appear as if
looking directly at the patient; the right and left quadrants are reversed.
(3) The classification will always begin with the phrase "Implant-Corrected
Kennedy (class)," followed by the description of the classification. It can be
abbreviated as follows:
(i) ICK I, for Kennedy class I situations,
(ii) ICK II, for Kennedy class II situations,
(iii) ICK III, for Kennedy class III situations, and
(iv) ICK IV, for Kennedy class IV situations.
(4) The abbreviation max for maxillary and man for mandibular can precede
the classification. The word modification can be abbreviated as mod.
(5) Roman numerals will be used for the classification, and Arabic numerals will
be used for the number of modification spaces and implants.
(6) The tooth number using the American Dental Association (ADA) system is
used to give the number and exact position of the implant in the arch. (Note: other
tooth numbering systems such as Federation Dentaire Internationale [FDI] can
be used, as can the tooth name. The ADA system was used by the authors because
of familiarity).
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Universal numbering system table
Permanent Teeth
upper right upper left
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
lower right lower left
(7) The classification of any situation will be according to the following order:
main classification first,
then the number of modification spaces,
followed by the number of implants in parentheses according to their position
in the arch preceded by the number sign (#).
(8) The classification can be used either after implant placement to describe any
situation of RPD with implants, or before implant placement to indicate the number
and position of future implants with an RPD.
(9) A different name, ICK Classification System, is given to this classification
system to be differentiated from other partially edentulous arch classification systems.
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ICK I (#2, 15).
ICK I (#2).
ICK I mod 3 (#18, 22, 28, 31).
ICK II mod 1 (#21, 26, 30).
ICK III mod 3 (#23, 26).
ICK IV (#6, 11)
ICK II (#2).
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Component Parts of removable partial dentures
Denture bases.
Artificial teeth .
Supporting rests.
Connectors: Major connectors
Minor connectors
Retainers : Direct retainers
Indirect retainers
These components may provide one or more of the following functions:
1-Support:
a. The resistance of a denture to tissue ward movement.
b. Adequate and wide distribution of the load to the teeth and mucosa.
2- Retention: The resistance of a denture to vertical displacement force (to move
away from its tissue foundation)).
3- Indirect retention: The resistance of denture rotation away from the tissues about
an axis.
4- Bracing: The resistance of a denture to lateral forces.
5- Reciprocation: The resistance of lateral forces on the abutment during insertion
and removal of the removable partial denture .
Reciprocation is required as the denture is being displaced occlusally whilst
the bracing function, comes into play when the denture is fully seated.
6- Stability: The resistance of a denture to tipping movement.
Tipping movement: Vertical rotation around a line parallel to ridge crest
(twisting of the denture base)
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COMPONENT PARTS OF RPD
Components of metallic removable partial dentures are all rigid, with the
exception of the flexible retentive clasp arm located in an undercut area for retaining
the restoration against dislodging forces.
The components of removable partial denture are:
1. One or More Denture Bases.
2. Artificial teeth.
3. Supporting rests.
4. Major connectors.
5. Minor connectors.
6. Direct retainers.
7. Indirect retainers.
These Components May Provide One or More of the Following Functions:
1-Support: Theresistance of a denture to tissue ward movement.
2- Retention: The resistance of a denture to vertical displacement force (to move away
from its tissue foundation).
3- Indirect retention: The resistance of denture rotation away from the tissues about an
axis.
4- Bracing: The resistance of a denture to lateral forces.
5- Reciprocation: The resistance of lateral forces on the abutment during insertion and
removal of the removable partial denture.
Reciprocation is required as the denture is being displaced occlusally whilst the bracing
function, comes into play when the denture is fully seated.
6- Stability: The resistance of a denture to tipping movement.
Tipping movement: Vertical rotation around a line parallel to ridge crest (twisting of
the denture base)
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Denture Base
The denture base is the part of the denture, which rests on the foundation tissues
and to which artificial teeth are attached. The denture base helps in transferring occlusal
stresses to the supporting oral structures.
Types of Denture Bases
1- Bounded partial denture bases
It covers an edentulous span between two abutment teeth.
2- Free-end partial denture bases (distal-extension base)
The base bounded by a natural tooth only on one side, while the other side is free.
This type is sometimes called distal extension base.
3- Bar type saddle
In case of posterior bounded saddle, where esthetic is not important, a bar of metal
is attached directly to the connector to form occlusal surface and no mucosal
contact .
Functions of the Denture Base
1. Carries the artificial teeth.
2. Transfers occlusal stresses to the supporting oral structures.
3. Provides support in distal-extension and long span bounded dentures.
The snowshoe principle, which suggests that broad coverage furnishes the best support
with the least load per unit area, is the principle of choice for providing maximum support.
Therefore support should be the primary consideration in selecting, designing, and
fabricating a distal extension partial denture base.
4. Provides denture retention for distal-extension dentures by physical means.
5. Provides denture bracing against horizontal movement when extended to cover lateral
borders of the ridge for distal-extension dentures.
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6. Provides stabilization against tipping of the distal-extension dentures (On the contra-
lateral side).
7. The denture base and the artificial teeth serve to prevent migration and over eruption
of the remaining teeth.
8. Provide stimulation by massage of the underlying tissues of the residual ridge. Oral
tissues placed under functional stress within their physiological tolerance maintain their
form and tone better than similar tissues suffering from disuse.
9. A the tooth-supported partial denture base that replaces anterior teeth must perform
the following functions:
(1) Providedesirable esthetics;
(2) Support and retain the artificial teeth in such a way that they provide
masticatory efficiency and assist in transferring occlusal forces directly to
abutment teeth through rests;
(3) prevent vertical and horizontal migration of remaining natural teeth;
(4) Eliminateundesirable food traps (oral cleanliness);
(5) Stimulatethe underlying tissue.
Requirements of an Ideal Denture Base Material
1- Accuracy of adaptation to the tissues, with minimal dimensional changes.
2- Sufficient strength in order to resist fracture and distortion.
3- Low specific gravity, i.e. light in weight in the mouth.
4- Biological acceptability, non-allergic and non-irritating surface capable of
receiving and maintaining a good finish
5- Allow thermal conductivity necessary for tissue stimulation.
6- Can easily be kept clean.
7- Esthetic acceptability.
8- Potential for future relining.
9- Low initial cost.
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FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF DENTURE BASES
A. NEED TO RELINE.
1. Tooth-mucosa borne partial dentures direct functional forces as
pressure to the mucoosseous tissues. When resorptive changes occur, the base
requires relining tomaintain optimum support. Resin bases are easily relined.
1. In tooth borne partial dentures with long span bases, the base may
require periodic relining to compensate for idiopathic or pressure induced
resorptive changes
B. NEED TO RESTORE MISSING TISSUES. A resin base may be shaped and
shaded to restore anatomic contour and esthetics.
C. LIMITED VERTICAL SPACE. When vertical space is limited, the minimal
space may require a stronger metal base.
D. MAGNITUDE OF APPLIED FORCES. The anticipated occlusal forces may
influence the choice of materials.
E. EASE OF ADJ USTMENT. Resin bases are more easily adjusted than metal
bases.
In tooth mucosa born PD:
The rotational movements of the RPD during function may excessively load
underlying mucosal tissues. Resin bases are easily adjusted to eliminate the
impingement.
F. LENGTH OF SPAN.
1.Long span bases. Denture base resin on metal framework.
a.Facilitates esthetic restoration of lost tissue contours.
b.Allows periodic relining to compensate for idiopathic or pressure induced
resorptive changes.
c.Facilitates adjustment if required.
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2.Short span bases. Metal base.
a.Provides maximumstrength with mmimum bulk.
b.Esthetics may limit use in anterior regions.
c.Adjustment more difficult jf required,
G. INTERARCH DISTANCE. Limited interarch distance may indicate the use of
a metal base.
H. ANTICIPATED LOSS OF AN ABUTMENT TOOTH. A resin-metal base
facilitates the addition of an artificial tooth to the denture base.
Denture Base Material
I- Metallic denture bases
Metallic denture bases are generally used in thinner sections than resin bases.
They are made in the form of metal plates having metal posts that allow for
mechanical attachment with the acrylic resin layer holding the artificial teeth.
Metal such as chrome cobalt alloy, gold, or stainless steel is used. Chrome cobalt
alloy is the most commonly used alloy the material is used in cast form only. It
provides the needed rigidity for removable partial dentures even in thin section. It
has low specific gravity which is nearly half that of gold and provides high
resistance to corrosion.
Advantages of Metal bases as compared to resin bases:
1- Accuracy and Permanence of Form
Denture bases fit more accurately to the underlying tissues. Accurate metal
castings are not subject to distortion by the release of internal strains as are
acrylic denture resins.
The metal base provides an intimacy of contact that contributes
considerably to the retention of denture prosthesis. (called interfacial
surface tension).
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Additional posterior palatal seal may be eliminated entirely when a cast
palate is used for a complete denture, as compared with the need for a
definite post-dam when the palate is made of acrylic resin.
Permanence of form of the cast base is also ensured because of its resistance
to abrasion from denture cleaning agents.
2- Comparative Tissue Response
o Cast metal base contributes to the health of oral tissue when compared with
an acrylic resin base. Perhaps some of the reasons for this are the greater
density and the bacteriostatic activity contributed by ionization and
oxidation of the metal base.
o Acrylic resin bases tend to accumulate mucinous deposits containing food
particles and calcareous deposits.
3- Thermal Conductivity
Cast metal base has Greater thermal conductivity, while denture acrylic
resins have insulating properties.
4- Weight and Bulk
Metal alloy may be cast much thinner than acrylic resin and still have
adequate strength and rigidity. Cast gold must be given slightly more bulk
to provide the same amount of rigidity but may still be made with less
thickness than acrylic. less weight and bulk are possible when the denture
bases are made of chrome or titanium alloys.
an acrylic resin base may be preferable to the thinner metal base in (1)
extreme loss of residual alveolar bone may make it necessary to add fullness
to the denture base to restore normal facial contours and (2) to fill out the
buccal vestibule to prevent food from being trapped in the vestibule beneath
the denture.(3) Denture base contours for functional tongue and cheek
contact can best be accomplished with acrylic resin.(4) acrylic resin bases
may be contoured to provide ideal polished surfaces that contribute to the
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retention of the denture, restoration of facial contours, and prevention of the
accumulation of food at denture borders.
5- More hygienic as the fitting surface is polished and non-porous with less
tendency for food accumulation.
6- Stimulation to the underlying tissue so prevents some alveolar atrophy that
would otherwise occur under a resin base and thereby would prolong the health
of the tissue that it contacts.
Disadvantages of Metal Bases
1. Metal bases are difficult to rebase or reline when ridge resorption occurs.
2. They are difficult to repair.
3. The color of metal bases does not simulate the natural appearance or oral
tissues.
Retentive post used with metal base.
Indication: 1- short span posterior tooth born 2- when maximum strength is required
3- vertical height limited 4- significance anterior overlap
The choice of alloy is based on several factors:
(1) weighed advantages or disadvantages of the physical properties of the alloy;
(2) The dimensional accuracy with which the alloy can be cast and finished;
(3) The availability of the alloy;
(4) The versatility of the alloy; and
(5) The individual clinical observation and experiences with alloys in respect to quality
control and service to the patient.
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A-Chrome cobalt alloy:
It is used in cast form only, needs special investments and special casting and
polishing machine and high casting temperature (2400 f).
Advantages:
Accurate and rigid even in thin sections.
Low specific gravity 7-9 gram/cm3 nearly 1/2 of that of gold.
Highly polished surface.
High resistance to corrosion and abrasion.
Low density (weight), high modulus of elasticity (stiffness),
Cheaper than gold..
A low-fusing, chrome-cobalt alloy or gold alloy can be cast to wrought
wire, and wrought-wire components may be soldered to either gold or
chrome-cobalt alloys
B-Gold (type 4)
properties:
1-Heavier than chrome cobalt (specific gravity 15 gm/ cm3).
2- More rigid than acrylic resin but less than chrome cobalt. Modiolus of rigidity
1410
6
P.S.I
3- More expensive.
4- more specific gravity : Some times used for lower partial denture to help in
retention due to more specific gravity (weight).
5- Gold alloys have a modulus of elasticity approximately one half of that for
chromium-cobalt alloys for similar uses. The modulus of elasticity refers to
stiffness of an alloy.
6- It has been observed that gold frameworks for removable partial dentures are
more prone to produce uncomfortable galvanic shocks to abutment teeth restored
with silver amalgam than frameworks made of chromium-cobalt alloy.
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The greater stiffness of chromium-cobalt alloy is advantageous but at the
same time offers disadvantages.
The hardness of chromium-cobalt alloys presents advantages when Greater
rigidity can be obtained with the chromium-cobalt alloy in reduced sections in
which cross-arch stabilization is required, thereby eliminating an appreciable bulk
of the framework. Its greater rigidity is also an advantage when the greatest
undercut that can be found on an abutment tooth is in the nature of 0. 05 inch. A
gold retentive element would not be as efficient in retaining the restoration under
such conditions as would the chromium-cobalt clasp arm.
The hardness of chromium-cobalt alloys presents a disadvantage when a
component of the framework, such as a rest, is opposed by a natural tooth or by
one that has been restored due to wear of natural teeth opposed by some of the
various chromium-cobalt alloys as contrasted to the Type IV gold alloys.
A high yield strength and a low modulus of elasticity produce higher flexibility.
The gold alloys are approximately twice as flexible as the chromium cobalt alloys,
which is a distinct advantage in the optimum location of retentive elements of the
framework in many instances. The greater flexibility of the gold alloys usually
permits location of the tips of retainer arms in the gingival third of the abutment
tooth.
The stiffness of the chromium-cobalt alloys can be overcome by
1- Including wrought-wire retentive elements in the framework.
2- The bulk of a retentive clasp arm for a removable partial denture is often reduced
for greater flexibility when chromium-cobalt alloys are used as opposed to gold
alloys. This, however, is inadvisable because the grain size of the chromium-cobalt
alloys is usually larger and is associated with a lower proportional limit, and so a
decrease in the bulk of chromium-cobalt cast clasps increases the likelihood of
fracture or permanent deformation.
The retentive clasp arms for both alloys should be approximately the same size,
but the depth of undercut used for retention must be reduced by one half when
chromium-cobalt is the choice of alloys.
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c- Stainless steel:
It is used mainly in swaged form.
The disadvantages of this type are;
1- Less accurate than chrome cobalt or gold
2- Less commonly used.
d- TI/AL/vanadiaum / e- Commercial pure titanium
Commercially pure (CP) titanium and titanium in alloys containing aluminum
and vanadium, or palladium (Ti-0 Pd), should be considered potential future
materials for removable partial denture frameworks.
Currently, when CP titanium is cast under dental conditions, the material
properties change dramatically. During the casting procedure, the high affinity
of the liquid metal for elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen results
in their incorporation from the atmosphere.
The typical Young's modulus of elasticity of titanium alloy is half that of
chromium-cobalt and just slightly higher than type IV gold alloys. This would
require a different approach to clasp design than with chromium-cobalt alloys
and present some advantages. Wrought titanium alloy
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II- Non-metallic, acrylic resin denture bases
Acrylic removable partial dentures are considered as temporary partial dentures. It is made
of acrylic denture base, artificial teeth and wrought wire clasps.
Advantages:
1. Esthetically acrylic resin is satisfactory and looks better in the mouth due to its pink
colour.
2- Acrylic bases are light in weight.
3- The material is easy to reline, rebase or repair.
4- Needs simple processing procedures.
Disadvantages of resin base:
1. Resin bases are weak, brittle and are liable to fracture.
2. In order to attain enough strength, resin bases are made bulky
3. Acrylic bases have low thermal conductivity.
4. The fitting surface is porous and not polished which may lead to retention of soft
food particles and plaque causing bad oral hygiene, bad odour and inflammation
of the tissues.
Indications of Acrylic removable partial dentures:
1- When age and time factors may prohibit the construction of the definitive
prosthesis.
2- During the healing process after extraction until the permanent restoration is made.
3- Cases with extreme bone loss. The presence of acrylic resin is necessary to restore
the original contour of the ridge, giving more satisfactory results than metal bases.
4- When cost is a prime requisite.
5- Acrylic bases of temporary acrylic removable partial dentures.
6- Immediate denture
7- Transitional and interim denture
8- Only few isolated teeth remaining.
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Contraindications:
1. Single tooth edentulous spaces.
2. Where protrusive or lateral occlusal guidance will be on the prosthetic teeth.
Types of resin.
a.Polymethylmethacrylatc. (PMMA) (Most commonly used.)
b.Grafted polymethylmethacrylate.
c. 4-meta (4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride) containing PMMA.
Potential to chemically bond to alloys capable of oxidation so it reduce
microleakage at metal-resin interface.
d. Polyvinyl.
e. Composite resin.
III- Combined Metallic and Acrylic Resin Bases:
Acrylic resin bases attached to metallic denture framework through metallic
minor connectors.
Metal resin interface exhibits a potential space which may enlarge during thermo
cycling and permit the entrance of microorganisms and fluids. This may lead to
discoloration, plaque accumulation and resin deterioration at the interface.
They are used in the following conditions:
1. Free-end saddle cases as in Kennedy class I, II and IV and in class III cases having
long edentulous spans to facilitate future relining. Relining is required to
compensate for bone resorption, which frequently occur in these cases.
2. Patients vulnerable to an increased rate of bone loss as diabetic patients or patients
on steroid therapy.
3. Cases with extreme bone loss. The presence of acrylic resin is necessary to restore
the original contour of the ridge giving more satisfactory results than metal bases.
4. Long span cases.
5. Recent extraction cases which will need early relining.
6. Cases with bone resorption prognosis as diabetic patients.
7. Class IV for appearance.
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Methods of Attaching Denture Bases
Denture Base Retention (Grid-work) minor Connector
Acrylic resin bases are attached to metallic denture framework by means of a
minor connector designed so that a space exists between it and the underlying
tissues of the residual ridge. (Relief of at least a 20-gauge thickness over the basal
seat areas of the master cast is used to create a raised platform on the investment
cast on which the pattern for the retentive frame is formed)
The minor connectors are either made in the form of
a) Lattice work construction.
b) Mesh construction.
c) Bead, wire, or nail-head minor connectors (used with a metal base).
Retentive mesh and retentive lattice are used when a plastic denture base will contact the
edentulous ridge.
Loops, beads, and posts are used with a metal base to which prosthetic teeth are attached
with processed plastic.
This type of minor connector must be
strong enough to anchor the denture base securely;
rigid enough to resist breakage or flexing,
Must not interfere as possible with arrangement of the artificial teeth.
Extension:
In the maxillary arch if the denture base is a distal extension base (no tooth
posterior to the edentulous space), the minor connector must extend the entire
length of the residual ridge to cover the tuberosities.
When a distal extension ridge in the mandibular arch is being treated, the minor
connector should extend two-thirds the length of the edentulous ridge.
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1- An open latticework (ladder-like pattern).
The latticework consists of two struts of metal, pieces of 12- or
14-gauge half-round wax and 18-gauge round wax are used to form a
ladder like framework., extending longitudinally along the edentulous
ridge.
A longitudinal strut should not be positioned along the ridge crest as it may act as a
wedge in the resin and may cause resin fracture.
In the mandibular arch one strut should be positioned buccal to the crest of the
ridgeand the other lingual to the ridge crest.
In the maxillary arch one strut is positioned buccal to the ridge crest, and the border
of the major connector acts as the second strut.
Smaller struts, usually 16 gauge thick, connect the two struts and form the
latticework. These connecting struts run over the crest of the ridge and should be
positioned to interfere as little as possible with arrangement of the artificial teeth.
Generally, one cross strut between each of the teeth to be replaced should be satisfactory.
The latticework minor connector can be used whenever multiple teeth are to be
replaced. It provides the strongest attachment of the acrylic resin denture base to the
removable partial denture. It is also the easiest of the denture base retainers toreline if this
becomes necessary because of ridge resorption.
In construction, wax forms of the struts are positioned on the refractory
(investment) cast, which is duplicated from the master cast.
It is necessary to provide a relief space over the dentulous ridges for both the
latticework and the mesh minor connector so that there will be a space between the
struts or mesh and the underlying ridge.
It is in this space and around the struts or mesh that the acrylic resin denture base will
be formed. The locking of the acrylic resin around and through the latticework
provides the retention of the denture base.
Relief under the grid-work should not be started immediately adjacent to the abutment
tooth but should begin 1.5 - 2 mm from the abutment tooth.
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Thejunction of grid works to the major connector should be in the form of a butt joint
with a slight undercut in the metal.
The grid work on a mandibular distal extension should extend about 2/3 of the way
from abutment tooth to retromolar pad but not on theascending portion of the ridge
mesial to the pad. It should has a tissue stop at their posterior limit to provide direct
contact with the ridge.
Maxillary distal extension grid-works should extend at least
2/3 of the length of the ridge to the hamular notch.
However, the junction or finishing line of the maxillary
major connector should extend fully to point to the hamular
notch area so that the acrylic resin base can be extended
into this area and provide a smooth transition from the
connector to the base.
2- in a closed meshwork configuration (plastic mesh pattern).
The mesh type of minor connector consists of a thin sheet of
metal with multiple small holes that extends over the crest of
the residual ridge to the same buccal, lingual, and posterior
limits as does the latticework minor connector.
It can be used whenever multiple teeth are to be replaced.
The mesh pattern is less satisfactory as the space available for incorporating
acrylic resin between metallic strips is narrow so it makes it more difficult to pack
the acrylic resin dough because more pressure is needed against the resin to force it
through the small holes and not allow for enough bulk of resin which become weak
and may detached from the metal base. It also does not provide as strong an
attachment for the denture base.

The major difference between retentive mesh and retentive lattice is the size of the
openings. Retentive mesh has small openings while retentive lattice has much
larger openings.
The mesh type tendsto be flatter, with more potential rigidity, but may provide less
retention for the acrylic if the openings are insufficiently large.
The lattice type has superior retentive potential, but can interfere with the setting of
teeth, if the struts are made too thick or poorly positioned.
Both types are acceptable if correctly designed.
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3- Metal denture bases
Posts, loops, beads , nail head, wire loop retention or metal stop may be used to for
retention of the resin. with metal denture base, which is cast so that it fits directly
against the edentulous ridge; no relief is provided beneath the minor connector.
The retention is gained by the projection of metal on this surface. These projections may be
beads (made by placing beads of acrylic resin polymer in the waxed denture base
and investing, burning out, and casting these beads);
wires that project from the metal base,
Inthe form of nail-head.
This form of denture base is hygienic because of better soft tissue response to metal
than acrylic resin. But it can not be relined adequately in the event that ridge resorption
takes place.
This type should be used on tooth-supported, well-healed ridges and when inter
arch space is limited and the available vertical space is so limited that an acrylic resin base
would be thin and weak. Because relining is not possible metal bases are generally not
indicated for extension RPDs.
Minor connectors forming mandibular distal extension bases extend posteriorly
about two-thirds the length of the edentulous ridge. They should be slightly extended onto
the buccal and lingual surfaces of the ridge. This design adds strength to the acrylic denture
base and helps to minimize-distortion of cured resin bases, which occurs due to the release
of strains after processing. However, minor connectors for maxillary distal extension
bases may sometimes be extended to cover the entire length of the residual ridge.
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Minor connectors forming denture bases should include tissue stops and finishing line:
Tissue stops:(tissue foot)
It is a foot included in the fitting surface of minor connector designed for retaining
acrylic base.
Tissue stops are integral parts of minor connectors. Tissue stops prevent settling of
the framework downwards, and elevate the minor connectors by a space equal to the
thickness of acrylic base.
They providestability to the framework during the stages of transfer and processing.
They are particularly useful in preventing distortion of the framework during acrylic
resin processing procedures.
Altered cast impression procedures often necessitate that tissue stops be augmented
subsequent to the development of the altered cast. This can be readily accomplished
with the addition of autopolymerizing acrylic resin.
Tissue stops are essential parts in the fitting surface of minor connectors. They are
usually two or three in number that contact the cast.
Tissue stops stabilize the framework on the master cast
during processing as acrylic resin is packed in the
retention spaces.
Tissue stops elevate the minor connectors, forming the
denture base, from the ridge, by a space equal to the thickness
of acrylic bases.
They are formed by making holes 22 mmin the relief wax
placed over the ridge during preparation of the master cast before duplication.
Finishing index tissue stop:
It is located distal to the terminal abutment and is a
continuation of the minor connector contacting the guiding
plane. Its purpose is to facilitate finishing of the denture base
resin at the region of the terminal abutment after processing.
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Finishing Lines:
Finishing lines are butt joints created at the junction of major connectors with the
denture bases.
Finish lines must be provided on all partial denture frameworks wherever denture
base resin and the metal join.
A finish line allows the resin to terminate in a butt joint to produce a smooth
surface.
In distal extension bases, these butt joint finishing lines, are made on both the
external and internal surfaces of the major connector where acrylic resin is
processed, while in short bounded metallic bases, the butt joint is required only on
the external surface where acrylic resin is packed, for the attachment of teeth.
External finish lines-:
An external finish line is located on the polished surface of a partial denture and is
formed in the wax pattern.
a. External finish lines are formed during the formation of the wax pattern by carving
a sharp definite angle in the wax pattern at the junction between the major
connector and the minor connectors forming the denture base.
b. This angle should be less than 90 degrees to lock the acrylic resin securely to the
minor connectors and for the acrylic base to blend smoothly and evenly with the
major connector.
c. External finish line is positioned just far enough lingual to the ridge crest to
position the artificial teeth.
d. External finish line fades into minor connectors or proximal plates as it approaches
the occlusal surfaces of the contacting teeth.
e. The external finish line should never be placed directly over the internal finish line.
It should be placed superiorly to the internal finish line so that a minimum amount
of denture base resin is used on the lingual aspect of the teeth.
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For maxillary RPDs. the palatal finish line should be located so that it allows for
proper positioning of the artificial teeth while still maintaining normal tissue contours and
a smooth transition from metal to plastic. It should be located 2 mm medial from an
imaginary line that would contacts lingual surfaces of missing posterior teeth.
For a mandibular distal extension RPD, the external finish line begins at the
distolingual aspect of the terminal tooth and angles posteriorly as it progresses toward the
floor of the mouth. The lingual finish line for a mandibular tooth-supported RPD should be
located just far enough lingually to allow for setting of the artificial teeth. If it is placed too
far lingually (and thus inferiorly), the major connector will be weakened.
Internal finish lines:
An internal finish line is located on the internal or tissue surface and is formed
while blocking out the master cast.
If the resin ends in a thin edge, saliva and debris will accumulate between the
denture base resin and the metal. The resin will also fracture if left too thin in this area.
a. Internal finish lines are formed by carving the relief wax used to create space for
packing acrylic resin under mesh minor connector. This relief wax is applied on the
master cast before duplication.
b. In tooth-mucosa borne RPD the internal finishing line (IFL), it is placed approximately
at the junction of the vertical and horizontal planes of the palate to permit proper
relining since resorption of bone occurs all the way up to this level. While in case of
maxillary tooth borne PD, the IFL is slightly palatal to the EFL.
c. The internal finish line is located on the tissue surface side of the framework. It is
formed by the 24- to 26-gauge relief wax placed on the master cast prior to
duplication.
d. The internal finish line is normally placed farther from the abutment tooth or residual
ridge than the external finish line.
e. Internal finish line should be located to allow resin to cover mueo-osseous areas
where resorptive changes are anticipated. This permits the base to be relined to
reestablish mueo-osseous support.
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f. Internal finish line should be located 3-4 mm from the natural teeth. This allows a
highly polished metal surface to be placed adjacent to the free gingival margins.
g. Internal finish line should form a well defined butt joint with the denture base resin.
h. Internal line angle of the internal and external finish lines should be less than 90
degrees to provide mechanical retention for the denture base resin.
i. Internal and external finish lines should not be superimposed. A staggered (offset)
relationship maintains framework strength.
j. The palatal extension of the internal finish line is determined primarily by the need
to reline the partial denture to compensate for anticipated bone resorption.
For tooth borne partial dentures, the internal finish lines should be placed
slightly palatal to the external finish lines. This staggered relationship
contributes to increased framework strength and an adequate thickness of
resin between the finish lines. Placement of the internal finish line more
palatally is usually not indicated, since minimal resorptive changes occur.
For tooth-mucosa borne partial dentures, the internal finish lines in the
edentulous regions should be placed close to where the vertical and horizontal
planes of the palate meet. This position is approximately 10 mm lingual to the
previous position of the lingual gingival margins of the missing teeth. This
permits proper relining, since bone resorption may occur up to this level. The
horizontal portion of the hard palate is relatively resistant to pressure-
induced resorptive changes.

1: black arrow indicates the external finishing line(EFL) in tooth-mucosa borne RPD. 2:. a case
of maxillary tooth-mucosa borne RPD. arrow (A) indicates The internal finishing line(IFL), it is
placed approximately at the junction of the vertical and horizontal planes of the palate to permit
relining. Arrow (B) indicates the EFL 3: in case of maxillary tooth borne PD, the IFL is slightly
palatal to the EFL
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External finish lines: junction of major
connector and minor connectors at palatal
finishing line should be located 2 mm medial
from an imaginary line that would contacts
lingual surfaces of missing posterior teeth.
Denture base extension
Maximum coverage of the edentulous ridge is always desirable to allow greatest
area of bone to share in resisting the occlusal stresses exerted during mastication. This
helps in decreasing the force per unit area and keeping the forces within the physiologic
tissue tolerance.
a) Antero-posterior extension
- In bounded spaces: It is determined by the abutment teeth.
- In free-end spaces: The base extends to cover the retromolar pad in the
lower arch and hamular notches and tuberosityin the upper`.
b) Buccally: The flange should extend to the mucosal reflection. The labial flange is
sometimes omitted for esthetic reasons.
c) Lingually: The flange of the lower denture base should extend to the full depth of the
lingual sulcus as permitted by muscle function.
Lingual surfaces usually are made concave except in the distal palatal area. Buccal
surfaces are made convex at gingival margins, over root prominences, and at the border to
fill the area recorded in the impression. Between the border and the gingival contours, the
base can be made convex to aid in retention and to facilitate the return of the food bolus to
the occlusal table during mastication. Such contours prevent food from being entrapped in
the cheek and from working under the denture.
Occasionally, the path of insertion can cause the denture flanges to impinge on the
mucosa above undercut portions of the residual ridge, when the partial denture is being
seated. In these instances, it is usually preferable to shorten the flange, rather than
relieving the internal surface. If the internal surface is relieved significantly, a space will
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exist between the denture base and the tissues when the denture is fully seated. Food may
become trapped in the space and work its way under the partial denture.
Relationship of denture base to abutment
The ideal relationship between the denture base carrying the artificial teeth and the
adjacent abutment should either be:
1- Close contact between the denture and the proximal surface of the abutment. In this
condition relieving the gingival margin is necessary to avoid its traumatization.
2- Open Contact between artificial teeth carried by the denture base and the abutment
above the contact point allowing enough space between them to create a cleansable area.
On the other hand improper contact between the denture and the abutment tooth leaving
only a small space between the neck of the abutment tooth and the artificial tooth is
undesirable. This small space is difficult to clean predisposing to caries, gingivitis and
pocket formation.
Ideal base/abutment tooth relationship
1-Close contact between the denture and the proximal surface of the abutment
2- Open Contact. Enough spaces are self-cleansing.
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AESTHETICS OF RPD IN RELATION TO THE LABIAL FLANGE:
A. LONG ANTERIOR SADDLE
The natural appearance presented by the labial and buccal flange is depend upon:
The shaping of the gingival papillae,
The shaping of the gingival margins,
The overall contouring of the flange as a whole, and
Coloringand shading.
In shaping the gingival papillae, the space between the teeth should be filled. The
resin representing the papilla may then be lightly polished to give a surface, which is
readily self-cleansing.
The shape of the entire gingival margin is usually more sharply curved if the neck of
the tooth is not prominent, but is higher and straighter if the neck is prominent. A
more vigorous expression may be obtained by emphasizing the convexity of the
gingival margin. The whole area of the gingival margin should be polished highly to
avoid food debris accumulating round the necks of the teeth.
In ageing, both the interdental papilla and the gingival margin require modification.
The papilla is positioned higher on the neck of the tooth, and the gingival margin
regresses up the root of the tooth and a pointed rather than a curved form should be
used, especially at the neck of a prominent tooth such as the canine.
Contouring of the labial flange should be carried out to simulate the development of
bony prominences over the roots of teeth and Interdental depressions. Stippling of the
attached gingiva, as well as giving a pleasing natural appearance, has been found to
restrict lip movement in some cases. The lateral margins of labial flanges must be
reduced to wafer thinness and extended over the root eminences of the abutment teeth.
The thin edge allows the colour of the flange to blend more naturally with the
mucosa. Coloring and shading of labial flanges must be considered to blend
harmoniously with the natural tissues of the patient. Many manufacturers supply
acrylic materials containing colored fibers, to which may be added additional stain and
shaded polymers.
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B. SHORT ANTERIOR SADDLE
The general principles discussed in relation to long anterior saddles apply equally
to shorter ones:
The artificial papilla must be shaped to match the natural closest papilla.
The shape and contour of the gingival margin must be similar to that of the natural
teeth.
The junction between artificial and natural gum tissue as mixed together as
possible.
The margins of the flanges must be reduced to water thinness, and whenever
possible, extended over the eminences of the abutment teeth. Such thin edges not only
blend inconspicuously with the natural tissues, but also allow their colour to show through.
It will be necessary to employ a path of insertion that will allow the thin acrylic to pass
over the eminence.
2. A gum-fit can be done by using a longer tooth than is really indicated which is
unsightly when the necks of the teeth are revealed by the patient. Usually it is better to use
a small flange if possiblesince this can be very thin and discreet and nearly undetectable at
normal distances. The use of a flange also increases the saddle area which is desirable
whenever possible. Fitting to the gum is recommended in some cases where the first
premolar has to be replaced and the canine is still standing.
The ridge just posterior to the canine is often quite prominent and the tooth
angulations will be better if no flange is used. In addition, a flange in this area is often
noticeable when the patient smiles.
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RESTS AND REST SEATS 3 RPD THEORY AND PRACTICE
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RESTS AND REST SEATS
Definitions
Rests: Are rigid extensions of a partial denture, fitted into rest seats, which
are prepared on either the occlusal, lingual surfaces or incisal edges of the
teeth, providing support to the partial denture.
Support: The quality of the prosthesis to resist displacement towards
denture supporting structures.
Rest seat: The prepared recess in a tooth or restoration created to receive
occlusal, incisal, or lingual rest.
Types of Rests:
A- EXTRACRONAL (EXTERNAL) REST: whichused with an extracronal
clasp assembly-type direct retainer although it is primarily within the contours of the
abutment tooth.
According to their shape and location on the tooth surface they may be
classified as:
1- Occlusal rest.
(1) Proximal occlusal (conventional),
(2)Interproximal
(3) Transocclusal (embrasure).
(4) Extended
2- Incisal rest.
3- Lingual rest.
4- Embrasure Hooks
5- Rest Recess
B- INTRACRONAL (INTRENAL) RESTS fit into rest preparations within
the contours of an abutment tooth crown. It is used with many precision and
semiprecision attachments.
PRECISION RESTS consists of two metal components manufactured to fit
together precisely. One component is a box type rest seat, keyway or matrix which is
incorporated into the crown of an abutment tooth. The other component is a rigid metal
extension (patrix) which fits the matrix precisely and is incorporated into the RPD.
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A SEMIPRECISION REST is a box-type rest seat, keyway or
matrix which is fabricated in the dental laboratory by incorporating a
preformed plastic pattern into the wax pattern for the crown of the
abutment tooth, or by waxing the crown pattern around a special
mandrel in the dental surveyor thus forming the contour of the rest
preparation. After the crown is cast, the matrix is machined (milled)
with a bur held in a surveyor. The pattern for the patrix of the semi
precision rest is formed by a performed plastic pattern or by waxing directly to the
matrix (rest preparation) in a crown or a cast of the crown. The patrix is cast as part of
the RPD framework.
Rests may be classified into
A- according to relation to direct retainer
1- Primary rest: it is a component of direct retainer
2- Secondary rest: it is an additional rest used on other than abutment teeth for
gaining extra support or act as indirect retainer.
B- According to shape:
1- Saucer shape. 2- Box shape
3- Dove tailed 4- Triangle
5- V- shape. 6- Saddle shape
7- Boomerang shape 8- Circular (conservative).
C- According to the abutment tooth
1- Posterior rests
2- Anterior rests
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I- Occlusal Rest:
A rigid extension of a removable partial denture located on the occlusal surface
of a posterior tooth, on a rest seat specially prepared to receive it.
Requirements of the Occlusal Rest:
1. The occlusal rest must fit the tooth accurately to minimize the food
collection beneath it and preserve its location in relation to the tooth.
2. The angle formed by the occlusal rest and the vertical minor connector
should be less than 90
o
so that the transmitted occlusal forces are directed
toward the long axis of the tooth.
3. It should have sufficient thickness of metal to withstand the loads without
deformation or breakage.
4. It must not raise the vertical dimension of occlusion.
5. In bounded partial denture: occlusal rests are placed in the near zone of the
occlusal surface of the two abutments bounding the edentulous span.
6. In free end partial dentures: the occlusal rest is placed on the far zone of
the occlusal surface of the abutment, in order to decrease the torque action
on the abutment tooth.
Functions of the Occlusal Rest
1. Support: it transmits forces from the prosthetic teeth to the abutment teeth so the
main function of occlusal rest is to provide support to the partial denture against
vertical forces, this prevent settling of the denture towards the underlying tissues,
which will:
a- Prevent a spreading of the clasp arms, and maintains the components of the
dentures in their planned positions.
b- Prevents impingement of the gingival tissues adjacent to the abutment teeth.
N.B. partial denture without occlusal rests is called gum stripper.
2. Assist in distributing the occlusal load among two teeth or more so that each can
bear a proportionate share of the masticatory load in concert with the residual ridges.
3. Help maintain the plane of occlusion in the region of the abutment teeth.The
occlusal rest can be shaped to improve the existing occlusion by building out the
occlusal surface of the tooth to allow contact with the opposing teeth.
4. It may act as indirect retention along with its minor connector if they are placed
beyond the fulcrum.
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5. Maintain the clasp in the correct position on the abutment tooth thus helping to
maintain the effectiveness of the retentive and reciprocal components of the clasp.
4. Serve as a reference point for evaluating the fit of the framework to the teeth.
5. Help prevent extrusion, tipping, or migration of the abutment teeth.
8. In addition to these functions, an internal rest may provide some bracing and etention
for the RPD.
Effect of occlusal rest location on the tooth :
- An extended occlusal rest covering the whole occlusal surface of the tooth
"Onlay rest" allows for the transmission of thevertical load over the whole occlusal
surface and directs the forces along the long axis of the tooth.
- An improperly extended occlusal rest placed on one side of the occlusal
surface causes torque on the tooth when vertical forces are applied. - To prevent this
torque either:
a) Extend the occlusal rest across the mesio-distal center of the tooth,
b) Use two short oppositely placed occlusal rests one on the mesial and the other on the
distal surface of the tooth,
Forms and Requirements of Rest Seat Preparation:
1- Preparations for the occlusal rest must precede making master cast and follow
proximal preparation (guiding planes and elimination of undesirable undercuts).
2- Rest seats are prepared in sound enamel, cast restoration or rarely amalgam
alloy. The use of amalgam restoration as support for an occlusal rest is the least
desirable because of its tendency to flow under pressure and also because of the
comparative weakness of a marginal ridge made of this alloy. Occlusal rests can
be prepared in an old amalgam restoration.
3- When a metal restoration (inlay, onlay or crown) is planned for an abutment
tooth, the rest seat must be carved in the wax pattern of the restoration and
refined in the cast metal before the restoration is seated in the mouth.
4- The out line form of an occlusal rest seat should follow the outline form of the
fossa present on the occlusal surface and should be rounded triangular in shape,
the base of the triangle located at the marginal ridge- is about one third to
one half the mesiodistal width of the tooth, it is about 2.5 mm in width, and
its rounded apex is directed towards the center of the tooth .
5- it should be one half the buccolingual width of the tooth from cusp tip to cusp
tip which correspond to one third of the whole buccolingual diameter of the
tooth
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6- The marginal ridge is lowered approximately one to 1.5 mm to permit
sufficient bulk of metal to provide strength and rigidity to the rest without
interference with the opposing teeth.
7- The rest seats may be prepared in either a box shaped or saucer shaped form:
Saucer- Shaped Rest Seat: preparation have concave,
spoon or saucer shaped form to prevent locking of the
occlusal rest and transmission of lateral and tipping
forces to the abutment. They are used in free end saddle
cases and bounded cases having weak abutments.
Boxed Shaped Occlusal Rest have vertical walls and flat floor, they are
rarely used in boundedcases having strong abutments.
8- The rest seat should have smooth gentle curves with no sharp walls, angles or
ledges.
9- It should be deep enough to have sufficient space for sufficient bulk of the rest
to be rigid without interference with occlusion. A rest seat is prepared to make
room for the occlusal rest. Space for the rest should not usually be created by
grinding the upper palatal cusp as this is a supporting cusp contributing to the
stability of the intercuspal position.
10- A The floor of the seat should be
a- Inclined apically as it approaches the center of the tooth to direct the force
towards the long axis of the tooth.
b- The angle formed by the seat & the vertical minor connector should be also
less than 90o for directing the load towards the long axis of the abutment and
prevent slipping of rest creating an orthodontic like force and to direct the
forces along the long axis of the tooth.
c- For distal extension partial denture it should be saucer or spoon to prevent
transmission of lateral forces to the abutments. The rest may move slightly in
function, like a ball and socket to dissipate horizontal forces.
d- For bounded cases having strong abutments it may have relatively box-shape.
When an existing occlusal rest preparation is inclined apically toward the
reduced marginal ridge and cannot be modified or deepened because of fear of
perforation of the enamel or restoration, then a secondary occlusal rest must be
employed to prevent slippage of the primary rest and orthodontic movement of the
abutment tooth.
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Preparation of occlusal rest seats
Rest seat preparations should be made in sound enamel.
The preparation of occlusal rest seats always must follow proximal preparation,
never precede it. Only after the alteration of proximal tooth surfaces is completed
may the location of the occlusal rest seat in relation to the marginal ridge be
determined.
Occlusal rest seats in sound enamel may be prepared with burs and polishing points
that leave the enamel surface as smooth as the original enamel.
Occlusal rest seats in crowns and inlays are generally made somewhat larger and
deeper than those in enamel. Those made in abutment crowns for tooth-supported
dentures may be made slightly deeper than those in abutments that support a distal
extension base; thus they approach the effectiveness of boxlike internal rests.
Procedures
1- The larger round bur is used first to lower the marginal ridge and to establish
the outline form of the rest seat.
2- A slightly smaller round bur is then used to deepen the floor of the occlusal
rest seat.
When a small enamel defect is encountered in the preparation of an occlusal rest
seat, it is usually best to ignore it until the rest preparation has been completed. Then,
with small burs, prepare the remaining defect to receive a small restoration.
3- A fluoride gel should be applied to abutment teeth following enamel
recontouring. If the master cast will be fabricated from an irreversible hydrocolloid
impression, application of the gel should be delayed until after impressions are made.
This is because some fluoride gels and irreversible hydrocolloids may be incompatible.
Existing restoration may be perforated in the process of preparing an ideal
occlusal rest seat. The rest seat may be widened to compensate for shallowness, but the
floor of the rest seat should still be slightly inclined apically from the marginal ridge.
When this is not possible, a secondary occlusal rest should be used on the opposite side
of the tooth to prevent slipping of the primary rest.
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Special Considerations for Rest Seat Preparation
1- Boxed shaped occlusal rest
The box shaped rest seat is preferably prepared in a cast
gold restoration. If it is sufficiently deep it is also provide guide-
surfaces to control the path of insertion of the denture.
It can be employed only on a strong periodontally healthy abutment. The
rest seat hasa flat floor, sharp line angles and nearly vertical walls. The box shaped
rest helps in preventing lateral movement of the denture; it provides somebracing
and retention for the RPD.
It can be used on few occasions in bounded cases as it applies more torque
on the abutment tooth.
2- Dove tailed occlusal rest: it may prepared in short span bounded saddle
3- Extended occlusal rest
It may extend to the center of the tooth or entirely across the occlusal surface.
The purpose of extending the rest is to:
1) Direct forces more parallel to the long axis of the root than if the rest
is just on the mesial or distal of the tooth,
2) Provide increased stabilization (bracing) of the tooth and sometimes.
3) Provide occlusal contacts with the opposing teeth.
The occlusal rest preparation which extends mesiodistally through the occlusal
surface of a tooth is sometimes called a continuous rest preparation.
The function of extended occlusal rest:
1. Gain support from both teeth.
2. Restores occlusion.
3. Prevent the posterior molar from elongation.
4. Eliminates the need for maxillary prosthesis/
Indication
In Kennedy Class II , modification 1, and Kennedy Class III
situations in which the most posterior abutment is a mesially tipped
molar to minimize further tipping of the abutment and to ensure that the
forces are directed down the long axis of the abutment.
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4- Interproximal Occlusal Rest Seats
The design of a direct retainer assembly may require that interproximal occlusal
rests be used. The rest seats are prepared as individual occlusal rest seats, with
the exception that the preparations must be extended farther lingually than is
ordinarily accomplished.
They are used to avoid interproximal wedging by the framework. Additionally,
the joined rests will shunt food away from contact points.
It is located in a fossa adjacent to another tooth. Its size, shape and
dimensions are similar to the proximal occlusal rest preparation
EXCEPT that the flare of the facial margin is limited by the
proximal contact with the adjacent tooth. The embrasure occlusal
rest preparation rarely extends beyond the primary fossa.
In preparing such rest seats
1. Avoid weakening or eliminating contact points of abutment teeth.
2. Sufficient tooth structure must be removed to allow for adequate bulk of
the component for strength.
3. Occlusion should not be altered.
4. Rest seat preparations are extended lingually to provide strength
(through bulk) without overly filling interproximal space with minor
connector. This type of preparation is rather difficult, and care must
be exercised to avoid violation of contact points. The marginal ridge
of each abutment should be sufficiently lowered (1.5 mm).
5- Transocclusal rests (Embrasure rest):
A transocclusal rest preparation is similar in size and shape to
an embrasure occlusal rest preparation EXCEPT that the
preparation is extended facially to create space for the rest and
clasp arm to extend onto the facial surface of the tooth
The embrasure type of clasp is, basically, two simple circle clasps jointed
together, and the rest recesses should be fashioned on the two abutment teeth.
This rest can be used to bridge a gap between teeth, thus providing an
effective roof over the vulnerable interdental area. It also prevents food
impaction between the spaced teeth.
As a general rule, if an embrasure or interproximal occlusal rests are to be used,
the occlusal fossa of the adjacent tooth is also prepared with an embrasure occlusal rest
preparation UNLESS THERE IS A REASON NOT TO such as occlusion, existing
restorative material, etc.
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6- Internal Rest (the milled rest, the semi precision attachment)
The internal rest consists of narrow slot or key way, built into a metal casting
that has been constructed for an abutment tooth, and into which is fitted a male
attachment that has been made an integral part of removable partial denture
framework.
An intracoronal rest is not a retainer and should not be confused with an
attachment . The form of the rest should be parallel to the path of placement,
slightly tapered occlusally, and slightly dovetailed to prevent dislodgment
proximally.
Advantages:
1- It facilitates the elimination of a visible clasp arm buccally
2- Permits the location of the rest seat in a more favorable position
in relation to the tipping axis (horizontal) of the abutment.
3- Provide both occlusal support and horizontal stabilization
Indication: in partial denture that is totally tooth supported by means of cast
retainers on all abutment teeth.
7- Onlays:
They are extended occlusal rests covering the whole occlusal surface and
extending buccally and lingually. They are retained by mechanical or adhesive
means. Onlays may be cast in gold or chrome cobalt.
Functions or Onlays:
1. Provide partial denture support.
2. Help in improvement of occlusion by increasing the reduced vertical
dimension. (Correction of close bite).
3. It could be constructed with reduced cusp angle to minimize the lateral com-
ponent of force, which is destructive to the abutment teeth.
4. Splinting: onlays can be constructed on multiple abutments and joined together
during casting to help in splinting periodontally weak teeth.
A Correctly-shaped onlay B: lncorrectly-shaped onlay
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8- Rotated tooth: the preferred treatment is either to:
1- Cover the crown with a restoration that realigns the surfaces of the tooth with the
other teeth in the arch.
2- Alter its axial surfaces sufficiently to render it more suitable for clasping and to
place the occlusal rest in the mesial or distal fossa of the buccal or lingual side of
thealveolar ridge.
3- If it is not practical to place the rest in either fossa, it should be remembered that
the occlusal rest might be placed anywhere on the surface of the tooth where a
properly designed recess can be prepared to support it.
9- Tipped molar (Mesially inclined mandibular molar):
The severely tipped mandibular molar sometimes presents a problem for the
placement of an occlusal rest because it is so difficult to engineer the recess in
such a manner that stresses are directed along the long axisof the tooth. Failure
to direct the stress axially may permit the forces of occlusion to tilt the tooth
farther mesially.
The recess for a typical mesially inclined mandibular molar should be prepared
with the floor perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth to avoid tipping the
tooth farther mesially.
The rest should be designed to prevent further tipping, it must direct forces down the
long axis of the tooth by either of one of these ways: -
A) An additional occlusal rest in the distal fossa: A rest positioned in this way tends
to counteract any tendency of the tooth to tip farther mesially.
B) A rest preparation that extended from the mesial marginal ridge to the distal
triangular fossa to minimize further tipping.
C) When a casting is required, such as full veneer crown or onlay, it should be
constructed with flat occlusal surface perpendicular to the long axis. A one to two
millimeters bevel on the buccal and lingual surfaces and a two to three millimeter
guide plane on the mesial surface will provide bilateral bracing and prevent further
tipping of the tooth. The occlusion is restored with a chrome cobalt or gold
occlusal overlay as part of partial denture. Such type of rest construction takes
advantages of the inclined plane effect directing forces along the long axis of the
tooth.
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II-Lingual Rests:
A- Cingulum Rest (inverted V Rest).
B. Ball Rest.
C. Canine Ledge.
A- Cingulum Rest (inverted V Rest):
The cingulum rest is a portion of a partial denture that is placed in an
enamel seat at the cingulum or just incisal to it. This is confined to
maxillary canines that have a gradual lingual incline and prominent
cingulum. It is rarely satisfactory on mandibular anterior teeth due to
inadequate thickness of enamel (Fig,3-94).
The most satisfactory preparation is that placed on a prepared seat in a
cast restoration (cast veneer crown, a three-quarter crown or an inlay)
(Fig,3-95,3-96).
When preparing a cingulum rest in a cast restoration, the rest seat should
be planned and done on the wax pattern before casting the restoration.
Cingulum Rest
Specification of Cingulum Rest Seat:
A rounded inverted V-shaped preparation (half -moon shaped), on the lingual
surface of anterior teeth, having 2.5: 3 mm mesiodistal length, 2 mm.
Labiolingual width and 1.5mm. in depth.
All sharp angles and undercuts should be eliminated.
The rest seat is broadest at the center and as it approaches the proximal
surfaces it merges with the normal anatomy of the tooth.
Properly designed cingulm rest on the canine, prevents movement of the rest in
a gingival direction and maintains tooth position.
2 mm
1:1.5mm
2.5:3
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B. Ball Rest
Cingulum ball rests with rounded outline are placed on the mesial or distal
halves on the lingual surfaces of all anterior teeth, usually at the junction
of the gingival and middle one thirds. Having 1.5 mm depth and 2.5 mm
width.
Ball rest permits rotational movements to occur during function of tooth-
mucosa born RPDs.
Such rest may be prepared on tooth surfaces with sufficient enamel
thickness or may be prepared in restorations placed in teeth with
inadequate enamel thickness (Amalgam or pin ledge, cast restoration,
etc.).
Ball burnisher placed in rest seat preparation to verify contour.
When an axially directed force is applied on the ball burnisher it
should not slip out of the rest seat.

C. Canine Ledge
It is a step-like preparation placed on the mesial or
distal halves of the lingual surfaces of the maxillary
canine. Usually at the junction of the gingival and
middle one thirds. Having 1.5 mm depth.
The ledge rest seat should be perpendicular to the
long axis of the tooth. All undercuts and sharp line angles
should be avoided.
They are generally used where the tooth does not have a
prominent cingulum or where a finger-type rest isto be used.

D. Lingual dimple-shaped rest preparation : it is employed when there is limited
surface on anterior teeth due to occlusal contacts.
E. individually cast chromium-cobalt alloy rest seat forms (attached to lingual
surfaces of anterior teeth by use of composite resin cements with acid-etched tooth
preparation), laminates, and composite resins have been successfully used as
conservative approaches to forming rest seats on teeth with unacceptable lingual
contours.
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F. Sapphire ceramic orthodontic brackets have also been bonded to the
lingual surfaces of mandibular canines and shaped as rest seats. These have advantages
over the metal acid-etched retained rest in that a laboratory step is avoided and
increased bond strengthsare achieved.
The major disadvantage to using orthodontic brackets is that removal of the rest
seat would necessitate that they be ground off with the potential of heat generation and
possible pulpal damage.
Preparation of an anterior tooth to receive a lingual rest
Preparation may be started by using an inverted, cone-shaped diamond
stone and progressing to smaller, tapered stones with round ends to
complete the preparation. All line angles must be eliminated, and the
rest seat must be prepared within the enamel and must be highly
polished.
Shaped, abrasive rubber polishing points, followed by flour of pumice,
produce an adequately smooth and polished rest seat. The floor of the
rest seat should be toward the cingulum rather than the axial wall. Care
must be taken not to create an enamel undercut, which interferes with
placement of the denture
III- Incisal rest:
It is arigid extension of a removable partial denture that are placed at theincisal
angles of anterior teeth on prepared rest seats. They are used predominantly as
auxiliary rests or as indirect retainers.
It is more applicable on mandibular teeth due to lack of adequate thickness of
enamel on the lingual surface.
The rest seat is a saddle- shaped preparation in the form of a small, V-shaped
round notch located approximately 1.5 to 2.0 mm from the proximal - incisal
angle of the tooth. It is having about 2.5 mm wide and 1.5 mm deep.
An incisal rest is more likely to lead to some orthodontic movement of the tooth
because of unfavorable leverage factors than is a lingual rest. The notch should
extend slightly onto the facial surface to prevent the tooth from moving labially.
An incisal rest seat is prepared in the form of a rounded notch at the incisal
angle of a canine or on the incisal edge of an incisor, with the deepest portion of
the preparation apical to the incisal edge.
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The notch should be beveled both labially and lingually, and the lingual
enamel should be partly shaped to accommodate the rigid minor connector
connecting the rest to the framework. All borders of rest seat are rounded to
avoid sharp line angles. Proximal edge of rest seat is rounded rather than
straight.
N.B.: Whereas the most preferred site for a rest, is the occlusal surface of a
molar and premolar. If anterior tooth is the only abutment available, a canine is
preferred over an incisor. In the absence of canine multiple lingual rests are prepared on
anterior teeth.

A- Lingual view demonstrates inclination of floor of rest seat, which allows forces to be
directed along the long axis of tooth as nearly as possible.
The Lingual Rest is Preferable to an Incisal Rest because:
It is placed closer to the center of rotation of the abutment tooth,
thus it will exert less leverage and reducing its tendency to
tipping.
More esthetic, as it can be discreetly hidden from view.
It tends to be less bothersome to a curious tongue.
Use of Incisal rest may be justified by the following factors:
1. They may take advantage of natural incisal faceting.
2. Tooth morphology does not permit other designs.
3. Such rests can restore defective or abraded tooth anatomy.
4. Incisal rests provide stabilization.
5. Full incisal rests may restore or provide anterior guidance.
IV- Embrasure Hooks:
1.5
2.0
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Rests placed in embrasures between natural teeth extending slightly over the
buccal or labial surface but never extend below the survey line.
They provide support, splinting of natural teeth, resistance to lateral and
anteroposterior movement and may act as indirect retainer.
Functions:
1- Resistance to anteroposterior movements.
2- Help in splinting of the periodontally effected teeth.
3- Support the denture
4- Brace the denture
Disadvantages of embrasure hooks:
1- Bad esthetic.
2- May cause separation of teeth by wedging action.
V- Rest Recess
In mandibular bicuspid with a rudimentary (undeveloped) cusp or in the
abraded tooth
The most satisfactory solution is to cover such a crown with a cast
restoration, building a cingulum rest into the wax pattern similar to the
type used for the canine tooth.
VI-Quasicingulum rest
It is prepared for lower first premolar having rudimentary lingual cusp
and consists of accentuated cingulum rest seat prepared in wax up of
retainer.
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DESIRABLE MATERIALS FOR REST PREPARATIONS
Enamel and cast metal are ideal materials for rest preparations.
Porcelain is less desirable because of its propensity to fracture.
Rest preparations may be prepared as an economic necessity in
amalgam but the flow and low yield strength of amalgam and the
possibility of recurrent caries and fracture of the tooth and/or restoration
make amalgam an undesirable material for a rest preparation.
Dentin is an undesirable material for a rest preparation because of its
low abrasion resistance and propensity for caries. Unfortunately, dentin
is frequently exposed when placing rest preparations in natural teeth. In
these situations the tooth does not need to be restored unless it is
sensitive or caries is anticipated.
Conventional and resin composite are unacceptable materials for rest
preparations because of their low yield strength and low abrasion
resistance.
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CONNECTORS
The various components of removable partial dentures are connected together
by connectors. Connectors are described as being either
A- Major connectors. B. Minor connectors
Major Connectors
A major connector is the unit of R.P.D., which joins parts of the prosthesis
located on one side of the arch with those on the opposite side.
Functions of connectors:
1. Join the component parts of the denture together.
2. Contribute to the support of prosthesis, by distribution of stresses.
3. They may contribute tothe functions of bracing and reciprocation.
4. Contribute to retention of the prosthesis
5. Connectors resting on prepared dental or firm oral tissues provide indirect
retention. Connectors that are relieved from the underlying tissues or lie on
inclined surfaces do not provide indirect retention.
Classification:
a) According to the materials:Metallic or non metallic.
b) According to the rigidity: Rigid or non-rigid (stress breaking)
c) According to the dimensions: Bar, strap or plate.
d) According to the location: Maxillary or mandibular .
Principles for design for major connectors: see biomechanics
L-bar or L-beam principle.
Circular configuration.
Strut configuration.
General requirements of major connector:
1-Rigid: Rigidity is necessary to transmit and distribute stresses over the entire
supporting area and from one side of the arch to the other.
Other components of the partial denture such as retentive clasps, occlusal rests, and
indirect retainers can be effective only if the major connector is rigid.
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2- Must not impinge on the marginal gingiva: It should provide vertical support and
protect the soft tissue to avoid impingement of the gingival margin. In the maxillary
arch the border of the major connector should be located at least 6 mm from the
gingival margin, and 3mmin the mandible.
The border of the M C should be run parallel to the gingival margin of the teeth. If the
gingival margin must be crossed, the crossing should be at right angles to the margin
to produce the least possible contact with the soft tissues. Relief, or a space, must be
provided between the metal and soft tissue.
3- Must be properly located in relation to gingival and moving tissues. Bony or soft
tissue prominences should be avoided
4- Provide a means of obtainingindirect retention where indicated: The MC may act as
indirect retainer as in the form of lingual plate.
4- Provide an opportunity of positioning denture bases where needed; the selection of
the type of MC will at time be dictated by the location of the denture bases replace the
missing teeth.
5- Self cleansble not allow trapping of food particles
6- Not interfere with phonetics by using proper thickness and avoid covering the rugae
area if possible.
8- All adjoining minor connectors should cross-gingival tissues abruptly, and should
join major connectors at nearly a right angle.
7- Maintain patient comfort: Should provide patient's comfort through:
- Tapering the edges toward the tissues
- Prevent sharp angles or corners to prevent annoying tongue
- Prevent crossing of bony prominences as tori.
- Never place the connector on convex tooth surface or incisal third of teeth.
- The border should not end on the crest of prominent rugae but in the valleys
between these crests.
- They should be symmetric on both sides and cross the palate in straight line
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MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTORS
A maxillary major connector is the unit of R.P.D., which joins parts of the
prosthesis located on one side of the maxillary arch with those on the opposite side.
General form of maxillary major connectors
Maxillary major connectors are either in the form of bars, straps or plates. The bars
and straps are usually made of metals; the plates could be entirely made of metal or
sometimes a combination of metal and non-metal. However bars cover less amount
of tissues than plates.
The term bar is used whenever the anteroposterior width of the major-connector is
less than 8 mm. If the anteroposterior width of the major connector is in the 8 to 12
mm. range the term strap is applied. When more than 12 mm is covered the term
palatal plate is used. If the entire palate is covered, the term complete palatal plate
is used.
1-Bars
a. Bars are usually narrow, less than 8 mm in width (6-8 mm) and half oval in cross
section. Their margins are beveled and gently curved.
b. They cover lesser amounts of tissues.
c. However, bars require more bulk of metal in order to gain the required rigidity;
thisbulk may interfere with proper speech and may be untolerated by patients.
2-Straps
a. They are wide and thin palatal bars, more than 8 mm in width to gain the
necessary rigidity.
b. Having a uniform thickness, its width increased in distal extension base.
c. The palatal strap is well tolerated because it is not bulky.
d. A wide strap helps in the distribution of stresses of mastication over a wider area
of the palate and thus provides adequate support.
3-Extended palatal plates:
a. the words palatal plate are used to designate any thin, broad, contoured palatal
coverage covering one half or more of the hard palate.
b. The maximum area coverage contribute to
i. Wide distribution of the stresses falling on denture.
ii. Better support and retention of the prosthesis.
iii. Better horizontal stabilization of the prosthesis
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Structural Requirements of Maxillary Major Connectors
1. PLACEMENT OF BORDERS
a. The borders are placed at least 6 mm from the gingival margins.
b. When a 6 mm distance from the gingival margins cannot be obtained,
the metal may be extended onto the cingula of anterior teeth or onto
the lingual surfaces of the posterior teeth.
c. All borders should be tapered slightly towards the tissues to be less
perceptible to the patient.
d. The finished borders should be smoothly curved.
e. In the rugae region the border should pass through the valleys between
the crests of the rugae when possible.
f. The posterior border should not extend onto the movable soft palate,
g. The borders should be beaded.
h. Both anterior and posterior borders should cross the midline at right
angles, never diagonally.
i. The borders should run parallel rather than diagonal to the gingival
margin and if they cross the gingival margin they should be crossed
abruptly and at right angle to the margin in order to produce the least
possible soft tissue coverage.
2. THE METAL SHOULD NOT BE HIGHLY POLISHED ON THE TISSUE
SURFACE: to preserve intimate tissue contact, except where it crosses the
gingival margin
3. RELIEF OF THE MAJ OR CONNECTOR.
Usually no relief is required on the tissue surface of the major connector.
When crossing the gingival margins, the tissue surface should be lightly relieved
and highly polished. Little relief may be required in the presence of palatal tori
or prominent median
4. THICKNESS OF THE METAL should be uniform throughout the palate.
5. FUTURE LOSS OF ATURAL TEETH. When future loss of natural teeth is
anticipated a plate type design may be used. The plate should extend onto the
cingula of anterior teeth or onto the lingual surfaces of posterior teeth.
6. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FINISH LINE: see denture base
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7. TISSUE STOPS: see denture base
8. INTIMATE CONTACT between the tissue side of connector and
the palatal tissues is necessary for accommodation of RPD to
enhance its support, retention, and bracing.
9. BEADING
Beading is a term used to denote the scribing of a shallow groove on the
maxillary master cast outlining the palatal major connector exclusive of rugae areas
1. A palatal major connector should have a specially prepared seal along the border
of the connector where it contacts the soft tissues.
2. The seal is formed by a beading at the border of the major connector that
displaces the soft tissues slightly, this preventing food from collecting under the
maxillary major connector and help in preventing over growth of the palatal
tissues.
3. Beading is readily accomplished by using an appropriate instrument, such as a
cleoid carver. Care must be exercised to create a groove not in excess of 0. 5 mm
in width or depth at the edge of the design of the maxillary major connector. The
groove must fade out as it approaches within 6mm of the marginal gingiva. It
should fade out over the center of the cast when a hard midline suture is present.
Advantages of beading:
1- Prevents food debris from collection under the MC.
2- Provide a thinnest metal on the polished surface while maintain the necessary
strength. This is due tothe extra thickness of metal provided by the beading.
The purposes of beading are as follows:
1. To transfer the major connector design to the investment cast
2. To provide a visible finishing line for the casting
3. To ensure intimate tissue contact of connector with selected palatal tissue
Six basic types of maxillary major connectors are considered: Mac
1. Single palatal bar
2. Anterior-posterior palatal bars connector
3. Single palatal strap
4. U-shaped palatal connector
5. Combination anterior and posterior palatal strap type
6. Palatal plate-type connector
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MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTORS
I- PALATAL BARS
1- Anterior palatal bar
Indication:
It is rarely used alone but might be included in the
design in conjunction with posterior palatal bar when
indirect retention is required as in Kennedy class I and II
or long span class III.
Design:
It is located in the anterior palatal region, sometimes used when anterior
teeth are missing.
The bar should be located 6-8 mm behind gingival margin of anterior
teeth.
Disadvantages
a. The anterior palatal bar is intolerable by patients as it crosses the palatal
rugae where tongue activity is marked.
b. Speech difficulties may be encountered.
2- Middle palatal bar
Indication: The middle palatal bar is single bar, mainly used in short
bounded edentulous spans.
Design: The bar crosses the middle portion of the palate away from
the rugae area.
Advantages:
a. It is comfortable, well tolerated and inconspicuous by the tongue, hence
speech is not affected as the bar crosses the mid-palatal area away from both
the rugae area and the tongue.
b. It provides some support since it lies on the horizontal part of the palate.
c. Bracing is achieved because the bar prevents lateral movement of the
appliance.
Disadvantage:
a. It lacks the required rigidity unless made bulky.
b. It cannot be used in cases having large torus palatinus or prominent median
palatine raphe.
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3-Posterior palatal bar
Indication:
It is used in tooth supported posterior dentures and in unilateral
distal extension partial denture replacing one or two teeth.
Design:
a. It is located in close relation to the junction of the hard and
soft palate, or placed in level with the second molar.
b. The bar is narrow and half oval in cross-section.
Advantages
a. The bar exhibits limited palatal coverage and well tolerated by the tongue if
made with proper thickness. It is not likely to affect taste.
b. Bracing is provided by the part of bar contacting the lateral side of the palate.
c. Posterior palatal bar provides indirect retention for Kennedy class IV cases.
Disadvantages:
a. It is rarely used nowadays, because it cannot be made bulk, thus lacks the
required rigidity.
b. It cannot be used in cases having an extended large torus palatinus.
Single Posterior Palatal Bar:
Indications: In tooth- borne partial denture when second premolars and or first
molars are missing.
Design:
1. It is a narrow half oval with its thickest point at the center.
2. It is gently curved and should not form a sharp angle at junction with denture base.
3. It should not be placed further anterior to the second premolar. This position is
favorable for the tongue action.
Disadvantages:
1. For a single bar to maintain any degree of rigidity it should be bulky (less acceptable
by the patient).
2. It drives little support from bony palate because its narrow anteroposterior width.
3. Its use is limited to replace one ore two teeth on each side of the arc.
4. It is used only in interim PD until the definitive treatment can be rendered.
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Anterior PB Middle PB Posterior PB
Location Nearly 6mm away from
the gingival margin
Between the 1
st
molars Its posterior border lies
at the junction between
the hard and soft palate
Cross section Flat Flat Half oval
Function Connection and indirect
retention in class I & II
Connection Connection and indirect
retention in class IV
Tolerance Poor Well tolerated Well tolerated
Stability Gives lateral stability
Indications When a torus prevent
usage of middle or
posterior PB
Class III
Unilateral free end saddle
Esthetics Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory
4- Anteroposterior palatal bar (Ring Design, A-P bar)
Indication
1. It can be used in any class especially when the anterior and posterior abutments
are widely separated.
2. When a patient objects a large amount of palatal coverage.
3. It is almost used in any design especially in the presence of
torus palatinus and in dentures restoring anterior teeth.
Design:
Anterior palatal bar
- Flat thin, wide bar located 6 mm away from the gingival
margin of anterior teeth. Its borders should be placed in the depressions and
slopes of the rugae, never on their crests.
Posterior palatal bar
- Thick bar, half oval in cross-section, located as far posteriorly
on the hard palate, preferably in level with the second molar.
- Both anterior andposterior connectors should cross the midline
at a right angle rather than diagonally.
Longitudinal bars:
- Two bars, one on each side of the palate, at the junction of its horizontal and
vertical planes. They join the anterior and posterior bars forming the ring or circle
configuration. Thus, the metal forming the connector lies in two different
directions giving the connector strength and rigidity.
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Advantages:
a. The A-P bar is the most rigid bar type palatal major connector because it lies at
different planes.
b. It attains minimal soft tissue coverage
Disadvantages:
The anteroposterior bars should not be considered as the first choice
because of the following disadvantages:
1. Provides little support from the palate.
2. The anterior bar covers the rugae area and may interfere with phonetics and
patient's comfort.
3. Because the bars are narrow, extra bulk is required for rigidity.
4. The multiple borders and edges of the bars may annoy the tongue and are
intolerable by some nervous patients.
Contraindications:
a. The A-P bar is contraindicated in the following cases.
b. Patients exhibiting high, narrow palatal vault.
c. Patients having large tori extending to the junction of the hard and
soft palate.
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II- PALATAL STRAPS
The palatal strap is a wider and thinner than palatal bar, having uniform thickness.
1- anterior palatal strap (palatal horse-shoe, U-shaped)
Indications:
a. When several anterior teeth are being replaced. The
palatal horse-shoe is primarily indicated when
posterior teeth are to be replaced especially when a
large torus exists.
b. In tooth-borne partial dentures with anterior and
posterior teeth are missing.(bounded saddle).
c. When a hard midline suture or palatal torus cannot be
covered.
d. Tooth-supported unilateral edentulous situations with
provision for cross-arch attachment by either extracoronal retainers
or internal attachments.
Characteristics and Location:
a. It consists of U-shaped thin band of metal. The anterior border
placed 6 mm away from the gingival margin lying in the valleys
rather than the crests of the rugae area.
b. Posterior border at right angle to median suture line.
c. If the strap carried onto the cingula, the gingival margin must be
lightly relieved.
d. The lateral borders lies at the junction of the horizontal and vertical
slopes of the palate.
e. All borders should be curved, smooth and beaded.
f. Strap should be 8 mm wide or approximately as wide as the
combined width of a maxillary premolar and first molar.
g. Confined within an area bounded by the four principal rests.
When increased rigidity is required, metal thickness in the central portion may be
increased to 1.5 mm, or the width of the major connector may be increased to lie in
two planes.
A common error in the design of a U-shaped connector, is its proximity to or actual
contact with gingival tissue.
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Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) Usually none required except slight relief of elevated medial palatal raphe or
any exostosis crossed by the connector.
(2) One thickness of baseplate wax over basal seat areas (to elevate minor
connectors for attaching acrylic resin denture bases).
Beading
Waxing Specifications : Anatomic replica pattern equivalent to 22- to 24-gauge wax
depending on arch width.
Finishing Lines
(1) Undercut and slightly elevated.
(2) No farther than 2 mm medial from an imaginary line contacting lingual
surfaces of principal abutments and teeth to be replaced.
(3) Follow curvature of arch.
Advantages:
a. The connector provides some vertical support.
b. Indirect retention may be provided.
c. It solves the problem of missing anterior teeth especially when there is deep
anterior vertical overlap.
Disadvantages:
a. The palatal horse-shoe is a poor connector because it lacks the necessary
rigidity, this major connector should be avoided whenever possible
b. Lack of rigidity causes movement or spreading of the lateral borders of the
connector when vertical force is applied.
c. To obtain enough rigidity it should be made bulky, but this could interfere
with phonetics and might cause discomfort.
d. It covers the rugae area and interferes with phonetics and patient's comfort.
Contraindication:
For reasons of torque and leverage, a single palatal strap major connector
should not be used to connect anterior replacements with distal extension
bases.
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2-Middle Palatal Strap: [some text consider posterior palatal =(midpalatal) strap.]
The middle palatal strap is the most versatile and widely used maxillary
major connector.
Indications:
a. Tooth borne and tooth and tissue borne unilateral edentulous spaces
for cross arch stabilization.
b. Maxillarytooth borne PDwhen posterior teeth are missing.
c. Tooth-mucosa borne PDwhen minimal palatal support is required.
Design:
The strap lies on the central portion of the hard palate.
It consists of a wide, thin band of metal that crosses the palate.
Itsanterior border should be posterior to the rugae area and the posterior border
should terminate short of the junction of the hard and soft palate
The anteroposterior dimension of the middle palatal strap is usually little greater
than the posterior palatal strap.
Advantages of the middle palatal strap:
1. Provide greatest rigidity with less bulk of metal, because it is located in
three planes (horizontal, or vault of the palate; the vertical or lateral slopes of
the palate; the sagittal, or anterior slope of the palate).
2. Reduces gingival margin coverage to a minimum.
3. It is well tolerated because it can be kept away from the sensitive area
around the rugae and incisive papilla.
4. The anterior border lies just posterior to the commencement of the rugae
area, where the number of tactile receptors is smallest.
5. It is rarely annoying to the patient.
6. It can be made relatively narrow, for the small tooth supported prosthesis, or
much wider when the edentulous spaces are longer and the requirement for
support is correspondingly greater.
7. There is also minimal interference with phonetics.
8. It provides support to PDsince it covers a relatively large area of palate.
Disadvantages:
The patient may complaint from excessive palatal coverage.
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3-Posterior Palatal Strap
it should be a minimum of 8 mm. in width, and 1.5mm thickness.
Indication: In maxillary unilateral tooth borne RPDs of short span.
Advantages:
1. It provides better support than a palatal bar.
2. It distributes stresses of mastication over a wider area than a palatal bar.
Disadvantages:
1. The increased coverage of the palate as compared to the palatal bar may
be objectionable to some patients.
2. There may be some alteration of taste if made very wide.
Structural details:
1. The border should be beaded.
2. Should be wide (a minimum of 8 mm width) and thin (1.5 mm thickness).
3. Thicker central area for increased rigidity.
4- Anteroposterior palatal strap (Closed Horseshoe):
The anteroposterior palatal strap is a rigid connector;
indication:
(1) Class I and II arches in which excellent abutment and residual
ridge support exists, and direct retention can be made adequate
without the need for indirect retention.
(2) Longedentulous spans in Class II, modification 1 arches.
(3) Class IV arches in which anterior teeth must be replaced with a
removable partial denture.
(4) Inoperablepalatal tori that do not extend posteriorly to the junction
of the hard and soft palates.
(5) In tooth borne, and mucosa borne partial dentures when replacement of anterior
and posterior teeth isrequired.
Characteristics and Location:
The connector has similar location and structure to that of the
anteroposterior palatal bar except that both the anterior and posterior components
are in the form of straps.
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(1) Parallelogram shaped and open in center portion.
(2) Relatively broad (8 to 10 mm) anterior and posterior palatal straps.
(3) Lateral palatal straps (7 to 9 mm) narrow and parallel to curve of arch;
minimum of 6 mm from gingival crevices of remaining teeth or should extend
above the height of contour of the teeth..
(4) Anterior palatal strap:
anterior border positioned as back as possible on the rugae area to
minimize interference with speech , not placed farther anteriorly than anterior
rests and never closer than 6 mm to lingual gingival crevices; follows the
valleys of the rugae at right angles to the median palatal suture.
Posterior border, if in rugae area, follows valleys of rugae at right
angles to the median palatal suture.
(5) Posterior palatal connector: posterior border located at junction of hard and
soft palates and at right angles to median palatal suture and extended to
hamular notch area(s) on distal extension side(s).
(6) Anatomic replica or matte surface.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) Usually none required except slight relief of elevated median palatal raphe
where anterior or posterior straps cross the palate.
(2) One thickness of baseplate wax over basal seat areas (to elevate minor
connectors for attaching acrylic resin denture bases).
Waxing Specifications
(1) Anatomic replica patterns or matte surface forms of 22-gauge thickness.
(2) Posterior palatal componentA strap of 22-gauge thickness, 8 to 10 mm
wide (a half-oval form of approximately 6-gauge thickness and width) may
also be used.
Finishing Lines : Same as for single broad palatal major connector.
Advantages:
a. Rigidity and strength of the connector because it lies at two different
planes, allow the metal to be used in thinner sections.
b. Provides good support due to wide palatal coverage.
c. Good retention and stability could be achieved.
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III- Extended palatal plate (Complete Palatal Coverage)
A palatal plate connector covers half or more of the palatal surface. It is a
uniformly shaped, thin plate reproducing the anatomic contour of the palate. It is
characterized by wide palatal coverage contributing to maximum support and retention,
also helps in horizontal stabilization and bracing of the restoration..
Types of complete palatal plates
1- Metal plate: Complete cast metal plate covering more than
half of the palate.
2- Resin plate: Complete resin plate covering the whole palate.
see denture base for detail
3- Combination, metal, and resin plate: Anterior metallic part
having provisions for mechanical retention to attach an
acrylic posterior portion.
Indications:
1. Class I partially edentulous arches when all posterior teeth are
to be replaced. (Only six remaining anterior teeth).
2. If anterior edentulous areas are present in conjunction with bilateral distal-
extension bases.
3. Class II arch with a large posterior modification space and some missing anterior
teeth.
4. Cases having shallow vault or flat ridge as the complete plate will provide good
stabilization.
5. Where heavy occlusion demands maximum support.
6. Class III Kennedy with modifications, when the condition of the abutment is
poor.
7. Patients with cleft palate.
8. When the partial denture is considered a transitional prosthesis (acrylic palatal
plate is used).
9. Should be used whenever maximum tissue support is desired.
10. V- or U-shaped palates
Characteristics and Location:
The anterior border of the plate is either placed 6: 8 mm away from the
gingival margin following valleys of rugae as near right angle to median suture
line, or the anterior border may be extended to lie on the survey line or above
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cingulae of anterior teeth, in this case-the gingival margin should be slightly
relieved.
The posterior border of the plate at right angle to the median suture line;
extended to pterygomaxillary notches (hamular notch )area(s) on distal extension
side. It extends to the junction of the hard and soft palate. It should provide a
peripheral seal, which adds to the retention of the denture.
The borders are beaded to prevent debris from collecting beneath the plate.
The posterior palatal seal that is used with complete dentures can not be used
with a removable partial denture. Because of the rebound of the tissues under
compression, place unnecessary extra forces on the abutment teeth. The intimate
contact of the cast metal palate aids retention through adhesive and cohesive forces.
The palatal plate should be located anterior to the posterior palatal seal area. The
maxillary complete denture's typical posterior palatal seal is not necessary with a
maxillary partial denture's palatal plate because of the accuracy and stability of the
cast metal.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) Usually nonerequired except relief of elevated median palatal raphe or any
small exostoses covered by the connector.
(2) One thickness of baseplate wax over basal seat areas (to elevate minor
connectors for attaching acrylic resin denture bases).
Waxing Specifications
Anatomic replica pattern equivalent to 24-gauge sheet wax thickness.
Finishing Lines
(1) Provision for butt-type joint at pterygomaxillarynotches.
(2) Undercut and slightly elevated.
(3) No farther than 2 mm medial from animaginary line contacting the lingual
surfaces of the missing natural teeth.
(4) Following curvatureof arch.
Advantages:
1. The plate is well tolerated by most of the patients. Its uniform thinness and the
thermal conductivity of the metal are designed to make the palatal plate more
readily acceptable to the tongue and underlying tissue.
2. The plate covering different palatal planes provide more rigidity.
3. The extensive area coverage contributes to:
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a- Wide distribution of load and maximum support of the
prosthesis.
b- Horizontal stabilization (reduce the movement of the base during
function).
c- Direct-indirect retention due to the extended extension that
increased interfacial surface tension, good peripheral seal and
physiologicretention by dorsum of the tongue.
4. The plate may help in splinting periodontally weak teeth.
5. It offers maximum rigidity, support and retention to the partial denture
Disadvantages:
a- The plate cannot be used in the presence of palatine tori.
b- Full coverage may cause tissue inflammation if adequate oral hygiene is not
practiced and it may cause alteration in taste.
c- Complete palatal coverage may alter taste and tactile sensation.
The palatal plate may be used in any one of three ways.
1- As a plate of varying width that covers the area between two or more edentulous
areas,
2- As a complete or partial cast plate that extends posteriorly to the junction of the
hard and soft palates,
3- or in the form of an anterior palatal connector with a provision for extending an
acrylic resin denture base posteriorly.
Modified palatal plate
Indications:
a. Tooth-Mucosa Borne RPDs.
b. If complete palatal coverage is not required or unacceptable to patient.
The width varies proportionate1y with
1- Therequirement for muco-osseous support
2- The length of the edentulous span
3- Amount of anticipated occlusal forces
4- Bone index of abutment teeth or the residual ridge
5- Periodontal status of abutment teeth
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Split maxillary major connectors
Permits a variable degree of independent movement of the
muco-osseous supported segment of the RPD.
Indications.
a.May be used where some stress release from the
abutment teeth is desired through the major connector.
b.May be used in place of stress releasing clasps or
stress directors.
Design:
a.Degree of stress release is determined by the width and thickness
of the connection remaining and by the type of metal used.
b.Separation of the segments should be wide enough or very narrow
to avoid pinching the tongue or palatal mucosa.
c.The cast framework can flex in a single plane without work
hardening and eventual fracture.
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Sequence of design considerations for a maxillary major connector:
In 1953 Blatterfein described a systematic approach to designing maxillary
major connectors. His method involves five basic steps and is certainly applicable to
most maxillary removable partial denture situations.
Step 1: Outline of primary bearing areas. The primary bearing areas are those that
will be covered bythe denture base(s).
Step 2: Outline of nonbearing areas. The nonbearingareas are
the lingual gingival tissue within 5 to 6 mm of the remaining
teeth, hard areas of the medial palatal raphe (including tori), and
palatal tissue posterior to the vibrating line. (Nonbearing areas
outlined in black).
Step 3: Outline of connector areas. Steps 1 and 2, when
completed, provide an outline or designate areas that are
available to place components of major connectors.
Step 4: Selection of connector type.
Selection of the type of connector(s) is based on four
factors: mouth comfort, rigidity, location of denturebases, and indirect retention.
To achive mouth comfort connectors should be of (1) minimum bulk ,(2)
positioned so that interference with the tongue during speech and mastication is not
encountered.
Connectors shouldhave a maximumof rigidity to distribute stress bilaterally.The
double-strap type of major connector provides the maximum rigidity without bulk and
total tissue coverage.
In many instances the choice of a strap type of major connector is limited by the
location of the edentulous ridge areas. When edentulous areas arelocated anteriorly,
the use of only a posterior strap is not recommended. By the same token, when only
posterior edentulous areas are present, the use of only an anterior strap is not
recommended.
The need for indirect retention influences the outline of the major connector.
Provision must be made in the major connector so that indirect retainers may be
attached.
Step 5: Unification. After selection of the type of major connector, the denture base
areas and connectorsare joined.
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B- MANDIBULAR MAJOR CONNECTORS
Mandibular major connectors used in partial dentures are either in the form of
bars or plates.
Structural Requirements for Mandibular Major Connectors:
1- PLACEMENT OF BORDERS.
a. The superior borders are placed a t least 3 mm from the gingival margins and
parallel to the free gingival margin or for the lingual plate it should be extends to
the cingulae of the anterior teeth in which the gingival margin should be relieved.
Where a 3 mm distance from the gingival margins cannot be obtained, the metal
should extend on to the cingula of anterior teeth or onto the lingual surfaces of the
posterior teeth.
b. The inferior border should be gently rounded above the moving tissues of the
floor of the mouth and should not interfere with the soft tissue movement of the
floor of the mouth.
2. Beading is never indicated because of the need for relief under all mandibular major
connectors,
3- The metal should be highly polished on the tissue side to minimize plaque
accumulation.
4-RELIEF: Relief (0.5-1mm) must be provided between the mandibular major
connectors and the soft tissue to prevent the margins of the connectors from
inflammation or laceration the friable lingual mucosa during movement.
The amount of relief depends on
a) Thetype of removable partial denture.
For an all tooth-supported prosthesis a minimum of relief is neededbecausethe
denture does not tend to move, (30 gauge, 0.010 inch)
Whereina distal extension partial denture needs more relief because it tends to
rotate during function.
b) The slope of the lingual tissue.
If the lingual slope is near vertical, this needs minimal relief. If the lingual slope
is toward tongue, maximum relief is needed. If lingual slope have undercut,
sufficient space which may create during blocks out the undercut, and not need
additional relief.
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A. Slope of tissue is nearly vertical; minimal relief is needed B- Tissue slope toward the tongue,
maximum relief is needed C- Lingual ridge is undercut; no additional relief is required .
c) Relationship of the fulcrum line to the major connector.
o When the fulcrum line is posterior to the major connector less
relief is usually required (28 gauge, 0.013 inch to 26 gauge, 0.016 inch).
o When the fulcrum line is anterior to the major connector more relief is
usually required (26 gauge, 0.016 inch to 24 gauge, 0.020 inch).

d) Quality of supporting structures.
- Periodontal status of the abutment teeth. Increased mobility of the
abutment teethrequires more relief of the major connector.
- Quality of the muco-osseous supporting tissues. Residual ridges with
increased displaceability may require more relief of the major connector.
- Bone index. Where the residual ridge exhibits a poor bone index, more relief
maybe required to compensate for resorptive changes occurring.
e) Movement of the dento-alveolar segment.
- When anterior teeth have a pronounced labial inclination,
more relief may be required. It may be impossible to direct
occlusal forces along the long axes of teeth. With such an
inclination, a continued labial migration of teeth may occur. labial migration
may result in the major connector impinging onsoft tissues.
Loading force (F) applied to tooth. Force is not directed along long axis, tooth may
move labially. Lingual bar may impinge on soft tissues
f) Lingual tori may require additional relief.
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Six types of mandibular major connectors are: Mac
1. Lingual bar
2. Sublingual bar
3. Cingulum bar (continuous bar)
4. Lingual bar with cingulum bar (continuous bar)
5. Linguoplate
6. Labial bar
1- Lingual bar
The lingual bar is the simplest of the mandibular connectors,
and should be used in preference to other mandibular major connectors
whenever possible.
Indication:
It is the first choice major connector, should be used whenever the
functional depth of the lingual vestibule equal or exceed 7 mm. (sufficient
space exists between the slightly elevated alveolar lingual sulcus and the
lingual gingival tissue).
If future additions of prosthetic teeth to the framework to
replace extracted natural teeth are not anticipated.
Diastemas or open cervical embrasures of anterior teeth.
Overlapped anterior teeth.
Characteristics and Location:
1. The lingual bar is and located on the lingual side of the
alveolar ridge.
2. It should be a half-pear shape in cross section, tapered superiorly with the
broader and thicker portion at the inferior border.
3. Superior inferior dimension is 3-5 mm, and it is 2 mm in thickness.
4. Upper border of the connector should be 3-4mm below
and parallel to the free gingival margin to avoid
hypertrophy to the soft tissues.(3-4mm from gingival
margin)
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5. The inferior border should be gently rounded above the moving tissues of the
floor of the mouth; to avoid irritation or injuring the subadjacent tissues when
the restoration moves.( vestibule must be 7mm at least)
6. The bar should be relieved sufficiently but not excessively over the underlying
tissues, Lingual tori are generously relieved when surgery is contraindicated.
7. The normal thickness is a 6-gauge, it may be altered to some degree if additional
rigidity is needed, but care must be taken to avoid tongue interference during
speech or mastication.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) All tissue undercuts parallel to path of placement.
(2) An additional thickness of 32-gauge sheet wax when the lingual surface of the
alveolar ridge is either undercut or parallel to the path of placement.
(3) No relief is necessary when the lingual surface of the alveolar ridge slopes
inferiorly and posteriorly.
(4) One thickness of baseplate wax over basal seat areas (to elevate minor
connectors for attaching acrylic resin denture bases).
Waxing Specifications
(1) Six-gauge, half-pear-shaped wax form reinforced by 22- to 24-gauge sheet wax
or similar plastic pattern adapted to the design width.
(2) Long bar requires more bulk than short bar; however, cross-sectional shape is
unchanged.
Finishing Lines
Butt-type joint(s) with minor connectors) for retention of denture base(s).
Advantages of the lingual bar:
1. Simplicity and efficiency.
2. Patient tolerance.
3. Limited tissue coverage (hygienic).
4. It does not contact teeth or gingival tissues allowing normal physiologic
stimulation of the tissues.
Disadvantages
Long lingual bars may attain some flexibility, especially if they are poorly
constructed or designed.
Difficult to add additional prosthetic teeth to framework.
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Framework goes from thick (at the minor connectors) to thin (at the bar) to
thick again which is metallurgically and structurally complicated. The
result may be weak areas in the casting with the potential to fracture.
Contraindications:
1- Inadequate space between the free gingival margin and the floor of the
mouth. Less than 7 mm exists between the marginal gingiva and the
activated lingual frenum and floor of the mouth.
2- Extreme lingual inclination of lower anterior teeth.
3- Patients having high lingual frenular attachment.
4- The presence of bilateral torus mandibularis contraindicates the use of the
lingual bar because they interfere with the proper placement of the bar. Tori
require adequate relief, which minimize the rigidity of the connector.
5- The presence of an undercut on the lingual side of the ridge could cause gross
food entrapment and discomfort in the presence of the lingual bar.
The lingual bar functions only as a major connector. It does not provide neither
support nor indirect retention.
2- The Sublingual bar
The sublingual bar is a modification of the lingual bar.
Indications:
1. When the lingual bar cannot be used because of a lack of
functional depth of the lingual vestibule (depth of 5-7 mm).
2. Reduced height of the alveolar ridge, due to bone resorption or
elevation of the floor of the mouth during functional movement.
3. Highly attached lingual frenum.
4. Distal extension RPD situations with sloped or parallel lingual
alveolar ridges where a lingual bar would rotate into the lingual
alveolus as the base area rotates tissue-ward.
5. Diastemas and open cervical embrasures of anterior teeth.
Contraindications
When lingual bar or lingual plate is sufficient.
When future additions of prosthetic teeth to framework are anticipated.
Remaining natural anterior teeth severely tilted toward the lingual.
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Characteristics and Location:
The sublingual bar is essentially a lingual bar rotated 45 degrees. (Half-
pear shape as a lingual bar except that the bulkiest portion is located to the
lingual and the tapered portion is toward the labial).
it may described as having a tear drop configuration in cross section whose base is
towards the base of the tongue.
The superior border of the bar should be located at least 3 mm from the
gingival margins of all adjacent teeth.
The inferior border is located at the height of the alveolar lingual sulcus
when the patient's tongue is slightly elevated. This necessitates a
functional impression of the lingual vestibule to accurately register the
height of the vestibule.
The sublingual bar is located on the alveo-lingual sulcus inferior to the
usual site of the lingual bar; extending over and parallel to the anterior
floor of the mouth.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) All tissue undercuts parallel to path of placement.
(2) An additional thickness of 32-gauge sheet wax when the lingual surface of the
alveolar ridge is either undercut or parallel to the path of placement.
(3) One thickness of baseplate wax over basal seat areas (to elevate minor
connectors for attaching acrylic resin denture bases).
Waxing Specifications
(1) Six-gauge, half-pear-shaped wax form reinforced by 22- to 24-gauge sheet wax
or similar plastic pattern adapted to design width.
(2) Long bar bulkier than short bar; however, crosssectional shape unchanged.
Finishing Lines Butt-type joint(s) with minor connectors) for retention of
denture base(s).
Advantages of the sublingual bar
1. It is well tolerated by most of the patients.
2. It does not cover the teeth or tissues. It permits exposure of the gingival tissue
and the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth allowing for the natural physiologic
stimulation of the gingiva.
3. Proper oral hygiene conditions could be maintained as the sublingual bar
allows for proper tooth and tissue cleaning.
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4. Some dentists suggested the use of sublingual bar because the under side of
the tongue is relatively sparsely provided with tactile receptors.
5. More rigid than a lingual bar in the horizontal plane.
Disadvantages:
A functional impressionof the vestibule is required to accurately register
the position and contour of the vestibule.
To determine the relative height of the floor of the mouth:
a) The first method is to measure the height of the floor of the mouth in relation to the
lingual gingival margins of adjacent teeth with a periodontal probe.
During these measurements, the tip of the patient's tongue should be just lightly
touching the vermilion border of the upper lip. Recording of these measurements
permits their transfer to both diagnostic and master casts, thus ensuring a rather
advantageous location of the inferior border of the major connector.
b) The second method is to use an individualized impression tray having its lingual
borders 3 mm short of the elevated floor of the mouth and then to use an impression
material that will permit the impression to be accurately molded as the patient licks the
lips. The inferior border of the planned major connector can then be located at the
height of the lingual sulcus of the cast resulting from such an impression. Of the two
methods, we have found the measuring of the height of the floor of the mouth to be less
variable and more clinically acceptable.
3- Mandibular cingulum bar (continuous bar)
Indication
Where there is insufficient room for the lingual bar,
between gingival margin and the floor of the mouth, and
unless the periodontal health is well maintained.
The teeth should have good mesiodistal contact with sufficient crown
length.
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Kennedy bar
It is known as secondarylingual bar, continuous bar or cingulurn bar.
It is used alone or in conjunction with a lingual bar forming the double lingual bar, to
add to the strength and rigidity of the denture.
Kennedy bar is not indirect retainer by itself.
Contraindications
(1) Anterior teeth severely tilted to the lingual.
(2) When wide diastemata exist between the mandibular anterior teeth and the
cingulum bar would objectionably display metal in a frontal view.
Characteristics and Location:
(1) Thin, narrow (3 mm) metal strap located on cingula of anterior teeth, scalloped
to follow interproximal embrasures with inferior and superior borders tapered to
tooth surfaces.
(2) Originates bilaterally from incisal, lingual, or occlusal rests of adjacent
principal abutments.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
No relief for cingulum bar except blockout of interproximal spaces parallel
to the path of placement.
Waxing Specifications
Cingulum bar pattern formed by adapting two strips (3 mm wide) of 28-
gauge sheet wax, one at a time, over the cingula and into interproximal embrasures.
Finishing Lines
Butt-type joint(s) with minor connectors for retention of denture base(s).
Advantages
Permitsexposure of the gingival tissue that allows natural stimulation but
It eliminates the need of indirect retainer,
Disadvantages
The metal bulk of the bar may be disadvantage and esthetic may be
compromised, if spacing is present.
The open space may traps food and may exacerbate gingival trauma and it may
be objectionable to the tongue.
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4- The Double lingual bar:
The double lingual bar is a major connector, which consists of a lingual bar and a
cingulum bar (Kennedy bar).
Indication
1-When indirect retention is required.
2-When periodontally affected teeth that require splinting are
present.
3- When a linguoplate is indicated but the axial alignment of anterior teeth is
such that excessive blockout of interproximal undercuts would be required.
4- When wide diastemata exist between mandibular anterior teeth and a
Linguoplate would objectionably display metal in a frontal view.
Contraindications:
- When the teeth have short clinical crowns or inclined lingually.
Characteristics and Location:
a- The upper bar
1. The Kennedy bar is a thin, narrow, scalloped, 3 mm wide metal strap
which located on or slightly abovethe cingulae of anterior teeth.
2. It should be half-oval in cross section and approximately 2 to 3 mm.
high and 1mm. thick at its greatest diameter.
3. It is joined to the lingual bar via two rigid minor connectors, which are
located in the interproximal spaces, usually between the canines and first
premolars.
4. Two supporting rests must be placed one on each end of the Kennedy
bar. These rests prevent settling of the bar during function, thus preventing
laceration of the gingiva and ulceration of the mucosa covering the floor of
the mouth.
b- The lower bar
It should havethe same design as a single lingual bar, half pear-shaped in
cross section with the greatest diameter at the inferior margin.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) Lingual surface of alveolar ridge and basal seat areas same as for lingual bar.
(2) No relief for continuous bar except blockout of interproximal spaces parallel
to path of placement.
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Waxing Specifications
(1) Lingual bar component waxed and shaped same as lingual bar.
(2) Continuous bar pattern formed by adapting two strips (3 mm wide) of 28-
gauge sheet wax, one at a time, over the cingula and into interproximal
embrasures.
Finishing Lines
Butt-type joint(s) with minor connectors) for retention of denture base(s).
Advantages of the double lingual bar:
1. The open space allows natural stimulation of gingival tissue.
2. Provides stabilization against lateral forces.
3. The configuration of this bar adds to the strength and rigidity of the denture.
4. Proper distribution of the stresses acting on the partial denture to all teeth.
5. Helps in splinting of periodontally affected teeth.
6. The double lingual bar acts as an indirect retainer through its terminal rests.
7. The continuous bar may be considered with excessive interproximal undercuts
and the linguoplate major connector cannot be used.
8. It may be modified to circumvent a diastema between teeth.
Disadvantages:
1. It is objectionable to the tongue and thus poorly tolerated by patients.
2. If the open space is insufficient may collect food and produce tissue irritation.
3. May cause phonetic problems.
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6- Lingual Plate (closed Kennedy bar)
The lingual plate is the most rigid
mandibular major connector. It provides better
bracing than do other mandibular connectors. It
also provides cross-arch stabilization and splinting
for weak teeth.
Indications:
1- When the space available is insufficient for the construction of a rigid
lingual bar as in cases with high lingual frenular attachment or high floor of
the month. May be used when the functional depth of the lingual vestibule
is less than 5 mm
2 When additional strength is required in cases having mandibular tori which
are contraindicated for surgical removal.
3- In distal extension bases where indirect retention is
required.
4- In Kennedy class I cases exhibiting excessive loss
of the residual ridges where the lingual plate can
provide resistance against horizontal movement of
the partial denture.
5- Whenfuture replacement of teeth is expected.
6- In patients intolerable to lingual bars.
7. It is particularly useful in stabilizing periodontally weakened teeth
Characteristics and Location:
It is an extended lingual bar that crosses the relieved gingival margin to
terminates above the cingulae of anterior teeth or survey line of posterior
teeth in the form of a plate.
1. Half-pear shaped with bulkiest portion inferiorly located.
2. Thin metal apron extending superiorly to contact cingula of anterior teeth and
lingual surfaces of involved posterior teeth at their height of contour.
3. Apron extended interproximally to the height of contact points, i. e., closing
interproximal spaces.
4. Scalloped contour of apron as dictated by interproximal blockout.
5. Superior border finished to continuous plane with contacted teeth.
6. Inferior border at the ascertained height of the alveolar lingual sulcus when
the patient's tongue is slightlyelevated.
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7. The superior border must positively contact the lingual surfaces of the teeth
above the survey line to avoid food entrapment.
8. The superior border should be thin, knife edged scalloped border, sharply
projected between the teeth, and should never be placed above the middle
third of the teeth.
9. The inferior border of the lingual plate is a half-pear shaped placed at the
functional limit of the floor of the mouth.
10. Adequate block-out is required for teeth and soft tissue undercuts.
11. Gingival margins should be relieved to avoid gingival irritation. Excessive
relief should be avoided because tissues tend to fill a void, resulting in the
overgrowth of abnormal tissue. The amount of relief used, therefore, should
be only the minimum necessary to avoid gingival impingement
12. The lingual plate must always be supported at each end by rests, to
provide indirect retention.
13. when a single diastema exists a notched lingual plate could be used to avoid
display of metal.
Interrupted linguoplate
When the anterior teeth are quite spaced and the patient strenuously
objects to metal showing through the spaces,the linguoplate can then be
constructed so that the metal will not appreciably show through the spaced
anterior teeth. Rigidity of the major connector is not greatlyaltered.
However, such a design may be as much of a food trap as the continuous
bar type of major connector.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) All involved undercuts of contacted teeth parallel to the path of placement.
(2) All involved gingival crevices.
(3) Lingual surface of alveolar ridge and basal seat areas the same as for a lingual
bar.
Waxing Specifications
(1) Inferior border6-gauge, half-pear-shaped wax form reinforced with 24-
gauge sheet wax or similar plastic pattern.
(2) Apron24-gauge sheet wax.
Finishing Lines
Butt-type joint(s) with minor connectors for retention of denture base(s).
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Advantages
1. The most rigid mandibular major connector.
2. It gives indirect retention to the partial denture.
3. Deflect food from impacting on lingual tissues.
4. Provide resistance against horizontal or lateral forces.
5. Permits the replacement of lost tooth without remaking the PD.
6. Help in splinting and prevent super-eruption of the anterior teeth.
7. Patients frequently consider the lingual plate to be more comfortable and more
acceptable for tongue comfort and ease in phonetics than the lingual bar.
The lingual palate is the most rigid mandibular connector, and provides more
support and stabilization than do the other connectors.
Disadvantages of the lingual plate:
It prevents normal physiologic stimulation of the gingival tissue and the self
cleansing action of the teeth by the saliva and tongue.
Encourages plaque formation, and may contribute to caries and periodontal
disease in patient with poor oral hygiene.
Covers more tooth and gingival tissues than other mandibular connectors.
Contraindications:
A lingual bar may be used.
Overlapped anterior teeth where the undercuts in the area of the superior edge
of the plate can not be removed. Frequently this criteria can not be met and a
lingual plate which will have small gaps between the superior edge of the plate
and the teeth must be used.
Lingually inclined teeth.
Diastemas, unless the lingual plate can have slots in it to avoid display of metal.
Open cervical embrasures where the plate would be visible.
The linguoplate does not in itself serve as an indirect retainer. When indirect
retention is required, definite rests must be provided for this purpose. Both the
linguoplate and the cingulum bar should ideally have a terminal rest at each end
regardless of the need for indirect retention. However, when indirect retainers are
necessary, these rests may also serve as terminal rests for linguoplate or continuous bar.
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6-Labial and buccal bars:
The labial bar connector situated in the labial or buccal sulcus.
Indications:
1. In case of extreme lingual inclination of mandibular anterior and premolar
teeth that prevents the use of a lingual major connector.
2. When large lingual tori exist and surgery isprecluded.
3. When severe and abrupt lingual tissue undercuts make it impractical to use a
lingual bar or lingual plate major connector.
Design:
1. It should be made with greater thickness and bulk than
a lingual bar to counteract the increased flexibility due
to increased length.
2. It is half-pear shaped with bulkiest potion located
inferiorly, runs across the labial and buccal mucosa.
Superior border tapered to soft tissue located at least 4 mm. below the gingival
margin.
3. Relief is required beneath the bar. It must be relieved
over the canine eminence.
4. It is half pear shaped in cross-section.
5. Labial vestibule should be adequate to allow the
superior border to be place at leas 3-4 mm below the
free gingival margins.
6. Inferior border located in the labial-buccal vestibule at the juncture of
attached (immobile) and unattached (mobile) mucosa.
Blockout and Relief of Master Cast
(1) All tissue undercuts parallel to path of placement, plus an additional thickness of
32-gauge sheet wax when the labial surface is either undercut or parallel to the path
of placement".
(2) No relief necessary when the labial surface of the alveolar ridge slopes inferiorly
to the labial or buccal.
(3) Basal seat areas same as for lingual bar major connector.
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Waxing Specifications
(1) Six-gauge, half-pear-shaped wax form reinforced with 22- to 24-gauge sheet
wax or similar plastic pattern.
(2) Long bar necessitates more bulk than short bar; however, cross sectional shape
unchanged.
(3) Minor connectors joined with occlusal or other superior components by a labial
or buccal approach.
(4) Minor connectors for base attachment joined by a labial or buccal approach.
Finishing Lines
Butt-type joint(s) with minor connector(s) for retention of denture base(s).
Advantages:
The labial bar obviates the need for surgical
intervention to permit use of a lingual major
connector.
It solves the problem of severely inclined teeth and
avoids surgical intervention to remove a large
torus.
Disadvantages:
1. The labial bar usually lacks sufficient rigidity.
2. Labial vestibular depth must be adequate especially in the presence of gingival
recession.
3. The least comfortable mandibular major connector.
4. It distorts the lower lip and the presence of the metal between the gingival tissue
and the lip causes patient discomfort.
5. Difficult to add prosthetic teeth to framework.
Contraindications:
When lingual major connector may be used.
Facial tori or exostoses.
The facial alveolar ridge is undercut.
High facial muscle attachments which would result in less than 3 mm of
space between the superior edge of the labial bar and the marginal gingiva
of the teeth.
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7- The Swing Lock Partial Denture:
The hinged continuous labial bar (called the Swing-lock design partial
denture) is a modification of the labial bar.
Indications
1- Missing key abutmentssuch as a canine.
2- Unfavorable tooth contours: When existing tooth contours
(uncorrectable by recontouring with appropriate restorations) or excessive
labial inclinations of anterior teeth prevent conventional clasp designs,
3- Unfavorable soft tissue contours. Extensive soft tissue undercuts may
prevent proper location of component parts of a conventional removable
partial denture
3- Periodontally affected Teeth with questionable prognosis: The Swing
lock partial denture provides splinting.
Design
It is consists of a labial or buccal bar that is connected
to the major connector by a hinge on one end and a
latch at the other end.
The labial bar is connected to a lingual plate major connector by a hinge
device at one end and a locking device at the other end. Vertical minor
connectors arise from the labial bar and may touch the anterior teeth either
below or above the survey line.
Support is provided by multiple rests on the remaining natural teeth.
Stabilization and reciprocation are provided by a linguoplate contacting the
remaining teeth and are supplemented by the labial bar with its retentive
struts. Retention is provided by a bar type of retentive clasp arms projecting
from the labial or buccal bar and contacting the infrabulge areas on the labial
surfaces of the teeth.
Advantages:
1- providing both retention and stabilization.
2- The labial bar together with the lingual plate
provides the required rigidity, thus the labial bar does not require much bulk.
Contraindications
1- Poor oral hygiene.
2- The presence of shallow buccal or labial vestibule.
3- The presence of high labial frenal attachment
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8- Split lingual major connector:( SPLIT MANDIBULAR)
It is a flexible connector, used where some stress release from the
abutment teeth is desired. Inevitably, this stress broken design is a more
complex construction and thus more costly, and may also pose greater demands
on plaque control and be less well tolerated by the patient.
Indications.
a. May be used where some stress release from the abutment teeth is
desired through the major connector.
b. May be used in place of stress releasing clasps or stress directors.
Design:
a. May be fabricated in a single casting or in combination with a soldered
wrought wire of large diameter.
b. Due to the stress concentration, there may be a tendency to fracture at
the union of the bars.
9- Dental bar
On occasions, there is insufficient room between gingival margin and floor of
the mouth for either a sublingual or lingual bar. A lingual plate should be
avoided wherever possible because it might well tip the delicate balance
between health and disease in favour of the latter.
An alternative connector, where the clinical crowns are long enough, is the
dental bar. Patient tolerance inevitably places some restriction on the cross-
sectional area of this connector and thus some reduction in rigidity may have to
be accepted.
Dental bar is similar to continuous clasp, but of cross-sectional area and without
lingual bar. Useful for teeth with long clinical crowns. Provides support and indirect
retention. It may not be well tolerated.
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Sequence of design considerations for a mandibular major connector
Step 1: Outline the basal seat areas on the diagnostic cast
Step 2: Outline the inferior border of the major connector
Step 3: Outline the superior border of the major connector
Step 4: Connect the basal seat area to the inferior and superior borders of the
major connector, and add minor connectors to retain the acrylic resin denture base
material
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FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF MAJOR CONNECTORS
1- Function:
o Maxillary: support, retentionand stability: The width of the major connector
may be varied according to the amount of support required. e,g anterior
and posterior palatal strap when good abutment support ,Complete palatal
coverage when mucosal support is desired
o Mandibular: need for indirect retention.
The tooth-mucosa borne partial denture derives support from the dento-alveolar and
muco-osseous segments.
Maxillary major connectors. Plate designs which derive support from the
muco-osseous segment (horizontal hard plate) are usually required. Strap designs are
usually not recommended.
Mandibular major connectors. mandibular major connectors do not provide
support since they do not contact the underlying mucosa.
In tooth born PD
1.Maxillary major connectors. Strap designs aloe generally preferred. Plate designs
which may derive support from the muco-osseous segment (horizontal hard palate) are
seldom indicated.
2- Anatomical consideration:
Maxillary: palatal tori
Mandibular:
Lingual tori
Lingual gingival recession
High lingual frenal attachment
Inclination of remaining anterior teeth.
When mandibular teeth are severely lingually inclined, a labial
bar major connector may be required.
When inadequate depth exists for a lingual bar (less than 7 mm), a sublingual bar
or a lingual plate may be utilized.
3- Hygiene:
Oral hygiene is better with lingual bar
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4- Rigidity:
The rigidity of the major connector may be increased by varying the
thickness or by placing the metal in two different planes.
5- Patient acceptability:
Strap or plate type major connectors, because they can be made thinner,
usually have a greater patient acceptance than the bar types.
Some patients may find the increased palatal coverage uncomfortable due to
alterations in gustatory, thermal or tactile perception.
Generally, posterior or mid palatal straps are less objectionable than anterior
palatal straps or bars.
6- Location of edentulous area:
The major connector must connect the components of the partial denture.
7- Anticipated loss of natural teeth
Plating the lingual surfaces of natural teeth facilitates the addition of artificial
teeth to the partial denture. However, it requires unfavorable coverage of teeth
and gingival tissues.
A palatal plate major connector may be used if the anticipated loss of an
abutment tooth will result in a tooth-mucosa borne partial denture. Plate designs
provide more mucoosseous support than do strap designs.
8- Location of fulcrum line:
The portion of the major connector located posterior to the indicated fulcrum
line may provide muco-osseous support for the RPD.
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Indications for Maxillary Major Connectors:
a) If the periodontal support of the remaining teeth is week, a wide palatal strap
or completely palatal coverage is indicated.
b) If the remaining teeth have adequate periodontal support and little additional
support is needed, a palatal strap or double palatal bar can be used.
c) For long-span distal extension bases, a closed horseshoe or complete palatal
coverage is indicated.
d) When anterior teeth must be replaced, a horseshoe, closed horseshoe, or
completely palatal coverage may be used.
e) If a torus is present and is not to be removed, a horseshoe, closed horseshoe, or
anteroposterior palatal bar may be used.
f) A single palatal bar is rarely indicated.
g) The combination anterior-posterior connector design may be used with any
Kennedy class of partially edentulous arch. It is used most frequently in Classes II
and IV, whereas the single wide palatal strap is more frequently used in Class III
situations. The palatal plate-type or complete coverage connector is used most
frequently in Class I situations.
Class 1 palatal plate-type
Class I partially edentulous arches with residual ridges that have undergone little
vertical resorption and will lend excellent support: SINGLE BROAD PALATAL
Class I and II arches in which excellent abutment and residual ridge support exists, and
direct retention can be made adequate without the need for indirect retention.
ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR STRAP-TYPE
Onlysome or all anterior teeth remain. COMPLETE PALATAL COVERAGE
Class I arch with one to four premolars and some or all anterior teeth remaining, and
abutment support is poor and cannot otherwise be enhanced; residual ridges have
undergone extreme vertical resorption; direct retention is difficult to obtain. COMPLETE
PALATAL COVERAGE
V- or U-shaped palates: SINGLE BROAD PALATAL
No interfering tori. SINGLE BROADPALATAL
Absence of a pedunculated torus. COMPLETE PALATAL COVERAGE
Inoperable palatal tori that do not extend posteriorly to the junction of the hard and soft
palates. ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR STRAP
Inoperable tori extend to the posterior limit of the hard palate. U-SHAPED PALATAL
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Class 2 : ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR STRAP
Long edentulous spans in Class II, modification 1 arches. ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR
STRAP
Class II arch with a large posterior modification space and some missing anterior teeth.
COMPLETE PALATAL COVERAGE
Class 3: single wide palatal strap
Bilateral edentulous spaces of short span in a tooth-supported restoration: SINGLE
PALATAL STRAP
Class 4 : ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR STRAP
Class IV arches in which anterior teeth must be replaced with a removable partial
denture. ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR STRAP
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Indications, for Mandibular Major Connectors:
1-For a tooth-supported, the lingual bar is normally the mandibular major
connector of choice
2- For long-span edentulous ridges in which there is no posterior abutment
tooth and indirect retention is needed ,the lingual plate is indicated .
3- When the anterior teeth have reduced periodontal support and need
stabilization, the lingual plate or double lingual bar may be used .
4- When mandibular tori are present, or when a high lingual frenum is present,
a lingual plate must be used.
5- For patient who have large inter-proximal spaces that cause esthetic
problems by the display of the metal of a lingual plate ,a double lingual bar
may be indicated.
6- The labial bar is rarely indicated.
Sufficient space exists between the slightly elevated alveolar lingual sulcus and the
lingual gingival tissue. MANDIBULAR LINGUAL BAR
height of the floor of the mouth in relation to the free gingival margins will be less than
6 mm MANDIBULAR SUBLINGUAL BAR
alveolar lingual sulcus so closely approximates the lingual gingival crevices
MANDIBULAR LINGUOPLATE
periodontally weakened teeth in group function to furnish support to the prosthesis and
to help resist horizontal (off vertical) rotation of the distal extension type of denture.
MANDIBULAR LINGUOPLATE
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future replacement of one or more incisor teeth MANDIBULAR LINGUOPLATE
linguoplate is indicated but the axial alignment of anterior teeth is such that excessive
blockout of interproximal undercuts would be required. MANDIBULAR LINGUAL BAR
WITH CONTINUOUS BAR
wide diastemata exist between mandibular anterior teeth and a Linguoplate would
objectionably display metal in a frontal view. MANDIBULAR LINGUAL BAR WITH
CONTINUOUS BAR
lingual plate or sublingual bar is otherwise indicated but the axial alignment of the
anterior teeth is such that the excessive blockout of interproximal undercuts would be
required. CINGULUM BAR
lingual inclinations of remaining mandibular premolar and incisor teeth cannot be
correctedLABIAL BAR
severe lingual tori cannot be removedLABIAL BAR
severe and abrupt lingual tissue undercuts make it impractical to use a lingual bar or
lingual plateLABIAL BAR
class 1
Class I arch residual ridges have undergone such vertical resorption that they will offer only
minimal resistance to horizontal rotations of the denture through its bases. MANDIBULAR
LINGUOPLATE
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MINOR CONNECTORS
A minor connector is that part of removable partial denture, which joins the
major connector or the partial denture base to other components of the prosthesis.
A minor connector is a component that links the major connector or base and
other components of the partial denture such as rests, indirect retainers and clasps.
Design Specifications:
Minor connectors that contacts the axial tooth surfaces or contacts the guiding
plane surfaces of the abutment teeth should fulfill the following requirements:
1. Minor connectors must have sufficient bulk to be rigid.
A typical minor connector is 2mm width and 1.5mm thickness in cross section.
2. The bulk of the minor connectors must be as unobjectionable as possible.
3. Where the minor connector joins a rest, a minimum metal thickness of 1.5 mm at
the junction is required for base metal alloys (2 mm for gold alloys).
4. Minor connector contacting the axial surface of an abutment should contact
guiding plane surfaces and should never be located on convex surfaces (why?).
5. Minor connector conforms to the interdental embrasure, (as in case of
embrasure clasp or that used as indirect retainer) passing vertically from the
major connector and covers as little of the gingival tissues as possible.
6. The surface of metal facing the tongue should be smooth and beveled. The minor
connector should be thickest toward the lingual surface and tapering toward
the contact area, to provide space for the arrangement of teeth. In this case they
are triangular in shape, the base of the triangle faces the tongue and the apex lies
toward the lingual contact area of teeth.
7. Should exhibit minimal gingival coverage; the lingual minor connector should
cross the gingival margins directly, joining the major connector at rounded right
angle
8. The junction between minor connector and major connector should be rounded
rather than angular. Sharp angles should be avoided and spaces should not
exist for the trapping of food debris.
9. The marginal gingiva crossed by any minor connectors should be relieved
especially in tooth-mucosa borne dentures.
10. There should be a minimum of 5mm space between any two neighboring minor
connectorsor from other vertical components.
11. Should be highly polished to minimize plaque accumulation.
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Functions of minor connectors:
1. J oining different parts of the prosthesis to the major connector, or to denture
bases.
2. Transfer and distribute functional stresses to the abutment teeth.
3. Transfer the effect of retainers, rests, and stabilizing units to the denture.
4. Minor connectors contacting guiding planes add to the retention and stability of
dentures (How).
Types of minor connectors:
I-Minor connectors that joint indirect retainers or auxiliary rests to the major
connector:
It isgenerally arisingfrom the major connector.
They should form a right angle with the major connector, but the
junction should be a gentle curve rather than a sharp angular connection.
The minor connector should be designed to lie in the embrasure between
teeth to disguise its bulk as mush as possible.
a- Proximal Minor Connectors
Proximal minor connectors contact an abutment tooth adjacent to an edentulous
space. Proximal minor connectors are usually termed Proximal Plates but are
sometimes call Guiding Plates, Struts and Finishing Plates.
Design
Proximal plates extend from the proximal facial line angle to, or slightly past,
the proximal lingual line angle of the abutment tooth. They are thin mesio-
distally and taper slightly toward the occlusal (incisal).
They extend from the occlusal/incisal of the tooth to the major connector. The
junction of rests and clasp arms with proximal minor connectors, and proximal
minor connectors to major connectors are rounded right angles.
They should be broad bucco-lingually to provide strength and thin mesio-
distally to minimize encroachment on the saddle area. This will enable the
artificial teeth to be positioned closely to the abutment tooth to achieve
satisfactory aesthetics.
They extend cervically and contact the mucosa of the ridge crest for 2-3 mm.
The part of the proximal minor connector which contacts the ridge crest is
called the Foot of the proximal plate
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Functions of Proximal plates
Connect rests and clasp arms to the major connectors,
Provide frictional retention by contact with guiding planes on the teeth,
Help reciprocate the force of the direct retainer,
Unite the dental arch by substituting for lost proximal tooth contacts
Distribute forces (bracing).
Contact proximal guiding planes on the teeth thus helping to determine the
path of placement of the RPD,
Prevent food impaction between proximal surfaceof the tooth and the RPD,
Provide a definite finish line for junction of denture base and connectors,
b- Embrasure Minor Connectors
If the direct retainer or auxiliary rest placed between two adjacent teeth, the
minor connector must be positioned in lingual embrasure between two teeth.
This resultsin sufficient bulk without encroaching on tongue space.
Design
It should be designed into the lingual embrasure between two adjacent teeth to
disguise bulk as much as possible.
They extend from the occlusal, incisal or cingulum surface of the tooth to the
major connector. They join the major connector in a rounded right angle to
avoid sharp corners and they taper slightly toward the occlusal (incisal).
Triangular shaped in cross section
Relief placed so connector not directly on soft tissue
Contact teeth above height of contour, so prevents wedging & tooth mobility
Functions of embrasure minor connectors
Connect rests and clasp arms to the major connectors,
Provide frictional retention by contact with guiding planes on the teeth,
Help reciprocate the force of the direct retainer,
Unite the dental arch by substituting for lost proximal tooth contacts
Distribute forces (bracing).
Contact inter-proximal guiding planes sohelping determine path of placement,
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c- Surface Minor Connectors
Surface minor connectors are located on the lingual surface of incisors
and canines. They connect lingual rests to the major connector.
Design
Their junction with the major connector is a rounded right angle and they taper
toward the occlusal (incisal).
The lateral borders extend into the proximal embrasures to hide these edges
from the tongue.
The surface minor connector may be penetrated by the tip of the lingual
cingulum rest preparation. This "open" design facilitates fitting the framework
and cleaning the tissue surface of the minor connector. Another modification of
the surface minor connector is a "finger rest" in which the rest extends from the
proximal or embrasure minor connector into the rest preparation.
Radford modification:
A modification of the conventional removable partial denture minor connector has
been proposed by Radford.
He limits the application of this variation in minor connector design to the maxillary
arch only.
He suggests placing the minor connector in the center of the lingual surface of
the maxillary abutment tooth.
Advantages:
Reducesthe amount of gingival tissue coverage
Providesenhanced guidance for the PD during insertion and removal
Increasedstabilization against horizontal and rotational forces.
Disadvantages:
Encroachon the tongue space and provide more obvious borders and a greater
potential space between the connector and the abutment for food entrapment.
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II-Minor connectors that serve as approach arm for vertical projection or bar-
type clasp:
It is the only one that is not required to be rigid.
It supportsa direct retainer (clasp) that engages an undercut on a tooth; from
below rather thanabove.
It approaches the tooth from the gingival margin. It should have a smooth,
even taper from its origin to its terminus. It must not cross a soft tissue
undercut.
It must be relieved from the tissue to avoid tissue injury.
III-Minor connectors that join the denture base to the major connector:
(Denture Base Retention (Grid-work) minor Connector) see denture base
It isthe means by which the plastic denture base is mechanically attached to the
framework. It may be:
a) OpenLattice work construction.
b) Mesh construction.
c) Bead, wire, or nail-head minor connectors (used with a metal base).
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RELATIONSHIP OF MINOR CONNECTORS TO THE TOOTH SURFACE
If the tooth surface is not entirely parallel to the path of placement and removal of
the RPD, a space will be created between the minor connector and the tooth surface
below the height of contour.
There is a difference of opinion as to how large this space should be.
1- Kratochvil suggest that there should be no space between the proximal minor
connector, tooth and ridge to prevent hypertrophy of tissue into the space.
2- Others suggest that the space should be kept large so that it may be easily
cleaned by the tongue while the RPD is in the mouth ("self-cleansing design")
and thus less likely to cause periodontal damage and mucosal irritation.
3- Actually the space is usually determined by the anatomy of the tooth, its
angulation in relation to the path of placement and removal of the RPD and
esthetic considerations.
The dentist has little control over the size of this space unless the tooth is going to be
restored with a surveyed crown. And, other factors are much more important in the
success of RPD treatment than the space between the proximal plate and the tooth.
-
Variations in the space between the proximal minor connectors and the
abutment tooth ,
a) minimum space to prevent tissue hypertrophy into the space,
b) self-cleansing design,
c) space determined by anatomy of tooth, angulation of the tooth
relative to the path of placement and removal of the RPD, and limitation
of the amount the tooth can be reshaped to decrease the space
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Retention Of Partial Denture
Retention is the resistance of the partial denture to vertical displacement away from the
tissues.
Retention of an RPD can be achieved by:
- Using the inherent physical forces which arise from coverage of the mucosa by the denture.
- Physiologic factors: Harnessing the patients muscular control acting through the polished
surface of the denture.
- Using mechanical means such as clasps which engage undercuts on the tooth surface.
A] Physi c al means of r et ent i on:
1-Adhesion; is the attraction of the saliva to the denture and the tissues.
2-Cohesion; is the attraction of saliva molecules to each other.
3-Interfacial surface tension; is the attraction of the surface molecules.
4-Atmospheric pressure; Which is dependent on a border seal and results in a partial vacuum
beneath the denture base when a dislodging force is applied.
The difference between the greater pressure acting on the polished surface of the denture and
the lesser pressure acting on the fitting surface causes a positive force, which helps in
retaining dentures.
The effect of atmospheric pressure in retaining partial dentures is limited because a complete
border seal cannot be obtained as can be accomplished with complete dentures.
5 -Gravity; The effect of gravity tends to seat lower dentures, but displace upper dentures.
6- Plastic molding between tissues / denture polished surfaces aid to little extent in retention
of partial denture
The effect of physical forces is less applicable to lower dentures than upper denture
because:
a- Lower dentures have less surface area.
b- Lower dentures are bathed in saliva.
c- Lower major connectors are relieved from the underlying tissues contrary to upper
major connectors that are well adapted and their borders are beaded against the
underlying tissues.
d- Strong movements of the tongue tend to break the seal in lower dentures.
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B] The Physi ol ogi c al means of r et ent i on:
1- The physiologic molding of the tissues around the polished surfaces of the denture
helps to perfect the border seal.
2- Neuromuscular control: The patient ability to control the denture with the lips,
cheeks, and tongue can be a major factor in the retentiveness of the denture.
C] Mec hani c al means of r et ent i on
The primary retention of the removable partial denture is accomplished
mechanically by placing retaining elements on the abutment teeth, which are achieved
by:
1. Direct retainers:
The components of partial denture that are used primarily to retain the denture
and resist vertical dislodging forces applied to it.
Types of direct retainers:-
a- Intracoronal retainer.
Usually called as an internal attachment or a precision attachment. It is
developed by Dr Herman E.S.Chayes in 1906.
b- Extracoronal retainers.
A-Clasps: which are metal projections engaging abutments to hold denture in
place.
B- Attachments:
These are ready or tailor made, male and female components. One
component is fixed to the abutment, and the other attached to the denture. They
are either extra coronal or intracoronal attachment.
2. Indirect retainers:
They are components of partial denture that are used to resist vertical
displacement of a distant part of the denture.
3. Frictional fit between the natural and artificial teeth.
4. Parts of the denture engaging tooth undercuts.
5. Parts of the denture engaging tissue undercuts.
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Cl asp Ret ai ner s
A Clasp is a metal projection of the partial denture engages the external surface of an
abutment in an area cervical to the height of contour (undercut) to retain the partial
denture. It is also called an extra-coronal retainer. It is first appeared in dental literature
in 1899 by G.V.Bonwill
The essential function of clasp are :
1-Retention: by the flexible part of the arm.
2- Support: by occlusal rest.
3- Bracing: by the rigid part of the arm.
Component s of a c l asp: A classic clasp consists of the following parts:
1- minor connector truss arm, tail, tang, upright arm, clasp stalk
2- rest
3- Retentive clasp arm
4- Reciprocal arm (guiding arm)
5- Clasp shoulder
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1- Minor connector (Called truss arm, tail, tang, upright arm, clasp stalk )
o It is a rigid part of the clasp placed on the proximal surface of abutment tooth
extending from the marginal ridge to the junction between the middle and
gingival third of the abutment crown..
o Functions: -It joins clasp to framework.
- It acts as a proximal plate dictating path of insertion .
- Bracing and stabilization of the denture.
2- Rest: It is a part of clasp placed on prepared occlusal, lingual or incisal surfaces of teeth.
o Function: It supports the denture.
3- Retentive clasp arm:
o The retentive clasp arm of the occlusally approaching clasp comprises a rigid
part located above the height of tooth contour to provide bracing then tapers
and ends in a flexible terminal, which engages an undercut area below the
height of tooth contour. The terminal end of the clasp arm provides direct
retention.
o Function:- Retention, bracing and stabilization.
bar type clasp provides retention only for the partial denture
4- Reciprocal arm (guiding arm)
o It is a rigid, half round, arm located occlusal to the survey line on a surface of
the tooth opposing the retentive arm.
o Function:
Its main function is to counteracts stresses generated by the retentive
arm as it crosses the height of contour during insertion and removal of
the denture, causing lingual (or buccal) movement of the abutment
tooth.
In order to reciprocate forces properly, it should remain in
contact with the tooth during function of the retentive arm.
Rigid major connectors or minor connectors contacting lingual
surfaces of the teeth substitute reciprocal arm.
Reciprocal arm also stabilizes the denture against lateral movements.
One arm clasp may be used to encircle the tooth. The rigid part of the arm starts on one side
of the tooth and cross-proximal surface to reach the other side of the tooth as a tapered
(retentive) end.
5- Clasp shoulder: the bracing and retentive arm are joined by clasp shoulder
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Basi c Pr i nc i pl es of a Pr oper l y Desi gned Cl asp:
1. Encirclement: The clasp must encircle more than half of the circumference of the
tooth either through continuous or interrupted contact. This is to preclude
movement of the tooth and to prevent the clasp from slipping off the tooth when
stresses are applied.
2. Support of partial dentures: It is the property of the clasp that enables it to resist
displacement in a gingival direction. The occlusal (lingual or incisal) rest is the
prime support unit of the clasp.
3. Bracing of partial dentures: It is the resistance against horizontal displacement of
the prosthesis. This is achieved by the rigid parts of the clasp.
4. Stabilization of partial dentures: It is the resistance against Rotational forces acting
on the partial denture either in vertical or horizontal direction causing rotation
(torque) of the denture base around an axis.
5. Reciprocation: It is the counteraction of the effect of the retentive clasp arm on the
abutment tooth during insertion and removal of the prosthesis. It is provided by
the non-retentive clasp arm. .
6. Clasp arms should be placed at the lower part of the middle third of the axial tooth
surfaces. While the retentive terminal should be placed at the gingival third
below the survey line.
7. Minor connector (or proximal plate) must contact a definite guiding plane to dictate
path of insertion.
8. Passivity: the retentive clasp arm should be passive and should not exert any pressure
against the tooth until a dislodging force is applied.
9. The clasp should be designed on biologic as well as mechanical bases.
a- Whenever possible Minimum area contact between clasp and tooth surface is
provided to minimize food stagnation and incidence of carious lesions.
b- The clasp should not interfere with normal gingival stimulation and its terminal
should be away from the gingival margin.
c- The clasp should be smooth on both its inner and outer surfaces.
d- Clasp retainers indicated in cases of free end saddles must possess a stress
breaking action to minimize excessive force on the abutment.
10. Retention: Retention is the basic function of a clasp. The retentive tip of clasp arm
enables the clasp to resist dislodgment from the tooth in an occlusal direction.
a- Tip of retentive clasp arm is the only part of the clasp that is flexible and
located in an undercut.
b- Amount of retention should be the minimum necessary to resist reasonable
dislodging force.
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c- Retentive clasps should be bilaterally opposed (balanced retention), i.e. buccal
retention on one side of the arch is preferably opposed by buccal retention on
the opposite side to be effective in retaining the denture.
d- The path of removal of the clasp terminal must not be parallel to the path of
removal of the denture.
Location of the Retentive Terminal
The retentive terminal is normally positioned at mesiofacial or distofacial line
angle. The facial or buccal position is preferred over the use of the lingual surface as it
permits increased length of retentive arm and improve flexibility.
1- Placement of retentive arm on the lingual surface of premolar is contraindicated .most
premolars has limited mesiodistal dimensions so the lingaual retentive arm is short and
inflexible. The mandibular premolars have a decided lingual axial inclination, and as a
result the height of contour is located near the occlusal surface. Therefore, if lingual retentive
area is selected, the clasp would have insufficient length provide the flexibility needed.
2- The maxillary premolars have buccal inclination; this lead to the retention from the
lingual surface cannot be considered.
3- In the molar teeth the undercut exhibit on either or both the buccal & lingual surface.
Therefore, either buccal or lingual retention may be used, depending on the most desirable
undercut. Particularly mandibular molar which have increased mesiodistal dimension and
lingual under cut
General Roles in the Location of the Retentive terminals:-
If buccal retention is selected for used on one side of the arch, it should be opposed
by buccal retention on the opposite side of the arch. Also if the lingual retention is
selected for used on one side of the arch, it should be opposed by lingual retention
on the opposite side of the arch.
If two retentive clasp are to be used on each side of the arch, it is possible to have
one clasp on each side engage a buccal under cut
When unilateral distal extension ridge is being treated, one clasp on the dentulous
side, usually on the molar. The other two clasps, usually on the premolars or canine
on the opposing side of the arch will engage the buccal undercut.
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Fac t or s Det er mi ni ng t he Ret ent i ve For c e of a Cl asp:
Retentive force of a clasp depends on the undercut engaged, flexibility of the clasp
arm, and angle of approach of clasp arm with the tooth surface.
1- Depth of undercut used
The greater the depth of undercut present on the abutment tooth the more will be
the retention generated by the clasp engaging this undercut. The retentive undercut has
three dimensions. It is measured by undercut gauges 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 of an inch.
The retentive undercut have three dimensions:-
1- Buccolingual depth:- It may be measured by undercut gauge. Most clasps made of
cast chrome alloy are placed in undercuts of 0.010inch. Cast gold clasp engage
0.015 inch. While the wrought wire clasps engage 0.020 inch undercuts.
2- Distance between survey line and the tip of retentive clasp:- It is affected the clasp
arm length, which influence the flexibility of the clasp.
3- Mesiodistal length of the clasp below the height of contour :- The longer of this
measurement, the more flexibility of the clasp.
2-Angle of approach.
Occlusally approaching clasps are easier in occlusal displacement than
gingivally approaching clasps. Occlusally approaching clasps are pulled up to
move occlusally. Gingivally approaching clasps are pushed up to move
occlusally (Trip action, push or crip action)
Not all gingivally approaching clasps exhibit trip action for example T or
modified T clasp may approach under cut from occlusal direction.
3. The Amount Of Clasp Arm Extends Below The Height Of Contour
The retentive clasp terminal is placed below the height of contour of an abutment. The
greater distance of the retentive clasp terminal, give greater retentive action.
4. Angle of gingival convergence (distance to height of contour)
The angle formed between analyzing rod and tooth surface apical to height of
contour.
Two clasps may engage same undercut depth but distance to height of contour varies.
Less gingival convergence (i.e. the retentive tip is at long distance from height of
contour) leading to less resistance to vertical dislodging force .
5. Position of clasps in relation to fulcrumaxis
Direct retainer should be as far away from fulcrum axis for mechanical advantages
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6- Flexibility of clasp arm:
The more flexible the clasp arm, the less will be the retention. In tooth supported PD,
more rigid clasps can be used compared to tooth-tissue supported dentures.
By increase the flexibility of the clasp. The magnitude of horizontal stresses
against an abutment tooth can be reduced.
More increase the flexibility should not be occurring, because this leads to
decrease the clasp ability to provide retention.
The degree of Flexibility possessed by the clasp arm depends on the following factors:
a) The length of the clasp arm:
The length of the clasp measured from the point at which uniform taper begains
.The greater the length, the greater will be the flexibility of the clasp arm.
The length of retentive arm should be at least 15 mm , 7mm in cast and wrought
wire clasp respectively
D= Ewt
3
/ 4PL
3
D= deflection E= elastic modulus w= width t= thickness p= applied force l= length
b) The diameter of the retentive arm:
The smaller the diameter, the greater will be its flexibility, all other factors being
equal. The flexibility is increased by a factor of eight.
The thickness of the tip of the clasp should be half the thickness at the origin.
c) The tapering:
The clasp arm should be uniformly tapered in such away that the diameter at its
origin is twice that at its tip.
d) The cross sectional form:
A round clasp arm is more resilient than half round or oval cross section; that are
difficult to flex in certain directions.
The round clasp is the only universally flexible clasp. Practically it is impossible
to obtain this universally flexibility by casting & polishing. Therefore all cast
clasps are half rounds in form.
In the half round, the flexibility is limited only one direction. It flexible only in
tooth ward direction, but the flexibility in the edge wise direction is limited. Also
the adjustment of this clasp is in the tooth ward direction only. The edge wise
direction means moving the clasp cervically or occlusally.
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e) The material of alloy:
Gold alloys are more flexible than cobalt chrome alloys.
The chrome alloys have higher modular of elasticity than the gold alloys,
therefore it is less flexible.
If a clasp is stressed beyond the proportional limit it will be distorted
permanently. Hard gold and cobalt chromium have similar proportional limits.
Hardened stainless steel wire (blue curve) has a much higher value.
The modular of elasticity defined as the constant of proportionality between stress & strain.
It is represents the slope of the elastic portion of stress strain curve.
= elastic modulus =
STRESS


STRAIN


f) The type of alloy:
The wrought form is more resilient than the same alloy
of identical diameter in cast form, because of its internal
structure
g) Curvature : A clasp which is curved in two planes can exhibit the
so-called bucket handle effect in which torsional movement of the
clasp increases flexibility of the clasp arm.
Cone theory
In 1916 protherio present a cone theory to explain clasp retention , he described the crown
form as two cones sharing common base.
De van s concept
De van divided the abutment into suprabulge and infrabulge portions
It should be emphasized at this stage that clasps are passive when the denture is in the mouth.
They become active only on removal and insertion of the denture, when passing out of or into
undercuts on the teeth. For this reason, they require reciprocation with a rigid component on
the other side of the tooth to the direct retainer in order to counteract lateral forces exerted on
the teeth by the clasps when the denture is removed and inserted.
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St r ess and i t s c ont r ol by c l asp desi gn
Retention should not be considered the prime objective of design:
(1) The main objectives should be the restoration of function and appearance and
the maintenance of comfort, preservation of the health of all the oral structures.
(2) The retentive clasp arm is the element of the RPD that is responsible for
transmitting the most of the destructive forces to the abutment teeth. A RPD
should always be designed to keep clasp retention to a minimum yet provide
adequate retention to prevent dislodgment of the denture by unseating forces.
(3) Close adaptation and proper contour of an adequately extended denture base and
accurate fit of the framework against multiple, properly prepared guide planes
should be used to help the retentive clasp arms retain the prosthesis.
(4) By exploiting retentive potential in various widely separated areas of the mouth,
both support and stability may be enhanced at the same time that stress is
effectively reduced.
Biomechanical Considerations in Clasp Design
1. The simplicity of the clasp: The simplest type of the clasp that will accomplished the
design objectives should be employed
2. Clasps should be designed to minimize interference with normal stimulation of gingival
tissues and demote plaque formation, to preserve periodontal health.
3. There should be at least 5 mm. clearance between vertical components, e.g. minor
connectors, proximal plates, etc.,
Note: The reason for the different distances of major connectors from gingival margins is
that maxillary casts are beaded to insure positive adaptation of the major connector
whereas mandibular casts are relieved to prevent contact of the major connector against
the delicate mucosa.
4. There should be at least 3mm. Clearance between the approach arm of bar clasps and the
gingival margin.
5. Maxillary major connectors comprising part of a clasp assembly should be located at
least 6 mm from the gingival margins.
6. Mandibular lingual bars comprising part of a clasp assembly should be located at least 3
mm from the gingival margin.
7. Qualities of clasp:
a- Clasp should have good stabilizing qualities, remain passive until activated by
functional stress, and accommodate a minor amount of movement of the base
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without transmitting a torque to the abutment tooth. The more flexible the
retentive arm of the clasp, the less stress is transmitted to the abutment tooth.
b- As the flexibility of the clasp increases, both vertical and lateral stresses
transmitted to the residual ridge increase.
8. Materials and type of alloy used in clasp construction:
a. A clasp constructed of chrome alloy will normally exert greater stress on the
abutment tooth than gold clasp, all other factors being equally. To compensate for
this property, clasp arms of chrome alloys are constructed with a smaller diameter
than a gold clasp would be to accomplish the same purpose.
b. Wrought wire is more resilient than the same alloy of identical diameter and length
in cast form, because of its internal structure.
9. Strategic clasp positioning (Location of clasps) as a method of stress control:
o Clasps should be strategically positioned in the arch to achieve the greatest possible
control of stress and leverages.
o Clasps could be placed at each end of the denture, so that the resultant of their forces
is near the center of gravity of the denture. Biologically, this clasping distribution is
not well accepted, as more teeth are prone to coverage. Instead, two clasps
diagonally placed can be used.
o If two clasps are insufficient and the denture tends to rock about the line joining the
two clasps, a third clasp placed as far as possible from the others is added.
o Molars are the most suitable teeth for clasping due to their contour, strength and
size, followed by premolars, canines then max incisors.
o Incisors specially lower incisors and upper laterals are not preferred due to esthetic
and mechanical reasons. Tooth supported dentures may require more clasps to
distribute the load on more teeth.
Quadrilateral configuration:
It is indicated most often for class III arches particularly when there is a
modification space on the opposite side of the arch . When four abutment teeth are
available for clasping, and the partial denture can be confined within these four
clasps, all leverage is neutralized.
Tripod configuration:
It is used primarily for class II arches if there is a modification space on the
dentulous site. When the distal abutment on one side of the arch is missing, the
inevitable lever is created by the distal extension base. In this case, the leverage
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may be controlled, to some degree, by creating a triangular pattern of clasp
placement.
Bilateral configuration (Kennedy class I):
When two distal extension bases must be dealt with, the designer has little choice
but to clasp the two distal abutments.
In this circumstance, the clasps exert little neutralizing effect on the leverage-
induced stresses generated by the base, and they must be controlled by some other
means.
Unilateral prosthesis
Leverage per se is not a problem with the unilateral type of edentulous span .
However, torsional stress on the abutments is generated by the prosthesis because
of its tendency to rotate in a buccolingual plane. The conventional solution is to
cross the arch with a major connector and to clasp teeth on the contralateral side,
thus making the prosthesis, in effect, bilateral in design. Ordinarily this is the
preferred approach to the problem.
If the unilateral design must be used, all four clasp arms should be made retentive
in order to minimize the tendency of the prosthesis to rotate around a line that
extends mesiodistally through the two abutment teeth.
Placing of clasps:
Clasps should be placed so that the direct retention is distributed as widely as possible.
For class I partially edentulous arch, a bilateral clasping configuration is required.
- When two clasps are used an imaginary line drawn between them should divide the
denture into two equal halves.
- If this (retention line) runs diagonally across an upper denture, it is considered an
advantage for the resistant against the gravity displacement force.
A class II should have three retentive clasp assemblies
- The distal extension base is deigned as class I
- The opposite side should have two retentive clasp arms. If modification space is
present it is most convenient to clasp adjacent teeth.
In class III quadrilateral poisoning is considered ideal .
A class IV quadrilateral poisoning is considered ideal.for mechanical reason the anterior
clasp is placed anterior as possible and posterior clasps is placed posterior as possible
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On distal extension RPDs. a clasp tip placed in an undercut forward of
the axis of rotation has the potential for torquing the abutment when
functional forces.
When an l-bar clasp assembly functions prop erly. the retentive tip
moves downward and forward into a deeper undercut (releasing from
the abutment) when functional forces are applied.
10- Leverage and Esthetics is clasp design:
A fundamental aspect of clasp design is that the arms should be placed as
low on the crown, within limits, as the survey line will permit, in order to
reduce the effect of leverage.
11- Number of the clasps:
The retention is not proportional to the number of clasps. Satisfactory
amount of retention is that required to keep or just to retain the denture in
its place during function and rest.
How many clasps for a denture
Clasps could be located at each end of the denture , this clasping is not
biologically accepted due to more tooth coverage
Instead , two clasps can be used in away that a straight line joining them
bisect the denture
If the denture tend to rock about the line joining two clasps , a third
clasp is added as far as possible from others .
Factors that control numbers of clasps used:
(1) The amount of retention required by the denture depends on:
a- Number teeth which be replaced.
b- Displacing force.
C- Patients need maximum stability.
(2) The retention that provided by other methods than clasping.
(3) The numbers of teeth available for clasping.
The following rules apply for the number of clasps used:
a) It is better to have too much retention than too little. (Clasps that prove to be unnecessary
can easily be removed from the denture).
b) The greater the number of clasps, the less will be the force applied.
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12- Selection of Clasp form: The form of any clasp is determined according to:
a-Position of the tooth.
Clasps on anterior teeth should be gingivally approaching. Occlusally
approaching clasps on premolars should start distally to keep the body of the
retentive arm on the distal half of the buccal surface to be less visible.
b-Condition of the tooth.
Wrought wire and gingivally approaching clasps are preferred for teeth with
questionable periodontal support.
c-Position of the edentulous area.
In bounded areas, occlusally approaching clasps provide good retention,
bracing and stabilization.
In free-end areas, Flexible rather than rigid clasping is preferred to provide
retention and allow slight movement of the denture base without stressing the
abutments. The RPI, I-bar, RPA, RLS, combination clasps, back action,
reverse back action or reverse circlet clasps can be used.
d-Axial inclination of the abutment.
Ring clasp is preferred on tilted molars to prevent further tilting.
e-Position of occlusal rest.
Rests are placed near to bounded edentulous areas, and far from free-end
areas.
f-Position of retentive undercut.
Retentive undercuts are selected far from bounded edentulous areas, and near
to free-end areas.
If the abutment tooth exhibits an undercut on the disto-buccal side, then a reverse circlet
clasp can be used.
If the undercut is on the mesio buccal side, a combination wrought wire clasp, RPI clasp or
back action can be used.
If the undercut is on the distolingual side, RLS clasp can be used.
If precision attachments or rigid clasping are used to retain a class I partial denture, a
stress breaker should be used.
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Factors affecting the selection of clasp
1- Type of survey line
2- Amount and position of under cut
3- Position of tooth in arch
4- Occlusion
5- Appearance
6- Amount of retention needed
7- Type of denture support and load distribution.
8- Anatomic limitations.
A. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES.
Tooth mucosa born
The equitable distribution of forces to the muco-osseous and dento-alveolar segments
is required. Stress releasing clasps minimize lateral torquing forces directed to
abutment teeth, but may increase loading of the muco-osseous segment. Non-stress
directing clasps direct lateral torquing forces to the abutment teeth, but may minimize
loading of the muco-osseous segment.
1.Commonly used non-stress directing clasps assemblies.
. Circlet (Akers). Embrasure.
2.Commonly used stress' releasing clasps assemblies.
. "RPI". "RPC" ( "RPA"). Combination
Tooth born : Proximate rests adjacent to the edentulous areas are recommended to
provide optimal support.
B.LOCATION OF UNDERCUTS.
The location of true undercuts on abutment teeth will influence the choice of retentive
clasp arms.
a) The diagonal survey lines on the molar and premolar teeth
shown here indicate that there is a larger undercut on that part of
the tooth which is furthest away from the edentulous area.
Typical designs of retentive clasp are the occlusally approaching
clasp on the molar and the gingivally approaching I bar on the
premolar tooth.
The orientation of the diagonal survey line on this molar creates
the larger undercut area nearer to the saddle. The design of the
occlusally approaching clasp used on the molar in Fig. would be quite
inappropriate because it would prove difficult to keep the non-retentive two-thirds
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of the clasp out of the undercut whilst, at the same time, offering very little
undercut for the retentive portion. An alternative design is the ring clasp that
commences on the opposite side of the tooth and attacks the diagonal survey line
from a more appropriate direction. An I bar would be suitable for a premolar
tooth with a survey line of similar orientation.
b) A low survey line (on the buccal side of the tooth) is present
because the tooth is tilted; thus there is a high survey line on
the lingual side of the tooth. Again, a ring clasp is a solution to
the problem: the bracing portion of the clasp is on the left side
of the tooth and the retentive portion on the right side.
c) A high survey line poses particular difficulties on a premolar
tooth. If it is not appropriate or practical to lower the survey line
by altering the crown shape, it may be possible to position a
flexible gingivally approaching clasp higher up the crown or, if
an occlusally approaching clasp is preferred, to use a more flexible platinumgold
palladium wrought wire clasp. Even if the survey line is not high enough to create
difficulties in clasping there will be potential advantages in using one of these more
flexible types of clasp on a premolar tooth.
C.MINIMAL TOOTH AND MINIMAL GINGIVAL COVERAGE.
Clasps which minimize coverage of these tissues are preferred since they tend to
reduce plaque accumulation.
D. HEALTH OF THE PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
If a retentive clasp is placed on a tooth, it is inevitable that extra force will be
transmitted to the supporting tissues of that tooth. Whether or not
these tissues are able to absorb the extra force without suffering
damage depends upon their health, the area of attachment and the
magnitude of the force.
A broad distribution of force may be required when the periodontal status is
compromised .it may be accomplished by the use of multiple rests, lingual plates, and
clasps that provide bilateral bracing.
Patient's oral hygiene and periodontal status must be carefully monitored since the
additional number of components may increase plaque accumulation.
Clasps with minimal tooth and minimal gingival coverage are preferred since they
tend to reduce plaque accumulation.
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E.PERIODONTAL STATUS OF ABUTMENT TEETH.
A broad distribution of force may be required when the periodontal status is
compromised .it may be accomplished by the use of multiple rests, lingual plates, and
clasps that provide bilateral bracing.
Patient's oral hygiene and periodontal status must be carefully monitored since the
additional number of components and increased tissue coverage may increase plaque
accumulation.
F. CLASPS ON PREVIOUS REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE.
1.May indicate esthetic awareness and demands of the patient.
2.May indicate amount of retention necessary.
G. ESTHETICS.
The choice of a clasp may be influenced by its visibility during normal facial
movements. Bar clasps contact less surface area and are usually confined to the
gingival one third of the tooth.
The choice of a clasp may be influenced by its visibility during normal facial
movements. Bar clasps contact less surface area and are usually confined to the
gingival one third of the tooth.
Tooth-coloured occlusally approaching polyoxymethylene clasps are an alternative
to metal clasps where the colour of the clasp is a key factor. However, these clasps
are bulkier than metal clasps and require a deeper undercut. Other disadvantages
include lack of adjustability and increased cost.
H. OCCLUSION
An occlusally approaching clasp must begin, and have two thirds of its length, in the
area bounded by occlusal contacts of opposing teeth and the survey line on the tooth to
be clasped. Provision of an adequate space for the clasp may require tooth preparation.
Occlusal contacts, however, have no influence on gingivally approaching clasps.
I. SHAPE OF THE SULCUS.
If a gingivally approaching clasp is used, shape of sulcus must be
checked carefully to ensure that there are no anatomical obstacles.
In this example the prominent fraenal attachment would be
traumatised by a gingivally approaching clasp of correct proportions and position.
If there is no reasonable alternative to this clasp, and mechanical retention is
thought to be essential, serious consideration must be given to surgical excision of
the fraenal attachment.
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J. Length of clasp.
As shown in (a), a cobalt chromium clasp arm,
approximately l5 mm long, should be placed in a
horizontal undercut of 0.25 mm. If the undercut is less
the retention will be inadequate. If it is greater, the
clasp arm will be distorted because the proportional
limit is likely to be exceeded. A cobalt chromium occlusally-approaching clasp
engaging the same amount of undercut on a premolar tooth (b) is likely to distort
during function because it is too short. In such a situation a longer clasp arm can be
achieved by using a gingivally-approaching design.
Whether this choice is appropriate depends on
certain clinical factors that will be highlighted later
in this chapter. Alternatively, an alloy with a lower
modulus of elasticity but similar proportional limit,
such as a platinumgoldpalladium wire, can be
used. Yet another possibility is to use a material with a higher proportional limit but
similar modulus such as wrought stainless steel or cobalt chromium (Wiptam) wires.
K. Abutment tooth :
We do not recommend the use of cast cobalt-chromium occlusally approaching clasps
on premolar retainers since they are too short to be flexible or too thin and liable to
fracture. [ Dental Update December 2002]
Keys to selecting a successful clasp design:
(1) Avoid direct transmission of tipping or torquing forces to the abutment;
(2) Accommodate the basic principles of clasp design by definitive location of component
parts correctly positioned on abutment tooth surfaces.
(3) provide retention against reasonable dislodging forces (with consideration for indirect
retention).
(4) Be compatible with undercut location, tissue contour, and esthetic desires of the
patient. It is most important single factor in selecting a clasp.
Selection of clasp type :
Selection of the clasp depends mainly on (type of support, presence of undercut area, and
esthetics).
1- For bounded saddles: the retentive undercut present is used with any acceptable clasp
type.
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2- for distal extension base: Retainers for distal extension partial dentures, although
retaining the prosthesis, must also be able to flex or disengage when the denture base
moves tissueward under functional. stress releasing clasp is desired, which equitably
distribute the force between the abutment and the ridge;
a) If a mesiobuccal undercut is available on the terminal abutment, a combination clasp
with the wrought wire, back action, RPI, RPA clasps are used.
b) If the retentive undercut is located on the distobuccal surface, a bar clasp, and the C
clasp are used.
c) If mesiolingual undercut is present a reverse back action clasp is used.
Evaluating the ability of a clasp arm to act as a stress-breaker,
One must realize that flexing in one plane is not enough. The clasp arm must be
freely flexible in any direction, as dictated by the stresses applied. Bulky, half-round clasp
arms cannot do this, Round, tapered clasp forms offer advantages of greater and more
universal flexibility, less tooth contact, and better esthetics.
Either the combination circumferential clasp, with its tapered wrought-wire
retentive arm, or the carefully located and properly designed circumferential or bar clasp
can be considered for use on all abutment teeth adjacent to the extension denture bases if the
abutment teeth are properly prepared, the tissue support is effectively achieved, and if the
patient exercises good oral hygiene.
advantages of particular clasp design should lie in an affirmative answer to most of these questions:
1. is it flexible enough to satisfy the purpose for which it is being used? (On an abutment adjacent to a
distal extension base, will tipping and torque be avoided?)
2. Will adequate stabilization be provided to resist horizontal and rotational movements?
3. Will rigidity be provided where it is needed?
4. Is the clasp design applicable to malposed or rotated abutment teeth?
5. Can it be used despite the presence of tissue undercuts?
6. Can the clasp terminal be adjusted to increase or decrease retention?
7. Does the clasp arm cover a minimum of tooth surface?
8. Will the clasp arm be as inconspicuous as possible?
9. Will the width of the occlusal table remain the same or be decreased?
10. Is the clasp arm likely to become distorted or broken? If so, can it be replaced?
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Bios Clasp System
In the Bios system the retentive force of the clasp is related to the depth of undercut
and the length of the clasp arm. All clasps should exert almost same retentive force.
This standard shape has made it possible to draw up a table in which retentive force,
depth of undercut, clasp length, and dimensions of clasp cross section are specified.
The retentive force of a clasp arm is dependent on the following factors:
- The length from its tip to its point of attachment
- The shape of its cross-section
- The metal alloy used
- The depth of the undercut
The basis for all clasps is a standard wax shape. It has a uniform taper and its cross-
section forms half of an elipse with a width-to-height ratio of 10:8.
The length of the clasp is measured with a device built similar to those used for
measuring the mileage on maps. In order to form a clasp arm with the desired
retentiveness after the depth of the undercut and the length of the clasp have been
determined, it is only necessary to read from the table how many millimeters to cut
from the tip of the standard wax shape.
The Bios standard clasp arm shape serves as a basic element for all types of clasps. The
flexibility 01 a clasp arm is determined by how much length is removed from
the small end of the pattern.
The exact depth of undercut for the previously drawn clasp tip is determined
with a special measuring device. The undercut depth can be read directly within a range
of 0-1 mm.
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Types of Clasp Retainers
Clasp Classified on basis of design into :
a- Occlusally Approaching clasps (Circumferential clasp) class
The retentive terminal approaches the undercut of the tooth from above the
survey line, the retentive arm originates at the minor connector usually near the
occlusal rest. e.g. Akers, back action, reverse back action, ring clasps.
b-Gingivally approaching clasp (Bar-type clasp, infrabulge or roach) class I
The retentive terminal originates from the denture base buccal to the
edentulous ridge, crosses the free gingival margin to approaches the retentive
undercut from below the survey line. The tip of the retentive arm may be in
the form I, T, U, C or Y.
c- Combination
Clasps can be classified according to mode of construction and the material used into:
1 . Cast clasps
2 . Wrought wire clasps.
3. Combination cast and wrought wire clasp.
Clasp Classified on basis of movement accommodation
- Clasps accommodate functional movement
RPI
RPA
Bar clasp
Combination clasp
- Clasps without movement accommodatation
Circumferential clasp
Ring
Embrasure clasp
Back action
Multiple clasp
Half and half clasp
Reverse action
-
They may be classified as follows:
1. Elements utilised in single unit dentures:
a. Clasp units b. Precision attachments
2. Elements utilised in sectional dentures:
a. Hinged flanges (swing lock)
b. Two-part structures ( sectional denture)
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1-Cast met al cl asp:
a. The cast clasp is either gold or cast chromium alloy.
b. It is half round in cross section.
c. It contacts tooth surface at an area.
d. It flexes in one plane (to or away from tooth surface) only.
Advantages of cast clasps:
a. They exhibit an accurate fit to tooth surface.
b. Can easily be varied in thickness, form and taper .
2- Wr ought wir e cl asp
o The wrought wire is a buccal retentive arm. Usually made of either 0.7 or 0.8
mm round stainless steel, or gold alloy wires embedded in the acrylic base.
o This type of clasp is extremely resilient, however, it possesses poor
stabilization properties.
o It flexes in two planes (to or away from tooth surface and up or down parallel
to tooth surface). Due to its flexibility it can be easily distorted.
o It has line contact with tooth surface creating less friction.
o Its common use is in acrylic dentures.
Advantages of wrought wire clasps
Less tooth coverage as the clasp makes a line rather than an area of contact
with the tooth surface.
Minimum friction.
The clasp is highly flexible, hence can be used in distal extension bases.
Easily constructed.
Wrought wire clasps may be in the form of :
1- Simple circlet clasp
a. The clasp is either soldered to metal framework or embedded in the acrylic
resin lining the denture base. The clasp is used on teeth adjacent to the
edentulous area.
b. It should pass 3-4 mm away from the proximal surface of the clasped tooth
to allow for the adjustment of the denture during insertion.
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2. Jackson-Crib Clasp (Modified Crozat Clasp)
a. This is a completely encircling clasp with no free flexible terminal.
b. It provides retention because those parts of the clasp, which are situated on the
proximal embrasures of the tooth, are springy and grip the undercuts in these areas.
It acts as a clasp and occlusal rest.
c. It is used with acrylic denture and made of 0.7-mm gauge wrought wire.
d. It indicated on molars and premolars when no edentulous space exists on either
side of the tooth to be clasped.
e. It starts at the point of attachment of the base on the lingual side and passes up to
cross the occlusal surface and then down to the buccal surface along the gingival
margin and then up again to cross the occlusal of the other contact point to gain
attachment to the base of the lingual side.
f. forms :
1. Split crip : When cut at the middle of buccal surface
2. Half crip ; When it does not reach the other embrasure.
Wrought-wire direct retainer arms may be attached to the restoration by
1- Embedding a portion of the wire in a resin denture base,
2- By soldering to the fabricated framework, or
3- By casting the framework to a wire embedded in the wax pattern.
Wrought-wire retainer arm has been contoured to follow the design and is incorporated into the wax
pattern
3-Combinat ion cl asp
It is essentially a cast clasp in which wrought wire has
substituted the buccal cast retentive arm. If this term is
used the term wrought wire clasp is limited to wrought wire
retention arms reciprocated by acrylic or metal lingual or
palatal plates
If the partial denture framework is to be constructed of gold or low-heat chrome
alloy, the wrought wire clasp can be incorporated into the framework during the
waxing step and the alloy can be cast directly to the wrought wire clasp. If a high-
heat chrome alloy is used, the wrought wire must be soldered to the completed
framework.
Indication: On an abutment tooth adjacent to a distal extension space when the usable
undercut on the tooth is on the mesiobuccal surface.
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Advantages of the combination clasp
1- flexibility and stabilizing
It combines both the resiliency and flexibility of the wrought retentive arm and
stabilizing effect of the cast clasp.
The clasp has a stress breaking action. The wrought wire acts as a stress
equalizer preventing the undesirable forces created by the lever action of the
retentive clasp tip from lifting or torquing the abutment tooth as downward
forces occur on the denture base. the greater flexibility of this clasp allows it to
place in a greater or deeper undercut.
2- Adjustability:-
The round wrought wire clasp can flex in all planes, which allow it to dissipate
torquing forces exerted on the abutment tooth & to be adjusted in all planes.
3- appearance:-
The wrought wire clasp may be used in small diameters than the cast clasp.
Since it is round, light is reflected in such a manner that the display of metal is
less noticeable than with the border surface of the cast clasp.
4- Caries less:-
The round wire makes only a line contact with the surface of the abutment tooth.
Disadvantages of combination clasp:-
It does require extra steps in laboratory fabrication.
It is also more prone to breakage or damage than a cast clasp.
It can be easily distorted by careless handling by patients, who tend to remove
the partial denture from the mouth by lifting on the retentive portion of the
wrought wire clasp.
Because of the increased flexibility of the retentive arm, it does not possess the
bracing or stabilizing qualities of most circumferential clasps. If stabilization of
the teeth or of the partial denture against horizontal forces is needed, the
combination clasp would not be a good choice.
These disadvantages should not prevent the use of this clasp regardless of the type
of alloy being used for cast frame work. The technical problems are minimized by
selecting the beast wrought wire for this purpose.
Patient may be taught to avoid distortion of wrought wire by explaining that the
fingernail should always be applied to it is point origin, as it held rigid by casting.
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I- Oc c l usal l y Appr oac hi ng Cl asps.
Called encircling, circumferential, or suprabulge clasps.
Definition: it is a retainer that encircles a tooth by more than 180 degrees, including opposite
angle, and which generally contacts the tooth throughout the extent of the clasp, with at least
one terminal located in an undercut area.
Component parts of the clasp assembly:-
1- Rest: location: - it is lie on the occlusal or lingual surface or
on the incisal edge.
Function: provide support for RPD.
2- Body Location: - above the height of contour.
Function: - connect rest and clasp arms to the minor connector.
3- Reciprocal arm Location: - above the height of contour on the side
of the tooth opposing the retentive clasp arm.
Function: - 1- Resist the tipping force generated by
retentive terminal.
2- Help in stabilization of RPD against
lateral movements.
3- Support the prosthesis due to it lie on
the supra bulge.
The reciprocal clasp arm must be contact to the tooth before retentive clasp arm pass over
high of contour, and remain in contact while the retentive terminal passes the height of
contour, to resist the tipping force.
4- Retentive arm: - it includes two parts:-
A) Shoulder Location:- above height of contour (not flexable)

Function:- connect the body of the clasp terminal.
B) Retentive terminal Location: - below the height of contour (FLEXABLE).

Function:- provide direct retention.
5- Minor connector:- It is the part of clasp that joints the body of the clasp to the remainder
of the framework ( IT MUST BE REGIDE).
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CAST CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASP

RULES FOR USE
o The retentive clasp arm should originate above the height of contour & terminated
below it. While, the retentive terminal should be pointed toward the occlusal surface,
never toward the gingiva.
o These produce a curved clasp which increase the length of the arm as well as
increase the flexibility. The retentive tip should be terminating at the mesial or distal
line angle of the abutment tooth.
Problems of cast circumferential clasp:-
1- Obtaining Sufficient Occlusal Clearance: - if the opposing occlusion is tight, it is
often difficult to obtain adequate clearance to place the rests & clasp without
removing a prohibitive amount of tooth structure on the abutment & it is antagonist
teeth.
2- Protection of The Marginal Gingiva Adjacent to The Abutment tooth: - when the
occlusal rest is placed on the surface of the tooth away from the edentulous space, this
does not protect the marginal gingiva adjacent to the abutment tooth. This marginal
gingiva may be traumatized if food pecks between the denture & the proximal surface
of the tooth. Therefore advisable to place an additional occlusal rest next to the
edentulous space to eliminated this problem. But this additional rest will decrease or
eliminate the releasing action of the clasp tip as the denture base is depressed on the
distal extension side.
3- Poor esthetic result with excessive display of metal.
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1- Ak er s c l asp simple circlet clasp
It is most often the clasp of choice on tooth support RPD this clasp usually approaches
the undercut on the abutment tooth from the edentulous area.
Engages an undercut of 0.01inch (1/4 mm) on the buccal (or lingual) surface of molars
or premolars far from the edentulous area
Its minor connector is adjacent to denture base
Indications:
a. Acker clasp is considered best suited for strong abutments
teeth because it transmits the force directly to the tooth and
reduce stress on the residual ridge.
b. It is, therefore more often used in unilateral and bilateral
tooth borne partial denture.
Advantages of Aker clasp
1-This clasp fulfills the requirements of support, stability,
encirclement, reciprocation, and passivity better than any
other types of clasp.
2- It is easy to construct and simple in repair.
3 - Does not distort easily.
Disadvantages of Aker clasp
a. More tooth surface is covered than with bar clasps. This may cause enamel
decalcification or caries.
b. The Aker clasp changes the morphology of the abutment crown. This may
interfere with the normal food flow pattern and with the physiologic stimulation
of the gingival tissues.
c. Due to its half round cross-section, the Aker clasp can be adjusted to the tooth
surface in an inward or outward (Bucco-lingual) and not upward or downward
(occluso-gingival) direction. This mode of adjustment may only increase or
decrease friction on the tooth surface but does not change the retentive qualities
arising due to engagement of an undercut.
d. The clasp cannot be used in free-end saddle cases due to its rigidity, except with
a stress equalizing design.
Cotra-indications: Free end saddle cases (Kennedy class I and II).
Other forms are modifications of the circlet to suit the location of retentive undercut,
position of the abutment, or to modify the flexibility of the clasp arm.
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Modi f i c at i ons of t he Ak er ' s c l asp
A- The r ever se c i r c umf er ent i al c l asp: ( r ever se appr oac h- r ever se
Ak eer s cl asp)
It is a cast circumferential clasp consists of:
Occlusal rest located away from the edentulous
area.
Retentive arm that engages an undercut near the
edentulous area (near zone).
A rigid reciprocal arm.
Its minor connector is away fromdenture base
Indication:
It can be used in distal extension cases when the bar clasp is contraindicated
(when?).
The effect on the abutment tooth is reversed from that of the conventional
circumferential clasp.
Advantage:
As when occlusal load is applied to the denture base, the retentive terminal
moves further gingivally into the undercut area and loses contact with the
abutment tooth (disengagement). In this manner torque is not transmitted to the
abutment tooth.
Disadvantage:
The reverse circlet clasp, because it normally projects between two teeth, may
produce some wedging force. This can usually be countered by occlusal rests
on the approximating surfaces of both teeth.
B- The Mul t i pl e Ak er Cl asp (Mul t i pl e c i r c l et c l asp)
The multiple Aker clasp consists of two opposing Akers clasps, Two Lingual rigid
reciprocal arms are connected together at the terminal ends to augment their rigidity.
Indications:
Splinting of periodontally affected teeth is needed.
Multiple clasping is needed in instances in which the partial denture replaces an
entire side of the dental arch.
Available retentive areas are only adjacent to each other.
Disadvantage: utilizing two embrasures rather than a common one.
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C- The Hai r -pi n Cl asp (C- Cl asp Fi shhook - Rever se ac t i on)
It is a circlet clasp with its retentive arm turned back (curved ) to engage an
undercut near the edentulous area (below the point of origin).
Indication
When the retentive clasp must engage an undercut adjacent
to the occlusal rest or edentulous space and a soft tissue
undercut precludes the use of a bar clasp.
When the reverse circlet clasp cannot be used because of lack of occlusal space.
When a proximal undercut must be used on a posterior abutment and when tissue
undercuts or high tissue attachments prevent the use of bar type clasp.
Its disadvantages are:
1. Greater coverage of tooth surface, that increase the functional load on the
abutment.
2. food trapping at the loop of the arm, and
3. Inferior esthetics.
D- The hal f and hal f c l asp (Spl i t c ast assembl y):
It consists of a circumferential retentive arm arising from one side
of the tooth and a reciprocal arm arising from the other direction
on the opposite side of the tooth. Since the second arm must arise
from a second minor connector, therefore an auxiliary rest may
sometimes be used.
Indication
It is used with isolated premolars and molars for bounded and free end partial
denture.
This clasp was designed originally to provide dual retention, and it should be apply
only unilateral denture designed.
E- The Ex t ended-ar m Cl asp
The extended arm clasp has the same form as an Aker clasp but its arms are
extended to cover the abutment tooth and the tooth adjacent to it. The bracing
arm lies above the survey line of both teeth.
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The retentive arm also lies above the survey line of both teeth and then tapers to
engage the undercut of the second tooth. It is more liable to distortion if its
thickness is incorrect.
If this clasp is made in gold alloy the uses is restricted to the premolars, but
with chrome cobalt alloy along arm can be used and two molars can be clasped.
Indication:
It is used when the undercut on tooth near edentulous
area is poor, while that on the adjacent tooth is suitable.
An extended arm clasp is indicated only when the RPD is
tooth supported. It is not appropriate for distal extension
RPDs because the retentive tip lies for-ward of the axis of rotation
Its use has been suggested where increased splinting and stabilization are desired
Advantages of extended arm clasp
a. The clasp has splinting action.
b. Distributes the lateral load over the two teeth.
F- The Doubl e Ak er Cl asp
It is also called embrasure clasp, Compound clasp,
Butterfly , modified crib clasp, Bonwill clasp . H clasp or
Interdental clasp.
It consists of two Acker clasps arising from a common
body and from the same minor connector, which is located
in the embrasure between the two clasped teeth.
Indication
On the dentulous side of unilateral edentulous cases (Kennedy
class II or III having no modifications).
Kennedy class IV (on the posterior teeth).
It is used primarily to provide bilateral stabilization, and
bracing, in addition to retention. It also splints the two teeth
The retentive arms of embrasure clasps are always of the
supra bulge type. Although double or single infra bulge clasps
have been used, they tend to create food repositories and are
therefore not the retainers of choice except in rare cases.
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2- RPA c l asp (RPC c l asp)
Mesi al Rest , Pr ox i mal pl at e and Ak er ar m ,
(c i r c umf er ent i al Cl asp)
The clasp is formed of:
A mesial occlusal rest arising from a minor connector
located in the mesiolingual embrasure,
A proximal plate placed on the occlusal third of the distal surface of the abutment
and properly extended towards the distolingual line angle of the tooth, in contact
with a prepared guiding plane, and
An Aker circumferential retentive arm arising from the superior portion of the
proximal plate. and extends around the tooth; tapered to engage the mesio-buccal
undercut.
The rigid bracing portion of the arm should contact tooth only along superior border of
the survey line. When an occlusal load is applied to the denture base, the retentive arm
can move into the undercut because of the relief under its rigid section and release
from the abutment tooth.
If a conventional Akers clasp is used, with the retentive arm coming off the proximal
plate above the survey line and crossing the survey line in the middle of the tooth to
engage the undercut then the vital releasing capability will be lost.
Indication:
It is indicated in distal extension RPDs presented with shallow vestibule or
severe tissue undercut that contraindicate the use of the gingivally approaching
clasps.
Advantages:
The RPA assembly is designed with the rest on the mesio-occlusal surface
of the tooth, permitting the other components to release from the tooth and
drop into undercuts when occlusal loads are placed on the denture base.
This in turn prevents tipping of the abutment.
Absence of a lingual rigid reciprocal arm minimizes rotational forces
falling on the abutment.
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3- RLS Cl asp
(Mesi al Rest , L-bar di r ec t r et ai ner and St abi l i zer )
It is a lingually retained clasp assembly for distal extension removable partial
dentures. This clasp assembly fulfills the biomechanical principles and the esthetic
requirements of patients.
The RLS c l asp assembl y c onsi st s of :
1) A mesioocclusal rest.
2) A distolingual L-bar direct retainer, located on
the distal surface of the abutment tooth.
Engages the distolingual undercut adjacent
to the edentulous ridge.
3) The distobuccal stabilizer (proximal plate):
Reciprocate the horizontal force, transmitted
to the tooth by the activated retentive tip of the direct retainer, The distobuccal
stabilizer emerges from the framework distobuccally and ascends to the height of
contour, then it diverges distally and/or lingually to complete the encirclement of the
tooth.
Cross-arch stabilization is provided by the minor connectors located lingually, and
the L-stabilizers located buccally
Advant ages:
1. The mesio-occlusal rest reduces the anterior component of movement of the denture
and reduces torque on the abutment tooth.
2. A retentive clasp tip placed on the most distal part of the tooth will undergo a
downward vertical movement and disengage as the distal extension base moves
tissue-ward in function.
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4- Bac k Ac t i on Cl asp
The back action clasp is a single arm clasp, provide single bracing only .
The minor connector originates from the major connector. It starts at the of
mesiolingual line angle. It is remote from denture base
The bracing arm extends above the survey line on the palatal
surface till the proximal surface, then starts its taper to engage a
mesiobuccal undercut of 0.01 of an inch.
The occlusal rest is located distally (some authors mentined that
it is mesially remote from denture base) , and some times an
additional rest could be employed on the mesial side to improve
support.
Indications:
The back action clasp is usually used on maxillary premolars and
molars. Because of the natural tendency of upper teeth to incline
buccally, they usually have undercuts on the buccal side.
The clasp is sometimes used in posterior free-end saddle cases
due to its flexibility and stress breaking action.
Disadvantages of back action clasp
The back action clasp is both biologically and mechanically unsound. It
has the following disadvantages:
1. Excessive tooth coverage.
2. Easily distorted because of length and difficult to adjust.
3. Excessive display of metal, hence it is esthetically unsatisfactory.
4. The occlusal rest is supported by the clasp arm and not by a rigid minor connector,
hence the rest cannot function adequately.
5. The clasp provides poor bracing and reciprocation.so it is contraindicated in unilateral
partial denture
6. Food is trapped between the palatal arm and the major connector due to insufficient
space (clearance) between them.
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5- Rever se bac k ac t i on c l asp
The Reverse back action is similar in structure to the back
action but it is located in the reverse direction.
The minor connectors originates buccally from the saddle
starts at the mesiobuccal line angle and ends to engage a
mesiolingual undercut of 0.01 or 0.02 of an inch.
The clasp is frequently used on lingually tipped bicuspids. It
also provides single bracing only. It has an additional esthetic
disadvantage.
6- Ri ng Cl asp
The ring clasp is a single-arm clasp, indicated on tilted, isolated
molars.
It originates mesially and the single arm encircles nearly all
the tooth surface resembling a ring.
Its minor connector originate directly from denture base
It is generally utelizing a mesiobuccal undercut in case of upper molars and a
mesiolingual undercut on lingually tilted lower molars. The clasp
engages a 0.02 or 0.03 of an inch undercut.
The occlusal rest is located on the mesial marginal ridge and
Adjacent to denture base
Primary rest (PR). auxiliary rest (AR). support strut (SS). retentive tip (RT)
An auxiliary distal rest is preferably added to prevent further mesial tilting of the tooth.
A reinforcing supporting strut arm located on the non-retentive side is usually
considered to limit the flexibility of the clasp.
Disadvantages of ring clasp:
Excessive tooth coverage that may result in enamel
decalcification and caries.
Easily distorted because of length and difficult to
adjust.
Reinforcing arm may cause marginal irritation and
inflammation and may act as a food trap.
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Tilted molars, particularly mandibular molars. present a difficult clasping problem.
Frequently. the only undercut available is located on the me-siolingual aspect.
Although a ring clasp can be used. It covers considerable
tooth structure in an area prone to plaque accumulation.
Another possible solution is the utilization of a
mesiolingual 1-bar emanating from the inferior distal
border of the major connector. Because any stress created
by the I-bar is opposed by the natu-ral mesiolingual drift
of the abutment, a buccal arm may not be necessary However, if additional bracing is
desired, a buccal arm should be in-cluded Because of the tilt of the abutment. it is
impossible for the buccal arm to provide true recip-rocation
7- Onl ay Cl asp
It is an extended occlusal rest with buccal and lingual clasp arms. The clasp may
originate from any point on the onlay that will not create occlusal interferences.
Indications:
1- When the occlusal surface of the abutment tooth is below the occlusal plane.
If the onlay clasp is constructed of chrome alloy and is opposed by a natural tooth, the
occlusal surface should be constructed of acrylic resin or gold.
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II- Gi ngi val l y Appr oac hi ng Cl asps
These clasps are also called Infra-bulge, I-Bar, Vertical Projection or Roach clasps.
The bar clasps approach the undercut or retentive area on the tooth from a gingival-
direction, resulting in a "push" type of retention. This push retention of bar clasps is
more effective than the "pull" retention characteristic of circum.
Disadvantages of bar clasps:-
1- Greater tendency to collect and hold food debris.
2- The increased flexibility of the retentive arm, it does not contribute as much to
bracing and stabilization. Additional stabilizing units.
The flexibility of the bar clasp can be controlled by the taper and length of the approach arm.
Contraindication:
It is contraindicated if the undercut is more than 1mm or the depth of the buccal sulcus
is less than 4mm.
Component parts of clasp
o Approach arm : It is a minor connector that joins body and
retentive terminal of clasp to framework.
o Retentive clasp arm and retentive terminal: It must be
flexible and located gingival to the survey line.
o Reciprocal clasp arm is usually in the form of a
circumferential clasp arm and rarely in the form of bar arm
o Occlusal rest
Indications:
-It is used mainly in unilateral and bilateral free end cases to minimize the torque on
the abutments.
It provides better retention and better esthetic but less bracing than Aker's
It can utilize different amount of undercut.
Contra-indications:
- Deep cervical undercut on abutment or excessive tissues undercut. To avoid food
impaction.
- Shallow sulcus.
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RULES FOR USE:-
1- Approach arm must not impinge on the soft tissues. It is not desirable to provide an
area of relief under the arm, but the tissue side of approach arm should be polished.
2- The approach arm should cross the gingival margin at a 90-degree angle.
3- The approach arm must extend on the abutment tooth to the height of contour. The
retentive terminal leaves the approach arm at that point and extends into the undercut
area. The tip of the retentive terminal must be end toward the occlusal surface. (The
approach arm contacts the tooth only at the height of contour).
4- The bar clasp should also be placed as low on the tooth as possible while honoring the
height of contour to reduce the leverage-induced stress to the abutment tooth.
5- Functional depth of vestibule at least 5mm. Approximately 9 mm of space is needed
to have adequate room for an infrabulge clasp.
6- Superior border away from gingival margin by at least 3mm.
7- The approach arm must be tapered uniformly from it is attachment to the clasp
terminal. It must never be designed to bridge soft tissue a undercut, to avoid the
tapering of food & to avoid the irritation of cheeks or lips.
8- Approach arm should taper gradually and uniformly from its origin to retentive end.
9- It must not bridge a soft tissue undercut to avoid food trapping
and irritation. It is not used in case o undercut 3 mm.
10- The tip of the retentive arm may be in the form of I.T.U.C or Y .
One end of the T or Y engage undercut while the other end placed
above the survey line the only function of this additional end is to
encircle more than 180 of the tooth, if the retentive undercut is near to minor
connector and occlusal rest.
11- The bar--type clasp is said to have a "push" type of retention (Trip action of the
clasp). As this arm is relatively longer than occlusally approaching arm, it is
considered as a more flexible arm. However, curvature of the arm in more than one
plane minimizes this expected high flexibility.
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12- Tripping action is attributed to clasp arms that engage the undercut directly from a
gingival direction. Not all bar clasp arms have tripping action, since the retentive
terminal may actually engage the undercut from an occlusal direction as is true with
the "T" bar or modified "T" bar
A facial bar clasp is accompanied by a lingual reciprocating or bracing
arm if the rest is placed next to the edentulous space
However, if the rest is placed on the portion of the occlusal surface away
from the edentulous space, the combination of the guide plate and minor
connector will provide the necessary reciprocation and bracing, and no
lingual arm will be necessary
Types of Bar Clasps
1- The I-bar c l asp (Roac h c l asp ar m)
The I- bar clasp consists of:
A retentive clasp arm originating from the denture base,
approaching the buccal undercut from a gingival direction. It
provides retention only.
A rigid reciprocal clasp arm on the opposite side of the tooth. This arm is usually
in the form of a circumferential clasp arm and rarely in the form of a bar arm. This
arm is located above the survey line. It provides bracing and reciprocation.
An occlusal rest and a minor connector joining the rest with the framework.
Indication:
It is used on the distobuccal surface of maxillary canines for esthetic reasons.
There is a definite danger involved in using this clasp. Because the only contact of
the retentive clasp with the abutment tooth is the tip of the clasp, an area of 2-3
mm, encirclement and horizontal stabilization may be compromised.
a- T Clasp
It is used most often in combination with a cast circumferential reciprocals arm.
Indications of T clasp:-
1- The T clasp is used most frequently on a distal extension ridge where the usual
undercut is on the distobuccal surface of the abutment tooth. When tissue ward
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forces occur on the denture base, the terminal clasp tip rotates cervically into a
greater undercut, this reduces the torquing stresses to the abutment tooth.
2- In class I or II R P D where the retentive undercut on the distobuccal surface of the
abutment. This retention can best be secured by T clasp.
3- The T clasp can also be used for a tooth-supported partial denture when the
retentive undercut is located on the abutment tooth adjacent to the edentulous space.
Contraindications:-
1- The T clasp should not be used on a terminal abutment adjacent to distal extension
base if the usable undercut is located on a fare zone of the abutment tooth.
2- Also, this clasp can never be used if the approach arm must bridge a soft tissue
undercut.
3- T clasp should be avoided if height of contour of abutment tooth lies close to occlusal
surface. Because a large space would be created between approach arm of clasp and
tooth. Space would trap food. High position would also be unaesthetic.
b- Modified T Clasp
It is essentially a T clasp with the non retentive finger (usually mesial).
This clasp is most often used on canines or premolars for esthetic reasons.
The potential danger in its use is that encirclement, or 180-degree coverage, of the
abutment tooth may be sacrificed to esthetics.
Esthetics should always be considered when the partial denture is being designed, but its
consideration must not supersede the necessity of making the prosthesis mechanically
acceptable. An esthetically superior denture that leads to ultimate destruction of the
remaining oral tissues is not in the best interests of the patient.
c- Y Clasp
The Y clasp is basically a T clasp; it's used when the height of contour on the
facial surface of the abutment tooth is high on the mesial and distal line angles
but low on the center of the facial surface.
d- L clasp : It is a modified T clasp.
e- U clasp : They are two bars effectively engage the undercut, retention will be
improved.
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For the I-bar system to function ideally, the axis of rotation must pass through a mesially
located rest, and the tip of the I-bar must be placed in an undercut located at or in front of
the greatest mesiodistal curvature of the facial surface of the abutment (mesio buccal
undercut) but behind the axis of rotation.
For the l-bar to release (arrow) when functional forces (FF)
are applied, the retentive tip must be placed at or in front of the
greatest mesiodistal curvature of the facial surface but behind the
rotational axis that passes through the rest. In addition, the guide
plate must not bind against the distal surface of the abutment
If the only available undercut is on the distobuccal surface it is considered more
complicated. two designs are possible:
A distal rest, circumferential lingual bracing arm, and modified T-bar
or a mesial rest, distal guide plate, and modified T-bar may be used.
Both designs represent a compromise because in each in-stance. The retentive tip
moves toward the buccal bulge of the abutment and does not totally disengage during
functional movement of the extension base. However, the design with the mesial rest seems to
be preferable since the retentive tip moves downward and forward rather than upward and
forward.
Distal rest and modified T-bar clasp on a terminal abutment for a mandibular distal extension
RPD IA) During function, the retentive tip moves occlusally and mesially
Mestal rest and modified 1-bar clasp on a terminal abutment for a mandibular distal extension
RPD (A) During function, the retentive tip moves gingivally and mesially
Whenever an infrabulge clasp is used to engage a
distobuccal undercut, the approach arm must lie in front of
the greatest mesiodistal curvature. If it does not, there is the
possibility that the retentive tip could escape the undercut by
moving occlusally and distally
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2- The RPI c l asp (Kr at oc hvi l l s syst em)
(Rest , Pr ox i mal Pl at e and I Bar )
The RPI clasp is a current concept for bar clasp design, as the
full T bar should not be used since it covers an unnecessary
amount of tooth structures compared with the RPI clasp.
Basically the clasp assembly consists of:
1- A mesio-occlusal rest:
A mesio-occlusal rest with the minor connector placed into the mesiolingual
embrasure.
2- A proximal plate:
a- It is placed on a distal guiding plane, extending from the marginal ridge to
the junction of the middle and gingival third of the abutment tooth.
b- The proximal plate minor connector should contact approximately 1 mm of
the gingival portion of the guiding plane in distal extension cases.
c- The bucco-lingual width of the proximal plate is determined by the proximal
contour of the tooth.
- The proximal plate together with the mesiolingually placed minor connector
provides stabilization and reciprocation of the assembly.
3- The I bar arm:
a- It should be located in the gingival third of the buccal or labial surfaces of the
abutment in 0.01 of an inch undercut.
b- The I-bar approaches the undercut in a vertical direction at the center of the
abutment tooth.
c- It may be placed towards the mesial but not towards the distal to avoid
torquing of the abutment tooth when a vertical load is applied on the distal
extension base.
d- The whole arm of the I-bar should be tapered to its terminus, with no more
than 2 mm of its tip contacting the abutment.
e- The base of the I-bar must be located at least 4 mm from the gingival
margin.
f- Slight relief is required where the arms crosses the gingival margin.
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Indications:
The RPI clasp is indicated:
a- In distal extension cases, as it provides a stress releasing action.
b- When tissue undercuts are not severe.
Contraindications:
The RPI clasp is contraindicated with:
a- Shallow vestibule (the base of the I-bar should be at least 3mm from the
gingival margin).
b- High floor of the mouth which necessitates the use of lingual plate.
c- When buccal undercut is absent or only distobuccal undercut exists.
d- In cases with severe tissue undercut to avoid food or tissue trap.
e- If the facial surfaces of teeth are facial to the tissue surface, the RPA clasp
may be used.
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3- The RI I c l asp
The RII clasp is composed of:
a- Occlusal Rest (R) located on the side of the tooth near
the edentulous area.
b- Two I bar arms (II):
One arm Located on the lingual or palatal surface of
the abutment above the survey line, this arm is usually rigid for bracing.
The other arm is a flexible retentive arm located on the buccal surface of
the abutment tooth. The retentive terminal uniformly tapered engages an
undercut of 0.01 of an inch below the survey line.
Indication:
This clasp is basically indicated for posterior teeth or a single isolated last molar.
The assembly is most commonly used on molar abutments of maxillary tooth-
supported segments. The lingual I-bar is located at the distolingual line angle and
provides for bracing The buccal retentive I-bar is usually located at the distal
portion of the facial surface.
Support is provided by occlusal rest,
Bracing is provided by mesial minor connector and rigid lingual I bar.
Retention is provided by buccal I bar, and
Reciprocation is provided by mesial minor connector and rigid lingual I bar.
4- The Bal l and Soc k et c l asp
It is a bar type clasp, used when the tooth surface having no undercut.
The retentive arm is a round platinized gold wire, with a ball at one end. This end
engages a dimple on the buccal surface of the tooth prepared in a gold inlay..
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5 - CLASPS UTI LI ZI NG PROXI MAL UNDERCUTS
a- I nf r abul ge c l asp (t he DeVan c l asp):
It is designed so that the Lingual aspect may be open or plated.
Two occlusal rests on each abutment are used. The bar arm arises from the border
of the denture base, either as an extension of a cast base (C), or it may be in the
form of wrought wire clasp attached to the border of a resin base. Wrought wire
clasp arm could be used if additional flexibility is required (D)
It has a small head that bears on the tooth interlay below the survey line. The De
Van clasp should be reciprocated by a lingual or palatal strut which contact the
tooth at the junction between the lingual or palatal & fare proximal surface. This
strut end in a lingually or palatally placed occlusal, the primary occlusal rest being
placed on the near proximal part of occlusal surface. This reciprocating arm may
be replaced by an embrasure hook.
Advantages of De Van clasp:-
1- It can used when a buccal or lingual survey line are unfavorable.
2- Good esthetics even when used on premolars& canine. Because, it is can be
hidden behined the buccal convexity of the tooth.
3- Good retention/ due to the angle of approach of the clasp to the undercut which
gives a marked trip action.
4- It is compact design in relation to the saddle periphery helps to prevent it is
accidental displacement.
Disadvantages of De Van clasp:-
The DeVan clasp is highly retentive and esthetically agreeable due to its proximal
location. But food debris may be entrapped between the arm and the denture base.
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b- Mesi o-di st al c l asp
It may be used when clasping canines. specially when little undercut on the buccal
surface of canine, or to avoid the clasping of the buccal surface which is
esthetically displacing.
This clasp is always cast in gold & embraces the canine on the mesial, palatal &
distal sides.
The mesial surface of the canine should be cut or reduced to create a necessary
space. If a diastema is exists between the canine and lateral incisor this space
provides an accommodation for the mesial part of the clasp without reduction of
the mesial surface of canine.
In free end saddle cases, it must be employed without using a stress breaker.
Advantages of mesio-distal clasp:
1 It is accepted esthetically.
2- Give good retention& grips the tooth rigidly.
Compar i son Bet w een Oc c l usal l y and Gi ngi val l y Appr oac hi ng
Cl asps
Both occlusally and gingivally approaching clasps are cast clasps achieving the
same design principles, however, they exhibit the following differences:
1. Retention:
Gingivally approaching clasp gives better retention than occlusally
approaching clasps through the trip action of the clasp, as it pushes toward the occlusal
surface to resist displacement, while the occlusally approaching clasp pulls toward the
occlusal surface to resist displacement.
2. Bracing:
Since the occlusally approaching clasp arm generally has a rigid portion lying
in contact with the non-undercut zone of the tooth, its bracing effect is greater than the
gingivally approaching clasp.
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3. Caries Susceptibility:
The incidence or caries under clasp arms may said to be inversely proportional
to the efficiency of the patient's oral hygiene. If cementum is exposed, there is some
risk of cemental caries with gingivally approaching arms.
While the occlusally approaching clasp covers more of the tooth surface, this
increases the susceptibility of enamel caries.
4. Gingival Health:
When properly designed, clasps are used in combination with adequate tooth
support of the denture. Gingival health is rarely affected.
Traumatic gingivitis, however, more often seen with gingivally approaching
clasps, either as a result of inadequate relief of the clasp arm, or through its
accidental displacement.
5. Esthetics:
The gingivally approaching clasp has sometimes to be preferred than the
other, due its proximity to gingival margin, hence are less visible.
However, in cases, where the gum is shown as in the gumy smile patients,
the gingivally approaching clasp is even more noticeable than occlusally
approaching clasp.
7-Tolerance:
The gingivally approaching is less tolerated specially if excessive block-out
is done leading to food and tissue trap.
8- indication:
The occlusally approaching clasp is indicated in case of Tooth Supported
RPD, when esthetic s not important because of its stabilizing ability.
The gingivally approaching is indicated incase of Tooth- Tissue Supported
RPD, because of its stress releasing action. And in case of Tooth Supported RPD
when esthetic is the prime concern.
Combination of occlusally and gingivally approaching clasps
it has gingivally approaching retentive arm and occlusally
approaching reciprocal arm
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Clasps for anterior teeth
Anterior circumferential clasp
T-bar roach clasp
Incisal cervical prong clasp
The retentive arm runs nearly vertically on the distal part of the tooth from distoincisal
rest
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OTHER TYPES OF RETAINERS
Grassos clasp (VRHR clasp concept)
The VRHR clasp assembly consists of:-
1- Distal occlusal rest supported by minor connector.
2- Lingual Vertical Reciprocal arm originated from major connector.
3- Horizontal Retentive arm fixed either to the major connector or to the
framework.
Each arising separately fram the denture base.
Composed of
The reciprocal component of this clasp designed to contact the lingual height of
contour at the greatest mesiodistal prominence.
The horizontal retentive arm is generally parallel to the occlusal plane& placed
completely below the height of contour with only the terminal third of the clasp
contacting the abutment tooth; the remaining two third is positioned slightly out of
contact with the tooth surface. The degree of the space between a rigid part of the
retentive clasp & the tooth surface is determined by the amount of the undercut
that usually fracture of mm.
Advantages of VRHR clasp:-
Make a minimal contact with the teeth.
Providing continuous contact during insertion and removal of the
prosthesis.
No need to developed lingual ledges.
Suitable for posterior teeth with high survey line .
Placement of retentive arm is more esthetic
Doesnot require preparation f guide line .
The balance between the retentive arm and the reciprocal component
prevent the whiplash effect of the retentive arm.
This clasp design is especially useful on mandibular molars and premolars that have
heights of contour in the occlusal third of the crown.
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NavasCampo (NC) c l asp
It is suggested by Navas & Campo.
Indication
It is a special design for a tissue - supported, distal extension RPD for patients who
require a combined fixed removable prosthesis
The NC design consists of:
The minor connector: connects a ball - shaped pin to the major connector, and
helps guide the RPD into place. It has no retentive properties and is free to slide up
and to down the prepared slot, acting as stabilizer. There are no vertical stops on
hard tissue because this is a soft tissue supported type of prostheses.
An active arm in close contact with the abutment tooth separates from it under the
forces of mastication, with the denture base forming a hollow space that protects
the marginal gingiva.
The retention is gained through a ball pin, which fit into machined grooves in
fixed partial denture. The ball shaped pin, serves as the guide for insertion and
removal of the prosthesis, it is made to rest midway along the superior and inferior
limits of the grooves.
Advantages
This system provides to overcome the esthetic problem, retention, bracing, and
support for distal extension base RPD with minimal damage to the abutment teeth
and the supporting tissues.
This clasp is intended to minimize loads on the abutment teeth during functions
- Under the pressure of mastication, the NC clap is deactivated and the balls can
move downward along the transverse axis with a slightly rotational movement.
- When the mouth is opened, the NC clasp is activated and the balls move
upward along the transverse axis with a slightly rotational movement.
The esthetic problem is solved because no metal is visible on the facial surface of
the arches. The size of the ball and gauged groove is shown in.
Retention is provided by the anatomical alveolar ridges and muscles and by
mechanical factors such as the NC clasp, which keeps the prosthesis joined to the
abutment tooth.
Bracing is provided by the ball inside the groove, the well fitting denture bases,
and the proper placement and articulation of the teeth. In a tissue supported type of
denture, and Stabilization is achieved by a good bilateral balanced occlusion.
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Oddo hi nge c l asp
The Oddo hinge clasp modification is primarily indicated when
anterior abutments have more than average labial inclination
and, thus, a height of contour very near the 'nasal edge The
hinge is opened, the prosthesis seated, and the hinge closed .
The tip of the bar clasp can be located in a much greater
undercut than normal. The retentive tip is located in the gingival
third of the tooth, and the body of the arm is hidden in the labial vestibule .
Relatively simple adjustments in the housing will compensate for minor wear The entire
assembly can be replaced without remaking the RPD
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Li ngual r et ent i on i n c onj unc t i on w i t h i nt er nal r est s
It is emphasized that the internal rest is not used as a retainer but that its near-
vertical walls provide for reciprocation against a lingually placed retentive clasp
arm. For this reason, visible clasp arms may be eliminated, thus avoiding one of
the principal objections to the extracoronal retainer.
Such a retentive clasp arm, terminating in an existing or prepared infra bulge area
on the abutment tooth, may be of any acceptable design.
It is usually a circumferential arm arising from the body of the denture framework
at the rest area. It should be wrought, because the advantages of adjustability and
flexibility make the wrought clasp arm preferable. It may be cast with gold or low-
fusing chromium-cobalt alloy, or it may be assembled by being soldered to one of
the higher-fusing chromium-cobalt alloys. In any event, future adjustment or repair
is facilitated.
The use of lingual extracoronal retention avoids much of the cost of the internal
attachment yet disposes of a visible clasp arm when esthetics must be considered.
Often it is employed with a tooth-supported partial denture only on the anterior
abutments and, when esthetics is not a consideration, the posterior abutments are
clasped in the conventional manner
One of the dentist's prime considerations in clasp selection is the control of stress
transferred to the abutment teeth when the patient exerts an occluding force on the
artificial teeth.
Errors in the design of a clasp assembly can result in uncontrolled stress to
abutment teeth and their supporting tissues. The choice of clasp designs should be
based on biologic as well as mechanical principles. The dentist responsible for the
treatment being rendered must be able to justify the clasp design used for each
abutment tooth in keeping with these principles.
The location and design of rests, the clasp arms, and the position of minor
connectors as they relate to guiding planes are key factors in controlling transfer of
stress to abutments.
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Esthetic solutions in the smile zone
AESTHETICS OF RPD IN RELATION TO RETAINERS:
Basic types of esthetic direct retainers:
Intracoronal retainers (Internal attachments): It has better appearance since there is
no need for buccal and labial clasp arm.
Extracoronal retainers:
Prefabricated extracoronal (attachment)
Esthetic clasps:
Clasp showing may be overcome by the following:
1. Better to use posterior clasp.
2. Use of gingivally approached clasps better esthetically than occlusally approached
clasps.
3. Designed to utilize the proximal and lingual retentive undercuts.
4. Better to use attachment (instead of clasps).
5. Esthetic solutions:
Hidden in teflon-in tube or plastic tube.
hidden clasps
Covered by porcelain.
Made of tooth colored material (metal free clasps): Thermoplastic acetal,
thermoplastic polycarbonate, thermoplastic Acrylic and thermoplastic Nylon.
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A- Hiding Denture Clasps
1- Mesiodistal grip clasps:
It engage only the mesial and distal surfaces of the tooth . They rely upon sound
enamel surfaces and long guiding planes.
2- The Equipoise Clasp :
It relies upon a mesial guide plane with clasp extending around to the distal surface.
3- The RLS lingually retained clasp:
Used for distal extension partial dentures which consists of mesio-occlusal rest a
distolingual "L" bar and distobuccal stabilizer .
4- Dual path or rotational path of insertion :
It involves rigid retentive components and the initial placement of one segment with the
denture being fully seated by rotating the denture into place .
5- Guiding planes :
Guide planes may reduce or eliminate the need for conventional clasp retention in
tooth-borne RPDs. Guide planes themselves serve to provide retention.
6- MGR clasp.
It is an esthetic extracoronal retainer for maxillary canines. Retention is provided by
19 gauges round l-bar and retentive dimple located at distobuccally on the tooth.
Reciprocation is provided by mesial groove or rest and distal proximal plate.
7- Estheti clasp:
The Estheti clasp is recommended for patients with required abutment teeth in
the esthetic zone (incisors and bicuspids).
The Estheti clasp design may NOT be indicated for maxillary canines if the
patient is edentulous bilaterally in the posterior.
Advantages
Optimum esthetics,
no attachment maintenance cost.
It utilizes the proximal undercuts and encircles the tooth by 181.
Estheti clasp may be in the form of L clasp or C-clasp.
L-clasp:
o The design consists of the clasp arm extending from lingual
minor connector with an independent reciprocal rest.
o The L-clasp has greater rigidity than the C-clasp.
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C-clasp:
o It consists of a modified back-action clasp with rest
incorporated in clasp.
o C-clasp has greater flexibility than L-clasp.
o They consist of a rest, retentive arm and reciprocal or bracing
plate. The retentive arm is connected to the bracing plate/rest as-
sembly. The thickness of the clasp can be varied to match the
depth of the undercut used.
J" modification
Disadvantage:
It's only disadvantage is that the retentive arm crosses the lingual surface, eliminating the
tooth's self-cleansing action in this area.
Indications:
The design is used primarily in long saddle areas (replacing
4-6 large teeth). The clasp thickness can be varied depending on
the undercut present (0.005 - 0.02 mm).
8- Saddle lock:
The saddle-lock system eliminates facial clasp display
while achieving natural esthetics with superior stability and
retention. Saddle lock eliminates facial clasps by using the
available mesial! distal concave surfaces of the abutment
teeth for retention instead of the buccal undercuts.
Design
They consist of the rest (A), the reciprocal plate (B), the
retentive clasp (C) and the protective plate (D).
The retentive clasp is a round, light arm (18 ga in
thickness) and is suited for deep undercuts (O.02-0.025mm).
It is connected to the partial frame in the area of the finish
line of the saddle. It threads through a slot formed in the
protective plate (D) but does not contact it.
The protective plate functions to keep the light clasp in
proper relationship to the surveyed tooth undercut.
The reciprocal plate (B) acts like the lingual arm on a
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standard clasp, providing bracing action for the retentive arm. It is placed approximately
181 degrees opposite the retentive point. It is directly connected to the horseshoe or
palatal bar leaving the lingual surface of the tooth open for normal self-cleansing action.
Indications:
This design is best used for free-end saddles with bicuspid or molar abutment
(not cuspids, The abutments must be tall interproximally (4-5mm from the
marginal ridge to the gingival crest). The height provides the space required
for the clasp and the protective plate. The thin, flexible clasp adapts well to a
normal to deep undercut on the distal surface (O.02-0.025mm).
Contra-Indications of Esthetic Designs
Esthetic designs are difficult when the patient has all six anteriors (cuspid
abutments) with no posterior teeth, either bilateral or unilateral.
The problem stems from the natural shape of cuspids. When viewed from the occlusal
and from the proximal, cuspids are triangular in shape. This shape makes it difficult to
obtain the mesial height on the guide plane necessary for adequate reciprocation. Also the
triangular shape places the point of retention (181 degrees from the reciprocal plate) too
far around on the labial surface for esthetics. These problems are solvable with the use of
a crown on the cuspid abutment
One exception: If the patient has
abnormally twisted cuspids where their
buccal surface is parallel to the labial
surface of the centrals, retention may be
possible without facial clasps or
crowning.
Any design, esthetic or standard, can be difficult when the patient has an extremely deep
overbite. If the lower teeth touch the upper lingual gingival tissue, there is no room for
minor connectors. This problem must be corrected by crowning or selective grinding the
lowers for any type R.P.D. to be successful.
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The benefits of saddle lock
Superior esthetics, without visible clasps,
improved retention with little or no adjustment,
easy vertical insertion that protects abutments,
applicable in most partial denture cases,
simple preparation procedures for less chair time.
Limitations
There is no metal horizontal shoe extension,
The retentive arm is short.
Saddle-Lock (Free-End Modification)
They consist of a rest, reciprocal plate, retentive clasp and the protective plate. The
retentive clasp is a round, light arm (18 ga. in thickness) and is suited for deep
undercuts (0.02- 0.025mm).
It is connected to the partial frame in the area of the finish line of the saddle. It
threads through a slot formed in the protective plate but does not contact it.
The protective plate functions to keep the light clasp in proper relationship to the
surveyed tooth undercut.
The reciprocal plate acts like the lingual arm on a standard clasp, providing bracing
action for the retentive arm. It is placed approximately 181 degrees opposite the
retentive point. It is directly connected to the horseshoe or palatal bar leaving the
lingual surface of the tooth open for normal self-cleansing action.
On all free-end designs, the rest is the fulcrum. It is mesial placement allows the
retentive clasp to move gingivally when the saddle is compressed by chewing
action, reducing torque on the abutment.
Indications:

This design is best used for free-end saddles with bicuspid or molar abutment. The
abutments must be tall interproximally (4-5) mm. The height provides the space
required for the clasp and the protective plate. The thin, flexible clasp adapts well to
a normal to deep undercut on the distal surface (0.02-0.025mm).
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9- Spring clasp ( Twin-Flex technique)
This consists of a wire clasp soldered into a channel that is cast in the major
connector. Because this clasp is flexible instead of rigid, it does not generate as much
torque when the distal extension is depressed. The ability to adjust this clasp and its
conventional path of insertion provides an excellent design option for retention
adjacent to an anterior edentulous segment.
Disadvantages of this technique include extra thickness of the major connector over
the wire clasp tang, the extra laboratory steps with increased cost, and difficulty in
repairing the clasp if breakage occurs. (J Prosthet Dent 1997;77:450-2.)
10 - Internally braced clasp
This design is especially suited for cases, in which anterior abutment tooth is a
crowned mandibular canine and is excellent for Kennedy Class III cases.
In this crown, a deep cingulum wedge-shaped rest is prepared with occlusally
diverging walls and a rounded floor. An undercut is prepared in the gingivolingual
third of the crown to accept the retentive arm of the RPD. The rest and the clasp
arm emerge from the saddle to occupy their respective areas of the crown. The
retentive arm engages the lingual undercut and the rest seats accurately in the
wedge shaped preparation.
Esthetics is improved by the absence of a buccally placed retentive area. Support is
provided by the rounded floor and wedge-shaped walls in the prepared crown.
Retention is provided by the undercut. Bracing and reciprocation are provided by
the internal walls of the preparation.
Disadvantages
This design can be used only in teeth with adequate crown height.
It is generally not applicable in maxillary teeth.
The abutment tooth must be crowned
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11- Equipoise System
Esthetic retentive concept for distal extension situations proposed by J.J.
Goodman. The Equipoise semi-precision "E" clasp and precision "C" & "L" clasp are
specifically designed so that all masticatory forces are oriented down the long axis of
the tooth.
The Equipoise Balance of Force Principle
This is accomplished through the use of
Equipoise Class II Lever design. The Class II lever
design has the rest (fulcrum) opposite of the retentive tip
of the clasp (resistance arm) and the denture base (the
effort arm). The clasp arm always moves in the same
direction as the denture base while directing all forces
down the long axis of the retaining abutment tooth.
Advantages
The Equipoise principle of partial denture design
protects, preserves and strengthens abutment teeth while directing all
masticatory forces down the long axis of the abutment tooth. With the Class II
lever design you always obtain stability during mastication and retention only
when needed against dislodging forces.
Equipoise RPD System:
- Rests placed away from edentulous span
- 1 mm vertical inter-proximal reduction between abutment and adjacent tooth.
- Optional Bu- Li retentive groove at mid and gingival third junction on distal
surface of abutment tooth.
- The retentive clasp terminal extends from the mesial and circles around the lin-
gual and distal surfaces of the tooth and engages the distobuccal undercut. It is
kind to the abutment tooth as it disengages when the partial denture is in func-
tion.
Disadvantages
Lack of reciprocation and retention can be a problem. Goodman advocated removal
of 0.5 mm of tooth structure from adjacent teeth so that rigid metal of the RPD
framework can extend into the area and provides reciprocation.
The interproximal tooth reduction makes it a caries susceptible preparation.
Mesial proximal plate may introduce torque.
Potential loss of proximal space with a noncompliant patient.
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Requires greater surveillance.
During processing, excess acrylic may be allowed to surround the clasp. When this
happens the clasp is not able to flex into the retentive undercuts. Therefore, the clasp
may not seat completely in the mouth or may place unfavourable forces on the
abutment tooth. 'Freeing up' the clasp after processing is difficult and time
consuming. To counter this, stalite spacer is placed around the clasp during
processing. This spacer can be easily removed during finishing and polishing proce-
dures.
Equipoise Clasp(E-clasp)
The E-clasp is a lingual back-action clasp that is fully reciprocated, vertically and
horizontally.
E-clasp Tooth Preparation
Rest Preparation
The occlusal rest is prepared with a
cylindrical diamond stone.
On bicuspids, the rests should be spoon-shaped and encompass 1/3 the
mesiodistal width of the tooth and at least 2/3 of the buccolingual width.
Rests on incisors are prepared over the cingulum or on the incisal edge of the
tooth. The cingulum rest should be at least 1 millimeter deep and one-half the
width of the tooth mesiodistally away from the edentulous area. The incisal rest
should be at least 1.5 mm deep and 1.5 mm wide.
Interproximal Preparation
An interproximal access of at least 1 mm is necessary to give the minor
connector enough strength to support a well contoured rest. This preparation is
made by removing 1/2 mm of enamel from the abutment and 1/2 mm enamel
from the adjacent tooth. A 1 mm tapered
diamond stone is recommended. Rubber wheel
or polish cut surfaces.
Equipoise C&E Milled Design
The C&E Milled Design features the application of a milled abutment crown ( 1/2
degree milled undercut) with a precision c-rest ( for stabilization and
reciprocation) and conventional E-clasp ( for retension). This semi-precision
design shows no metal while maintaining proper contact with the adjacent tooth.
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The C&L Precision Attachment
The C&L Attachment was designed specifically to
fulfill Equipoise Class II Lever design principles. The
Counterpoise(C-rest) is a precision made, pre-fabricated
attachment available in three shapes with corresponding
males. The male is made with a functional clearance of
.15 inches tolerance. The L-Spring is a removable L-
shaped band with ball-point retention that allows for
simplified chairside replacement.
Impression Procedure
A quality, single phase impression
material is recommended. The
impression tray and material should
extend into the retromolar and tuberosity
areas on distal extensions.

12- Esthetic clasp for maxillary canine:
An esthetic modified circumferential clasp, which resembles a small Class III
gold inlay, is described. An ear-lobe-shaped pattern is made of casting wax below the
height of contour of the tooth and extends the connecting compound into the embrasure.
The lost wax casting process is used to cast the clasp in type-III noble alloy; this is then
soldered to the chrome-cobalt partial denture framework.
Disadvantage
Soldering becomes an additional step in the laboratory procedure,
success of the partial denture is dependant on the soldering procedure.
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B - Masking the direct retainer
1- Acrylic or composite coating
A number of techniques that facilitate metal-resin bonding have been reportedly
used to mask the direct retainer with either acrylic or composite. The use of
composite resin to disguise metal clasps is in harmony with current esthetic
trends. However, the technique has not been refined primarily because the
composite resins are designed for restorative purposes. Therefore, they are
strong but rigid.
The difficulty of using acrylic/composite resin to veneer RPD metals lies in the
difference between their abilities to flex and their coefficient of thermal ex-
pansion. Non noble metals possess strength and resist flexure. However, acrylic
and composites are subject to greater deformation from physical and thermal
conditions. The composite is brittle past its elastic limit. As a result the abilities
of metals and composites to plastically deform are incompatible. Therefore, the
less flexible the clasp, the more likelihood there is that the bond will endure.
The various methods used to mask the metallic direct retainer are as follows:
Macromechanical retention:
Retentive beads and meshwork have been used to retain facing of either acrylic or
composite resin.
Disadvantages
Bulk that is created by adding the veneer will enlarge the total size of the clasp
thus defeating the purpose of disguising the clasp,
bonding is unreliable.
GAP formation and micro leakage when used in combination with composites
Micromechanical retention:
It involves air borne particle abrasion. This helps to improve retention between the
alloy and the resin.
Disadvantages
Bond strengths obtained after the use of micro mechanical systems are insufficient
especially after thermal conditioning.
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2- Silica coating:
This technique is based on adhesion of resin to silane bonding agents. These
silanes, however, failed to bond directly to metals. The reason for such a failure is
the lack of preferred substrate and groups required for a good chemical bond of
silane to metal. Such end groups maybe Si-OH and AI-OH, which are not readily
supplied by the alloys used.
This new technique involves coating the metal with silica intermediate layer
(SiOx-C) that bonds to metal and also supplies the -OH group for silane bonding.
The tribochemical effect of air borne particle coated with silicic acid on the alloy
surface renders it amiable to silane bonding agents. This coating allows the
development of superior bond strengths to electro etching or chemical etching.
Hence, even in the presence of the flexing retentive clasps the bond strengths are
significant to prevent debonding.
Disadvantages
Lack of long-term controlled studies limits the use of this technique.
C- METAL-FREE CLASPS
1- Dental D clasps
They are the perfect solution to unsightly metal clasps either on chrome or acrylic
dentures and can be prescribed for new or existing dentures. Dental D comes in a
choice of shades to match the patients own teeth or pink shades to match the patients
gum. The Dental D clasps are very tough, flexible and does not distort.
2- Opti= flex invisible clasp partials
With the Opti= Flex acetyl resin clasps, metal-free, lightweight partial dentures that
provide natural esthetics and a comfortable fit can be designed. Using the Opti= Flex
Coating applied to metal clasps, it is possible to give new or existing metal partial
dentures a new esthetic appeal. It is available in 16 tooth-colored shades (matched to
the base Vita Shades) and hence Opti- Plex can meet every patient's esthetic
requirements.
3- Flexite plus cast thermoplastic
Flexite Plus 'Flexible' partial dentures eliminate the use of metal, providing patients
with a metal partial denture alternative. Flexite Plus is fabricated from a flexible ther-
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moplastic material that is available in three tissue shades. The material is monomer-
free, virtually unbreakable, lightweight, and impervious to oral fluids. Flexite Plus
may also be combined with a metal framework to eliminate the display of metal labial
clasps.
4- NaturalFlex: Based on acetyl resin technology.
Available in 20 shades with three pink hues. The tooth or tissue coloured resin clasps
though as slim as those made of metal provide superior strength. They are flexible and
light weight. They are also up to 20 times harder than restorations fabricated from
standard acrylic materials.
5- Proflex clear wire clasps:
Clear wire is an excellent new way to fabricate clear, strong, flexible clasps in
minutes. This new material and technique can be used to make T-bars, l-bars,
Roaches, Acers, and most other types of clasps. It can also be used to add or repair
clasps in an existing partial denture. It should be noted that the technician must have a
good working knowledge of partial design before trying to incorpo rate a Pro flex
Clear Wire technique into their work.
6- Smile-Rite partials:
Smile Rite is a high strength acetyl resin-polymer used for making tooth coloured clasps
on cobalt-chrome alloy partial frameworks.
The combination of Smile Rite with a metal frame gives patients the proven long-term
reliability of a cobalt-chrome alloy framework with the durability and esthetics of
Smile-Rite tooth coloured clasps. Existing metal frameworks can be retrofitted with
SmileRite clasps for esthetically conscious patients. Smile Rite is colour stable and is
resistant to staining and plaque buildup.
The high strength of Smile Rite makes it possible to fabricate the entire framework
metal free. The framework can be made from either tissue colour or tooth colour
monomer-free Smile-Rite acrylic.
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7- DUET CLASPS
Estheti-fl ex 'Duet': Developed with the esthetically driven patient in mind, the Estheti-
Flex 'Duet' combines the support of a Vitallium or Titanium cast framework with the
comfort of Estheti-Flex tooth coloured clasp system for the ultimate in function and
esthetics. The Estheti-Flex 'Duet' appliance is recommended for patients requiring cast
rests for support combined with Vita shaded or clear resin clasps for improved
appearance in the esthetic zone)
8- Themoflex thermoplastic clasps
Thermoflex is an improved acetal resin system that brings the many benefits of metal-
free restorations without the pitfalls associated with acrylic
Thermoflex is so flexible that it can flex around the largest tooth, and then use its
superior elastic memory to cling deeper into the undercut for a rigid functional hold.
It is a Hypoallergenic, monomer-free material ideal for patients with allergies or
patients that cannot tolerate a metal partial framework. It is hydrophobic; hence does
not absorb water or saliva.
Thermoflex has unsurpassed durability and it bonds well with conventional acrylics,
as well as, to itself, which means it can be repaired, relined or rebased. It is available
in 19 shades, 16 tooth coloured and 3- tissue coloured. The Thermoflex partials are
injection molded using heat and pressure which makes the final product dense
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Fl ex i bl e t oot h c ol or ed c l asps
Combination of cast metal andflexible tooth colored clasps.
Ac et al Toot h-c ol or ed Cl asp
Chec k Mat e Dent ur e
Pai n- l ess dent ure syst em by Dr. Sakurai . Cer tai n adj ust ment wi t h a pi l ot
dent ur e.
We can real i ze dent ur e t o be abl e t o f i t cl osel y wi t h hi gh t echni que of
pl ast i c mol di ng.
FI N Dent ur e
Fi n DENTURE st i ck t o t he j aw when ant er i or l i ngual occl usal pr essure.
Because FIN DENTURE i s at t ached wi t h Fi n Val ve
and i t i s cl i ngi ng t o t he j aw. Thi s cl i ngi ng f unct i on make pat i ent bit e
whol e appl e.
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Oc c l usal l y Appr oac hi ng Cl asps
Akers clasp
The reverse circumferential clasp: reverse approach
The Multiple Aker Clasp (Multiple circlet clasp)
The Hair-pin Clasp (C- Clasp Fishhook)
The half and half clasp (Split cast assembly):
The Extended-arm Clasp
The Double Aker Clasp
RPA clasp (RPC clasp)
RLS Clasp
Back Action Clasp
Reverse back action clasp
Ring Clasp
Onlay Clasp
Clasp under cut
Aker's clasp 0.01 inch
Ring Clasp 0.02 - 0.03 inch
Back Action Clasp 0.01 0.02 inch
Reverse back action
0.01 0.02 inch
Gi ngi val l y Appr oac hi ng Cl asps
I-bar clasp (Roach clasp arm)
T Clasp
Modified T Clasp
Y Clasp
L clasp
U clasp
The RPI clasp (Kratochvills system)
The RII clasp
The Ball and Socket clasp
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CLASPS UTILIZING PROXIMAL UNDERCUTS
a- Infrabulge clasp (the DeVan clasp):
b- Mesio-distal clasp
OTHER TYPES OF RETAI NERS
Grassos clasp (VRHR clasp concept)
NavasCampo (NC) clasp
Oddo hinge clasp
Lingual retention in conjunction with internal rests
Hi di ng Dent ur e Cl asps
1- Mesiodistal grip clasps:
2- The Equipoise Clasp :
3- The RLS lingually retained clasp:
4- Dual path or rotational path of insertion
5- Guiding planes
6- MGR clasp.
7- Estheti clasp
8- Saddle lock:
9- Spring clasp ( Twin-Flex technique)
10 - Internally braced clasp
11- Equipoise System
12- Esthetic clasp for maxillary canine
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Masking the direct retainer
METAL-FREE CLASPS
1- Dental D clasps
2- Opti=flex invisible clasp partials
3- Flexite plus cast thermoplastic
4- NaturalFlex
5- Proflex clear wire clasps:
6- Smile-Rite partials:
7- DUET CLASPS
8- Themoflex thermoplastic clasps

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Attachments And Their Use In Removable Partial Denture
It is a retainer consisting of two or more parts, one part is connected to a root, tooth or
implant and other part to the prosthesis.
A precision attachment is an accurately fitting interlocking device for fixing removable
restoration to the natural teeth
Many names have been given to describe these attachments as male and female, patrix
and matrix, key and keyway, parallel, frictional, internal and slot attachment.
Requirements for success
A well motivated patient with good oral & physical health
- A good level of knowledge of attachment & team work between the clinician & technician
- Regular adjustment of the attachment & relining of the prosthesis
- The patient must be aware of the cost and time required for this type of treatment
Indication of Precision Attachments
- use of resilient attachment to relieve stress.
- To accommodate mal-aligned fixed partial denture abutments.
- Esthetics in case of horizontal or vertical bon loss of abutment teeth
- Support in case of RPD, free end saddle, splinting , over denture
Contra indication
a - Abutment not suitable for attachment retainer
- Short clinical crown - Narrow bucco-lingual crown
-Large pulp horn -Insufficient bone support
b - Improper mucosal condition
-No room for attachment (vertical and horizontal)
- Inflammation - No bone support ( wiry ridge)
c- Greater coast to the patient.
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Advantages of precision attachment:-
1- Better esthetics due to the labial or buccal clasp arms on canines or premolars are not
required.
2- Vertical and horizontal lodes are applied more directly to the abutment teeth than by
clasps or rests. This advantageous only if the supporting structures of this tooth are
perfect.
3- The efficiency of retention is not affected by the contour of the abutment tooth.
4- The number of the component of the denture is reduced and hence tolerance should be
better.
5- When used with lower free end saddles, posterior movement of the denture is
prevented.
6- Their use may be indicated when retentive clasp arm reciprocation can not be achieved.
7-Positive retention and stability
8- Reduced bulk of the prosthesis
Disadvantages of precision attachment:-
1- Extensive preparation of all abutment teeth, with construction of the necessary
crown or onlays.
2- When the crowns of the abutment teeth are small or short, this attachment can not
be used.
3- Teeth with large pulps can not be used.
4- It can not be used for free end saddle due to rigidity of the union between the tooth
and saddle.
5- Owing chair and laboratory time involved and the high coast of the attachments.
6- No sufficient space for accommodation
7- Expensive cost and need highly qualified technicians
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1- Since the principle of the internal attachment does not permit horizontal movement,
all horizontal, tipping, and rotational movements of prosthesis are transmitted directly to the
abutment tooth. The internal attachment therefore should not be used in conjunction with
tissue support distal extension denture base unless some form of stress breaker is used
between the base and the rigid attachment.
2- The Intracoronal attachment engages the vertical walls built into the crown of the
abutment teeth to created frictional resistance to removal.
Classification of attachments
1 according to manner of fabrication :-
A ) semi precision attachment B Precision attachment
2 according to location
A ) Intra coronal attachment B ) Extra coronal
C ) Radicular / intraradicular stud type D )Bar type E) Auxillary
3 -Accordingto behavior during action
A ) class I :- -rigid , non resilient attachment -used with bounded saddle
- -Frictional grip intra coronal attachment
-e.g. : - -Dalbo bar unit , -non resilient dalbo stud attachment ,- non resilient Ceka
B ) class II :- - Allow for vertical resiliency -used with short free end saddle
-e.g.:- schatzman intra coronal attachment, dalbo extra coronal attachment,
CEKA extra coronal attachment , dalbo stud attachment , CEKA stud attachment
C ) classIII :- - allow for hinge movement - used with long span free end saddle
e.g. :- -dalbo extra coronal attachment , resilient dalbo stud attachment,
resilient CEKA stud attachment
D )class IV :- - allow for hinge & vertical movement - used with long span free end saddle
-eg :- -as class III
E) class V :- -vertical & hinge movement as well as buccolingual rotation
-used with long span free end saddle
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4- According to retention manner
A) Frictional :-
. Is resistance to relative motion oe two or more surface s in intimate contact with each other
. E.g. :- The Beyeler attachment
. Caution :- if attachment is over polished , frictinal retention may be lost
B) Mechanical :-
. Is resistance to the relative motion of two or more surfaces due to a physical under cut
. E.g. :- The Hannes Anchor attachment
.Cau on :- if the plunger of the a achment doesn t engage the female undercut there will be no
Mechanical retention
C) Frictional & Mechanical
. Combines both features of frictional& mechanical retention
E.g. :- The Score-PD attachment
d)Magnetic :-
. is the resistance to movement caused by a magnetic body that attracts certain materials by
virtue of a surrounding field of force produced by the motion of its atomic electrons and
alignments of its atoms
Caution :- it does not provide lateral stability and contra indicated for flat ridges
e) Suction : -
Is a force created by a vacuum that causes a solid object to adhere to a surface .
E.g. :- a well fitting denture
Caution :- Most removable restoration require a periodic check of tissue condition and if
deficiency occur reline it
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1 according to manner of fabrication :-
A)semi precision attachment
- It is fabricated in the lab by the direct casting of wax pattern, plastic, or
refractory pattern
- they are considered " semi precision" since in their fabrication they are
subject to inconsistent water/powder ratio , burn out temperature , and other
variables so resultant component varies to a small degree
Advantages:-
1 Economy ( low cost)
2 Easy fabrication
3 Ability to be cast in a wide choice of alloys without the problem of co
efficiency differences between the cast and machined alloy
Disadvantages:-
1 liable for dimensional changes during casting (less accuracy)
2 difficult to repair
Blatterfein classified the laboratory-fabricated attachments according to their occlusal outline
form into:
(a) Locking types Semiprecision attachments. These includes:
i- Dovetail rest system.
ii- Circular rest system.
(b) Non-locking types Semiprecision attachment: In the form of rectangular rest system.
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B)Precision attachment
- They are ready made & their component are maintained in special meta alloys
under precise tolerance & these tolerances are within 0,01mm
- One component is soldered to metal crown & other to frame work
- They are very accurate and easily repair
According to retention mechanism between the two components of the
attachments, two types are available:
(a) The active friction grip attachments: These include an adjustable spring. This is
usually accomplished by designing a split patrix so that part of it forms a leaf
spring, which can be opened to compensate wear to give retention
(b) The active snap grip attachments: In this group, the active element consists of
a spring -loaded plunger, a split ring or U-spring, which engages in a prepared pit
or groove.
Advantages: -
1 give a splinting effect & less wear on abutment
2 The load fall down with the long axis of the abutment
3 Standard parts which allow the component to be interchangeable
4 Not affected with the contour of the abutment
5 More tolerated by the patient
6 Eliminate the food stagnation
Disadvantages: -
1 Extensive preparation to abutment
2 Need long chair side time
3 Wear & lose retention by time
4 Very expensive
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2 According to location :
A ) Intra coronal attachment
Usually called as an internal attachment or a precision
attachment. It is developed by Dr Herman E.S.Chayes in
1906.
An intracoronal attachment is one which is contained
within the normal contours of the crown portion of a natural tooth. The placement of
the attachment requires that the abutment tooth be restored with a full or partial
coverage (3/4) crown.
Made of
I- Matrix ( metal receptacle) : -
*usually contained within the normal or expanded contour of the crown of abutment
*it may also be attached to the fitting surface of denture framwork
II- Patrix ( closely fitting part ) :-
*usually attached to pontic or denture framwork
*it is always solid (not hollow)
- Their function is to provide positive direct retentionfor a partial denture. They may prove
more retention than the clasp, but the clinical situation in which they are used required careful
assessment and the standard of the patient oral hygiene must be good. OSBORNE
- It is supply in two forms : readymade attachment (Precision attachment) or Fabricated
by the dental technician (semi precision attachment )
Design:- - Support is achieved by floor of matrix
- Bracing is achieved by walls of matrix
- Retention is achieved by friction
- An intracoronal attachment usually requires a box preparation to allow the
attachment to fit within the crown contour. if it is not possible to create a box
preparation that will totally incorporate the female element , then extra coronal
attachment should be considered
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Advantages:-
1 stress fall near the long axis of the tooth
2 excellent support & bracing
Disadvantages:-
1- Not used with young patient
2 Not used with short crown
Types
A) Universal Intra Coronal Attachment
The IC attachment is a popular spring loaded retaining attachment that
provides free movement for abutment protection without requiring an
abutment crown.
The IC attachment requires a 180 degree reciprocal lingual arm. The
attachment consists of a male anchor and female inlay.
It is made of a stainless, chrome-alloy like those used for casting partials.
It will not tarnish or corrode, and when properly installed, will not
malfunction even after years of wear.
Other benefits include no pulpal involvement, no gingival retraction
before impressions, easy to adjust at the chair, and this is a reversible
procedure.
B ) McCollum attachment
- retention by frictional grip
-rigidused with bounded saddle
C) Crisman's attachment
Retention by friction & mechanical through :-
1 Active friction grip ( friction)
2 Active snap grip { mechanical - more retention}
- rigid, used with bounded saddle
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D ) schatzman's attachment
- retention by active snap grip ( frictional & mechanical )
- resilient so used with free end saddle
- the patrix is attached to a spring to increase resiliency
B ) Extra coronal
- Extracoronal Precision attachments are normally resilient to
allow free movement of the prosthesis to distribute potentially
destructive forces or loads away from the abutments to
supportive bone and tissue. Three distinctive movements are
defined in function: (1) Hinge,
(2) Vertical, and
(3) rotational
- The fewer abutments remaining, and the weaker the abutments are, the greater the
need for resiliencyor free movement to direct the forces away from the abutments to
the supportive bone and tissue via the base of the prosthesis.
Indication
- Retaining abutments are small to avoid over-contoured intracoronal attachment
abutments and/or pulpal exposure
- used for patients with limited manual dexterity, or the prosthesis has a difficult
path of insertion and removal.
Design:-
- The matrix or patrix is attached to outside contour of abutment
Advantages:-
1 The normal tooth contour can be maintained
2 Minimal tooth reduction & the possibility of devitalizing the tooth is reduced
3 The path of insertion is easier for patient with dexterity problems
4- Intracoronal females in retaining abutments will collect food and present problems
when the patient attempts to seat the intracoronal retained prosthesis.
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Disadvantages:-
- It is ,however , more difficult to maintain hygiene with extra coronal attachment and
patients should be instructed on the use of dental floss and hygiene accessories.
Types
A ) Dalbo attachment ( ball & socket ) :-
- the patrix is attached to the abutment
- the ball "patrix" give a hinge movement & the spring
in the matrix give a vertical resiliency
-so it can be used with a free end saddle
B ) Ceka attachment
- The Traditional Ceka and Ceka Revax systems
provide for hinge, vertical, and rotational movements
to provide maximum abutment protection.
- Each attachment consists of three angulations of
plastic female profiles with precision metal insert,
male spring pin, and retention component. The three angulations allow the user to
design the case for the patients needs.
- The matrix is attached to the abutment , -the patrix has a split in it's center to
enhance friction , - a spacer ring can be placed between matrix & patrix to increase
vertical resilience
Adhesive prosthetic techniques are innovative methods for employing extracoronal
attachments. They enable cobalt chrome appliances to be retained without
clasps therefore achieving optimum aesthetics .
The adhesive units are retained on the abutment teeth by micropreparations in
the enamel
The metal surface is coated with silicate and silane to bond the resin adhesive to the adhesive
anchor. The enamel should be conditioned using conventional techniques.
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C ) Radicular / intraradicular stud type
- Stud precision attachments are primarily used on roots and implants for retaining
removable partial dentures or over dentures. All stud attachments MUST be parallel
to each other to provide ease of insertion and removal and reduce wear potential.
- Do not engage labial soft tissue undercuts with the denture base flange, as this will
alter the path of insertion and cause excessive wear and servicing requirements.
- Stud attachments are low in profile to reduce leverage upon the retaining
abutments, are easy for patient hygiene maintenance, allow physiologic
independent movement of abutments, and are easy to service
advantages:-
- that they promote better oral hygiene .
-the crown root ratio is also enhanced with low profile of stud type attachment
indication :-
1 used with remaining root or v. short crown
2 used with over denture
Types
A ) Extra radicular type
1 ) Dalbo attachment :-
- the patrix is attached to remaining root
-the matrix got fingers that are protected using a Teflon ring
-Teflon ring provide compressibility during function
- A new over denture attachment system that allows the user to replace both the
male (threaded sphere) and female. The females engage the undercuts of the
sphere to allow for superior retention and less wear on the height of contour.
- Components are less than 4mm in vertical height.
- types :- - resilient type ( fabricated with spacer ) , -non- resilient type(no
spacer used)
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2 ) Ceka stud attachment :-
The patrix has attached to remining root
- patrix has asplit to increase the friction
- -types :- -resilient type - non resilient type
- The new Ceka Revax (M2):-
is the smallest fully adjustable and serviceable stud attachment system.
This adjustable spring pin attachment may be utilized as a traditional stud
(with cast copings), or inverted as an intraradicular connector for over
dentures or removable partial dentures on roots and implants.
- It may be used for a resilient or tissue born prosthesis, or for a
combination abutment and tissue supported prosthesis. The small size
allows for usage when space is at a premium--ideal for close bite
situations. Clinical, laboratory, and servicing are routine procedures that are
adaptable to the individuals needs and/or techniques. Space requirements
for the Revax (M2) are 3.8mm in height, and 3.4mm in diameter.
-Traditional Ceka Axial (M3)
The traditional Ceka Axial has been in use for over 30 years. As a result, it is
one of the most widely used attachments in the world. It is much like the
Ceka Revax Axial, but for one major difference--the Ceka requires 0.45 mm
more vertical clearance. When space is available, select the traditional M3
Ceka as it is stronger and easier to service.
B ) intra radicular type
1 ) Zest anchor
Zest concepts: lowering the fulcrum (force application), the
intradicular female (inside root), and the easy replacement
of the male.
- Advancements allow the male to freely rotate and move
within the housing or denture cap
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- the wide band on the male allows for increased retention and reduced
wear (less bending and breakage), the female has a titanium coating for
hardness and a smoother internal surface
The males may be placed "chairside." The female may be used with a cast
coping or directly placed into a root. -There are two sizes--regular (4.0 mm
height, 3.8 mm width) and mini (2.3 mm height, 3.3 mm width)
D )Bar type
indication:-
1 - overdentures, to connect between 2 roots
2 - removable partial dentures to connect between 2 teeth
3 - implant prosthesis
4 in case in presence of few teeth or long edentulous area
- Bars may be rigid or resilient, permitting free movement of the prosthesis to
direct forces away from the retaining abutments to the supportive bone and tissue.
The shape of the bar is indicated by
- The amount of room available.
- The shape of the alveolar ridge.
- The type of construction.
the round plasti-wax bar, more easily bent to follow the alveolar crest. Do not
engage labial soft tissue undercuts with the denture base flange, as this will alter
the path of insertion and cause excessive wear and servicing requirements.
Bar systems are generally in one of three types:
1. Prefabricated Dolder type
Dolbar bar joint Dolbar bar unit
oval in cross section rectangular cross section
resilient Rigid
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weak abutment Ceramic) abutment(strong
Regular Mini
2. Plastic Ackermann &Hader type
Hader Ackermann
Key hole shape oval in cross section
used in curved arch as can follow the ridge curvature & be used in anterior
maxilla the matrix is the bar & the patrix is the sleeve
* Hader attachment:- the most popular of all bar systems due to its
economy and simplicity.
*advantage :-
1 - superior stability,
2 retention
3 - abutment splinting Ackermann Clips
3. Round Clip" bars and riders
A round bar is useful in situations where the bar must be bent to
accommodate the ridge anatomy, or in close-bit situations.

Round Bar
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E) Magnet
F) Locator Root
The Self-Aligning feature of the LOCATOR attachment allows a patient to
easily seat their overdenture without the need for accurate alignment of the
attachment components.
o Long Lasting--good for 110,000 insertion cycles!
o Self-Aligning--patient can bit prosthesis to place!
o Patented Dual Retention
o Unique Pivoting Denture Cap
o Choice of Retention--5, 4, 3, and 1.5 lbs
o Extra-Radicular Design
G) Auxillary attachment
- they include component such as plunger , hingers & screws these types of
attachment must be incorporated into the design of the prosthesis
*types:-
1) plungers
2) screw units
-used in Fixed removable partial denture
-the anterior part of denture is fpd & posterior part is screwed to it
3) hinged flanges ( swing lock p .d ) :-
-labial flange is connected from one side by a joint & a lock on other side
- used with R.p.d where labial under cut is found
-so in much R.p.d , labial undercut & teeth interdental area are used to
increase retention
- Usually made of co /cr to splint weak abutment
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indication & adv of swing lock p .d :-
1 Splinting of weak abutment 2 unfavorable tooth contour
3 Unfavorable soft tissue contour 4 for maxilla facial cases
5 for arch with expected further extraction
Contraindication:-
1 shallow labial vestibule 2 expensive
3 un co-opertive patient 4 where esthetic are needed
4) Distal Stress Equalizers (DSE)
- The DSE Hinge is intended for use on bilateral clasp
retained free end removable partial dentures to reduce
loading or torquing of abutments. The small size is easy to
work with and eliminates multiple inventory requirements.
The unique design provides for easy freeing after casting
and provides total lateral stability.
- For patients, it allows patient comfort and abutment protection by allowing
independent unilateral function eliminating torquing leverage on the abutments
on the nonfunctioning side. The miniaturized size allows utilization in short vertical
spaces and provides for good esthetics.
5) Telescopic prosthesiswith isoclip attachment or spring loaded plunger.
6) Sectional denture prosthesis with Mechanical locking-PW Bolt or Frictional
resistance PW split post.
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Overview attachments used in :-
A ) R.P.D : -
1 ) extracoronal attachment 2 ) intracoronal attachment
3 )bar attachment 4 ) auxillary attachment
B )partial over denture :-
1 ) stud attachment 2 ) bar attachment
c) implant supported partial denture :-
1 ) extracoronal attachment 2 ) stud attachment
3 ) screw on
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Treatment planning
A)Intra oral assessment
intra oral examination should include assessment of the soft & hard tissues.
The teeth should be assessed for :-
a caries
b vitality
c bone support
d mobility & angulation
e- clinical crown length
f- crown root ratio
A thorough periodontal , occlusal & radiographic examination is also required to
complete intra oral assessment
periodontal examination :-
a full periodontal assessment should be carried out this should include full
arch pocket charting , an assessment of oral hygiene status & a full
radiographic assessment of bone support as fixed or removable prosthesis
may influence the pattern of health & disease of periodontium .

pre -prosthetics treatment :-
Hard &soft tissue problems such as : -
A poor gingival contour
b soft tissue hyperplasia
C in adequate crown length
d bonitori & high frenal attachment
After initial pdl therapy has been completed any surgical treatment should be
carried out next
prosthetic consideration :-
- the possible design features with regard to retainers & fram work
design should always be thought by the dentist & technician with both the
surveyed diagnostic casts mounted on an articulator & patient present
- the selection of abutment teeth is influenced by 3 factors :-
1 the number & distribution of the remaining teeth
2 adequacy of p d l support
3 analysis of occlusion
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Stress breaker
It is a device, which allows movement between the denture base and the retainer to
reduce lateral and tipping forces on abutment teeth. It is also called "Stress director" or
"Stress equalizer". The term articulated prosthesis is applied to a broken-stress partial
denture.
Strain on the abutment teeth is minimized through:
1. Broad tissue coverage,
2. The use of functional basing.
3. Use of narrow teeth and harmonious occlusion.
4. Placing the artificial teeth on the anterior two-thirds of the base.
5. Correct choice of direct retainer. Using a flexible clasp causes less transmission of
torque due to the release of stresses which occur when the clasp tends to deform.
This principle is fulfilled by stress breakers.
Indications:
1- When internal attachments are used.
2- In distal extension removable partial dentures to distribute the load between the
abutment teeth and the ridge.
3- In cases exhibiting weak abutment teeth and well formed ridges.
Advantages:
1- Decrease horizontal forces acting on the abutment teeth thus it preserve alveolar
support of these teeth
2- Distribute the stress between the abutment teeth and the residual ridge.
3- Prevent the quick damage of abutment teeth if relining is needed but not done.
4- Providing physiological stimulation of bone which prevent bone resorption.
Disadvantages:
1- Difficult to construct and expensive.
2- Concentration of vertical and horizontal forces on the ridge may increase ridge
resorption.
3- If relining is not done when needed it will leads to the increase of ridge resorption.
4- Less tolerated by the patient.
5- Flexible connectors may be bent and distorted.
6- Some split connectors pinch the underlying soft tissue or tongue as they open and
close under function.
7- The effectiveness of indirect retainers is reduced or eliminated.
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8- Repair and maintenance of any stress breaker is difficult.
9- All mechanical devices that are free to move in the mouth may collect debris and
become unclean.
Types of stress breakers:
Type I - Those utilising a hinge or moveable joint.
Type 2 - Those utilising flexibleconnection
1- Type 1 Stress-breakers : Those having a movable joint between the direct retainers
and the denture base.
- These can be used in association with either precision attachments or clasp units as
tooth-bearing direct retainers.
- This joint may be in the form of hinges, sleeves and cylinders or ball and socket
devices. They are necessary when internal attachment is used , but can also be used
with clasp.
- The joint allows vertical and hinge movement of the base to prevent
direct transmission of tipping forces to the abutment.
- Dalbo extra-coronal retainer and Chrismani combined unit intra-
coronal retainer are examples of this group which use with
precision attachments
- The alternative use of a Type I stress breaker in conjunction
with the use of a clasp unit for the provision of direct
retention can be exemplified by the Wipla Unit
2- Type 2 Stress-breakers : Those having a flexible connection between the direct retainer
and the denture base. (The articulator partial denture design) These include :
a- Wrought wire connectors:
Double lingual bars of wrought metals, one supporting the clasps of
other components and the other supporting and connecting the distal
extension bases. They may be united at midline by soldering.
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Torsion bars
These may be used in the design of a lower partial denture
carrying bi-lateral free-end saddles. Bars extend anteriorly from
the clasp units on each side to join a lingual bar near the mid
line. Flexibility can be controlled by varying the cross-section of
the torsion bars, the method of construction (cast or wrought) and the material of construction
(normally gold alloys or cobaltchromium alloys).
Disadvantages are associated with the use of the torsion bar structure in that the
double bar system is liable to trap food and cause irritation to the tongue.
b- Split major connectors: (used with long saddle)
- This includes split bar major connector and split plate major
connector. The major connector is split into two portions,
upper rigid part which carries the clasp units, and lower
slightly flexible part which attached to the saddle.
- Forces applied to the base pass anteriorly along the lower bar
and then along the more rigid upper bar reaching the abutment. Tipping forces are
thus dissipated by the flexibility of the lower bar and through the distance traveled.
- Split casting modifying the lingual plate: a split of appropriate length is made at the
inferior border of the plate. The saddle is joined to the more flexible part of the plate.
The lower part must be flexiblein the vertical direction, than horizontal direction, so
that the appliance will have lateral rigidity to distribute horizontal force widely. This
design applied in long class II cases.
Disadvantages:
- The slit opens slightly in function and theoreticallyis liable to trap either the tongue or
food particles. With a long saddle, however, the slit is anteriorly placed and in this
position may be intolerable to some patients. The patient using dental floss can clean
the slit easily.
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c- Mesial placement of occlusal rests
This offers the simplest available approach to stress-breaking. The degree of stress-
breaking achieved is, though, much less than that available where more complex
devices are employed. It may be used in the design of either upper or lower dentures.
By positioning the rest of the clasp unit on the mesial instead of
on the distal fossa of the abutment tooth and by using a minor
connector to link the rest to a major connector (for example, a
lingual bar) some flexibility may be introduced into the clasp
unit/saddle link
- The use of semi-flexible bar: (used with short saddle)
This is more applicable with short saddles, it involves mesial placement of an
occlusal rest. The occlusal rest is placed on the far zone of the abutment tooth. The
abutment is rigidly clasped, and joined to the clasp onto the opposite dentulous side by a
rigid connector (lingual bar). The saddle is joined to the retainer unite by a semi-flexible
bar that allows some movement and provides stress breaking action. An embrasure clasp
is usually used on the dentulous side.
- A lingual bar connector with a flexible distal extension:
The lingual bar connector used to join two saddle is distally extended on each side and
then recurved along the residual ridge to allow attachment into the matrix resin of the
saddle. The support is design on mesial aspect of the abutment to increase the length of
the bar and better distribute the load.
d- Clasps having stress breaking action:
1. Gingivally approaching resilient I-bar clasp.
2. Occlusally approaching clasp having resilient retentive wrought gold wire arm
(Combination clasp).
3. Back-action clasp.
4. Reverse back-action clasp.
5. Extended-arm clasp.
6. Ring clasp.
7. Wrought wire clasp.
8. RPI clasp.
9. RPA clasp.
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INDIRECT RETAINERS
Definitions:
Indirect Retention: The resistance to rotational movement of a tooth-tissue
supported denture base and palatal major connector away from the denture
foundation area when occlusal forces (sticky foods) are applied to the denture base.
Indirect Retainers are components of RPD that are used to reduces the tendency of
the denture to rotate in an occlusal direction about the fulcrum axis.
The fulcrum line (prothero 1916) is an imaginary line, connecting occlusal rests,
around which a partial removable dental prosthesis tends to rotate under masticatory
forces. The determinants for the fulcrum line are usually the cross arch occlusal rests
located adjacent to the tissue borne components.
It is a theoretical line passing through the point around which a lever functions and
at right angles to its path of movement.
Retentive fulcrum line is the line joining the retentive tips of the clasps holding the
principal abutments (Diagonally placed).
Supportive Fulcrum Line Is the Line J oining the Occlusal Rests Supported by
Principal Abutments
Direct retainers are retaining elements (clasps) used to retain near ends of partial dentures.
However, Indirect retainers are supportive elements (rests) used to retain far ends of pd
Rational for indirect retention
Tooth-tissue supported PD is subjected to vertical displacing forces
acting in an occlusal direction. These forces may totally
displace the denture if the direct retainers are not functioning
adequately. However if the direct retainers are adequate,
rotation of the denture around a fulcrum axis rather than total
displacement occur. This rotation is counteracted by the unit of pd called "Indirect
retainer".
In tooth supported partial dentures; tissue away movement of the prosthesis is prevented
by the action of direct retainers and rests placed on the abutment teeth (self indirect
retainer).
In mucosa supported partial dentures;(full palatal coverage) tissue away movement of the
prosthesis is prevented by mechanical means (clasps) and by the action of physical
means of retention on a well fitting denture base and the connector (direct indirect
retention). This movement of the saddle may be caused by the action of sticky food
or by gravity in the upper jaw.
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The concept of indirect retainer is advanced by Dr W.E.Cummer as means of resisting
rotational movement
Indirect retainers do not prevent displacement towards the ridge. This movement is
resisted by the occlusal rest on the abutment tooth and by full extension of the saddle to
gain maximum support from the residual ridge.
In order to understand the way in which indirect retainers
are located it is necessary to consider the possible
movement of the denture around an axis formed by the
clasps. This clasp axis is defined as the line drawn
between the retentive tips of a pair of clasps on opposite
sides of the arch.
Where there is more than one clasp axis, as in this
Kennedy Class III denture, it is the clasps on the axis
closer to the saddle in question which make the major
contribution to indirect retention.
Movement of a distal extension base RPD in function described as rotation around:
The 1
st
fulcrum The 2
nd
fulcrum The 3
rd
fulcrum
Horizontal plane Sagittal plane Vertical plane
extends through the two
principal abutments
(Fulcrum line)
extends through the occlusal
rest on the terminal abutment
and along the crest of the
residual ridge on one side of
the arch.
located in the vicinity of the
midline just lingual to the
anterior teeth.
controls the rotational
movement of the denture in
the sagittal plane
- denture movement toward
or away from the supporting
ridge).
controls the rotational
movements of the denture in
the vertical plane
rocking, or side to side,
movements over the crest of
the ridge).
controls the rotational
movement of the denture in
the horizontal plane,
- flat circular movements of
the denture.
The degree and direction of the denture base movement are greatly influenced by the
quality of the supporting residual ridge, the design of the RPD and the extent of the forces
exerted on the denture during function
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Indications for Indirect Retainers
Indirect retainers are used in removable partial dentures having one or more free
extension bases as in Kennedy class I, class II and long span class IV.
Indirect retainers may also be used in Kennedy class III where a long edentulous span
is bounded with one distal abutment having guarded prognosis. The loss of this
abutment would create a distal-extension base.
Kennedy class III for some reasons, be clasped adequately may require anterior and
posterior indirect retainers.
Kennedy III: In the case of a bounded saddle there
is the potential for direct retention from both abutments.
When this can be achieved, as for the saddle replacing
UR6 (16) and UR5 (15), indirect retention is not
required. However, it is not uncommon for only one of
theabutments to be suitable for clasping. In this design
a clasp on UL3 (23) has been omitted for aesthetic
reasons. Under such circumstances indirect retention can be employed, the major
contribution being made by the rest on UR7 (17).
Functions of indirect retainers:
The main function is to resist occlusally displacing forces acting on the free end saddle by
creating a resistance on the opposite side of the fulcrum axis. So it used to reduces the tendency
of the denture to rotate in an occlusal direction about the fulcrum axis
Auxiliary Function of Indirect Retainer:
1- Reduce anteroposterior tilting on abutment tooth, especially on an isolated tooth.
2- Aids in stabilization against horizontal movement of the denture.
3- Splints anterior teeth against lingual movement.
4- Acts as an auxiliary rest against vertical forces.
5- Serves as a third point of reference when orienting the framework during reline
procedures. allow accurate location of RPD framework against the teeth when
undertaking the altered cast procedure
6- It may provide the first visual indications for the need to reline an extension base
partial denture. Deficiencies in basal seat support are manifested by the dislodgement
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of indirect retainers from their prepared rest seats when the denture base is depressed
and rotation occurs around the fulcrum.
The indirect retainer worksas mechanical disadvantage. by incorporating indirect retainer
in free end situation , the resistance to effort arm is increased.
Mechanical disadvantage =resistance arm / effort arm
=distance between clasp and IR / distance between point of effort and IR
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Indirect Retainers
Factors that influence theproper function of indirect retainers are:
1- Effectiveness of the direct retainers:
For the indirect retainers to be effective, the direct retainers must prevent the rests
and dentures from being lifted, as this lift causes displacement rather than rotation of
the denture base..
As the resistance to displacement in an occlusal direction of a saddle using
indirect retention is provided by the clasps forming the clasp axis, the effectiveness of
these clasps is of paramount importance in determining the amount of indirect retention
obtained.
2- Proper location of indirect Retainers:
1- Well-supported indirect retainers should be placed as far from the fulcrum line as
possible. The greater the distance, the more effective is the indirect retention.
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2- A perpendicular line projecting anteriorly from the fulcrum axis is the most
effective location of indirect retainers and affords the best resistance against vertical
dislodging forces.
3- The more anterior the location of the indirect retainer, the greater the
efficiency and retention of the direct retainer Anterior placement of the
rests increases the length of the segment of the lever arm between the
resistance (clasp) and the fulcrum (indirect retainer)
4- In addition to their primary function, indirect retainers act as vertical stops for the
anterior portion of the RPD. thus preventing food from forcing the major connector onto
the underlying soft tissues
Although the most effective location of an indirect retainer is commonly in the vicinity of
an incisor tooth, that tooth may not be strong enough to support an indirect retainer and may
have steep inclines that cannot be favorably altered to support a rest. In such a situation, the
nearest canine tooth or the mesio-occlusal surface of the first premolar may be the best location
for the indirect retention, despite the fact that it is not as far removed from the fulcrum line.
Whenever possible, two indirect retainers closer to the fulcrum line are then used to compensate
for the compromise in distance.
3- Rigidity of the denture frame:
The minor connector joining the indirect retainer to the framework should be rigid.
Flexing of the connector multiplies rather than dissipates the applied forces.
4- Effectiveness of the supporting surface:
1. Indirect retainer in the form of rest should be placed in a definite, properly prepared
rest seat that allows transmission of the forces along the long axis of the tooth
without slippage of the rest or movement of the tooth.
2. Indirect retainers should never be placed on weak teeth or on inclined surfaces.
5- The support of the indirect retainers.:
Tooth support is preferable to mucosal support because the compressibility of mucosa
allows movement of the denture to occur. If there is no alternative to mucosal
support the indirect retainer should cover a sufficiently wide area to spread the load
and avoid mucosal injury.
6- The length, fitness and the extent of the distal extension base:
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1.Well fitted and adapted base provide more effective indirect retention.
2.The shorter the base the more effective is the indirect retention.
7- The mechanical disadvantage of the denture design,
The clasp is always nearer to the indirect retainer (fulcrum)
than is the displacing force. The clasp is therefore working at
a mechanical disadvantage relative to thedisplacing force.
The RPD design should strive to reduce the mechanical
advantageof the displacing force by placing the clasp axis as close
as possible to the saddle and by placing the indirect retainers as
far as possible from the saddle.
In this RPD design the indirect retainers (the rests on the molar
teeth) are inefficient because they are placed too close to the clasp
axis. If the clasp axis is moved closer to the saddle the effectiveness
of theindirect retention is improved.
Forms of indirect retainers:
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Indirect retainers may have one of several forms; each is effective in proportion to the
degree of support and the distance from the fulcrum axis. Indirect retainers may be divided
into those placed in the anterior and those in the posterior part of the mouth. In the upper jaw
either the teeth or the hard palate can be used to place an indirect retainer, whereas in the
lower the teeth only can be used. These forms are
A-Indirect Retainers Used In Mandibular Partial Dentures:
1- Auxiliary occlusal rests: This is the most common form of indirect retainers. It is placed
on an occlusal of the tooth as far away from the fulcrum axis as possible on mesial
marginal ridges of first premolars..
2- Canine extension from occlusal rests: A finger like extension arising from the principal
premolar rest and placed on the prepared cingulum of the adjacent canine tooth. It indicated
in long distal extension cases, as it is used instead of locating of the indirect retainers on an
incisor tooth which maynot be strong enough to support the denture
3- Canine rests (cingulum rest): The canine rest is used as an indirect retainer in cases where
the mesial marginal ridge of the first premolar is too close to the fulcrum axis.
4- Principal occlusal rest of modification area:
The occlusal rest on anterior abutment of modification space provides indirect retention.
5- Auxiliary rests at the terminal ends of lingual plate or Kennedy bar:
The continuous bar is a metal band passing continuously over the cingulum of anterior
teeth, ending at each side with terminal auxiliary occlusal or canine rests. The bar itself is not
considered as an indirect retainer because it is located on the unprepared lingual surfaces of
anterior teeth. However, the terminal rests on either side are the components providing indirect
retention.
6- Lingual plate or continues bar
The bar itself is not consider indirect retainer as it is placed on un preparedtooth surface ,
however the terminal rests on either side are providing indirect retention .
7- Embrasure hooks
Contrary to common use, a cingulum bar or a linguoplate does not in itself act as an
indirect retainer. Because these are located on inclined tooth surfaces, they serve more as an
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orthodontic appliance than as support for the partial denture. When a linguoplate or a cingulum
bar is used, terminal rests should always be provided at either end to stabilize the denture and to
prevent orthodontic movement of the teeth contacted. Such terminal rests may function as the
indirect retainers, Mac
B- Indirect Retainers Used in Maxillary Partial Dentures:
Auxiliary occlusal rests, canine extension from an occlusal rest, terminal rests of the
continuous bar and cingulum rests on maxillary canines are used as maxillary indirect
retainers. In addition, there are other forms of indirect retainers that are supported by the
palate, these are:
1) Cummer arm :
It is a maxillary indirect retainer that extends either from the
denture base or from a palatal major connector and rests on a canine
tooth. This type exerts excessive load on the supporting tooth causing
movement of the tooth labially. It is also liable to distortion.
2) Palatal arm
It is an extension of the palatal major connector on the opposite
sides of the fulcrum line. The projections may initiate bad tongue habits,
interfere with speech, and are liable to cause irritation of the palatal
mucosa underneath the end of the arm..
3) Anterior palatal bar
The anterior palatal bar is a maxillary major connector provides indirect retentionfor
a posterior denture base as in Kennedy class I and II. However, the anterior palatal bar is not
well tolerated by some patients because it crosses the rugae area.
4) Posterior palatal bar
The posterior palatal bar is a maxillary major connector that gains support from the
posterior palatal region. It acts as an indirect retainer for long span class VI denture bases
5) Palatal strap and Rugae support
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The anterior palatal strap is a maxillary major connector, which may provide indirect
retention for class I and II bases because it covers a considerable area of the hard palate.
However, tissue support is less effective than positive tooth support .
C) Indirect Retainers Used in Maxillary and mandibular Partial Dentures
1- indirect retention from major connector
In tooth tissue support partial denture in which the indirect retention is achived by
covering the tissue areas anteriorly for support. As rugae support.
Well fitting denture bases of upper class I RPD connected by broad palatal plate
seldom need anterior indirect retainers. Physical retention gained by the bases and connector,
and physiologic retention affected by upward thrust of the tongue retain the posterior ends of
the denture. This is actually direct retention that compensates absence of clasps at posterior
ends .
2- Direct-indirect retaintion
Some times the reciprocal arm of direct retainer located anerior to the fulcurum line
and act as indirect retainer
3- Modification areas
If occlusal rest on the secondry abutment is far from the fulcurum line it can act as an
indirect retainer
4- The continuous clasp
Often referred to as the Beech or Kennedy continuous clasp, this
consists of a continuous band of metal positioned on or above
the survey lines of the lingual or palatal aspects of the anterior
dentition.
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It is often chosen to provide indirect retention in the Kennedy Class I situation. Where
splinting of anterior teeth is required, a continuous clasp can serve as a useful point
for the origin of embrasure hooks.
Disadvantages
The occlusal relationship of the anterior teeth (deep overbite combined with shallow
overjet) may be such as to provide inadequate space for placement.
Where the anterior teeth are lingually or palatally inclined, there may be insufficient
room above the survey lines to allow placement of a continuous clasp.
Placement may be difficult where the teeth only present short clinical crowns.
Aesthetic problems arise if the teeth are spaced. However, where a single diastema is
present, this problem can be overcome by division of the continuous clasp.
When long, there is a risk that a continuous clasp will be distorted by the patient
during the cleaning of the denture.
I- Indirect retainers placed on tooth structure:
1-Auxillary occlusal rest
2- Canine extension from occlusal rest:
3- Canine (cingulum) rests:
4- Secondary lingual bar:
5- Cummer arm:
II- Indirect retainer placed on the palate (for maxillary denture only)
1- Palatal arm:
2- Anterior palatal bar:
3- Posterior palatal bar:
4- Rugae support:
5- Palatal strap:
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RPD THEORY AND PRACTICE ARTIFICIAL TEETH 9
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ARTI FI CI AL TEETH
Selection of artificial teeth for form, colour and material is made easy by the presence of natural
teeth.
FUNCTIONS:
1. Cutting, chewing and grinding of food.
2. Restoration of esthetics.
3. Functional performance as speech.
4. Maintaining both the horizontal and vertical occlusal relations and maintaining the
proper temporo-mandibular joint function.
5. Preserving the remaining oral structures by preventing over-eruption and drifting of
the remaining natural teeth
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS
1. Have the color(shade), translucency, size, shape, and characterization similar to the
natural teeth they replace.
2. Be easily shaped with conventional dental burs.
3. Be easily characterized with conventional dental stains.
4. Have a hardness and abrasion resistance similar to the opposing enamel or dental
material.
5. Chemically bond to the denture base material or RPD alloy to which they areattached.
6. Be resistant to staining by oral fluids and microorganisms
7. Be chemically inert.
8. Be odorless and tasteless and not pick up odors or tastes from oral fluids.
9. Have a surface which is dense to avoid harboring oral fluids and microorganisms.
10. Be capable of being cleaned by customary oral hygiene technics and materials.
11. Be of low initial cost and inexpensively repaired or replaced.
12. Be capable of being repaired and replaced by customary dental technics and materials.
13. Be strong enough to resist the forces which will be applied.
14. Not soften or warp in hot water or conventional denture cleansing solutions.
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Bonding between the teeth and the denture base
1- Mechanically
2 - Chemically
3 - Chemomecanical
4 - Acid etching microretention
5 - Silnation (tribo-chemical method): combination of chemical bonding and acid etching
Types of t oot h r epl ac ement s
Artificial teeth may be attached to denture bases in one of the following manners
1) COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DENTURE TEETH:
Acrylic resin or porcelain teeth attached to denture bases by an intermediate
layer of acrylic resin. Mechanical attachment in the denture base may be
accomplished by loops, mesh or nail heads retention.
a- Porcelain teeth are mechanically retained to the denture bases. The posterior
porcelain teeth are attached by acrylic resin in their diatoric holes, while the
anterior teeth are attached by acrylic resin around retentive pins located on the
lingual surfaces of teeth.
b- Acrylic resin teeth are retained by chemical union with the acrylic resin covering
metallic denture bases during laboratory processing procedures.
c- Reinforced acrylic pontics (RAP): RAP is made of modern cross-linked
copolymers. It is a solid, hard plastic which provides good esthetics and shade
control and provide better attachment to the metal base compared to cementation.
d- Metal reinforced denture teeth
They areprosthetic teeth constructed from denture teeth. The facial portion of a
denture tooth attached to the framework with a tooth-colored resin. Retentive
loops,beads, or posts are used to mechanically attach the tooth to the framework. The
tooth may alsobe adhesively bonded to theframework
e- Acrylic resin teeth with amalgam stops
This type of teeth is used to slow and control the occlusal wear when the acrylic
teeth is opposite by porcelain or natural teeth as in case of single denture. The
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amalgam stops can be inserted when the teeth are balanced on the articulator before
delivery to the patient, or they can be inserted after a period of patient use so the
individual wear pattern of a generated occlusion is apparent.
f- Acrylic resin teeth with gold occlusal surfaces
Gold occlusal surfaces are considered the best material to oppose natural teeth as
in case of single denture.
One or more occlusal surfaces on each side of the denture can be casted in gold to
stop the abrasion of the acrylic teeth and protect the opposite teeth from abrasion.
This type of teeth is impractical for most patients because it is expensive and takes
more time for fabrication.
g- IPN resin
This material consists of an unfilled, highly cross-linked, inter-penetrating
polymer network. The wear resistance of this material is higher than that
A
b
c
Mechanical means of attachment of teeth to metal base.
INDICATIONS:
1. When a processed plastic base will be used to attach the prosthetic teeth to the framework.
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
1. Where there is insufficient space occlusal/incisalgingival or mesiodistally for a denture tooth-
plastic base combination.
a) Less than 5 mm between the occlusal plane and the edentulous ridge.
b) Single tooth edentulous space.
2. Where protrusive or lateral occlusal guidance will be on the prosthetic teeth.
3. When available denture teeth do not satisfy esthetic or occlusal requirements. In these
situations a custom made prosthetic tooth is necessary.
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ADVANTAGES:
1. Denture teeth are prefabricated by several manufactures.
2. There is a large selection of shades, sizes, and shapes. An acceptable denture tooth can
usually be found.
3. Available in plastic and porcelain.
4. Can be easily adjusted (particularly plastic) to fit the framework, available space, existing
occlusion, and desired size and shape of the tooth.
5. There is great flexibility of arrangement of denture teeth.
6. The denture tooth arrangement can be tried in the patient's mouth to preview the esthetics of
the completed denture.
7. Replacement of denture teeth on a processed plastic base is fairly easy and rather inexpensive.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Plastic and porcelain denture teeth may fracture where as metal prosthetic teeth will not.
2. Plastic denture teeth are not as abrasion resistant asmetal prosthetic teeth.
3. Cannot be used in small spaces, or where occlusal guidance will be on
2) PROCESSED PLASTIC TEETH
Processed plastic teethare custom made prosthetic teeth processed from tooth colored heat
polymerized acrylic resin. They are attached to the framework by retentive mesh, loops, beads,
or posts. They may be used with or without a processed plastic base.
INDICATIONS:
1. A posterior edentulous space which is too small occlusal/incisal- cervically or mesiodistally
for a denture tooth.
2. Where available denture teeth do not satisfy the esthetic or size requirements.
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
1. Where a simpler prosthetic tooth-denture base combination may be used.
2. As anterior prosthetic teeth(custom facings are usedbecause of superior esthetics).
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ADVANTAGES:
1. Can be utilized in very small spaces.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Difficult to obtain estheticshade match with processedplastic teeth.
2. Processed plastic teeth abrademore than commercial available denture teeth.
3. A wax try-in is not possible.
3) ACRYLIC RESIN OR PORCELAIN FACINGS (STEELS BACKING):
a- Readymade facings
Facings used on RPDs are manufactured prosthetic
teeth consisting of two parts: a veneer of tooth colored
porcelain or plastic (the FACING) and a BACKING
made of a plastic material.
The backing is incorporated into the wax-up of the
framework. The facing and backing are related by a
slot and groove. The facing is cemented onto the
framework with a dental adhesive.
Because of their many disadvantages and the advent of
custom made facings using light-cured composite
resin materials, the use of commercially purchased facings is being phased out of
RPD prosthodontics.
b- custom made facings
Acrylic resin or porcelain facings are cemented to metal backings. The metal
backing forms the lingual half of the tooth and is an extension from the partial
denture framework. Tooth replacements in the form of facings are fabricated by the
laboratory and cemented by the dentist at the time of denture insertion.
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This causes difficulty in obtaining satisfactory occlusion and lack of providing
adequate contours, adding to the unesthetic display of metal at gingival margin.
A modification of this method is the attachment of ready-made acrylic resin teeth
to the metal base with acrylic resin of the same shade. This is called pressing on a
resin tooth and is not the same as using acrylic resin for cementation. It is particularly
applicable to anterior replacements, since it is desirable to know in advance of making
the casting that the shade and contours of the selected tooth will be acceptable. After a
labial index of the position of the teeth is made, the lingual portion of the tooth may be
cut away or a posthole prepared in the tooth for retention on the casting. Subsequently the
tooth is attached to the denture with acrylic resin of the same shade. Because this is done
under pressure, the acrylic resin attachment
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Not as esthetic as denture teeth because the backing shows through the veneer.
2. A wax try-in is difficult.
3. If occlusion is placed on the backing the refractory cast must be mounted on an articulator so
the occlusion can be developed in the wax pattern for the framework.
4. Limited selection of sizes, shapes, and shades.
5. Selection more difficult than for denture teeth because there is no mold guide. Selection is
made from mold chart with sizes indicated.
6. More difficult to obtain than denture teeth.
7. Subject to fracture (particularly porcelain).
Steels Backing
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4) Tube teeth
Acrylic resin or porcelain tube teeth are prepared by drilling a channel from the base of
the tooth upward to form a tube. A metal post casted with the partial denture
framework is specially designed for the attachment of the tube teeth. The tube teeth is
fixed to the post by cement.
Tube teeth are usually used as single tooth replacements, where a maximum of three
teeth are used.
INDICATIONS:
1. Single tooth edentulous spaces which preclude the use of a processed plasticbase.
2. Short (occlusal/incisal cervical) edentulous spaces in conjunction with a metal base. The tube
tooth will be cemented to the post, not attached by a processed plastic base.
Anterior tube teeth are usually butted to the edentulous ridge; posterior tube teeth usually have
metal facial and lingual finish lines
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
1. Where a denture toothprocessed plastic base may be used.
2. Where the occlusion must be on metal.
3. Where the space is too narrow or too short for a denture tooth. A metal pontic, custom made
facing, or processed plastic tooth is used in these situations.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Subject to fracture.
2. No wax try-in possible topreview the esthetics of thecompleted denture.
3. No chemical bond betweenthe tube tooth and theframework. The 4-Metaluting cements
show promisewhen bonding denture teethto the metal framework.


A tube tooth. A metal post casted with the partial denture framework specially designed for the attachment of the tube teeth.
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5) Braided post
o It is similar to tube teeth , both forms depend on a centrally located reinforcement
strut , however the method used for strut configuration re significantly different .
o A braided post is created by twished two small diameter wax ropes around one
another in a helical fashion the frame work then casted . the acrylic resin tooth is
attacted to the frame work using heat or self cure acrylic resin
6) Metal teeth
- Metal teeth are usually used as replacements of posterior teeth where space is limited for
the attachment of an artificial tooth. Second molars may be replaced as part of partial
denture casting as a space filler to prevent migration of an opposing second molar. The
metal teeth are esthetically unsatisfactory, difficult to attain any occlusal adjustment
and are abrasion resistant; hence occlusal contact should be held to a minimum to avoid
damage to the periodontium of the opposing teeth.
Metal teeth, self cleansing pontic.
Metal teeth with acrylic window
In cases of reduced space and esthetic requirement the buccal surface of the
pontic is removed and tooth couloured acrylic is packed into the buccal surface
* Replacements with chemical bonding
Recent developments provide means of direct chemical bonding of acrylic resin to
metal frameworks without using loops, mesh or mechanical locks.
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1- Sections of a metal framework that are to support replacement teeth can be roughened with
abrasives and then treated with a vaporized silica coating. On this surface an acrylic resin
bonding agent is applied, followed by a thin film of acrylic resin to act as a substrate for
later attachment of replacement acrylic resin teeth or for processing of the acrylic resin
tissue replacements.
2- A second method of fusing a microscopic layer of ceramic to the metal is accomplished by
a process referred to as tribochemical coating. This system involves sandblasting the metal
framework with a special silica particle material, Rocatec-Plus. Silica from these particles
is attached to the framework by impact. A silane is added to this ceramic-like film to form
a chemical bond between the silicate layer and the denture base acrylic resin.
3- Denture base acrylic resins formulated with 4-Meta are also available and provide a
mechanism of bonding acrylic resin to metal.
INDICATIONS:
1. A posterior edentulous space which is extremely small mesiodistally or occlusocervically.
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
1. Anterior edentulous spaces.
2. Where a simpler or more esthetic type prosthetic tooth may be used.
ADVANTAGES:
1. Can be used where other prosthetic teeth can not.
2. Have all the advantages of cast metal such as permanence of form, wear resistance, dense
surface, etc.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Not esthetics as other types of prosthetic teeth even when veneered with tooth colored plastic.
2. All disadvantages of metal such as hardness, wear of opposing teeth and tooth materials, etc.
3. May require that the refractory cast be mounted in an articulator to develop the occlusion of
the pontic.
4. No wax try-in possible.
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Ac r yl i c Resi n Ver sus Por c el ai n Teet h
PORCELAIN DENTURE TEETH
Porcelain denture teeth have the following advantages in comparison to plastic denture
teeth:
1. More esthetic.
2. More dense surface which is hard, abrasive, resistant, less prone to stains and easier to clean.
Porcelain denture teeth have the following disadvantages in comparison to plastic denture
teeth:
1. Harder therefore transmit more force.
2. More abrasive, particularly when the glaze is broken. Should be used opposing porcelain
surfaces only.
3. More brittle. More apt to crack, chip and fracture.
4. Adjusting (grinding) to fit the framework and opposing occlusion is more difficult.
5. Do not chemically bond with plastic.
Must be mechanically attached to the denture base. The retentive pins and diatorics limit
the amount of tooth modification which can be done. The tooth-base interface will eventually
stain because of the ingress of bacteria and fluids into the space.
6. An objectionable "clacking" noise may be heard when porcelain teeth occlude with enamel,
cast metal or porcelain surfaces of opposing teeth.
PLASTIC DENTURE TEETH
Plastic denture teeth have the following advantages in comparison to porcelain denture
teeth:
1. Easier to adjust to fit the framework, space limitations and existing occlusion.
2. Chemically bond with plastic making a one piece denture tooth-plastic base combination.
3. Softer so forces are dampened.
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4. Will not abrade opposing enamel, amalgam, or cast metal restorations.
5. Can be restored with cast metal occlusal surfaces and amalgam restorations.
6. Less noise from tooth contact.
7. Can be custom stained to match the color and characterization of the natural teeth.
Plastic denture teeth have the following disadvantages in comparison to porcelain denture
teeth:
1. Less hard. Will have more occlusal wear and may be abraded by brushingwith an abrasive
cleaner.
2. Less esthetic.
3. Surface is more porous and will stain easier.
4. More difficult to remove wax from tooth during the wax-up of the denture.
5. More difficult to finish and polish denture.
THE CHOICE OF PORCELAIN OR PLASTIC DENTURE TEETH
Plastic denture teeth are used on RPDs almost exclusively because the available space
precludes the use of porcelain denture teeth. The esthetics of plastic denture teeth is acceptable
and their advantages far outweigh their disadvantages. The Portrait IPN teeth by Dentsply have
greatly improved esthetic characteristics.
Acrylic Teeth Porcelain Teeth
- Have strong chemical bond with
denture bases.
-Less efficient mechanical bonding with
denture bases.
- Tough, having good resistance to
breakage hence are used in closed bite
cases and narrow space.
Tendency to fracture specially in
patients having heavy biting force.
- Require adequate space to ensure strong
bonding.
- Resilient, causing less trauma to
residual ridges.
- Hard.
Can be altered by grinding to fit limited
inter-ridge space.
- Chip during grinding. Excessive grinding
may alter the diatoric holes and causes
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difficulty to restore the highly polished surface.
- Light in weight. - Heavy weight.
- Have tendency to stain and changein
colour.
- Resist staining.
- Have tendency to excessive wear, thus
affecting both vertical and horizontal
occlusal relations.
- Resist wear and maintain occlusal vertical
dimension.
- Rebasing dentures is not easily done ,
as it is difficult to remove teeth.
- Teeth can be easily separated facilitating
rebasing procedures.
- Can be used opposing gold
restorations as they cause minimum
amount of wear.
- Cause wear in opposing gold restorations.
- Clicking sounds
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Sel ec t i on of pr ost het i c t eet h
A) SELECTI ON OF ANTERI OR TEETH
1- Col or (shade) of t he t eet h sel ec t i on
- The selection of a suitable color for the teeth is a simple procedure by using a shade
guide. For single or partial denture the shade must be harmonized with the remaining
natural teeth.
- Theartificial teeth should be moistenedbefore marching it with a shade guide.
- Natural light is better than artificial light.
- Avoid fatigueby providing intermittent rest to the eyes.
2- MOULD SELECTI ON
- The artificial teeth should be in harmony with the facial feature and natural teeth.
- Spaceregaining measurements(e.g. proximal slicing or crown fabrication) are considered
when the edentulous apace is decreased due to migration of natural teeth.
3- Sel ec t i on of mat er i al f or ant er i or t eet h
1- Acrylic denture tooth
2- Porcelain denture tooth
3- Inter changeable facing
4- Tube teeth
5- Pressed on / post
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B ] Sel ec t i on of post er i or t eet h
1- The selection of the proper tooth-size or mold is based on:
- The capacity of the ridge to receive and resist the forces of mastication.
- The space available for the teeth.
- The esthetic requirements.
2- Shade
The shade of the posterior teeth should be in harmony with the shade of the natural
teeth. The maxillary bicuspids may be slightly lighter than the other posterior teeth but not
lighter than the anteriors.
3- Occlusal form
The ridge form can be used as an index for the amount of cusps angulation. The ridge form can
be used as an index for the amount of cusp modification.
The available three major groups of occlusal forms are:
- Anatomic teeth of 30, 33 degrees cusps or more.
- Semi-anatomic teeth of 20 degrees cusps.
- Non-anatomic of 0 degree, cuspless teeth (flat teeth).
The anatomic teethgive greater efficiency and bilateral balance. They are commonly used for
patients having normal ridge relations and well- developed ridges.
Advantages of non-anatomic teeth
1- They are more adaptable to universal jaw relations and class II and class III jaw
relationships.
2- They are more easilyused in cross-bite situations.
3- They permit long centric freedom.
4- They give the patient a sense of freedom as they do not lock the mandible in one
position only.
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5- They eliminate horizontal forces that may be more damaging than vertical forces (less
bone resorption).
6- No need for adjustable articulator and setting is easier.
7- Balance can be obtained through balances ramp, compensating curve or pleasure curve.
The non-anatomic teeth offer less masticatory efficiency. However, they may be used in the
following cases:
- Cross-bite relationship.
- Flat ridge.
- Knife-edge ridges.
- Patients with T.M.J problem or neuromuscular in-coordination.
- Large inter-ridge space.
- Milling type of chewing pattern.
4- Selection of material for artificial teeth
Artificial teeth may be:
1- Acrylic denture tooth
- Acrylic resin teeth with amalgam stops.
- Acrylic resin teeth with gold occlusal surface
- IPN resin.
2- Porcelain denture tooth
3- Tube teeth
4- Metal tooth
5- Pressed on acrylic
6- Braided post
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Factors Influencing the Selection of Posterior Teeth
The selection of the size and form of posterior teeth is influenced by
1) The size and form of the remaining natural teeth which acts as a guide for tooth
selection.
2) The cusp height of the remaining natural teeth which determines whether to use cusped
or non cusped teeth.
3) The condylar inclination A steep condylar inclination requires the use of cusped
posterior teeth.
4) The condition of the remaining residual ridge, where a flat ridge necessitates the use of
flat (cuspless) teeth.
5) The amount of available space determines the size of the replacement teeth.
6) Type of tooth material present in any restoration in the mouth.
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THE DENTAL SURVEYOR
Definitions:
Surveying is the procedure of locating and delineating the contour and position of
the abutment teeth and associated structures before designing a removable partial
denture. The instrument utilized for surveying is termed the dental surveyor .
The dental surveyor is an instrument used to survey the abutment teeth and
associated structures.
The survey line or the height of contour is a line encircling a tooth designating its
greatest circumference at a selected position determined by the dental surveyor. The
area of the tooth above this line is non-undercut area and the area below is the
undercut area.
Undercut: An undercut is formed when the base of an object is smaller than its top.
Undercut on abutment teeth is a dig or a burrow lie below the height of contour.
Purpose of surveying
The primary purpose of surveying is delineate height of contour (survey line) to
plan the design necessary to fabricate a removable partial denture which can be
easily inserted in the mouth and retained in place during function.
History:
Dr. A. J. Fortunati was the first to demonstrate the advantages of using a
mechanical device to map the contours of the abutment teeth. At a 1918 clinic
in Boston, Fortunati replaced the steel analyzing rod of a Bridge
Parallelometer with a graphite rod, then accurately traced survey lines of the
greatest convexities of the teeth.
Around 1920, Dr. Chayes developed the Parallelometer. This instrument could
be used both intraorally and at the laboratory bench to ensure parallelism of
precision attachments. The instrument also could be used to identify non-
parallel and/or undercut surfaces of prepared teeth.
Types of dental surveyors
There are two types of dental surveyors:
a) Electronic: The electronic surveyors are complicated and expensive and
their use is restricted to research and large commercial dental
laboratories.
b) Mechanical. E.g Ney dental surveyor, Jelenko (Wills) surveyor and
Williamss surveyor. The original Ney surveyor was introduced in 1923
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A recently designed surveyor dramatically exposes undercut areas by projecting
a beam of laser light. Some of these modifications are applied to the newly
developed surveyors which have been already introduced to the dental market
be feb.2008 and of these trends:
The Da Vinci is distinguishes by its dual, multi-jointed arm design, allowing
the user to effortlessly switch between the primary milling,
drilling arm and the secondary tapping, surveying arm.
Microsurveyor Compass (Denstply Sankinkk, Tokyo,
Japan) from Japan is a small hand-held surveyor. It
establishes the path of insertion by tilting its vertical arm
rather than its cast holder.
Micro analyzer: it is a surveying instrument for measuring the amount of under
cut electronically.
Stress o- graph : it is type of surveyor with two vertical tool
holder.
A valuable tool in partial denture design is the Retentoscope.
This instrument was developed a number of years ago as part of the
Saddle-Lock technique. Normal surveying procedures determine the
crest or height of contour but only vertically. The procedure does not
accurately measure the horizontal depth of the undercut gingival to the
crest of contour. The gauge on the left side of the Retentoscope accurately measures the
depth of the undercut. This allows the clasp tip to be place in the optimum undercut.
Parts of the dental surveyor: The principal parts of the Ney surveyor are:
1. Horizontal Platform on which the base is moved.
2. Base equipped with a lock screw, on which the table swivels by ball and socket
joint, permits movements of the table in all directions.
3. Survey Table (cast holder): to which the cast is attached, it is equipped with a
clamp to lock the cast in place; the table can be tilted in any horizontal plane to
help in analyzing the model in relation to vertical plane. The surveying table
consists of a top and a base joined together by a ball and socket joint which
permits tilting of the top in any direction. A lower locking device is used to fix
the tilt of top part. The top of table is equipped with a clamp to lock cast in place.
4. Vertical arm that supports the superstructures.
5. Horizontal arm with spindle housing and a tightening screw, from which the
surveying tool suspends.
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6. A surveying arm (spindle): It drops from the horizontal arm and moves
vertically at right angles to the base. It can be fixed at the desired height by a
locking device. The lower end of the spindle arm contains a tool holder and a
tightening screw to fix the tool.
7. Paralleling Surveying tools that will be used for surveying:
A- Analyzing rod: is a rigid metal rod used for diagnostic purposes in the
selection of the path of placement.
B-Carbon marker: is used for the actual marking of the survey lines on the cast.
A metal shield is used to protect it from breakage.
C- Undercut gauges: are used to measure the extent of the horizontal undercuts
that are being used for clasp retention. Usually there are three sizes: 0.01, 0.02
and 0.03 of an inch.
D- Wax trimmer is used to trim excess wax that may be inserted into those
undercut areas, which are to be obliterated.
E- Reinforcing sheath : It is a metal sheath (usually half round) used to
maintain the carbon marker from breakage.
Ney dental surveyor Jelenko (Wills) surveyor Williams surveyor
Parts of the dental surveyor: 1.Horizontal Platform, 2.Vertical arm, 3. Horizontal arm, 4. Table with
clamp, 5. Base, 6. Mandrel (spindle), 7. Storage compartment for storing the tools, 8. Tightening screw,
9. Screw to lock spindle, 10. locking screw for tilt top, 11,Rack for accessories.
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Difference between Ney, Jelenko and Williams surveyors
The most widely used dental surveyors are the Ney and the Jelenko , they differ
principally in
1- In Jelenko surveyor: by loosening the nut at the top of the vertical arm, the
horizontal arm may be made to swivel. The objective of this feature, originally
designed by Dr. Noble Wills, is to permit freedom of movement of the arm in a
horizontal plane rather than to depend entirely on the horizontal movement of the cast.
To some this is confusing because two horizontal movements must thus be
coordinated. For those who prefer to move the cast only in a horizontal relationship
to a fixed vertical arm, the nut may be tightened and the horizontal arm used in a
fixed position.
2- The vertical arm of the Jelenko surveyor is spring mounted and returns to the top
position when it is released. It must be held down against spring tension while it is in
use. The vertical arm on the Ney surveyor is retained by friction within a fixed bearing.
The shaft may be moved up or down within this bearing but remains in any vertical
position until again moved. The shaft may be fixed in any vertical position desired by
tightening a set screw.
To some it is a disadvantage. The spring may be removed, but the friction of the two
bearings supporting the arm does not hold it in position as securely as does a bearing
designed for that purpose.
3- Reinforcing sheath present in Ney surveyor used to maintain the carbon marker from
breakage.
4- Jelenko surveyor has one undercut gauge with different ends but the Ney surveyor
has three different undercut gauge with different sizes.
4- Williams surveyor has Gimbal stage table that is adjustable to any desired anterior,
posterior, or lateral tilt. Degree of inclination can be recorded for repositioning of cast
at any time. Distinct advantage of this table over universal tilt table is that center of
rotation always remains constant. Superstructure of this surveyor consists of jointed
arm and spring-supported survey rod, all components of which can be locked in fixed
position if desired. This surveyor is perhaps best suited for placement of internal
attachments rather than for cast analyzing and other purposes.
Because the shaft on the Ney surveyor is stable in any vertical position it may be used
as a drill press when a handpiece holder is added. The handpiece may thus be used to
cut recesses in cast restorations with precision by using burs or carborundum points of
various sizes in a dental handpiece.
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Objectives of surveying
Surveying of both the study and the master casts is essential for proper diagnosis,
designing and treatment planning. Surveying of the master cast follows mouth
preparations. The objectives of surveying are:
1. Permit an accurate charting of the required restorative procedures and mouth
preparations.
2. Determine the most acceptable path of placement and removal which;
a. Allows easy placement of the prosthesis and free from any
interference .
b. Avoids impingement of oral mucosa.
c. Provides adequate clasp retention.
d. Satisfies the requirements of guiding planes,
e. Provides the best esthetic requirements.
3. Delineate height of contour (survey line) on the abutment teeth .
4. Determine soft, bony or tooth undercuts and areas of interferences that should be
blocked out or eliminated.
5. Identify and measure tooth undercuts that may be used for retention and locate
the flexible components in their position below the survey line of the tooth.
6. Determine the relative parallelism of teeth surfaces that act as guiding planes.
7. Recording the cast position in relation to a selected path of placement for future
reference (tripoding or scoring).
8. Trimming blockout material on the master cast parallel to the path of placement
prior to duplication.
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PURPOSES OF SURVEYOR
The surveyor may be used for surveying the diagnostic cast, recontouring
abutment teeth on the diagnostic cast, contouring wax patterns, measuring a specific
depth of undercut, surveying ceramic veneer crowns, placing intracoronal retainers,
placing internal rests, machining cast restorations, and surveying and blocking out the
master cast.
A - Surveying the diagnostic cast
1. To determine the most desirable path of placement that will eliminate or
minimize interference to placement and removal.
2. To identify proximal tooth surfaces that are or need to be made parallel so that
they act as guiding planes during placement and removal.
3. To locate and measure areas of the teeth that may be used for retention.
4. To determine whether tooth and bony areas of interference will need to be
eliminated surgically or by selecting a different path of placement.
5. To determine the most suitable path of placement that will permit locating
retainers and artificial teeth to the best esthetic advantage.
6. To permit an accurate charting of the mouth preparations to be made. This
includes the preparation of proximal tooth surfaces to provide guiding planes
and the reduction of excessive tooth contours to eliminate interference and to
permit a more acceptable location of reciprocal and retentive clasp arms. using
an undercut gauge to estimate the amount of tooth structure that may safely
(without exposing dentin) be removed ( marking these areas on the diagnostic
cast in red).
7. To delineate the height of contour on abutment teeth and to locate undesirable
tooth undercut areas that are to be avoided, eliminated, or blocked out. This
will include areas of the teeth to be contacted by rigid connectors, the location
of non retentive reciprocal and stabilizing arms, and the location of retentive
clasp terminals.
8. To record the cast position in relation to the selected path of placement for
future reference.
B- Contouring wax patterns
The surveyor blade is used as a wax carver so that the proposed path of
placement may be maintained throughout the preparation of cast restorations for
abutment teeth.
Guiding planes on all proximal surfaces of wax patterns adjacent to edentulous
areas should be made parallel to the previously determined path of placement.
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Similarly, all other tooth contours that will be contacted by rigid components
should be made parallel.
The surfaces of restorations on which reciprocal and stabilizing components
will be placed should be contoured to permit their location well below occlusal
surfaces and on non retentive areas.
Those surfaces of restorations that are to provide retention for clasp arms
should be contoured so that retentive clasps may be placed in the cervical third
of the crown and to the best esthetic advantage.
C- Surveying ceramic veneer crowns
The surveyor is used to contour all areas of the wax pattern for the veneer
crown except the buccal or labial surface.
Before the final glaze is accomplished, the abutment crowns should be returned
to the surveyor on a full arch cast to ensure the correct contour of the veneered
portions or to locate those areas that need recontouring. The final glaze is
accomplished only after the crowns have been recontoured.
D- Placement of intracoronal retainers (internal attachments)
1. To select a path of placement in relation to the long axes of the abutment teeth
that will avoid areas of interference elsewhere in the arch.
2. To cut recesses in the stone teeth on the diagnostic cast for estimating the
proximity of the recess to the pulp (used in conjunction with roentgenograph to
estimate pulp size) and to facilitate the fabrication of metal or resin jigs to guide
the preparations of the recesses in the mouth.
3. To carve recesses in wax patterns, to place internal attachment trays in wax
patterns, or to cut recesses in castings with the handpiece holder
4. To place the keyway portion of the attachment in the casting before investing
and soldering; each keyway must be located parallel to the other keyways
elsewhere in the arch
E- Placement of internal rest seats
The surveyor may be used as a drill press, with a dental handpiece attached to
the vertical arm by a handpiece holder.
Internal rest seats may be carved in the wax patterns and further refined with
the handpiece after casting, or the entire rest seat may be cut in the cast
restoration with the handpiece. It is best to carve the outline form of the rest seat
in wax and merely refine the casting with the handpiece.
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Internal rest seats may be made in the form of a non retentive box, a retentive
box fashioned after the internal attachment, or a semi retentive box. [In the latter the
walls are usually parallel and non retentive, but a recess in the floor of the box prevents
proximal movement of the male portion. Small round burs are used to cut recesses in
the floor of the rest seat . Tapered or cylindrical fissure burs are used to form the
vertical walls].
The ball-and socket, spoon-shaped occlusal or non interlocking rest should be
used in distal extension partial denture designs. The use of the dovetailed or
interlocking internal rest should be limited to tooth-supported removable restorations,
except when it is used in conjunction with some kind of stress-breaker between the
abutments and the movable base.
F- Machining cast restorations
With handpiece holder attached axial surfaces of cast and ceramic restorations
may be refined by machining with a suitable cylindrical carborundum point.
Proximal surfaces of crowns and inlays, which will serve as guiding planes, and
vertical surfaces above crown ledges may be improved by machining, but only if
the relationship of one crown to another is correct.
G- Surveying the master cast
1. To select the most suitable path of placement by following mouth preparations
that satisfy the requirements of guiding planes, retention, noninterference, and
esthetics
2. To permit measurement of retentive areas and to identify the location of clasp
terminals in proportion to the flexibility of the clasp arm being used.
Retention depend on (a) the flexibility of the clasp arm, (b) the magnitude of the tooth
undercut (the magnitude of the angle of cervical convergence below the point of
convexity), and (c) the depth the clasp terminal is placed into this undercut
3. To locate undesirable undercut areas that will be crossed by rigid parts of the
restoration during placement and removal; these must be eliminated by blackout
4. To trim blockout material parallel to the path of placement before duplication
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Principles and Rules for Surveying
1. By surveying the prosthesis goes smoothly into place without interference
2. All casts are originally surveyed with the occlusal-plane parallel to base of surveyor
(zero tilt).
3. When the surveyor blade contacts a tooth on the cast at its greatest convexity, a triangle
is formed, the apex of the triangle is at the point of contact of the surveyor blade with the
tooth, and the base is the area of the cast representing the gingival tissues. The apical
angle is called angle of cervical convergence. This will indicate the areas available for
retention and the existence of tooth and other tissue interference to the path of placement.
4. A cast in a horizontal relationship to the vertical arm represents a vertical path of
placement; a cast in a tilted relationship represents a path of placement toward the side
of the cast that is tilted upward.
5. Any areas cervical to the height of contour may be used for the placement of retentive
clasp components, whereas areas occlusal to the height of contour may be used for the
placement of non-retentive, stabilizing or reciprocating components.
6. Whenever possible, undesirable undercuts and areas of interference are removed during
mouth preparation by recontouring teeth or making necessary restorations.
7. The location of undercut area can be changed by tilting the cast anteriorly or laterally.
8. Deciding the tilt of the cast depends on path of placement and removal.
9. A combination between two tilts could be used.
10. An anterior tilt is sometimes preferred in distal extension bases this increases resistance
to vertical displacement by denture base by engaging undercuts distal to abutment teeth.
11. The retentive tips of clasps must engage undercuts, which are present, when the cast is
surveyed with the occlusal plane parallel to the base of the surveyor, i.e. undercut
areas should be present at both zero tilt and the new tilt
12. The retention on all principal abutments should be as nearly equal as possible.
13. Without guiding planes, clasp retention will either be detrimental or practically
nonexistent.
Uniform clasp retention depends on depth (amount) of tooth
undercut rather than on distance below the height of
contour at which clasp terminus is placed
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The fallacy of attempting to create retentive undercuts by tilting the cast on the sur-
veyor
A. No retentive undercut on the buccal surface of the abutment.
B. The cast is tilted to create an under-cut.
C. The clasp tip engages this created undercut.
D. During mastication the dislodging force will be perpendicular to the occlusal
plane and since the retentive undercut is not present, in this plane, the prosthesis
is dislodged.
Clasps designed at tilt are ineffective without development of corresponding guide planes to resist
displacement when restoration is subject to dislodging forces in occlusal direction.
Step by step procedures in surveying and determination of the
path of placement:
a) Placement of the cast: The cast is attached to adjustable surveyor table by
means of the clamp provided, in a horizontal position (zero ti1t).
b) Guiding planes: Analyze the proximal abutment tooth surfaces with the
surveyor-analyzing rod. Alter the cast position anteroposteriorly until their
proximal surfaces are in parallel relation to one another or near enough that
they can be made parallel by recontouring. The end result should provide
parallel proximal surfaces that may act as guiding planes.
c) Retentive areas: By contacting buccal and lingual surfaces of abutment teeth
with the surveyor blade, the amount of retention existing below their height of
convexity may be determined. This is best accomplished by directing a small
source of light toward the cast from the side away from the dentist. The
angle of cervical convergence is best observed as a triangle of light between the
surveyor blade and the apical portion of the tooth surface being studied .
Alter the cast position by tilting it laterally until similar retentive areas
exist on the principal abutment teeth.
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If only two abutment teeth are involved, as in a Kennedy Class I
partially edentulous arch, they are both principal abutments. However, if
four abutment teeth are involved (as they are in a Kennedy Class III,
modification 1 arch), they are all principal abutments, and retentive
areas should be located on all four.
But if three abutment teeth are involved (as they are in a Kennedy Class
I I , modification 1 arch), the posterior abutment on the tooth-supported
side and the abutment on the distal extension side are considered to be
the principal abutments, and retention needs to be equalized accordingly.
The third abutment may be considered to be secondary, and less
retention is expected from it than from the others.
An exception is when the posterior abutment on the tooth-supported side
has a poor prognosis and the denture is designed to ultimately be a Class
I. In such a situation, the two stronger abutments are considered to be
principal abutments.
In tilting the cast laterally, it is necessary that the table be rotated without
disturbing the anteroposterior tilt previously established.
d) Interferences: It should be noted that areas of interference to proper placement of
clasp arm can be eliminated by reshaping tooth surfaces during mouth
preparations.
If there is bilateral soft, bony or tooth interferences that may prevent the
insertion and removal of rigid connector, surgery and/or recontouring of
lingual tooth surfaces may be unavoidable. If interference is only
unilateral, change the path of insertion at the expense of guiding planes
and retention.
e) Esthetics: If a choice between two paths of equal merit, one permits a more
esthetic placement of clasp arms than the other, that path should be preferred.
f) After selection of the proper path of insertion, the cast is secured in place before
the following steps are made
1. Drawing of the survey line
The analyzing rod is replaced with a carbon marker and the survey line is
drawn on abutment teeth.
2. Location of the clasp terminals
The carbon marker is removed from the tool holder and the suitable
undercut gauge is fixed in the holder. The undercut gauge is placed in
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contact with the tooth to be clasped with its shaft touching the tooth surface
at the survey line. The head will indicate the undercut area where the clasp
will terminate. A sharp pencil is used to mark this point.
It is preferable that undercuts be present on both zero tilt and lateral tilt to
avoid creation of apparent undercuts. Retentive terminals located in
apparent undercuts will be displaced by occlusally displacing forces.
3.Blocking the undesirable undercuts
The undesirable undercuts especially on the proximal surfaces are filled
with wax. The wax trimmer is fitted in the tool holder to trim the excess
wax.
4.Tripoding or scoring the cast to preserve the established cast tilt.
All these steps are performed while the master cast is still mounted on the
survey table without changing the tilt.
Recommended method for manipulating dental
surveyor Right hand is braced on horizontal arm of
surveyor, and fingers are used, as illustrated, to raise and
lower vertical shaft in its spindle. Left hand holding cast
on ad
j
ustable table slides horizontally on platform in
relation to vertical arm. Right hand must be used also to
loosen and tighten tilting mechanism as suitable
anteroposterior and lateral tilt of cast in relation to
surveyor is being determined.
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Recording the cast position:
Preserving the established cast tilt in relation to the selected path of insertion
and repositioning of the cast on the surveyor table to its original position is performed
by rather of the two methods .
Tripoding:
Tripoding is done by drawing three widely
separated cross marks on the tissue side of the
cast lingual or palatal to the remaining natural teeth
while the cast and the vertical arm is locked at a
certain vertical height.
The cast can be repositioned to the same tilt by
allowing the analyzing rod to touch one of the cross marks, the spindle is then
locked at this vertical height and the tilt of the cast is modified until the rod
touches the three cross marks. Then locking the surveyor table.
Scoring : analyzing rod method
Two sides and the dorsal aspect of the base of the cast are scored with a sharp
instrument held against the surveyor blade. By tilting the cast until all three
lines are parallel to the surveyor blade, the original tilt can be re-established.
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Path of Placement (Insertion)
Definitions:
It is the specific direction in which a prosthesis is placed on the abutment teeth.
The path of insertion of the partial denture is "The direction of movement in
which a prosthesis moves from the point of initial contact with the supporting
teeth to the terminal resting position where the occlusal rests are seated and the
denture base is in contact with the tissues".
The path of removal of the partial denture is "The direction of movement of
the restoration from its resting position to the last contact with the supporting
teeth". It is the reverse of the path of insertion.
Types of path of insertion
1. Single path
Two or more parallel axial surfaces on abutment teeth which can be used to
limit the path of insertion and improve the stability of a removable prosthesis.
Guide surfaces may occur naturally on teeth but more commonly need to be
prepared.
2. Double path
Two distinct paths of insertion will be employed for a sectional, or two-part
denture illustrated here by a diagram in the sagittal plane of a Kennedy Class IV
denture. The abutment teeth on either side of the saddle are not shown.
3. Multiple path:
Multiple paths will also exist where point contacts between the saddle of the
denture and the abutment teeth are employed in the open design of saddle.
4. Rotational path
A single path of insertion may be created if sufficient guide surfaces are
contacted by the denture; exist mostly in bounded saddle.
Multiple paths of insertion will be exist where guide surfaces are not utilized
where the abutment teeth are divergent or where point contact between the saddle and
the abutment teeth is employed.
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Factors Affecting Path of Insertion of the Partial Denture
1-Interferences: The prosthesis must be designed so that it may be placed and
removed without encountering any tooth or tissue interferences.
Interferences may be eliminated during mouth preparation by either:
a)Changing the path of placement.
b) Relief of the denture.
c)Alters tooth Contours with restorations.
d) Extraction.
e) Surgery to remove interfering structures as bony exostosis, tori or
undercuts.
f) A combination of any one of the above.
2- Retentive undercuts
Retentive undercuts must be present on the abutment teeth, both at the horizontal
(zero) tilt and at the tilt of the selected path of placement, to counteract any
dislodgment of the denture in that direction.
Those undercuts should be equal in depth and should also permit the location of
clasp tips in the gingival third of the tooth. The tilt is normally changed to
lower the height of contour on an abutment tooth so that the clasp arms,
retentive or reciprocal, can be positioned no more occlusal than the junction of
the gingival and middle third of the tooth. This position is more esthetic and
lowering the torque forces transmitted to the tooth by the clasp
Retentive clasp arms must be located so that they lie in the same
approximate degree of undercut on each abutment tooth. Clasp retention is
no more than the resistance of metal to deformation.
Retention should be the minimum acceptable only to resist reasonable
dislodging forces.
Retentive surfaces may be made by altering tooth contours or by placing
cast restorations with similar contours.
The size of the angle of convergence will determine how far into that angle
a given clasp arm should be placed. Retention will depend on the location of
the retentive part of the clasp arm, not in relation to the height of contour,
but in relation to the angle of cervical convergence.
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- Retention may be obtained by one or two means:
1- Change the path of placement to increase or decrease the angle of cervical
convergence of opposing retentive surfaces of abutment teeth.
2- Alter the flexibility of the clasp arm by changing its design, its size, and length or the
material of which it is made.
3- Health of teeth used as abutment
For example, in tooth-bearing dentures, if the molar is weaker than the
bicuspid, an anterior tilt may be advisable, in order to place the clasp on the
stronger tooth.
4- Esthetics:
The retentive area should be selected with the most esthetic clasp location.
The most esthetic placement of artificial teeth is made possible with less
clasp metal and less base material displayed.
A vertical path of placement is necessary when missing anterior teeth must
be replaced to avoid modifying the natural teeth.
5- Guiding planes:
Guiding planes are formed by two or more parallel axial surfaces on
abutment teeth which can be used to limit the path of insertion and improve
the stability of a removable prosthesis. Guide surfaces usually need to be
prepared.
Proximal tooth surfaces that bear a parallel relationships to one another must
either be found or be created to act as guiding planes during placement and
removal of the prosthesis.
When anterior teeth must be replaced with partial denture vertical path of placement may be
necessary to avoid excessively altering abutment teeth and supplied teeth.
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Selection of the Path of Insertion
The most favorable path of insertion is that perpendicular to the occlusal plane,
Survey analysis should start first with the occlusal plane parallel to the base of the
surveyor (zero tilt). This path is preferred because most patients tend to seat their
dentures under biting force. However, this inclination (zero tilt) may not be
convenient with respect to the factors affecting selection of the path of insertion.
Thus, if undercuts are present but not efficient at the zero tilt and if displacement of
the prosthesis is anticipated with the least displacing forces, another path of
insertion should be decided. This is achieved either by:
1- A rotating or curved path: In this path one section of the prosthesis is seared
first and the remainder is then rotated into position.
2- Tilting the cast to:
a- Create suitable undercuts.
b- Equalize undercuts on both sides of the arch.
c- Place the clasp tips in a better esthetic position.
The path of placement may also be slightly off of the zero tilt to allow for reduction
in the amount of undercut when rigid minor connectors contacting guiding planes
are planned to help in providing retention.
Since the path of dislodgment resulting at the end of each masticatory cycle
tends to pull the denture on a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane, therefore,
undercut areas should be present at both zero tilt and the new tilt, Gross inclination of
the cast to create apparent undercuts should be avoided.
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Blocking Out and Relief of the Master Cast:
After the establishment of the path of placement and the location of undercut
areas on the master cast, any undercut areas that will be crossed by rigid parts of the
denture (which are every part of the denture framework except the retentive clasp
terminal) must be eliminated by block out.
In the broader sense of the term, blockout includes not only the areas crossed by
the denture framework during seating and removal but also (1) those areas not involved
that are blocked out for convenience; (2) ledges on which clasp patterns are to be
placed; (3) relief beneath connectors to avoid tissue impingement; and (4) relief to
provide for attachment of the denture base to the framework.
Severe undercuts in retromylohyoid or buccal regions of the cast have to be
blocked-out to prevent possible distortion of duplicating mould when the master cast is
removed.

All guiding planes areas must be parallel to
path of placement and all other areas that will be
contacted by rigid parts of dentures frameworks
must be made free of undercut by parallel
blockout.
All guiding planes areas must be parallel to
the path of placement and all other areas that will
be contacted by rigid parts of framework must be
made free of undercut by parallel blockout. Relief
also must be provided for the gingival crevice and
gingival margin.
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PARALLELED BLOCKOUT, SHAPED BLOCKOUT, ARBITRARY
BLOCKOUT, AND RELIEF
Paralleled blockout
1. Proximal tooth surfaces to be used as guiding planes.
2. Beneath all minor connectors.
3. Tissue undercuts to be crossed by rigid connectors.
4. Tissue undercuts to be crossed by origin of bar clasps.
5. Deep interproximal spaces to be covered by minor connectors or linguoplates
beneath bar clasp arms to gingival crevice.
Shaped blockout
1. On buccal and lingual surfaces to locate plastic or wax patterns for clasp arms.
2. Ledges for location of reciprocal clasp arms to follow height of convexity so
that they may be placed as cervical as possible without becoming retentive.
3. Ledges for location of retentive clasp arms to be placed as cervical as tooth
contour permits; point of origin of clasp to be occlusal or incisal to height of
convexity, crossing survey line at terminal fourth, and to include undercut area
previously selected in keeping with flexibility of clasp type being used
Arbitrary blockout (Smoothed arbitrarily with wax spatula)
1. All gingival crevices
2. Enough to just eliminate gingival crevice Leveled arbitrarily with wax spatula
3. Gross tissue undercuts situated below areas involved in design of denture
framework
4. Tissue undercuts distal to cast framework
5. Labial and buccal tooth and tissue undercuts not involved in denture design
Relieving the Master Cast:
1. Beneath lingual bar connector.
2. Areas in which major connectors will contact thin tissues such as hard areas so
frequently found on the lingual surface of the mandibular ridges and elevated
median palatal raphes.
3. Beneath framework extensions onto ridge areas for attachment of resin bases.
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SURVEY LINES
A SURVEY LINE is a line produced on a cast by a surveyor or scribe marking
the greatest prominence of contour in relation to the planned path of placement of a
restoration.1
A survey line marks the HEIGHT OF CONTOUR (greatest prominence) of a
tooth or bony prominence AT THE SELECTED PATH OF PLACEMENT of the
denture (TILT OF THE CAST). If the tilt of the cast is changed (changing the path of
placement of the denture) the height of contour (survey line) will change.
IDENTIFYING SURVEY LINES
Survey lines are marked on a cast by first orienting the cast in the cast holder at the
tilt indicating the path of placement for the denture and then sliding the cast holder
along the surveyor table so that the cast surface is lightly rubbed against a carbon
marker held in the chuck in the spindle of the surveyor .
Survey lines are marked on non-polished metal and non-glazed porcelain crown
surfaces with a carbon marker in a similar fashion.
Survey lines are marked on wax patterns for crowns by dusting the surface with
zinc stearate or powdered white wax, then sliding the cast holder on the surveyor
table so that the surface of the wax pattern is lightly rubbed against an analyzing
rod held in the chuck in the spindle of the surveyor.
Survey lines are marked on polished metal and glazed porcelain crown surfaces in
a similar manner substituting a layer of disclosing medium (i.e.Occlude, Die Mark,
etc.) on the surface of the crown.
USES OF SURVEY LINES
Survey Lines on Teeth
The survey line on the facial and lingual of abutment teeth is important in
selecting clasps and planning the modifications of the teeth necessary for the
selected clasps.
The survey line on the proximal tooth surface is important to minor connector
design.
The survey line on non-abutment teeth involved in the RPD design is important
in selecting and designing major and minor connectors.
Survey Lines on Bony Prominences
Survey lines are marked on all bony and soft tissue prominences located in the
area of the denture. These lines are important in the selection, location, and
design of major and minor connectors, and bar clasp approach arms,
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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEY LINES
The Ney system. Three basic survey lines are described,
The Class I survey line runs diagonally across the tooth
surface, its situation relative to the intended rest position.
For this survey line, the use of a cast occlusally
approaching arm is suggested, the terminal third of the arm
entering the undercut.
Variants of the Ney Class I type of clasp are also
described, these being termed back-action, reverse back-action and ring
clasps.
Back-action and reverse back-action clasps are described for use on
premolar and anterior abutment teeth, especially in association with a free-
end saddle. They are indicated where the tooth concerned is tilted such
that a high survey line is present on one side of the tooth and a low survey
line on the other side.
The survey line on side A is too low to allow placement
of a retentive clasp arm on that surface without
encroaching on the gingival margin.
The survey line on side B is too high to allow
engagement of the undercut by a short arm placed only
on that surface.
Such a condition can best be met by using an arm that
extends around three surfaces of the tooth (e.g. lingual,
distal and buccal), the attachment to the denture arising from
the end of the arm. Where the attachment is placed lingually,
the unit is referred to as a back-action clasp.
Where, alternatively, the attachment is placed buccally,
the unit is referred to as a reverseback-action clasp.
The third variant of the Ney Class I clasp, the ring
clasp, is described for use on upper or lower molars
which are standing alone, no saddle being required
posterior to the tooth. Like the back action and
reverse back-action clasps it is used where the survey
line is high on one side of the tooth (normally buccally
for an upper molar and lingually for a lower molar)
and is low on the other side. It has two occlusal rests, embraces three
surfaces of the tooth and is attached to the denture at the mesial rest. An
optional strengthening element may be added, joining the mesial and
distal rests on the side of the tooth having the low survey line.
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The Class II survey line also runs diagonally across the tooth
surface, but as a mirror image of the Class I line. Here, the use of
a Gingivally approaching clasp arm is suggested
The Class III survey line is parallel to the occlusal surface and
lies just below it. For this survey line, the use of a wrought,
occlusally approaching arm is suggested, with the terminal
two-thirds of the arm entering the undercut
Blatterfein system
Blatterfein divided the buccal and lingual surface of the tooth adjacent to the
edentulous area into two halves by a line passing through the center of this
surfaces along the vertical axis of the tooth .
The area closer to edematous area ( A) called near zone
(B) and the area away from the edematous area (D) called
far zone (C).
Survey lines can be classified as:
Medium survey line
Diagonal survey line.
High survey line
Low survey line
Typical or Medium Survey Line
It passes from the occlusal third in the near zone to the
middle third in the far zone
Clasps suggested for use where such a survey line is
present include occlusally-approaching and gingivally-
approaching arms of the Ney Class I and Class II types
.Either Aker's or Roach clasp is used for teeth with a medium survey line.
Aker's clasp is preferable.
During survey, the cast should be tilted such that maximum number of teeth
have a medium survey line.
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Atypical A or Diagonal Survey Line
This survey line runs from the occlusal third of the near zone
to the cervical third of the far zone. Here, a reverse circlet
clasp is used.
It is more common on the buccal surfaces of canines and
premolars.
It can be managed by using reverse action (hair pin) or ring type Aker's clasp
(occlusally approaching) , or L or T type roach clasp (gingivally approaching).
Atypical B or High Survey Line:
High survey line passes from the occlusal third in the near
zone to the occlusal third in the far zone.
When a high survey line is present, the undercut will be deep
and hence a wrought wire clasp which is more flexible should
be used.
It is commonly found in inclined teeth and in teeth with a larger occlusal
diameter compared to its diameter at the cemento-enamel junction.
Wrought, occlusally-approaching arms of the Ney Class III type may be used
where this survey line is present. Alternatively, if accompanied by a low survey
line on the opposite side of the tooth, clasps of the Ney back-action, reverse
back-action or ring type can be used as appropriate.
Atypical C or Low Survey Line
This survey line is closer to the cervical third of the tooth in
both near and far zone. A modified T-clasp is used for teeth
with low survey lines.
It is common in teeth with marked inclination, when it is associated with a high
survey line on the opposite side. The retentive clasp tip cannot be placed in such
cases, because the undercut will be very close to the gingiva and difficult to
maintain oral hygiene.
In such cases one of the following designs can be followed.
A bracing or reciprocal arm is placed along the low survey line and a
retentive wrought wire clasp is placed to engage the undercut on the
opposite side.
Extended clasp can be used.
Re-contouring the tooth with a crown can be done.
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Proximal undercut can be used for retention.
Placement of a Class V gold inlay. A dimple is cut in the inlay and a ball
head on a Gingivally approaching arm positioned to engage the dimple
Change the contour of the tooth by (1) Undercut may be developed by
adjusting the contour of the tooth by grinding.(2) positive addition to its
surface. This can be achieved using acid etch composites, a procedure
which is currently under evaluation.
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Undercuts
The term undercut, when used in reference to an abutment tooth, is that portion of
a tooth that lies between the height of contour and the gingivae.
When used in reference to other oral structures, it means the contour or cross
section of residual ridge or dental arch that would prevent the placement of a
denture.
Generally, a small amount of undercut 0.02 inch (0.375 mm) or less is sufficient
for retentive purposes.
The gingival retentive zone : It is triangular area bounded by horizontal flange
and vertical arm of undercut gauge and tooth surface.
Depth of under cut: the horizontal measured by undercut gauge
Distance of undercut: the vertical distance between the flange of undercut gauge
and survey line
Retention depend on
(a) The flexibility of the clasp arm,
(b) The magnitude of the tooth undercut (the magnitude of the angle of cervical
convergence below the point of convexity), and
(c) The depth the clasp terminal is placed into this undercut
Partially edentulous mouth has many undercut areas that result due to:
a- Bulbous shape of the crowns of natural teeth resulting in buccal and lingual
undercuts.
b- The inclination of the long axes of teeth in relation to a vertical line drawn
from the occlusal surface, resulting in undercut on the proximal surfaces of
these teeth.
c- The inclination of soft tissues or bone to a vertical line drawn from the
occlusal surface resulting in soft tissue or bony undercuts.
d- Proliferation of soft tissues covering the edentulous ridge due to the rapid
pattern of bone resorption.
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Depth of undercut: [.25 mm is approximately 1/100 of an inch (.01")]
0.25 mmcast occlusally-approaching clasps in cobalt chrome;
0.5 mmcast occlusally-approaching clasps in gold alloy
0.5 mmwrought occlusally-approaching clasps in stainless steel;
0.75 mmwrought occlusally-approaching clasps in gold alloy may
0.5 mm cast gingivally-approaching clasps in cobalt-chromium
0.75 mm gingivally approaching clasps in gold alloy
The undercuts might be:
1) Desirable undercuts:
Desirable undercuts are used for retaining the partial denture against
dislodging forces. Discerning the angle of cervical convergence is
important in developing uniform retention through clasps.
2) Undesirable undercuts:
Undercuts other then those used for retention are considered undesirable
and should be eliminated. This done by
Blocking out the undercut with wax on the master cast .
preparation and reduction of the tooth surface in the mouth
Placing properly contoured crown restoration
The undercut may be classified into
o True undercut : which present in relation to analizing rod and in
relation to undercut in opposite side. Desirable undercuts must be
present at the path of placement of the RPD.
o False undercut: Tilting the cast away from the path of placement of the
RPD may create undercuts, but these are FALSE UNDERCUTS
because they do not provide retention (resistance to movement of the
prosthesis away from the tissues along the path of placement and
removal of the denture) since they are not present along the path of
placement and removal of the denture.
The amount of undercut is measured in hundredths of an inch, with the gauges
allowing measurements up to 0.03 inch. Theoretically the amount of undercut used may
vary with the clasp to be used up to a full 0.03 inch. However, undercuts of 0.01 inch
are often adequate for retention by cast retainers.
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Tapered wrought-wire retention may safely use up to 0.02 inch without
inducing undesirable torque on the abutment tooth, provided the wire retentive arm is
long enough (at least 8 mm). The use of 0.03 inch is rarely, if ever, justified with any
clasp. When greater retention is required, such as when abutment teeth remain on only
one side of the arch, multiple abutments should be used rather than increasing the
retention on anyone tooth.
Retentoscope Ensures Accurate Clasp Placement
This precision survey and design instrument is employed in the laboratory to
precisely measure the depth of each undercut, ensuring an equal, yet gentle, clasp load
on all abutments. Using the Retentoscope, the technician can locate the clasp in the
degree of undercut that precisely coincides with the modulus of elasticity of the
framework alloy. Each clasp is placed in the exact location for ideal retention and
biomechanics. Adjustments are virtually eliminated. No recontouring of the mesial or
distal walls is required.
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Guiding planes
Guiding planes are flat axial surfaces in an occluso-
gingival direction on the proximal or lingual surfaces of teeth.
They are made parallel to the path of placement, help in
guiding the prosthesis during placement and removal.
Characters:
They are prepared on the enamel surface after the path of Insertion is selected
according to the other three factors.
It is called guide surfaces as the tooth surface is curved not in one plane
A guide surface should be produced by removing a minimal and fairly uniform
thickness of enamels usually not more than 0.5 mm, from around the appropriate
part of the tooth. It should extend vertically for about 3 mm and should kept far
from the gingival margin
They are 2 - 4 mm in height, and extend bucco-lingually according to the width of
the component that is contacting them.
Guiding plane surface should be like area of cylindrical object. It should be
continuous surface unbounded by even rounded line angle.
Minor connector contacting guiding plane surface has same curvature as does that
surface. From occlusal view it tapers buccally from thicker lingual portion, thus
permitting closer contact of abutment tooth and prosthetically supplied tooth.
Viewed from buccal aspect, minor connector contacts enamel of tooth on its
proximal surface about two-thirds its length.
Prevention of clasp deformation; without guide surface the patient may tilt or
rotate the denture on removal causing the clasp to flex beyond their proportional limit
A guide surface allows a reciprocating component to maintain continuous contact
with a tooth as the denture is displaced occlusally. The retentive arm of the clasp is
thus forced to flex as it moves up the tooth. It is this elastic deformation of the
clasp, which creates the retentive force.
Increased stability is achieved by the guide surfaces resisting displacement of the
denture in directions other than along the planned path of displacement.
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Components of the denture that contacts the guiding planes during placement are:
I-Those contacting proximal surfaces:
a. The minor connector that joins the clasps to the saddle.
b. Proximal plates that are used with I-bar or RPI clasps.
II. Those contacting axial (lingual) surfaces:
a. Reciprocal clasp arms.
b. Lingual plates that act as reciprocal arms.
c. Minor connectors that join the auxiliary rests to the major connector.
The benefits of the guiding planes include
1- Guide the prosthesis for easier path of placement and removal.
2- Eliminate detrimental strain to the framework components and minimize wedging
stresses on the abutment teeth.
3- The frictional contact of the prosthesis against these parallel surfaces can contribute
significantly to the overall retention of the prosthesis, and assisting the reciprocal
clasp arm to perform its intended function
4- Aid in stabilizing the prosthesis against horizontal stress. Guiding planes are
particularly effective when the edentulous spaces are tooth bounded.
5- Well-prepared guiding planes tend to reduce undercuts between the proximal
surface of the teeth and the minor connectors of the partial denture, thus making the
prosthesis more hygienic.
6- A properly prepared guiding plane lowering the height of contour of the proximal
surface of the tooth permits the placement of some of the rigid portion of the
clasp closer to the gingival margin of the tooth. This provides a more esthetic
and biomechanical advantages (How).
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Guiding planes and the distal extension base:
o For bounded base a well-engineered guiding planes are contacted by the
proximal plates of the framework as the prosthesis is inserted and removed, thus
horizontal wedging is virtually eliminated. and all transverse stresses
transmitted to the tooth are effectively neutralized.
o In contrast to this the creation of a flat distal surface on the abutment tooth next
to an edentulous space in distal extension case has the effect of magnifying the
stress that the denture base transmits to the abutment as the base moves in
function.
o A pronounced guiding plane is not recommended for the abutment tooth that
supports a distal extension base to decrease the stress that the denture base
transmits to the abutment as the base moves in function.
o The interface between the tooth surface and the clasp should be such that a
slight degree of movement of the base and the clasp is permitted without
transmitting torsional stress to the tooth.
o Enough flattening of the distal surface of the tooth should be accomplished to
reduce the amount of the undercut between the minor connector and the
abutment tooth.
A) For bounded base a well-engineered guiding planes are contacted by the truss arms
of the framework. B:F, the proximal plates engages the bottom of 1 to 2 mm. of guide
plane and is meant to vertically disengage with extension base loading
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Diagrammatic illustration showing comparative width of the proximal plates for
differently contoured teeth. (A). Proximal plate (p) relatively wide due to the square
contour of the 2nd bicuspid. (B). Proximal palate (p) relatively narrow due to the
tapering contour of the 1st bicuspid.
Guiding planes are most effective when they are :
parallel
Include more than one common axial surface (e.g. proximal and lingual surfaces)
Are directly opposed by another guiding plane (e.g. facing guiding planes in a
modification space)
Are placed on several teeth
Cover a large surface area (long and/or broad)
Should be at least 1/2 to 1/3 of the axial height of the tooth (generally a minimum of 2
mm in height).
Guide planes for distal-extension cases should be slightly shorter to avoid torquing of
the abutment teeth.
Lingual guiding planes for bracing or reciprocal arms should be 2-4 mm and ideally be
located in the middle third of the crown, occluso - gingivally.
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STEPS OF PARTIAL DENTURE CONSTRUCTION
Clinical procedures Laboratory procedures
History, Examination and diagnosis.
Diagnostic (primary) impression
-Pouring the impression in a stone plaster to
construct diagnostic (study) cast.
-Surveying the study cast and designing of the RPD
is drawn on the cast.
-Construction of a special tray.
Mouth preparation.
Final impression making.
-Pouring the impression to make master cast.
-Surveying the master cast and transfer of the design
from the study cast and drawing it on the master cast.
-Blockout and relief of the master cast.
-Duplication of the master cast into investment cast.
-Drying the investment cast and beeswax dip.
-Waxing-up the framework.
-Spruing the framework
-Investing the refractory cast.
-Burnout of wax pattern
-Casting the framework
-Removing the casting from the mold.
-Finishing and polishing of the framework
Fitting the framework to the patients
mouth.
Functional impression for tooth tissue
supported removable partial dentures.
-Pouring functional impression or altering the master
cast.
-Construction of record blocks.
Recording jaw relationships.
-Mounting the master casts on an articulator.
-Setting up of artificial teeth.
Esthetic try-in.
-Flasking.
-Wax elimination.
-Packing of acrylic resin.
-Curing of acrylic resin.
-Deflasking, finishing and polishing.
Delivery of RPD and follow- up.
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LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR FRAMEWORK CONSTRUCTION
The construction of metallic removable partial dentures comprises both clinical
and laboratory steps that are done following the sequence shown in the previous table.
The laboratory steps include:
1- Construction of the study cast
2- Primary surveying the study cast
3- Construction of a customized tray
4- Construction of the master cast
5- Surveying of the master cast
6- Drawing the design on the master cast
7- Preparation of the master cast
a) Spraying the master cast
b) Beading the maxillary master cast
c) Waxing the master cast:
Blocking-out the undesirable undercuts
Relief
Tissue Stops
Formation of internal finishing lines
8- Duplication
9- Waxing the framework on the refractory cast
10- Sprueing the Framework
11- Investing the sprued pattern
12- Burnout of the wax pattern
13- Casting the partial denture framework
14- Finishing and Polishing of the framework
15- Fitting the framework to the cast
16- Processing of acrylic resin.
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1-Construction of the study cast:
It is a positive reproduction of the form of the dental arch. It is obtained by
pouring the preliminary impression using dental stone to avoid abrasion or
fracture during handling. It should accurately reproduce the remaining teeth,
residual ridge and the adjoining structure.
Uses of diagnostic cast:
Maxillary and mandibular diagnostic casts can be mounted using an inter-
occlusal registration record to serve the following purposes:
1 Diagnosis and treatment planning
2 Evaluation of the occlusion and the need for any occlusal adjustments.
3 Surveying and design drawing.
4 Provides information on the need for mouth and abutment preparations.
5 Case presentation and patient discussion.
6 Patient records for future reference.
7 Construction of special tray.
2-Primary surveying the study cast:
The study cast is surveyed using a dental surveyor to:
- Permit an accurate charting of the required mouth preparations.
- Determine desirable and undesirable undercuts.
- Determine proximal tooth surfaces used as guiding planes.
- Determine the best path of placement and removal of the prosthesis.
3-Construction of a customized tray:
Acrylic resin is the material of choice but shellac tray may be used.
Spacer is adapted to the cast and trimmed to the proper peripheral outline.
It is made of two layers wet asbestos. Wax or clay might also be used.
The wax spacer is omitted on the buccal shelf of bone in the mandible in order
to gain more support from this 1ry stress bearing area.
4-construction of the master cast:
After mouth preparation the final impression is recorded. The impression is
poured in hard stone to obtain the master cast.
The master cast is obtained by pouring the final impression using type IV
(extra hard) dental stone because of its superior properties such as higher
abrasion resistance, higher strength and less dimensional changes.
The cast is then allowed to final set 40 to 60 minutes before it is separated.
Proper trimming is also essential.
The master cast should be duplicated into working cast with the same type of
stone) type IV). The procedures from now on will be carried out on the
working cast while keeping the master cast as a reserve should any damage
occurs. However, the terms master cast and working cast will be used
synonymously.
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Uses of master cast
1 Construction of record blocks for jaw relation record.
2 Second surveying in the same tilt of the first surveying.
3 Design drawing as has been planned for.
4 Preparation and duplication into refractory cast.
5- Surveying of the master cast:
The master cast is surveyed to determine:
1- Determine the most acceptable path of placement and removal which is free
from any interference and, satisfy the requirements of guiding planes,
retention, noninterference and esthetics.
2- Determine soft, bony or tooth undercuts and areas of interferences that
should be blocked out or eliminated
3- Determine the relative parallelism of teeth surfaces that act as guiding
planes.
4- Identify and measure tooth undercuts that may be used for retention and
locate the flexible components in their position below the survey line of the
tooth.
5- Aid in determining restorative procedures and mouth preparation.
6- Delineate height of contour (survey line) on the abutment teeth.
7- Trimming blockout material parallel to the path of placement prior to
duplication.
8- Recording the cast position in relation to a selected path of placement for
future reference (tripod).
6-Drawing the design on the master cast:
The outline formof the partial denture framework is carefully drawn on the
master cast guided the design present on the study cast.
7-Preparation of the master cast:
The master cast should be modified prior to its duplication as follows:
a) Spraying.
b) Beading.
c) Blockout.
d) Relief.
a) Spraying the master cast:
The working cast is sprayed with sealer spray for the following purposes:
a) Protection of the cast and drawn design from scratching,
b) Providing the cast with smooth surface before duplication.
c) Preventing the cast from absorbing the water of the colloid (agar)
duplicating material.
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b) Beading the maxillary master cast:
o Beading is accomplished with a small spoon excavator by scraping along
the anterior and posterior borders of the major connector.
o Beading depth and width should not exceed 0.5 to 1 mm and should fade
out (beveled) as the gingival margins or a prominent area in the midline of
the palate are approached.
o Beading on the borders of maxillary major connectors serves to prevent
food particles from collecting beneath the framework and producing
discomfort to the patient. The beading is also used by prosthodontists to
help in transferring the major connector design to the investment cast.
o Beading is not done along the borders of the mandibular major connectors
because of the thin underlying mucosa that cannot tolerate positive
contact.
o The aim of beading is to:
a) Compensate for metal solidification shrinkage and hence, ensures
positive contact of the metal with palatal tissues.
b) Prevent food particles from collecting under the RPD.
c) Better for pronunciation.
d) Help in transferring the design to the refractory cast.
c) Waxing the master cast:
1- Blocking-out theundesirableundercuts:
The elimination of undesirable undercuts on the master cost before
duplication has different forms: paralleled blockout, shaped blockout and
arbitrary blockout. There are three patterns of block out
Paralleled blockout
The blockout wax is trimmed parallel to the path of insertion and removal by
using the wax trimmer surveyor tool while the cast is positioned in the
predetermined tilt. It is done in the following areas:
- Proximal tooth surfaces to be used as guiding planes
- Beneath all minor connectors
- Tissue undercuts to be crossed by rigid connectors
- Tissue undercuts to be crossed by origin of bar clasps
- Deep interproximal spaces to be covered by minor connectors or
linguoplates beneath bar clasp arms to gingival crevice
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Shaped blackout
It is done in the form of ledges on the buccal and lingual surfaces of
abutment teeth. It will help in proper positioning and carving of the clasp
arms.
On buccal and lingual surfaces to locate plastic or wax patterns for
clasp arms.
Ledges for location of reciprocal clasp arms to follow height of
convexity so that they may be placed as cervical as possible without
becoming retentive
Ledges for location of retentive clasp arms to be placed as cervical as
tooth contour permits; point of origin of clasp to be occlusal or incisal
to height of convexity, crossing survey line at terminal fourth, and to
include undercut area previously selected in keeping with flexibility of
clasp type being used.
Arbitrary blockout (Smoothed arbitrarily with wax spatula)
This will cover the undercuts that may interfere with removal of the
duplicating material otherwise it may be subjected to tearing or
distortion. This includes:
o All gingival crevices
o Enough to just eliminate gingival crevice Leveled
arbitrarily with wax spatula
o Gross tissue undercuts situated below areas involved in
design of denture framework
o Tissue undercuts distal to cast framework
o Labial and buccal tooth and tissue undercuts not involved in
denture design
2-Relief
It is done for creating a space between the metal framework and the cast
as in the following areas:
Beneath lingual bar connectors or the bar portion of lin-
guoplates when indicated
Areas in which major connectors will contact, thin tissue
such as hard areas so frequently found on lingual side of
mandibular ridges and elevated median palatal raphea.
Beneath framework extension onto ridge areas for attach-
ment of resin bases
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3-TissueStops:
Tissue stops is done by removal of two small squares of 2 mm,
usually an anterior and posterior, of relief wax at the distal end the
edentulous ridge. It provides stability of the framework during
clinical work and during acrylic resin processing.
They will result in metal projections resting on ridge areas. Hence,
the framework maintains its position while being subjected to the
pressure of packing later on.
Arrows indicate three small nail head minor connectors in which individualized impression trays
may be attached when secondary impression is used.
4-Formation of internal finishing lines:
Internal finish lines are carved in the relief wax covering the
edentulous ridge at the metal resin junction. This line is trimmed with blade
held at 90
0
to the cast surface in order to produce a sharp junction having a
uniform depth of at least 1mm.
8- Duplication
Duplication is the procedure of accurately reproducing a cast.The modified
master cast is duplicated to form a refractory cast made of investment
material.
A duplicating flask is used for this procedure. The most commonly used
material for duplication is the reversible hydrocolloid agar agar. The solid
agar material is heated to melt and then cooled to 55 degree C to be poured
gently into the duplicating flask that contains the modified cast. The flask is
put in a shallow container filled with one inch water to allow the agar to cool
from the bottom upwards (compensation for gelation shrinkage).
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This duplication is essential to:
A) The stone of the master cast can not withstand the high temperature
during casting.
B) The stone cast will not allow thermal or hygroscopic expansion to
compensate for casting shrinkage.
C) The stone material is not porous and will not allow for gas to escape
during burnout of the wax pattern.
Duplicating flask is metal case that consists of:
a)Bottom.
b)Ring.
c)Feeding top.
Ticoniurn duplicating flask is used because of its simple design and reliability
in controlling shrinkage.
1- Ticoniurn duplicating flask is
used because of its simple de-
sign and reliability in controlling
shrinkage.
2- Securing the master cast to the base of the
duplicator with clay or utility wax. After
placingthe pouring reservoir, flow the melted
colloid.
3- After setting of the colloid material, remove
the base of the flask and retrieve the master
cast by prying with two plaster knives where
the clay or wax is placed for stability.
4-Mix the investment material. 5- Pouring of the refractory material in the mold.
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6- Break the hydrocolloid away from the
cast.
7- Drying the refractory cast.
8- Immersing the refractory cast into molten
bees wax, to provide sealing.
9- Cooling the dippedwax on absorbent paper.
Refractory cast is a cast made of material that will withstand high temperature
without disintegration and when used in partial denture casting, has expansion to
compensate for metal shrinkage.
Duplicating colloids are capable of being re-used many times. They must be
cleaned and melted after each use. They may be prepared and stored in automatic
duplicating machine. If this machine is not available, a double boiler can be used
to prepare the colloid for duplication.
The cleancolloid can be cut into small pieces and re-heated in this double boiler to
a fluid consistency. When cooled to working temperature, it will be cool enough to
flow easily without melting the blockout wax. A 63
0
C is a suitable working
temperature.
Investment material is used for making the refractory cast. The type of investment
depends on the type of the alloy used.
Gypsum-bounded investment is used for low heat alloys (Type IV Gold +
Ticonium)
phosphate-bound investment is used for high heat alloys (vitallium and
nobilium). A special liquid is needed with phosphate-bonded investment.
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Investment materials must be measured and mixed accurately according to the
manufacturer instructions, to ensure that the expansion of the metal during
burnout will match the shrinkage of the alloy.
When the refractory material has completely set, the cast is removed from the
colloid mold and placed in drying oven at 180 200
o
F for half to one hour. The
cast is then either dipped into bees wax at 280 - 300
0
F for 15 seconds or
sprayed while it is still warm .
Spraying the cast is done for the following purposes:
- To provide a smooth and dense surface.
- To allow for better adherence of the wax or plastic patterns.
- To prevent scratches of the cast.
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9- Waxing the framework on the refractory cast:
Design transfer: Before the actual waxing can begin, the design must once
again bedrawn by transferring from master cast.
Materials: Waxing the framework is done by contouring wax, preformed wax
patterns or preformed plastic patterns to form the pattern of the removable
partial denture framework. These patterns have almost replaced freehand
waxing.
Wax pattern specifications for partial denture components:
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10- Sprueing the Framework:
Sprueing: It is the process by which wax, metal or plastic form sprues are
attached to the wax pattern, to provide an entrance or pathway channel to the mold
space and to serve as a reservoir of metal during casting procedure.
There are certain general basic principles which should be followed:
1 It should be attached to the most bulky portion of the wax pattern.
2 The thickness of the sprue should be larger than that of thickest part of the
wax pattern
3 The diameter of the sprues should increase gradually from inside outward.
4 The pathway should be smooth and direct. No sharp angles are allowed
throughout the course of the spure.
5 Reinforce all junctions with additional wax to act as reservoirs and avoid
constrictions
Types of Sprueing:
1- Single Sprueing (horizontal Sprueing): it has a limited application, it is used in
small castings.
2- Multiple Sprueing: Is used in big castings and has three forms:
a- Top (direct) Sprueing.
b- Inverted( bottom- indirect) Sprueing.
c- Horizontal (rear)Sprueing.
1) Top Sprueing
It consists of the sprue originating from the top of the wax
pattern.The sprue has a diameter of a pencil, it consists of a main wide
central sprue from which narrower auxiliary sprues run to each corner of
the wax pattern. Done for majority of maxillary cases.
2) Inverted Sprueing:
In which the base of the refractory cast should have a hole in its
center. A cone-shaped metal sprue of suitable size is placed into the hole.
Auxiliary sprues are then placed between the main sprue and the thick
sections of the wax pattern.
By this method of Sprueing, contraction of the metal during cooling
tends to pull the casting towards the model rather than away from it. Done
for majority of mandibular cases
3) Horizontal Sprueing:
In which sprueing is from the posterior edge of the casting. Used with
complete cast palatal major connector
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Single Sprueing. Inverted Sprueing
A central hole prepared to receive central sprue. Horizontal Sprued pattern.
11- Investing the sprued pattern:
Casting investment is a process of covering or enveloping of the sprued wax
pattern by an investment material before casting. It is performed in order to
enclose a mold resulting from the burn-out of the pattern.
When the wax pattern and sprues areburned out, a space will be created where
a molten metal is forced to take the same shape of that pattern.
Investing a partial denture wax pattern therefore consists of two components:
a) The refractory investment cast upon which, the wax pattern has been performed
b) The outer cast investment surrounding the cast and pattern. This portion is
confined by a ring (cylinder), winch is made of metal. The ring will not be removed
till the end of casting procedure. It should be lined with a wet layer of cellulose to
allow for both setting and thermal expansion of the investment.
Investment provides the following purposes
1- Strength necessary to hold forces exerted by the entering stream of molten metal
until solidification of the metal occurs.
2- Smooth surface for the mold cavity so that the final casting will require as little
finishing as possible.
3- An avenue of escape for most of the gases entrapped in the mold cavity by the
entering stream of molten metal.
4- Investment together with other factors provide necessary compensation for
contraction of the metal from the molten to the solid State.
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Casting investment material :
It is a refractory material in which the mold is made.
Gypsum bonded casting investment material:
- This material can be used for casting gold alloys
- The expansion of the mold counteracts the casting shrinkage gold alloys
- It can be burnt out at 7040C (13000F) without breakdown.
Phosphate -Bonded Casting Investment Material:
- This material is used for casting chromium-cobalt alloys.
It cancounteract the casting shrinkage of chrome cobalt alloys.
It can be burnt out to 10370 C without breakdown.
Technique of Investing the Refractory Cast:
1) Line the investment ring with one layer of strip substitute asbestos.
Leave about 7 mm short of sprue end.
2) The refractory cast is dipped into slurry water to moisten its surface.
This wetting keeps the dry cast from taking up water from the
investment material mix.
3) Mix Investment and distilled water according to the manufacturers
instructions. Al-ways add powder to water.
4) Investment mix is applied in two coats (two-part mold):
a) First Coat (3 to 4 mm) painted on to ensure that no air bubbles are
trapped.
b) Second Coat: After the initial set of the paint on . The investment mix is
poured into the investment ring around the pattern. The cast should be
centered in the ring with at least 1/4 inch from the sides of the ring.
REMENBER
- The investment ring is lined with one layer of asbestos casting ring liner.
The liner should be 6:7 mm shorter than the ring at the crucible end to act as a
lock against investment rotation inside the ring. The asbestos permits for the
escape of hot gases and allows space for investment expansion.
- The refractory cast is dipped in slurry water to moisten its surface and
to prevent it from absorbing water from the investment material.
- The pattern is painted with a wetting agent to allow the outer investment
to adhere to the pattern.
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Top Ring
Asbestos Substitute
inch clearance of Asbestos
Substitute
Investing the wax pattern.
12-Burnout of the wax pattern:
It is the elimination of the wax by heat of the invested pattern to prepare
the mold to receive the molten metal.
The burn out procedures serves the following functions:
Dries the investment (Driving off moisture from the mold)
Burning , vaporization and elimination of the wax pattern, thus leaving a
cavity.
Thermal expansion of the mold to compensate for contraction of the metal on
cooling (solidification).
The investment is placed in the burn out furnace with the sprue hole
downwards. The investment should be moist before starting the burn out cycle
to allow the investment to heat uniformly.
The burnout should start in a cold oven, and then the temperature
should be slowly increased to 1250
0
F over a period of two hours. This
temperature is maintained for half an hour (heat soaking).
The time and temperature required to eliminate the wax should be
according to the Manufacturers instructions.
- Burnout furnaces are either electric or gas and must be vented to allow the
noxious fumes that result from the burnout, to escape the work area. Modem furnaces
are controlled electronically to permit time/temperature relationship to be set exactly
to the alloy manufacturers specifications. With these modern furnaces, over and
under-heating are avoided.
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13- Casting the partial denture framework:
Casting is to produce an object in a mold.
Mold is a cavity in which metal is cast.
Crucible is a container made of porcelain used for melting metal. It sustains
high degrees of temperature.
Casting Procedure:
The method of casting will vary according to the alloy and
equipment used. All methods use force to inject the molten alloy
quickly into the mold cavity. This force is usually centrifugal.
Molten metal is faced into the pre-heated mold by the use of
centrifugal force casting material. Heat and force to the metal during
casting are critical.
Heat applied to melt the metal may be applied by a blowtorch
using gas and air, gas and oxygen, acetylene, electrical conduction, or
induction.
Recovering the Casting:
When the casting step is completed, the mold is removed from the
machine and allowed to cool according to the manufacturers
instructions. The outer layer of the investment is broken off by tapping it
with a wooden mallet or a hammer.
The first layer of investment is then removed by stiff brush under
running water. Sandblasting machine is used to remove any remaining
investment. The casting can now be examined for defects.
14- Finishing and polishingof the framework:
Finishing the framework; is to refine its surface. It is accomplished by cutting
the sprues carefully using separating disks and grinding off excess metal
flashes by suitable stones Rubber abrasive wheels, disks and points are
used to refine the surface.
The following precautions should be maintained
1- Avoid overheating of the framework by continuously soaking it in
cold water. Overheating may cause warpage of the casting.
2- Avoid undue pressure to the sprues or the casting. This is
accomplished by using high speed hand piece.
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Polishing the framework
It is making its surface smooth and glossy. Polishing is
accomplished first by smoothing the surface of the casting by coarse
disks and stones, followed by finer forms. Final polish is attained by
polishing compounds on felt wheels and high speed lathe in chrome
cobalt castings and by rouge on felt wheels for gold castings.
Finishing and polishing chrome cobalt castings should be done with special
high speed equipments (sand blasting and electrolytic polishing).
Hard heat treatment of gold castings
When the gold casting has been quenched in water, it is removed
from the investment in a soft and most ductile condition. All grinding
and finishing operations are performed while it is in this condition. After
finishing and just before final polishing, it should be heat hardened as
follows:
1.Stabilize the furnace at the desired temperature 600-700
0
F for
yellow gold castings and 800
o
F for white gold alloys.
2.Place the casting on a metal tray in the furnace and allow to heat
soak for l5 minutes.
3.Remove the tray with the casting and leave it to bench cool.
Heat treatment will produce from 85% to 100% of the strength of
gold casting and will prevent the possibility of warpage.
N.B.: Chrome cobalt alloys cannot be heat hardened. They
originally have satisfactory physical properties.
15- Fitting the framework to the cast:
The casting is checked for accuracy on the master cast. Any point of
interference should be ground until the casting fits properly on the cast.
The casting is now ready for try-in in the patients mouth.
16- Processing of acrylic resin
The acrylic is processed in the conventional manner.
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CLI NI CAL AND LABORATORY PROCEDURES
FOR RPD CONSTRUCTI ON
Clinical procedures Laboratory procedures
1- Diagnosis and treatment planning:
- Extra and intra-oral examinations.
- X-ray Examinations.
- Examination of each arch separately.
- Examination of both arches.
2- Making primary impression: With an elastic
material as alginate impression material in a
perforated stock tray.
3- Mouth Preparation which includes
aConservative, periodontal and surgical
treatment.
b-Preparation of occlusal rest seat, guiding planes
and probable recontouring of abutments.
4-Making the final impression either with
A-Alginate impression material in case of tooth
supported partial dentures.
B-Functional impression in case of tooth and
tissue supported partial dentures.
5-Testing the framework on the master cast and then
try in of the metal in the patients mouth.
a- Pouring the impression in stone plaster to
construct a study cast.
b- Surveying the study cast.
c- construction of the special tray on the study
cast.
d-Pouring the final impression in stone plaster to
construct a master cast.
e- Surveying the master cast to draw the survey
line on abutment teeth and to determine the
path of placement of the partial denture.
f- Drawing the design of the partial denture.
g- Preparation of the master cast for duplication
1.Blocking the undesirable tooth undercuts in
wax.
2.Establishing the relief areas in wax.
3.C-Making the ledges in wax.
4.Blocking the tissue undercuts.
h-Duplication of the master cast into a refractory
cast (investment cast). This is done by the use
of agar-agar material in a duplicating flask.
i- Construction of the wax pattern on dried
refractory cast.
j-Spruing, investing, wax elimination (burn out)
and casting in metal (gold or Chromecobalt
alloy)
K-Pickling, finishing and polishing the metal
framework.
l-Pouring of the functional impression, and
construction of wax blocks.
m-Mounting the cast on an articulator and setting-
up of artificial teeth
n- Flasking and Processing in acrylic resin.
o- Finishing and polishing the acrylic denture.
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6- Functional impression with framework in mouth
in distal extension partial denture cases.
7- Jaw relation registration and tooth selection.
8- Try-in of the waxed partial denture.
9- Delivery and final adjustment.
10-Periodic check-up and relining when necessary.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLANNING
Diagnosis and treatment planning are the most important parameters in the
successful management of a patient. Inadequate diagnosis and treatment
planning are the major reasons behind the failure of a partial denture.
Objectives of any prosthodontic treatment:
(1) The elimination of disease;
(2) The preservation, restoration, and maintenance of the health of the
remaining teeth and oral tissues (which will enhance the removable partial
denture design);
(3) The selected replacement of lost teeth for the purpose of restoration of
function in a manner that ensures optimum stability and comfort in an
esthetically pleasing manner.
Indications for a removable in preference to a fixed partial denture
A. Edentulous areas too long for a fixed prosthesis.
B. Need to restore soft and hard tissue contours.
C. Absence of adequate periodontal support.
D. Structurally or anatomically compromised abutment teeth.
1. Lack of clinical crown height.
2. Lack of sound tooth structure.
3. Unfavorable position, contour or inclination.
E. Need for cross-arch stabilization. F. Eed for an extension base.
G. Anterior esthetics.
H. Physical and emotional problems precluding fixed partial dentures.
1. Attitude and desires of patient.
J. Ease of plaque removal from the natural teeth and partial de ture.
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BASIC CRITERIA FOR PATIENT SELECTION
A. Acceptable emotional and physical health.
1. Basic health observations. 2.Complete health history.
B. General physical and mental capacity to tolerate a prosthesis.
1. Previous number of prostheses. 2. Physical handicaps.
C. Degree of patient motivation.
1. General personal appearance.
2. Past oral hygiene habits and response to suggested change.
3. Patient's desire to preserve remaining teeth and surrounding structures.
4. Physical and mental capabilities to augment motivation.
5. Patient's response to scientific evidence.
D. Patient's comprehension of pote - tia success or failure of treatment.
E. Types and amounts of drugs or med-ications the patient co sumes including
alcohol and tobacco.
F. Patient's dietary habits.
G. Periodontal health.
H. Oral indices of tissue tolerance.
Indicate the capacity of supporting structures to resist mechanical forces.
1. Muco-osseous (ridge) resistance. Bone index of the residual ridge
(reaction of bone after extraction and ridge loading),
2. Dento-alveolar (abutment) resistance. Bone index around the abutment
teeth (reaction of bone to increased force).
3. Soft tissue resistance to biological or mechanical irritation.
I. Oral manifestations of pathology.
J. Consultations with other medical and dental specialists.
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PURPOSE AND UNIQUENESS OF TREATMENT
The purpose of dental treatment is to respond to a patient's needs. Although there
are similarities between partially edentulous patients, significant differences exist
making each patient, and treatment, unique.
The delineation of each patient's uniqueness occurs through the patient interview
and diagnostic clinical examination process. This includes four distinct processes:
(1) Understanding the patient's desires or chief concerns/complaints regarding their
condition (including its history) through a systematic interview process.
(2) Ascertaining the patient's dental needs through a diagnostic clinical exam.
(3) Developing a treatment plan that reflects the best management of the desires
and needs (unique to their medical condition or oral environment).
(4) Appropriately sequenced execution of the treatment with planned follow up.
Complex treatment planning often requires two appointments.
The first appointment includes
a preliminary oral examination (to determine the need for management of
acute needs),
a prophylaxis,
full-mouth radiographs,
diagnostic casts, and
Mounting records if baseplates are not required.
The follow-up appointment includes
mounting of the diagnostic casts (when baseplates and occlusion rims are
needed),
a definitive oral evaluation,
review of the radiographs to augment and correlate with clinical findings,
arrangement of additional consultations where required,
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I- FIRST DIAGNOSTIC APPOINTMENT
A. Patient interview:
B. Cursory (initial) examination
C. Oral prophylaxis
D. Collecting diagnostic data: Photography Radiography Casts
II-SECOND DIAGNOSTIC APPOINTMENT
A-Definitive oral examination:
B-Radiographic survey
C-Analysis of mounted diagnostic casts:
D. Consultation requests:
E. Development of treatment plane.
III-TREATMENT PLANE IN RPD
Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index ( PDI ): see classification
The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) has developed a classification
system for partial edentulism based on diagnostic findings.
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A ] PATIENT INTERVIEW
1- Structure of interview:
HISTORY TAKING
1.Personal history
2.Chief complaint
3.Phy health and medical history.
4.Psychological health.
5.Frequency of dent examinations.
6.Previous dental treatment.
7. Habits and type of Diet.
8. Patient expectations
2- Objectives:
a. Establishing of a rapport:
We should meet the mind of the patient before we meet his mouth.
b. Gaining insight into the psychological makeup of the patient (patient
attitude):
o De Van stated, "Meet the mind of the patient before meeting the mouth
of the patient". Hence, we understand that the patient's attitudes and
opinions can influence the outcome of the treatment.
o Dr. MM House proposed the first one in 1950, which is widely
followed. House's Classification Based on patients mental attitude,
The philosophical patients. (Well adjusted and easygoing)
The exacting patients. (Precise in everything they do)
The hysterical patients. (Are emotionally unstable and convinced
that they will never be able to wear a prosthesis)
The indifferent patients. (are uncooperative)
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c. Evaluating the systemic disturbances that may affect the patients
treatment:
These systemic disturbances include the following:
Diabetes
Arthritis
Pagets disease
Acromegaly
Parkinsons disease
Pemphigus vulgaris
Epilepsy
Cardiovascular diseases
Cancer
Transmissible diseases
Systemic disturbances that can have a significant effect on the treatment of the
patient include the following:
Diabetes: multiple small abscesses and poor tissue tone frequently accompany
uncontrolled diabetes. The diabetic patient often has excessive rate of bone
resorption, hence, frequent relining may be necessary. And reduced salivary
output, which significantly reduced the ability of patient to wear prosthesis
with comfort, and increases the possibility that caries will occur.
Vitamin deficiency which cause inflammation and bleeding of the gingiva
and fissures in the corners of the mouth.
Oral Malignancies: The most common oral complications of radiation and
chemotherapy for malignancies are mucosal irritation, xerostomia and
bacterial and fungal infections. Tissues having bronze colour and loss of
tonicity are not suitable for denture support. Once the dentures are
constructed, the tissues should be examined frequently for radionecrosis.
Blood disease e.g. anemia; patients have pale mucosa, sore and red tongue
and gingival bleeding.
Transmissible diseases; e. g. hepatitis and tuberculosis pose a particular
hazard for the dentist, patients and dental auxiliaries.
Diseases of the Joints: patients with osteoarthritis affecting the finger joints
may find it difficult to insert and clean dentures. With limited mouth opening
and painful movements of the jaw, it becomes necessary to use special
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impression trays. It may also become necessary to repeat jaw relations and
make post-insertion occlusal adjustments due to changes in the joint.
Cardiovascular Diseases: Cardiac patients will require shorter appointments.
Diseases of the Skin: Skin diseases like Pemphigus have oral manifestations,
which vary, from ulcers to bullae. Such painful conditions make the denture
use impossible without medical treatment.
Neurological Disorders: Diseases such as Bell's palsy and Parkinson's
disease can influence denture retention and jaw relation records. Add
sufficient bulk to buccal surface contour of maxillary RPD to support flaccid
muscles.
Climacteric Conditions :Climacteric conditions like menopause can cause
Tendency to gag, burning sensation, xerostomia, vagueareas of pain, taste
alterations , glandular changes, osteoporosis and psychiatric changes in the
patient.
Pernicious anaemia : Xerostomia , disturbance of taste sensation,
Susceptibility to denture trauma.
Chronic pulmonary disease : Shortness of breath,wheezing, increased
respiratory rate, persistent cough and Occlusal vertical dimension is difficult
to record because of patient s tendency to mouth breathe.
Salivary gland disorders : Xerostomia, painful and burning mucosa
d . Evaluating the drugs that can affect prosthodontic treatment:
These drugs include the following:
*Anticoagulants
*Antihypertensive agents: cause decrease in salivary flow
*Endocrine therapy: cause sore mouth and discomfort
*Saliva-inhibiting drugs
*Dilantine: cause gingival enlargement
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e. Dental history:
The cause of teeth loss: If the teeth were lost because of caries, special
emphasis will have to be placed on oral hygiene procedures. If the
teeth were lost because of periodontal disease, every effort must be
made to discover and eliminate its cause.
it is important to learn as much as possible about the patient'
experience during and following previous partial denture construction.
Expectation of treatment: If the patient has unrealistic expectation e.g.
a removable partial denture without major connector crossing the
palate) the patient expectation should be changed through education.
Chewing habits: preferred side for chewing. This will determine the
amount of support, retention and bracing of the denture on each side.
Para functional habits: clinching and bruxism has adverse effect on the
denture supporting structures.
f. Ascertaining patients expectations of treatment, assessment of patient
motivation and attitudes towards dentures: patient's attitudes and
psychological status have considerable influence on the success of the treatment.
3- Obstacles:
a. From the dentist:
Not listening to the patient
Choicing words misunderstanding by the patient
Failure to use obtained information in the treatment of the patient
b. From the patient:
- Fearful of his condition - Lack of response
4- Aids for successful interview:
1. Dentist attitude and behaviour 2. Phrasing of questions
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INFECTION CONTROL
Recommended Infection Control Practices for Dental Treatment
Gloves should be worn in treating all patients.
Masks should be worn to protect oral and nasal mucosa from splatter of
blood and saliva.
Eyes should be protected with some type of covering to protect from
splatter of blood and saliva.
Sterilization methods known to kill all life forms should be used on
dental instruments. Sterilization equipment includes steam autoclave,
dry heat oven, chemical vapor sterilizers, and chemical sterilants.
Attention should be given to cleanup of instruments and surfaces in the
operatory. This includes scrubbing with detergent solutions and wiping
down surfaces with iodine or chlorine (diluted household bleach
solutions).
Contaminated disposable materials should be handled carefully and
discarded in plastic bags to minimize human contact. Sharp items, such
as needles and scalpel blades, should be contained in puncture-resistant
containers before disposal in the plastic bags.
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B] Clinical examination
PATIENT EVALUATION
Gait : People with neuromuscular disorders show a different gait. Such
patients will have difficulty in adapting to the denture.
Age : patients belonging to the fourth decade of life will have good healing
abilities and patients above the sixth decade will have compromised
healing.
Sex : Male patients are generally busy people whoappear indifferent
treatment. They are only bothered about comfort and nothing else.On the
other hand, female patients are more critical about aesthetics
Complexion and Personality : Evaluating the complexion helps to
determine the shade of the teeth. Executives require smaller teeth.
Cosmetic Index : It basically speaks about the aesthetic expectations of the
patient. Based on the cosmetic index, patients can be classified as:
Class I: High cosmetic index. They are more concerned
about the treatment and wonder if their expectations can
be fulfilled.
Class II: Moderate cosmetic patients. They are patients
with nominal expectations.
Class III: Low cosmetic index. These patients are not
bothered about treatment and the aes-thetics. It is very
difficult for the dentist to know if the patient is satisfied
with the treatment or not.
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Extraoral examination
oFacial examination:
Facial Form
Facial Features
oMuscle Tone
oMuscle Development
oComplexion
oLip Examination
oTMJ Examination
oNeuromuscular Examination
Speech
Co-ordination
a-Facial Features :If the face appears collapsed, it indicates the loss of vertical
dimension (VD). Decreased VD produces wrinkles around the mouth. Excessive
VD will cause the facial tissues to appear stretched.
b. Complexion :The colour of the eye, hair and the skin guide the selection of
artificial teeth.
Oral Examination
A complete oral examination should precede any treatment decision. It should include a
visual and digital evaluation of the teeth and surrounding tissue
Sequence for Oral Examination
visual examination,
pain relief and temporary restorations,
oral prophylaxis,
radiographs,
evaluation of teeth and periodontium,
vitality tests of individual teeth,
Determination of the floor of the mouth position, and impressions of
each arch.
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Relief of pain and discomfort and placement of temporary restorations
management of acute needs
relieve discomfort arising from tooth defects
Determine as early as possible the extent of caries and to arrest further
caries activity.
By restoring tooth contours with temporary restorations, the impression will
not be torn on removal from the mouth, and a more accurate diagnostic cast may be
obtained.
A Thorough and Complete Oral Prophylaxis
An adequate examination can be accomplished best with the teeth free of accumulated
calculus and debris. Also, accurate diagnostic casts of the dental arches can be obtained
only if the teeth are clean; otherwise the teeth reproduced on the diagnostic casts are not
a true representation of tooth and gingival contours.
Cursory examination may precede an oral prophylaxis, but a complete oral
examination should be deferred until the teeth have been thoroughly cleaned.
Initial (Cursory) oral examination
Objective:
1. Detection of problems requiring immediate attention
2. Evaluation of oral hygiene
3. Evaluation of caries susceptibility
4. Detection of oroantral or oronasal communications
5. Assessment of applied forces
1. Opposing occlusion.
2. Muscular force and elevator muscle development.
3. Parafunctional habits.
a. Clenching. b. Bruxism
4. Length of edentulous span.
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5. History of prosthesis failure.
a. Solder joint failure. b. Porcelain failure.
c. Fractured RPD components.
6. History of poor tissue tolerance.
a. Chronic sore spots.
b. Excessive bone resorption.
c. Abutment tooth mobility.
d. Fracture or attrition of natural teeth.
e. Attrition, abrasion, erosion, abfraction
Definitive visual oral examination:
Complete oral examination to evaluate the following:
A] The teeth and periodontium:
1. Caries and existing restorations: All carious teeth must be restored prior to
starting definitive prosthodontic treatment,
2. Pulp to detect pulpitis or pulp necrosis
3. Sensitivity to percussion
4. Mobility and C/R ratio: The degree of mobility of all teeth should be
recorded using a scale commonly used for classifying mobility:
Class 1: A tooth demonstrates greater than normal movement, but
less than 1 mm of movement in any direction.
Class 2: A tooth moves 1 mm from normal position in any direction.
Class 3: A tooth moves more than 2 mm in any direction, including
rotation or depression. A change from normal physiologic movement
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may indicate traumatic occlusion or periodontal disease. Teeth
exhibiting Class 3 mobility have a poor prognosis and usually will
require extraction.
Causes:
Trauma from occlusion
Inflammatory changes of the PDL
Loss of alveolar bone support
Treatment:
Scaling
Learning and ascertaining good oral hygiene
Splinting when:
All the remaining teeth have reduced support
Only two or three widely spaced retainable teeth
The first premolar and all molars have been lost and the
second premolar is to serve as the abutment
5. Periodontium:
The health of the PDL is determined by findings that need
periodontal treatment are:
1. Pocket depth in excess of 3 mm
2. Furcation involvement
3. Deviations from normal colour and contour in gingiva
4. Marginal exudate
5. Less than 2 mm of attached gingiva
6. Pulling of muscle or frena on attached gingiva
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B] . Oral mucosa:
Pathologic changes
Tissue reactions to the wearing of old prosthesis:
Soft tissue displacement
Palatal papillary hyperplasia: It consists of numerous small papillary
growths associated with a poorly fitting prosthesis.
Epulis fissuratum: It is a tumour like hyper plastic growth in the sulcus
caused by an ill- fitting or overextended border.
Denture stomatitis: It is characterized by generalized erythematic for
all the tissues covered by the prosthesis. Candida albicans, traumatic
occlusion, poor fit of the prosthesis, poor oral hygiene and
continuous wearing of prosthesis have all been suggested as
contributing factors to this condition.
C]. Hard tissue abnormalities:
Torus palatinus: Removal of a torus palatinus is not usually necessary; a major
connector can be designed to circumvent the torus.
Torus mandibular. It is exostoses, usually occurring bilaterally on the lingual
surface of the body of the mandible.
Undercuts and bulbous maxillary tuberosities:
The effect of some undercut areas may be minimized by:
o Change in the path of insertion of the RPD in case of unilateral undercut.
o Relieving the denture base or reducing the length of the denture border
o Surgical correction of undercuts.
o Flexible denture base or flexible border
o Reduce length of denture border
The mylohyoid ridge: Some of these ridges are felt to be pronounced and
the soft tissue covering is thin and is easily traumatized.
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D]. Soft tissue abnormalities:
Labial frenum: If the frenum is attached highly at the crest of the ridge,
or it was bulky, the notch in the maxillary denture should be done to
accommodate this frenum shape and position.
Lingual frenum: It can greatly compromise the rigidity and adjustement of
the major connector.
Flabby gingiva: Atrophy of the residual ridge does occur occasionally,
and the gingiva loses its bony support and becomes freely, Tnis area should
be evaluated to determine whether it requires conservative treatment or
surgical removal.
Tongue size & mobility: The tongue should be examined for :
Size: Presence of a large tongue decreases the stability of lower denture and
ate also a hindrance to impression making. Tongue-biting is common after
insertion of the denture. A small tongue does not provide adequate lingual
peripheral seal.
Movement and coordination: Tongue movements and coordination are
important to register a good peripheral tracing. They are also necessary in
maintaining the denture in the mouth during functional activities like speech,
deglutition and mastication, etc.
E] Occlusal relationships:
It is the relation between the opposing teeth and between the teeth and the
opposing ridge is examined for.
a- Available interarch space for placement of artificial teeth.
b- The degree of anterior vertical overlap.
c- Super eruption and tilting of the remaining teeth.
d- Cuspal interference.
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F] - Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) examination:
TMJ disorders can be detected by one or more of the following signs:
a- Reduced inter incisal opening (Normal maximum opening is 55mm +
15mm).
b- Pain and tenderness over the TMJ at rest and during movement.
C- Clicking during opening and closing.
d- Midline deviation during wide opening.
e- Muscle pain and tenderness.
f- Headache and ear pain.
G]. Quality and quantity of saliva:
Dry mouth >>>> no lubricating effect >>>> saliva substitute
Thick and ropy saliva or copious amounts of serous saliva
>>>> problems during impression.
Thick ropy saliva alters the seat of the denture because of its tendency to
accumulate between the tissue and the denture. Thin serous saliva does not
produce such effects.
Xerostomic patients show poor retention and excessive tissue irritation
whereas excessive salivation complicates the clinical procedures. use of
synthetic saliva, with a carboxymethyl cellulose base, which can be enriched
with fluoride in an effort to counteract caries. Frequent use provides an
excellent means of maintaining high fluoride intraorally for long periods of
time, thus enhancing the remineralization of incipient caries.
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H] . Space for mandibular major connector:
The superior margin of the connector should be located 3 mm below
the free gingival margins of the mandibular teeth >>>>> to avoid
damage to the gingival tissues.
The inferior border of the connector should be positioned at or
slightly above the position of the active floor of the mouth >>>>> to
prevent interference with the functional movements of the floor of
the mouth and to help avoid the packing of food under the major
connector.
A minimum of 7 to 8 mm. of space should be available if a lingual
bar major connector is to be used. Available space is measured with
a calibrated periodontal probe (William's probe) , while the patient
raising the tongue toward the palate. Measurements are made at
several positions; the probe is then used to transfer it to the cast.
I] Oral hygiene and caries susceptibility:
Evaluation of patient's oral hygiene is critical to the prognosis of the
patient's treatment. Disclosing tablets or solution is used to detect plaque, which
will indicate the patient motivation towards oral hygiene.
The presence of large number of restored teeth, signs of recurrent caries and
evidence of decalcification indicate that the patient is susceptible to caries.
J]. Modification Spaces
For short spans (<=3 missing teeth), natural tooth, implant-supported
fixed prostheses, and removable partial dentures can generally be considered.
Longer span modification spaces (>=4 missing teeth) present a greater
challenge for natural tooth-supported fixed prostheses. Consequently, the options
for treatment are the removable partial denture or the implant supported
prosthesis.
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K] Abutments With Guarded Prognoses
If the prognosis of an abutment tooth is questionable, or if it becomes
unfavourable during treatment, it might be possible to compensate for its impending
loss by a change in denture design.
It is sometimes possible to design a removable partial denture so that a single
posterior abutment, about which there is some doubt, can be retained and used at
one end of the tooth-supported base. Then if the posterior abutment is lost, it could be
replaced by adding an extension base to the existing denture framework. Such an
original design must include provisions for future indirect retention, flexible clasping
of the future abutment, and provision for establishing tissue support.
Anterior abutments that are considered poor risks may not be so freely used
because of the problems involved in adding a new abutment retainer when the original
one is lost. It is rational that such questionable teeth be condemned in favor of more
suitable abutments, even though the original treatment plan must be modified
accordingly.
Kennedy Class II, mod I in which molar abutment has a guarded prognosis. Premolar clasp assembly is a mesial rest,
distal guide plane, and wrought wire retainer design that will accommodate future distal extension movement.
L] Examination of old denture:
a- the design and quality of construction should be noted and any associated problems
in relation to gingival and mucosal inflammation or to decalcification of contacting
tooth surfaces.
b- It is important to evaluate whether the denture is still fit accurately against the teeth
and under lying mucosa or not.
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C -Radiographic survey:
1. Complete mouth periapical and bite-wing survey.
2. Panoramic.
3. Obtain previous radiographs if possible for purpose of comparison.
1. Examination of residual ridge to evaluate:
All radiolucent and radiopaque areas that vary from normal ranges to
determine whether a pathologic condition is present.
Root fragments and other foreign bodies to determine whether their
removal is indicated.
Un erupted third molars to determine whether they should be retained or
removed.
Evaluate quantity of bone.
oAlveolar.
oResidual ridge.
oBasal.
a. Bone Index (bone factor):
The bone factor provides an assessment of the relative response of
bone to stimulation or irritation. This assessment is made by analyzing
bone index areas.
Bone index areas are those areas of bony support which disclose the
reaction of bone to increased force, e.g. areas of bone around abutment
teeth or any other teeth subjected to increased loading.
These areas are compared to areas of bone around teeth in normal
function without increased loading.
A similar consideration may be given to the residual ridge or an
edentulous area of bone supporting a complete or an extension base
removable partial denture.
Evaluation of past response is important in predicting the future
potential for dento-alveolar (abutment teeth) and muco-osseous (ridge)
resistance to forces transmitted by an RPD.
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The bone index is difficult to determine from radiographs alone. The
history of the patient is important in evaluating the rate of resorption that may
be expected based on previous occurrences. The length of time from previous
extractions together with morphological changes in the residual ridge gives
some indication of the host response to various forces.
b. Bone Density
Denser bone (more highly mineralized) offers greater resistance to
resorption. The reduced rate of resorption of cortical bone compared to
cancellous bone is likely due to the degree of cellularity and
mineralization, which may influence metabolic activity, as well as to bone
factors. These factors appear to account for the pattern of resorption of the
residual ridges in the edentulous or partially edentulous patient.
In the mandibular arch the external oblique ridge, the mylohyoid ridge
and the genial tubercles, which are areas of muscle attachments, continue
to resist resorption even when the residual ridge is greatly resorbed.
The presence of dense cortical bone is often the result of applied forces
arising from ligamentous or muscle attachments which provide tension to
the underlying bone.
c. Extrinsic bone factors. Localized forces applied to bone.
1. Pressure-Bone tends to resorb in response to compressive forces. The
rate of resorption most likely depends on the bone density, intrinsic bone
factors, and the nature of the applied forces and on the interaction of pressure
and tension. The remodelling that occurs under the extension base of a
removable partial denture is an example of pressure induced resorption.
11. Tension-Bone under tensional stimuli tends to increase in density and
in some instances may increase in quantity. The lamina dura is a response to
tensional forces transmitted by the periodontal ligament. Orthodontic
movement of teeth is a good example of the pressure - tension theory. The
lamina dura resorbs on the pressure side and bone apposition occurs on the
opposite side.
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d. Intrinsic bone factors which May influence the rate of resorption.
Genetic.
Hormonal.
Nutritional.
Pathologic.
Biochemical.
Other.
Wolffs law of bone physiology-
Intermittent stimulation can cause bone apposition, constant stimulation
(irritation) causes bone resorption
Theilmanns diagonal law of occlusion-
An interceptive posterior occlusal contact can cause elongation of the teeth in
the arch diagonal to the prematurity
2. Examination of remaining teeth with special attention focused on prospective
abutments to evaluate:
The presence and extent of caries and the relation of the carious lesion to the
dental pulp
Existing restorations to determine the adequacy of proximal contours and the
presence of overhanging or deficient margins and recurrent caries.
Root canal fillings: an abutment for a distal extension that is endodontically
treated carries a greater risk for complications than a similar tooth not
involved in removable partial denture function.
Root length, size and form
Teeth with multiple and divergent roots will resist stresses better than
teeth with fused and conical roots, because the resultant forces are
distributed through a greater number of periodontal fibers to a larger
amount of supporting bone
C/R ratio: The radiographic crown - root ratio is a commonly used index for
classifying the degree of existing support for teeth being evaluated as probable
abutments.
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A tooth with normal, undiminished alveolar support will have a crown
- root ratio of approximately 1:2. As a general diagnostic guide, a tooth with a
crown - root ratio of more than 1:1 is considered to have an unfavorable
prognosis as an abutment tooth.
Unerupted third molars: may considered as prospective future abutments to
eliminate the need for a distal extension removable partial denture
PDL space: The width of the periodontal ligament around the roots of the
teeth is of significance in evaluating the stability of the teeth. A thin, uniform
ligament space is a more favorable sign than is a widened, irregular space.
Widening in periodontal ligament space: indicate trauma, mobility
or heavy function
Lamina dura: The lamina dura is the thin layer of hard cortical bone that
normally lines the sockets of all teeth. In a roentgenogram, the lamina dura is
shown as a radiopaque white line around the radiolucent dark line that
represents the periodontal membrane.
Uneven lamina dura: During the active tipping process, the lamina
dura is uneven, with evidence of both pressure and tension on the same side of
the root. For example, in a mesially tipping lower molar the lamina dura will
be thinner on the coronal mesial and apicodistal aspects and thicker on the
apicomesial and coronal distal aspects because the axis of rotation is not at the
root apex but is above it. The lamina dura on the side to which the tooth is
sloping becomes uniformly heavier, which is nature's reinforcement against
abnormal stresses.
Partial or total absence of lamina dura may be found in systemic
disorder as: hyperparathyroidism and Paget disease. When systemic disease is
associated with faulty protein metabolism and when the ability to repair is
diminished, bone is resorbed and the lamina dura is disturbed. Therefore the
loading of any abutment tooth must be kept to a minimum inasmuch as the
patient's future health status and the eventualities of aging are unpredictable.
Thickening of lamina dura : occur if the tooth is mobile , has
occlusal trauma or is under heavy function.
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D] DIAGNOSTIC CASTS
accurate diagnostic casts should be mounted for occlusal examination.
A diagnostic cast should be an accurate reproduction of all the potential
features that aid diagnosis. These include the teeth locations, contours, and
occlusal plane relationship; the residual ridge contour, size, and mucosal
consistency; and the oral anatomy delineating the prosthesis extensions
(vestibules, retromolar pads, pterygomaxillary notch, hard and/or soft palatal
junction, floor of the mouth, and frena).
Additional information provided by cast mounting includes occlusal plane
orientation and the impact on the opposing arch; tooth-to-palatal soft tissue
relationship and tooth-to-ridge relationship, both vertically and horizontally.
A diagnostic cast is usually made of dental stone because of its strength, and it is
less easily abraded than is dental plaster.
The diagnostic cast impression is usually made with an irreversible hydrocolloid
(alginate) in a stock (perforated or rim lock) impression tray.
Purposes of accurate diagnostic casts:
1. Analysis of the contour of hard and soft tissues of the mouth
2. Preliminary design of the partial denture .Determine of the types of
restorations to be placed on the abutment teeth
3. Determine the need for surgical correction of exostoses, frena, tuberosities
4. Used to permit a topographic survey of the dental arch the proposed design
is drawn on them. To determine the need for mouth preparation including
(a) Proximal tooth surfaces, which can be made parallel to serve as
guiding planes;
(b) Retentive and non retentive areas of the abutment teeth;
(c) areas of interference to placement and removal; and
(d) Esthetic effects of the selected path of insertion.
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5. Serve as a plan for the placement of restorations, the recontouring of teeth,
and the preparation of rest seats.
6. Designed casts aid in the presentation of the proposed treatment to the
patient.
7. Permitting a view of the occlusion from the lingual and buccal aspects.
8. Individual impression trays may be fabricated on the diagnostic casts
8. Used as a constant reference as the work progresses. Pencilled marks
indicating the type of restorations, the areas of tooth surfaces to be modified, the
location of rests, and the design of the removable partial denture framework
along with the path of placement and removal, all may be recorded on the
diagnostic cast for future reference
9. Diagnostic casts on a suitable articulator permit analysis of:
Occlusion,
The adequacy of interarch space
The presence of over erupted or malposed teeth
The presence of tuberosity interferences.
10. Unaltered diagnostic casts should become a permanent part of the
patient's record because records of conditions existing before treatment are
just as important as are preoperative radiographs.
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Analysis of mounted diagnostic casts:
The mounted diagnostic casts provide visual access from all directions and enable the
dentist to make a detailed analysis of the patients occlusion.
1. Mounting of maxillary cast to articulator
It is better that the casts be mounted in relation to the axis-orbital plane to
permit better interpretation of the plane of occlusion in relation to the horizontal
plane. Although it is true that an axis orbital mounting has no functional value on
a nonarcon instrument because that plane ceases to exist when opposing casts are
separated, the value of such a mounting lies in the orientation of the casts in
occlusion. MAC
2. Jaw Relationship Records for Diagnostic Casts (Vertical dimension of
occlusion and centric jaw relation record)
One of the first critical decisions that must be made in a removable
partial denture service involves the selection of the horizontal jaw
relationship to which the removable partial denture will be fabricated
(centric relation or the maximum intercuspal position).
It is recommended that deflective occlusal contacts in the maximum
intercuspal and eccentric positions be corrected as a preventive measure.
If most natural posterior teeth remainand if no evidence of TMJ
disturbances, neuromuscular dysfunction, or periodontal disturbances
related to occlusal factors existsthe proposed restorations may safely
be fabricated with maximum intercuspation of the remaining teeth.
When diagnostic casts are hand related by maximum intercuspation for
purposes of mounting on an articulator, it is essential that three
(preferably four) positive contacts of opposing posterior teeth are
present, having wide spread molar contacts on each side of the arch.
When most natural centric stops are missing, the proposed prosthesis
should be fabricated so that the maximum intercuspal position is in
harmony with centric relation. Correction of the remaining natural
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occlusion to create a coincidence of centric relation and the maximum
intercuspal position is indicated in such situations.
Clinical situation suggest construction of partial denture at centric
relation:
1- Absence of posterior tooth contact
2- When all posterior tteeth will be restored with fixed restoration
3- Few remaining posterior contacts
4- Clinical symptoms of occlusal trauma
5- Coincidence of centric jaw relation and maximum intercuspal
position
Materials available for recording centric relation are
(1) wax;
(2) modeling plastic;
(3) quick-setting impression plaster;
(4) metallic oxide bite registration paste;
(5) polyether impression materials;
(6) silicone impression materials.
3. Inspection of:
Occlusal plane
Occlusion
Tipped or malposed teeth
Traumatic vertical overlap
The presence of tuberosity
interferences
interarch space
Malrelation of jaws
Diagnostic wax up
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Interarch distance:
Lack of sufficient interarch distance for placement of teeth:
Caused by
A maxillary tuberosity that is too large in vertical height.
A segment of teeth that has been unopposed for a prolonged period will
frequently overerupt, carrying the alveolar process with it. Subsequent
removal of the teeth will produce a situation in which it is impossible to
establish a functionally and aesthetically acceptable plane of occlusion.
Management
The surgical reduction of the vertical height of the tuberosity and at times the
adjacent residual ridge is necessary if satisfactory replacement of the missing teeth is
to be accomplished. The area and amount of tissue that should be removed can be
indicated on the diagnostic east. This provides an excellent guide for the oral surgeon
or dentist who performs the surgical correction. The radiographs are a valuable aid in
planning the surgical of fibrous tissue. Healing is usually complete in 7 to 10 days.
The healing period is extended to 2 to 5 weeks when bone removal is necessary.
Maxillary tuberosity interferences.
The maxillary tuberosity area may be undercut on one or both sides.
The path of insertion of a complete denture can usually be compatible with an
unilateral tuberosity undercut, but a removable partial denture, with a more controlled
path of insertion, presents greater problems.
Management
The undercut must be evaluated with the aid of the dental surveyor. With the
cast on the surveying table at the predetermined path of insertion, a determination is
made as to the amount of relief that will be required in the denture if the undercut is
not reduced. Moderate to severe tuberosity undercuts usually require surgical
correction with bone removal.
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bulbous tuberosities
Occasionally the tuberosities are so bulbous that the coronoid process of the
mandible may actually rub against the tuberosity during functional movements.
Management
Surgical reduction of such a tuberosity is necessary if the patient is to wear
a removable partial denture.
Occlusal plane
1. Irregular occlusal plane: (because extrusion of one or more unopposed teeth)
Management
Available treatments depend on the degree of extrusion and the condition of
the tooth:
Enameloplasty can effectively reduce a moderately extruded tooth. Approximately
2 mm of enamel can be removed in many situations.
Placement of an extracoronal cast metallic restoration if the extrusion is greater
than 2 mm or if the tooth does not lend itself to enameloplasty,
The clinical crown length can often be increased by appropriate periodontal
therapy if crown lengthening is needed to obtain adequate retention for the
restoration. Useful crown lengthening procedures include tissue shrinkage,
gingivectomy, apical positioning flaps, and osseous surgery.
Endodontic therapy and crown, when sever reduction to be made.
Extruded teeth can be repositioned by orthodontic tooth movement procedures.
With severely extruded teeth it may be necessary to extract the tooth and remove
the surrounding bone.
At times endodontic treatment and & drastic reduction of the tooth will enable it to
be used as an overdenture abutment.
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2. Malposed occlusal plane: (because of extrusion of an entire segment of an arch
with concomitant drop of the alveolar process):
Extrusion of maxillary molars or premolars, or both, with drop of the alveolar process
till contact the opposing residual ridge, causing obvious space problems and
malposition of the occlusal plane.
Management
One approach to treatment is the removal of the extruded teeth in conjunction with
an extensive alveolectomy.
Consideration should be given to the use of one of the newer orthognathic surgical
procedures.
A posterior segmental osteotomy can be effective in correcting the problem.
Close cooperation and communication between the prosthodontist or dentist
and the oral surgeon are essential. Because the dentist must construct the
prosthesis for the postsurgical tooth and ridge relations, he should determine
the ideal position of the segment. The oral surgeon must determine the
procedures and techniques to employ in making the correction.
Anterior maxillary osteotomy can also be effective in repositioning the anterior
teeth and alveolar ridge for patients with severe protrusion of the anterior teeth
or deep vertical overlap.
Malrelation of jaws:
Severe malrelation of the jaws can prevent the restoration of adequate function and
esthetics.
Management:
Several maxillary and mandibular osteotomy procedures are useful in
correcting these problems. Close cooperation, consultation, and communication
between the prosthodontist or dentist and the oral surgeon are essential in treating
patients with malrelation of the jaws.
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Tipped or malposed teeth
Management:
Limited orthodontic procedures for minor tooth movement can be used to upright
the tipped tooth to allow the placement of an artificial tooth of more normal size.
Teeth in severe buccoversion or linguoversion should be evaluated. At times the
removal of the malposed tooth will simplify the design of the prosthesis.
Traumatic vertical overlap
Classification:
Akerly (1977) has classified traumatic vertical overlap into the following four
basic types:
Type I -The mandibular incisors extrude and impinge into the palate.
Type II-The mandibular incisors impinge into the gingival sulci of the
maxillary incisors.
Type Ill-Both maxillary and mandibular incisors incline lingually with
impingement of the gingival tissues of each arch.
Type IV-The mandibular incisors move or extrude into the abraded lingual
surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth.
Clinical symptoms:
Abrasion,
Mobility,
Migration of the teeth,
Inflammation and ulceration of the gingiva and oral mucosa.
Management:
1. Early recognition and treatment with orthodontic or combined orthodontic and
orthognathic surgery.
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2. Establishing stable occlusal contacts at centric jaw relation
3. With advanced clinical symptoms, the removal of teeth is indicated.
Alveolectomy at the time of extraction will help provide space for some
improvement.
4. If the teeth are retainable, reduction of the length of the mandibular anterior
teeth will relieve symptoms temporarily.
5. A treatment prosthesis that plates the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior
teeth must be used to prevent further extrusion of the mandibular incisors until
more definitive treatment can be accomplished.
6. Definitive treatment is based on:
The degree of horizontal overlap,
The number and the occlusal relationships of the remaining teeth
The health of the supporting structures.
The need for RPD and its type and location.
If all the maxillary teeth are present and have healthy support, it may be
possible to build up the cingula of the anterior teeth with cast restorations
>>>>> not feasible if the horizontal overlap is too great.
If a maxillary removable partial denture is indicated, the major connector
can be extended onto the lingual surfaces of the anterior teeth with a thin
plate of metal >>>>> a vertical stop to prevent further eruption of the
mandibular anterior teeth.
If only a mandibular removable partial denture is required, a lingual plate
major connector can be designed to prevent continued eruption of the
anterior teeth. The plating should cover the cingula of the teeth with
projections extending to the contact points. Rest seats should be placed on
the canines or first premolars to prevent labially directed forces from being
applied to the teeth.
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Occlusion
The mounted diagnostic casts are also used for an evaluation of the patients
occlusion. The information obtained from the analysis of the occlusion should be
correlated with other clinical findings.
Occlusal interferences:
Partially edentulous patients have an even greater probability of having premature
occlusal contacts because of the drifting and migration of teeth that usually
accompany the loss of continuity of the dental arch.
Bruxism:
Severe bruxism can injure the teeth, the periodontium, and the Temporomandibular
joint and may initiate muscle spasm, pain, or discomfort.
The most common causes of bruxismare:
1. Occlusal interferences between centric jaw relation and centric
occlusion and
2. Balancing side contacts.
The clinical symptoms of traumatic occlusion follow:
Excessive wear of the teeth, which may include chipping or fracture
of the teeth.
A change in, or a loss of, the supporting structures, which may
include increased mobility, tooth migration, and pain during and after
occlusal contact.
Involvement of the neuromuscular mechanism of the
temporomandibular joint, which may include muscle spasm, muscle
pain, and joint symptoms.
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The radiographic signs of traumatic occlusion follow:
Widening of PDL space with either thickening or loss of lamina dura.
Periapical or furcation radiolucency.
Resorption of alveolar bone.
Root resorption.
Management of occlusal interferences and bruxism:
Occlusal equilibration: it is the selective grinding or coronal
reshaping of teeth producing simultaneous occlusal contacts.
Occlusal equilibration should not be accomplished for every patient with
occlusal interferences. Many patients have a great enough resistive capacity that
occlusal forces are not destructive regardless of the occlusal relationships of the
teeth. If occlusal equilibration were accomplished on these individuals, an occlusal
sense or continued awareness of the occlusion may be developed
E. Consultation requests:
A. THE PATIENT SHOULD BE MADE AWARE OF THE FOLLOWING.
1. The nature and severity of the existing dental problems.
2. Any limitation in function, phonetics, esthetics, and longevity of prosthesis.
3. The physical aspects of the prosthesis with regard to bulk and tissue coverage.
4. Any treatment options that may be considered.
5. The risks, benefits and alternatives related to any treatment plan.
B . PATIENT MUST UNDERSTAND AND ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR
PREVENTIVE HOME CARE AND PROFESSIONAL RECALL.
F. Development of treatment plane:
III-TREATMENT PLANE IN RPD
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Elimination of Infection
Sources of infection like infected necrotic ulcers, periodontally weak teeth,
and nonvital teeth should be removed. Infective conditions like candidiasis, herpetic
stomatitis, and denture stomatitis should be treated and cured before commencement
of treatment.
Elimination of Pathology
Pathologies like cysts and tumours of the jaws should be removed or treated
before complete denture treatment begins. The patient should be educated about the
harmful effects of these conditions and the need for the removal of these lesions.
Some pathologies may involve the entire bone. In such cases, after surgery, an
obturator may have to be placed along with the complete denture.
Preprosthetic Surgery
Preprosthetic surgical procedures enhance the success of the denture. Some of
the common preprosthetic procedures are:
Labial frenectomy.
Lingual frenectomy.
Excision of denture granulomas.
Excision of flabby tissue.
Reduction of enlarged tuberosity.
Alveoloplasty.
Alveolectomy
Reduction of genial tubercle.
Reduction of mylohyoid ridge.
Excision of tori.
Vestibuloplasty.
Lowering the mental foramen.
Ridge augmentation procedures.
Implants
Tissue Conditioning
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The patient should be requested to stop wearing the previous denture for at
least 72 hours before commencing treatment. He/she should be taught to
massage the oral mucosa regularly.
Special procedures should be done in patients who have adverse tissue
reactions to the denture. Denture relining material should be applied on the
tissue side of the denture to avoid denture irritation. Treatment dentures or
acrylic templates can be prepared to carry tissue-conditioning material during
the treatment of abused tissues.
Nutritional Counseling
Nutritional counseling is a very important step in the treatment plan of a
complete denture. Patients showing deficiency of particular minerals and
vitamins should be advised a proper balanced diet. Patients with vitamin B
2
deficiency will show angular cheilitis.
Prophylactic vitamin A therapy is given for xerostomic patients. Nutritional
counseling is also done for patients showing age-related changes such as
osteoporosis.
PROSTHODONTIC CARE
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The type of prosthesis, denture base material, anatomic palate, tooth material
and teeth shade should be decided as a part of treatment planning. Depending upon
the diagnosis made, the patient can be treated with an appropriate prosthesis. For
example:
For a patient with few teeth, which are likely to be extracted an immediate or
conventional, definitive or interim, implant or soft tissue supported dentures can
be given.
For patients with acquired or congenital deformities, a denture with an obturator
can be given.
In addition to the initial diagnosis the success or failure of denture depend on
also the treatment planning. In partially edentulous patient, there are 5 alternatives
1- fixed bridge.
2- removable partial denture
3- complete denture .
4- any combination.
5- leave condition as it.
6.Overdenture
1-fixed bridge
Indication:
A-GENERAL INDICATIONS:
1-for eliminating psychological trauma.
2-in pt suffering from sudden bout of unconsciousness as in epilepsy.
3-for orthodontic needs.
4-as apart of overall periodontal and occlusal therapy.
5-for better correction of speech.
6-for better function and stability.
B-LOCAL INDICATIONS:.
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1-healthy abutments with suitable c/r ratio.
2- if the abutment requires restoration.
3- short span.
4-lack of space for a suitable replacement.
5-if the morphology of the abutment need changing.
6-unfavourable angulations of the teeth for R P D ( Telescopic bridge)
Contraindication:
A-GENERAL CONTRAINDICATIONS:
1-inability of the patient to cooperate.
2-young or very old patient. In young, poor prognosis because of:
Short clinical crown
Large pulp
High caries rate
Increase liability to trauma
some teeth are not in
occlusion
incomplete growth of the bone
of the jaw
in very old patient :
lack of P.D.L resiliency
increase abrasion
poor cooperation
the expectation of life short
excessive bone resorpation
3- contraindication to L.A
4- high caries rate and bad oral hygiene
5-gingival and periodontal disease
6- unfavorable reaction to the M.M
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B- LOCAL CONTRA INDICATION
1- long span
2- when bridge will occlude with opposing teeth on its end or 1/2 or less of its length
3- unfavorable supporting structures of the abutment
4- any apical infection
5- insufficient effective root surface area
6- weak crowns or small formed abutment
7- deep sub gingivally carious abutment
8- extensive bone resorpation of edentulous ridge
9- unfavorable tilting or rotation of abutment
10- increase possibility of further tooth loss in the same arch
11- if the form of the bridge is an arc of a circle
12- abnormal occlusion, abnormal forces
2-Complete denture
Indication:
1-poor abutment
2- poor oral hygiene and rampant decay
3- cosmetically unacceptable ant. Teeth
4- rejection of professional advice
5- refusal mouth preparation
6- poor alignment
7- radiation therapy
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3- Removable partial denture
Indicaton
1-long span with well supported abutment
2- free end saddles
3- multiple missing ant. teeth
4- weak abutment
5- presence of deep subgingival caries on abutment
6- increased caries index
7- need of cross arch stabilization (bracing) of remaining teeth
8- immediate replacement
9- excessive bone loss
10- need for complete denture in future( due to increase possibility of tooth loss)
11- physical or emotional problems of pt.
12- patient desire (economic and time and preserve of sound teeth )
13- youth (< 17 y.) and old age
14- restore facial contour
15- alteration vertical dimension
16- transitional prosthesis
17- obdurate palatal cleft
18- extreme atrophic ridge
19- patient with previous unsatisfactory prosthetic
20- diabetic pt
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Containdications:
A-Intraoral contraindication
1-poor oral hygiene
2- advanced P.L disease
3- increase caries rate
4- if morphology of abutment need changing (fixed)
5- unfavorable angulations of the teeth
6- short span (fixed)
B-Patient contraindication
1- un cooperative pt.
2- with sudden pouts & unconsciousness or fits
3- low and bad attitude
4- poor general health
5- patient unable to pay money
Extraoral factors that influence type of prosthodontic service:
1-AGE:
a- young patient under 25 y.
Not be rendered completely edentulous.
Avoid extraction
Age of man chronologic , Physiologic , psychologic
b- old patient : need special care.
2-GENERAL HEALTH:
Poor health : trauma
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Interim partial denture : prostheses of choice
Temporary partial denture instead of fixed partial denture
Rebase and relief & tissue materials need
3- SEX:
Female:
Higher vanity index
Avoid loss of teeth and age changes
Need more esthetics ( P A P D avoid R P D )
First look is very important
4- ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION: R P D may need root canal treatment and
crown inlays thus more cost.
5- SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND
6- DESIRES AND ATTITUDE OF PATIENT
7- OCCUPATIONAL FACTORS
8- TIME FACTORS : Removable partial denture . may be used for long term
prognosis, the best R.P.D, service for many years.
Or for short term prognosis and in future the patient need complete denture, must be
simple in design and permit the addition of future teeth (additive partial denture)
This temporizing treatment gives the patient experience in denture wearing and in
adaptation to artificial dentition.
The additive partial denture is particularly indicated in lower jaw. It is a devisable to
retain standing lower teeth, especially single standing canines to delay recourse to the
full lower denture and preserve the alveolar ridge ( support ). Overdenture:
partial or complete overdenture
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Clinical factors related to metal alloys used for removable partial denture
frameworks: see denture base
Various alloys can be considered for use, Practically all cast
frameworks for removable partial dentures are made from a chromium-
cobalt alloy.
The choice of the alloy from which the framework of a removable
partial denture will be constructed is logically made during the
treatment-planning phase.
Mouth preparation procedures, especially the recontouring of abutment
teeth for the optimum placement of retentive elements, depend to a
large extent on the modulus of elasticity (stiffness) of a particular
alloy.
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BIOMICHANICS OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
Definition: The relationship between the biologic behavior of oral structures and the
physical influence of an R P D.
Bio - pertaining to living systems--inflammation, Caries, bone resorption.etc
Mechanical ----- related to forces and its application to object----- looseness of
teeth , bon resorptionetc
Mechanics may be classified into two general categories: Simple & complex.
Complex machines are combination of many simple machines.
There are six simple machines
1 - lever
2 - inclined plane
3 wedge
4-screw
5 wheel
6 axle & pulley
A removable partial denture in the mouth can perform the action of two simple machines,
LEVER & INCLINED PLANE,
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LEVER :
The lever is a rigid bar supported at some point along it is length.
There are three types of lever:
Classification is based on location of fulcrum (support), resistance, and direction of effort
(force).
1) The first type: the fulcrum (F) is in center of the bar, resistance (R) is at one and the
force (E) is at opposite end (called cantilever).
A cantilever: It is a beam supported only at one end, when force is directed against
unsupported end of beam cantilever can act as first class lever.
2) The second-class lever: the fulcrum at one end, the force at opposite end & the
resistance in center. This type is seen as indirect retention in R P D.
3) The third class lever: the fulcrum t one end & the resistance at opposite end & the
force in the center. This type is not encountered in R P D. (e.g. tweezers)
Mechanical advantage =Effort arm / Resistance arm
The length of fulcrum to resistance is called Resistance arm, while the length of lever
from fulcrum to the point of application of force is called Effort arm.
CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LEVER:
Every effort should be done to avoid class I lever (cantilever). To avoid this cantilever (lever
class I) we can made either lever class II or using stress release direct retainer.
a) Lever class II
Where the fulcrum at one end, the force at opposite end &
the resistance in center. This type called equipoise force
system.{see direct retainer}
In this class, the occlusal rest (F) located mesially, while
the retentive tip (R) positioned distally, and the saddle (E)
located distal to the retentive tip i.e. the (R) located in
between the (F) & (E).
b) Stress release direct retainer
In general, if stress release is desirable, a mesial rest with a mesial undercut or
distal rest with distal undercut should be used. A clasp with distal rest and a wrought
wire clasp arm engaging the mesial undercut is the exception.
This can explain the difference between location of rest and retentive tip mesially in
gingivally approaching clasp as (McCr), and distally location as (Stew). The both
authors depending on the concept of stress release.
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Inclined plane
Inclined plane is nothing but two inclined surfaces in close alignment to one
another. The direct retainers and the minor connectors slide along the guide plane of
the teeth and can act as inclined planes if no prepared correctly.
When a force is applied against an inclined plane it may produce two actions:
Deflection of the object, which is applying the force (Denture).
Movement of the inclined plane itself (tooth) .These results should be
prevented to avoid damage to the abutment teeth.
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BIOMECHANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF R.P.D. ( Based on the
nature of the supporting tissues)
A. TOOTH BORNE (tooth supported or dentoalveolar supported).
1. Abutment teeth border all edentulous areas where tooth replacement is
planned.
2. Functional forces are transmitted through abutment teeth to bone.
B. TOOTH - MUCOSA BORNE (tooth and mucosa supported, den to-alveolar
and muco-osseous supported or extension base ).
1. Exhibits one or more edentulous areas which are not bordered by abutment
teeth (extension base RPDs).
2. forces are transmitted through abutment and mucosa to bone.
3. The majority of these are distal extension RPDs.
4. This category may apply to tooth bordered situations when excessive
abutment tooth mobility is present or when long span tooth bordered
edentulous areas are present precluding primarily tooth support.
C. MUCOSA BORNE. (muco-osseous supported)
1. Regardless of the natural teeth present, support is derived entirely from the
mucoosseous segment.
2. This category includes prostheses fabricated from hard or combinations of
resilient and hard denture base materials such as stayplates which function
as interim or transitional prostheses.
3. These prostheses usually do not contain a metal framework and usually
should not be considered definitive treatment.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF FAVORABLE DENTO-ALVEOLAR SUPPORT
A. TEETH.
1. Structurally sound.
2. Anatomically favorable.
a. Root surface area.
b. Root morphology.
c. Presence of multiple roots.
d. Presence of divergent roots.
e. Crown to root ratio.
f. Axial inclination.
B.PERIODONTIUM.
1. Normal (absence of periodontal disease).
a. Gingival indices within normal limits.
b. Absence of increasing mobility or hyper mobility.
2. Anatomically favorable.
a. orrnal epithelial and connective tissue attachment.
b.Adequate zone of attached gingiva.
C. ALVEOLAR BONE.
1. Favorable bone index.
2. Anatomically normal.
a. Bone height.
b. Degree of mineralization.
c. Presence of lamina dura.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FAVORABLE MUCO-OSSEOUS SUPPORT
A. MUCOSA.
1. Normal.
2. Keratinized.
3. Firmly bound.
B. SUBMUCOSA.
1. Normal submucosa serves as an "hydraulic cushion".
2. Firmly bound and dense.
C. BONE.
1. Cortical bone.
2. Favorable bone index.
3. Presence of muscle attachments which direct tension to bone (or the
equivalent in terms of resistance to pressure induced resorption).
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OPTIMAL FORCE BEARING MUCOOSSEOUS ANATOMIC REGIONS
A. MAXILLARY.
1. Horizontal hard palate.
a. Keratinized mucosa.
b. Presence of fatty (anterior) and glandular (posterior) submucosa
(excluding midline suture).
c. Cortical bone.
2. Posterior ridge crest.
a. Keratinized mucosa.
a. Presence of dense firmly bound submucosal connective tissue which
may contribute to observed resistanceto pressure induced resorption.
Maxillary primary (1
0
) supporting areas are the horizontal hard palate
and posterior ridge crest.
The periphery of the denture bearing area is non-contributory (N/C).
The midline suture often requires relief (R)
and the anterior ridge crest serves as a secondary (2) supporting area.
B. MANDIBULAR.
1. Buccal shelf. A primary force bearing area which is comprised of cortical
bone. It extends from the base of residual ridge in the posterior part of the
mandible to the external oblique ridge.
a. Presence of submucosa.
b. Cortical bone.
a. Buccinator muscle attachment. The longitudinally directed fibers apply
tension to the underlying bone but do not dislodge the denture base
during contraction.
2. Pear-shaped pad. The most distal extension of keratinized tissue covering
the ridge crest. It is formed by the scarring pattern following the
extraction of the most distal mandibular molar. It should be differentiated
from the m~e posterior retromolar pad during clinical examination.
a. Keratinized mucosa.
a. Presence of dense firmly bound submucosa.
a. Medial tendon of the temporalis muscle inserts lingually in the area of
the apices of the mandibular third molars and applies tension to the
underlying bone.
Mandibular primary (1
0
) supporting areas are
the buccal shelf and pear-shaped pad.
The anterior facial incline of the ridge is non-contributory (N/C).
The lingual ridge inclines may require relief (R)
and the genial tubercle area and ridge crest serve as secondary (2") supporting areas.
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Stresses acting on a partial denture are transmitted to the teeth, and tissues of
the residual ridges. The stresses, which tend to move the denture in different
directions, may be summarized as follows:
1- Masticatory stresses.
2- Gravity tends to displace a maxillary denture downwards.
3- Sticky food tends to pull the denture occlusally away from the tissues.
4- Muscle pull and tongue action tend to displace a denture from its position.
5- Intercuspation of teeth may tend to produce horizontal and rotational stresses
unless the occlusion is balanced.
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FORCES ACTING ON REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES
The Supporting structures for removable partial are structurally adapted to
receive and absorb forces within their physiological tolerance. The ability of these
structures to tolerate forces is largely dependent upon the magnitude, the duration
and the direction of these forces in addition to the frequency of force application.
The magnitude of forces acting on partial dentures depends on age and sex of
the patient, the power of the muscles of mastication and the type of opposing
occlusion.
Natural teeth are better able to tolerate vertical directing forces acting on
them. This is because more periodontal fibers are activated to resist the application of
vertical forces. On the other hand, lateral forces are potentially destructive to both
teeth and bone. Lateral forces should be minimized in order to be within the
physiologic tolerance of the supporting structures.
TYPE OF FORCES ACTING ON RPD
I- Vertical forces
A) Tissue-ward movements B) Tissue-away movements
II- Horizontal forces:
A) Lateral movements B) Antero-posterior movements.
III- Rotational forces:
They are due to the variation in compressibility of supporting structures,
absence of distal abutment at one end or more ends of denture bases, and /or absence
of occlusal rests or clasps at any end of the bases.
1-Rotation of the anterior and posterior extension denture base around coronal
(transverse) fulcrum axis:
A) Rotation of the denture base towards the ridge around the fulcrum axis joining the
two main occlusal rests:
B) Rotation of the denture base away from the ridge around the fulcrum axis joining
the retentive tips of the clasps.
2-Rotation of all bases around a longitudinal axis parallel to the crest of the
residual ridge (Buccolingual or labiolingual).
3-Rotation about an imaginary perpendicular axis, this axis either near the center
of the dental arch in class I, or is the long axis of abutment tooth in class II partial
denture.
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I- Tissue-ward movements
a) Tissue-ward forces are, Vertical forces acting in gingival direction tending to
move the denture towards the tissues.
They occur during mastication, swallowing and aimless tooth contact. Biting
forces falling on artificial teeth are transmitted to the soft tissues and bone
underlying the denture base.
b) The partial denture should be designed to resist this movement by providing
adequate supporting components. This function of the partial denture is called
Support.
Support
It is the function of partial denture which prevents movement of the denture
towards the tissues.
Support is mainly provided by:
a) Properly designed supporting rests placed in rest seats, which are prepared on
the abutment teeth,
b) Broad accurately fitting denture bases in distal extension partial dentures.
Therefore, the entire available ridge posterior to the abutment teeth must be
covered with the denture.
c) Rigid major connectors that are neither relieved from the tissues nor placed on
inclined planes also provide support.
d) Rigid portion of clasps placed over the survey line
II- Tissue-away movements
a) Tissue-away dislodging forces are, "Vertical forces acting in an occlusal
direction tending to displace and lift the denture from its position.
Tissue-away forces occur due to: The action of muscles acting along the
periphery of the denture, gravity acting on upper dentures or by sticky food
adhering to the artificial teeth or to the denture base.
b) The partial denture should be designed to resist this movement by providing
adequate Retention.
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Retention
It is The function of partial denture which prevents the denture from being
displaced in an occlusal direction (away from the tissues)".
Retention in partial dentures is mainly provided by: {see direct retainer for detail}
a- physical forces which arise from coverage of the mucosa by the denture.
b- Physiologic factors: Patients muscular control acting through the polished
surface of the denture.
c- Mechanical means such as clasps which engage undercuts on the tooth
surface.
In order to retain the denture, the anticipated intensity of occlusally displacing force
exerted during function should be less than the force required for retaining the
denture.
3) Horizontal movements:
A) Lateral movements
a) Lateral forces are Horizontal forces developed when the mandible
moves fromside to side during function while the teeth are in contact.
Lateral movements have a destructive effect on teeth leading to tilting,
breakdown of the periodontal ligament and looseness of abutment teeth. The
application of lateral forces causes areas of compression of the periodontal membrane,
which leads to bone resorption. Hence lateral forces play a major role in bone
resorption,
b) Partial dentures should be designed to prevent the deleterious effects of
lateral forces by using stabilizing or bracing components.
Bracing
It is "The function of partial denture which resists lateral movement of the
appliance".
Stabilizing components are "Rigid components of the partial denture that
assist in resisting horizontal movement of the denture".
They help in distributing lateral stresses to all supporting teeth:
1. Bracing clasp arms placed at or above the survey line of the tooth.
2. Minor connectors in contact with axial (vertical) surfaces of abutment teeth
3. Proximal plates.
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4. Adequate extension of denture flanges helpsto stabilize the prosthesis.
5. Rigid portions of clasps.
6. Lingual plates.
7. Rests - When the walls of the rest seat are relatively parallel to the path of
placement (e.g. channel rests).
The magnitude of lateral forces could also be minimized by:
1. Reducing cusp angles of artificial teeth.
2. Providing balanced occlusal contacts free of lateral interference.
The removable partial denture being anchored to both sides of one arch and joined
by a rigid major connector can provide cross arch stabilization to forces acting in
bucco-lingual direction.
B) Antero-posterior movements
a) Antero-posterior forces are "Horizontal forces which occur during forward
and-backward movement of the mandible while the teeth are in contact". This
may result in movement of the denture.
There is natural tendency for the upper denture to move forward and
for the lower to move backward.
b) Partial dentures should be designed to prevent the deleterious effects of
antero-posterior forces by
Forward movement of the upper denture could be resisted by:
1. Anterior natural teeth.
2. Palatal slope.
3. Maxillary tuberosity.
4. The natural teeth bounding the edentulous space.
The backward movement of the lower denture could be resisted by:
1. The slope of the retromolar pad.
2. The natural teeth bounding the saddle area.
3. Proximal plates.
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VI- Rotational movements:
Rotational forces are Forces acting on the partial denture either in vertical or
horizontal direction causing rotation (torque) of the denture base around an axis.
In tooth supported removable partial dentures, the abutment teeth on
both sides of the edentulous area provide adequate support and
resistance to rotational forces through supporting rests and clasps
placed on them.
In distal extension partial denture when vertical forces are applied the
difference in displaceability of the supporting structures often results in
rotation of the partial denture around a fulcrum axis and application
of torque on abutment teeth.
Rotational movements must be counteracted in the partial denture design to
minimize their destructive effect on both, teeth and the residual ridge.
Rotational forces acting on distal extension partial denture may result in three
possible rotational movements these are
I- Rotationof the denture base around the fulcrum axis (Torque).
II- Rotation about a longitudinal axis formed by the crest of the residual ridge
(Tipping movement).
III- Rotation about an imaginary perpendicular axis near the center of the
dental arch (Fish tail movement).
I-Rotation of denture base around fulcrum axis joining the principal abutments:
Movement of the component parts of the denture lying on the opposite side of
the fulcrum axis occur in a direction opposite to that of the applied force. This
leads to rotation of the denture:
The fulcrum axis is an imaginary line passing through teeth and component
parts of the partial denture around which the distal extension partial denture
rotates when a vertical force is applied.
More than one fulcrum lines may identified for the same removable partial
denture depending on the direction and location for force application.
(a) Rotation of the denture base towards the ridge:
This movement results from occlusal stresses occurring during mastication
and occlusion of teeth. The free extension denture base moves tissue-ward
while other components on the opposite side of the fulcrum line moves away
from the tissues. This result in rotation of the denture about a diagonal
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supportive fulcrum line joining two occlusal rests on the most posterior
abutments on either side of the dental arch
Tissue ward movement of base is limited by supporting structures, which are:
1. Supportive form of the residual ridge,
2. Accurate and properly extended bases.
3. Artificial teeth set on the anterior twothird of the base
Flexible clasps are preferred over rigid clasping to reduce stresses and torque
applied on abutments. If the clasps are rigid, the abutments tend to rotate distally
during tissue ward movement of the denture base resulting in periodontal breakdown
and looseness of teeth.
(B) Rotation of the denture base away from the ridge.
This movement occurs due to the pulling effect of forces applied by sticky
food, gravity on upper dentures and the elastic rebound of soft tissues covering
the edentulous areas.
Tissue-away rotation of denture base is counteracted by:
1- Indirect Retainers: which are the components of partial denture
located on the side of the fulcrum axis opposite to the distal extension
base.
2- The retentive tip of the clasp arm.
3- Adequate coverage and extension of base (direct indirect retention )
4- Effect of gravity on mandibular bases.
II-Rotation around a longitudinal axis formed by crest of residual ridge (Tipping
movement)
This rotation occurs due to application of vertical forces on one side of the
arch only. It causes twisting of the denture base.
This movement is counteracted by:
1- Cross arch stabilization (The action of clasps on the opposite side of the arch).
2- Broad base coverage.
3- Proper placement of teeth (teeth on the ridge or lingualized occlusion).
4- Narrow teeth bucco-lingually.
5- The effect of rigid major connectors.
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III- Rotation around an imaginary perpendicular axis near the center of the
dental arch
Application of horizontal or off-vertical force results in rotation around an
imaginary vertical axis located either about the axis of abutment in class II or
near the center of the dental arch, lingual to anterior teeth in class I.
It results due to the application of masticatory forces falling on distal
extension bases causing buccolingual movement of the base. This rotation is
called fishtail movement.
This movement is counteracted by :
1- Providing adequate bracing components in the partial denture.
2- A rigid major connector.
3- Broad base coverage.
4- Balanced contact between upper and lower teeth.
Forces accruing through a removable restoration can be widely distributed,
directed, and minimized by the selection, the design, and the location of components
of removable partial dentures and by developing a harmonious occlusion.
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Force Cause of the Force Counteraction of the force Function
I- Vertical Forces :
1- Tissue-ward displacing
forces.
Functional movements
during mastication,
swallowing and occlusion
of upper and lower teeth.
- Rests placed on abutments in
bounded saddles.
- Rests & proper base coverage in free
end bases.
- Maxillary connectors
- Support
2- Occlusally displacing forces. Pulling effect of sticky food
Gravity on upper dentures.
Muscles acting on periphery
of denture
- Retainers.
- Adhesion & cohesion between
denture base & tissues
- Retention
II- Horizontal Forces
1- Lateral forces.
Side to side movement of
the mandible while teeth
are in contact.
- Rigid bracing clasp arms.
- Major connectors.
- Balanced occlusion.
- Maximumextension of the flanges
- Bracing
(Stabilization
2- Antero-posterior forces Forward and backward
movement of mandible
while teeth arein contact
- Abutments adjacent to thedenture.
- Guiding planes.
- Stabilization
III- Rotational forces :
1- Vertical forces in gingival
direction in free-end saddles.
- Functional movements while
teeth are in occlusion.
- Supporting rests.
- Properly adapted bases.
.
- Support
2- Vertical forces in occlusal
direction in free-end saddles.
- Sticky food, gravity on
upper dentures, elastic
rebound of tissues under the
base.
- Indirect retainers.
- Direct retainers.
-Indirect
retention.
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Factors affecting stress generation and transfer
1- Length of span:
the longer edentulous span, the greater force will be transmitted to the
abutment. so the Posterior teeth should be preserved as far as possible
to reduce the length of the edentulous span
2- Quality of the supporting tissues:
Form of the residual ridges: large well developed ridges, absorb more
amount of force than small, thin ridge.
Type of mucosal covering: atrophic and flabby mucosa are not
preferred.
3- Quality of clasp:
The more flexible clasp arm, the less force transmitted to the
abutment.
4- Clasp design:
- a passive clasp when it is completely seated on the abutment teeth
will exert less stress on the tooth than the non passive.
A clasp should be designed so that the reciprocal arm contacts the
tooth before the retentive tip passes over the greatest bulge of the tooth
during insertion and it should be the last component to lose tooth
contact during removal of the prosthesis.
5- Length of the clasp.
Doubling the length increases the flexibility by five times. This
decreases the stress on the abutment tooth. Using a curved rather than a
straight clasp on an abutment tooth will aid to increase the clasplength
6- Material used in clasp construction
A clasp constructed of chrome alloy will exert more stress on the
abutment tooth than a gold clasp because of its greater rigidity. To
decrease the stress, the chrome alloy clasps are constructed with a
smaller diameter.
7- Abutment tooth surface:
the surface of a gold crown or restoration offers more functional
resistance to clasp arm movement than does of enamel surface of a
tooth therefore greater stress is exerted on the abutment.
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8- Occlusal relationship of remaining teeth and orientation of occlusal plane.
Type of the opposing occlusion
Harmony of the occlusion should be present.
Improper occlusal relationship and a steep occlusal plane tend to
increase the amount of force acting on the denture. The force applied
on natural teeth is 300 pounds and the force acting on artificial teeth is
about 30 pounds. Poor occlusal relationship can lead to supra-eruption
of the opposing natural teeth.
9- Musculature of the patient.
10- Response of oral structures to previous stress.
The periodontal condition of the remaining teeth, need for splinting
and the amount of abutment support remaining are all a result of the
previous stress subjected on the oral tissues.
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RESPONSE OF FORCE BEARING TISSUES TO
MECHANICAL LOADING
The forces directed to the supporting tissues will be partially absorbed and
partially transmitted to adjacent tissues.
The percentage of force absorbed or transmitted will vary depending upon
which tissue is involved.
Bone is the tissue which ultimately absorbs the greatest amount of the force
applied to both the muco-osseous and dento-alveolar segments.
A.DENTO-ALVEOLAR SEGMENT.
1.Tooth.
a. Structurally sound vital teeth are capable of withstanding normal functional forces.
b. Excessive forces may result in adverse effects.
Structural failure (tooth fracture).
Tooth movement.
Pulpal irritation. Reversible pulpitis (hyperemia) or irreversible pulpitis,
c. Structurally compromised teeth may fail in response to normal functional forces.
Teeth with large intracoronal restorations.
Endodontically treated teeth.
2.Periodontium
including gingiva, crevicular epithelium, junctional epithelium, connective
tissue attachment, cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone.
a. A normal periodontium permits some force absorption without damaging effects.
b. Excessive forces may increase the width of the periodontal ligament and result in
increased tooth mobility.
c. Plaque induced inflammation may compromise the periodontium. It can lead to
apical migration of the crevicular epithelial attachment (functional epithelium) and
destruction of the fibroblasts and connective tissue of the connective tissue
attachment. In the presence of inflammation normal functional forces may accelerate
the rate of periodontal attachment loss.
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3.Alveolar bone.
a. Pressure - tension theory.
Bone tends to resorb in response to compressive force and to be stimulated by
tensional force. In order to preserve remaining alveolar bone, it is important
that functional forces be transmitted to bone primarily as tension rather than
pressure whenever possible.
In tooth borne situations the majority of functional forces are transmitted as
tension to bone through proper rest design and rest seat preparation. In tooth-
mucosa borne situations some of the vertical seating forces are transmitted as
tension to the bone through the rests. Horizontal forces are transmitted as a
combination of compressive and tensional forces to the alveolar bone (e.g.
those forces directed through bracing clasps, proximal plates and minor
connectors contacting proximal tooth surfaces and guiding planes).
Vertical displacing forces are transmitted to the bone as both compressive and
tensional forces (e.g. sticky foods or retentive clasps engaging undercuts).
b.Bone index or Bone factor. The response of bone to pressure varies in terms of the
rate of resorption depending on genetic, nutritional, hormonal and biochemical and
other intrinsic factors. The bone index is determined by analyzing the previous
responseof bone to force.
c. Cortical vs. cancellous bone. Cortical bone is more dense, more highly mineral-
ized, less cellular, and less metabolically active. It tends to be more resistant to
pressure induced resorption than cancellous bone. Lamina dura is cortical bone.
d. Excessive forces which increase compressive components of forces transmitted to
bone may increase the rate of bone resorption.
e. Periodontal disease. The presence of plaque induced periodontal disease is
associated with a loss of bone height. Moderate forces may accelerate the disease
process resulting in further bone loss, less bone support, and increased mobility of the
teeth.
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B. MUCO-OSSEOUS SEGMENT.
1.Mucosa.
a.Normal. firmly bound, keratinized tissues withstand mechanical forces
within physiologic limits.
b. Excessive mechanical forces may cause mucosal ulceration (e.g. denture
sore spots).
2.Submucosa
a. Provides an "hydraulic cushion" effect.
b. Increased thickness of the submucosa improves tolerance of the residual
ridge to applied forces.
3.Bone
a.Pressure-tension theory. The functional loading of a tooth-mucosa borne
denture base transmits force to the bone of the rnuco-oss ous segment almost
exclusively as pressure which tends to cause resorptive changes. Resorption
occurs in proportion to the intensity, duration, and direction of the applied
force and as influenced by the bone factor. With some longer span tooth borne
partial dentures or when excessive mobility of abutment teeth is present some
force may also be delivered through the mucosa to the underlying bone as
pressure.
b. Bone index. The bone index of the alveolar bone surrounding natural teeth
may differ from that of the bone comprising the residual ridges.
c. Cortical vs. cancellous bone. The residual ridge crest is comprised mainly
of cancellous bone and is less resistant to resorption. The facial and lingual
inclines of the residual ridges are comprised of cortical bone and are more
resistant to remodelling. The rate of cancellous bone resorption has been
described as being approximately three times that of cortical bone.
d.Excessive forces may increase the rate of bone resorption.
e. Moderate forces may result in accelerated bone resorption when intrinsic
factors, local abnormalities or systemic disorders compromise the bone index
of the individual.
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REACTION OF TISSUE TO METALLIC COVERAGE
The reaction of tissue to coverage by the metallic components of a removable
partial denture has been the subject of significant controversy, particularly in
regions of marginal gingiva and broad areas of tissue contact.
These tissue reactions can result from
1) Pressure from lack of support,
2) lack of adequate hygiene measures,
3) Prolongedcontact through continual use of a prosthesis.
Pressure occurs at regions where relief is inadequate. Impingement will likewise
occur if the denture settles because of loss of tooth and/or tissue support. This may
be caused by failure of the rest areas as a result of improper design, caries
involvement, fracture of the rest itself, or intrusion of abutment teeth under
occlusal loading. Settling of a prosthesis must be prevented or corrected if it has
occurred. Excessive pressure must be avoided whenever oral tissue must be
covered or crossed by elements of the partial denture.
Lack of adequate hygiene measures can result in tissue reactions because of an
accumulation of food debris and bacteria. Coverage of oral tissue with partial
dentures that are not kept clean irritates those tissue because of an accumulation of
irritating factors. This has led to a misinterpretation of the effect of tissue
coverage by prosthetic restorations. An additional hygiene concern relates to the
problem of maintaining cleanliness of the tissue surface of the prosthesis.
The first two causes of untoward tissue reaction can be accentuated the longer a
prosthesis is worn. It is apparent that mucous membranes cannot tolerate this
constant contact with a prosthesis without resulting in inflammation and
breakdown of the epithelial barrier. Some patients become so accustomed to
wearing a removable restoration that they neglect to remove it often enough to
give the tissue any respite from constant contact. This is frequently true when
anterior teeth are replaced by the partial denture and the individual does not allow
the prosthesis to be out of the mouth at any time except in the privacy of the
bathroom during tooth brushing. Living tissue should not be covered all the time
or changes in those tissue will occur. Partial dentures should be removed for
several hours each day so that the effects of tissue contact can subside and the
tissue can return to a normal state.
Clinical experience with the use of linguoplates and complete metallic palatal
coverage when factors of pressure, cleanliness, and time are controlled, tissue
coverage is not in itself detrimental to the health of oral tissue.
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Controlling Stress by Design Considerations
1- Direct Retention :
1. Clasp
The retentive clasp arm is the element of RPD that is responsible for
transmitting most of destructive forces to the abutment teeth. A RPD should
always be designed to keep clasp retention to a minimumyet provide
adequate retention to prevent dislodgment of the denture by unseating
forces. It should also be remembered that the retentive clasp should be
designed such that it is active only during insertion and removal.
2. Forces of adhesion and cohesion
To secure the maximum possible retention through the use of forces of
adhesion, the denture base should cover the maximum area of available
support and must be accurately adaptedto the underlying mucosa.
3. Frictional control
The RPD should be designed so that guide planes are created on as many
teeth as possible. Guide planesare areas on teeth that are parallel to the
path of insertion and removal of the denture. The plane may be created on
the enamel surfaces of the teeth or restorations placed on teeth. The friction
of RPD against parallel surfaces can contribute significantlyto retention of
the denture.
4. Neuro-muscular control
The design and contour of the denture base can greatly affect the ability of
lips, checks and tongue to retain the prosthesis. Any over-extensionof the
denture base either facially, lingually in the mandible or posteriorly onto the
soft palate will contribute to the loss of retention and the abutment teeth
bearing the direct retainers will be over stressed.
5. Clasp Position
a-Quadrilateral configuration
Four abutments are utilized for clasping. Quadrilateral configuration is
indicated in Class III particularly when there is a modification space on the
opposite side of the arch. A retentive clasp should be positioned on each
abutment adjacent the edentulous space. This result in denture being
confined within the outline of four clasps
b- Tripod Configuration
Tripod clasping is used primarily for class II arches. If there is a modification
space on the edentulous side the teeth anterior and posterior to the space
are clasped. If a modification space is not present. One clasp on the
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edentulous side of the arch should be positioned as far posterior as possible
and the other, as far anterior as factors such as interocclusal space, retentive
undercut, and esthetic considerations will permit. By separating the two
abutments on the tooth-supported sides as far as possible, the largest
possible area of the denture will be enclosed in the triangles formed by the
clasps.
c-Bilateral configuration
Most RPD with bilateral distal extension group in class I fall into bilateral
configuration. In the bilateral configuration the clasp exert little neutralizing
effect on the leverage induced stresses generated by the denture base. These
stresses must be controlled by other means.
6. Clasp design :
a- Circumferential clasp :
The conventional circumferential cast clasp originating from a distal occlusal
rest on the terminal abutment tooth and engaging a mesio-buccal retentive
undercut should not be used on a distal extensionRPD. The terminal of
this clasp reacts to movement of the denture base toward the tissue by
placing a distal tipping, or torquing, force on the abutment teeth. This force
is the most destructive force a retentive clasp can exert. This clasping
concept must be avoided.
On the other hand if the circumferential clasp with mesial occlusal rest
approaches a disto-buccal undercut form the mesial surface of the
abutment, is acceptable. The effect on the abutment is reversed from that
of the conventional clasp. As the occlusal load is applied to the denture
base, the retentive terminal moves further gingivally into the undercut area
and loses contact with the abutment teeth. In this manner torque is not
transmitted to the abutment tooth.
b-Vertical projection or Bar clasp :
The vertical projection clasp, or bar clasp is used on the terminal abutment
tooth on a distal extension RPD when the retentiveundercut is located on
the disto-buccal surface. As the denture base is loaded toward the tissue,
the retentive tip of the clasp rotates gingivally to release the stress being
transmitted to the abutment tooth.
c-Combination clasp :
When a mesio-buccal undercut exist on abutment tooth adjacent to a distal
extension edentulous ridge, the combination clasp can be employed to
reduce the stress transmitted to the abutment tooth. wrought alloy wire,
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by virtue of its internal structure, is more flexible than a cast clasp. It can
flex in any plane, whereas a cast clasp flexes in the horizontal plane only.
The wrought wire retentive arm has a stress-breaking action that can
absorb torsional stress in both vertical and horizontal planes.
Flexible clasps produce the least stress and rigid cast circumferential clasps
produce the maximum stress in an abutment.
2- Indirect Retention
The indirect retention is essential in the design of class I and II RPD, it
counteracts the forces attempting to movethe denture base away from the
residual ridge by moving the fulcrum farther from the force.
In class I prosthesis, the fulcrum line would be moved from the tips of the
retentive clasp to the most anteriorly located component, the indirect
retainer. Because the indirect retainer resists lifting forces at the end of a
long lever arm, it must positioned in a definite rest seat so that the
transmitted forces are diverted apically through the long axis of abutment
tooth. The indirect retainer also contributes to a lesser degree, to the
support and stability of the denture.
Class I : indirect retainer must always used.
Class II: it is not as critical as in class I but still required. Modification space
can provide indirect retention. A definitive occlusal rest seat anterior may
increase the effectiveness of indirect retention.
Class III : indirect retention is not ordinarily requiredexcept in :
long lingual bar major connector to provide additional vertical support.
Lingual plate major connector.
Class IV : is considered reverse of class I and II. The lever arm is anterior to
the fulcrum line, so the indirect retainer must be located as far posterior as
possible. Occlusal rests and clasp assemblies are placed on the most posterior
teeth for both direct retention and support.
3- Occlusion
The occlusal surfaces, or food table, of artificial teeth can transmit various
amounts of stress to the supporting structures. A large or broad occlusal surface
deliver more stress than does one that has been reduced in bucco-lingual width. The
number of teeth replaced may also be reduced to decrease stress. Harmonious
occlusion should be developed.
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4- Denture Base
The denture base should be designed to cover as extensive an area of
supporting tissue as possible. The stress created by the partial denture in
function will thus be distributed over a large area, so no single area will be
subjected to stress beyond its physiologic limit. The denture base flange
should be made as long as possible to help stabilize the denture against
horizontal movements.
The distal extension denture base must always extend onto the retromolar
pad area in the mandible and cover the entire tuberosity of the maxilla. Both
structures are capable of absorbing more stress than alveolar ridge anterior
to them.
The type of impression usedto record the residual ridge will influence the
amount of stress the residual ridge can effectively absorb. Several techniques
are used to make functional impression of the residual ridge. Each technique
is based on the theory that if the ridge were recorded in its functional state
rather than its resting form, when the denture base is actually subjected to
occlusal loading, the tissue would not displaced to any great stint. The
magnitude of stress transmitted to the abutment teeth, therefore, would be
minimal.
Denture base should be accurate and stable. The polished surface should
have the proper form and contour.
5- Major Connector
In the mandibular arch the lingual plate major connector that is
properly supported by rests can aid in the distribution of functional
stresses to the remaining teeth. It is particularly effective in
supporting periodontally weakened anterior teeth. The lingual plate
also adds rigidity to the major connector. The added rigidity
contributes to the effectiveness of cross-arch stabilization.
In the maxillary archthe use of a broad palatal major connector that
connects several of the remaining natural teeth through lingual
plating can distribute stress over a large area. The major connector
must be rigid and must receive vertical support through rests from
several teeth.
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It should distribute the occlusal load over a wide area and at the same time
produce the least amount of stress. There are threeimportant principles for design
exclusively usedfor a major connector. They are:
L-bar or L-beam principle.
Circularconfiguration.
Strut configuration.
L-bar or L-beam principle
The L-beam or L-bar or Linear beamtheory states that the flexibility of abar
is directly proportional to the length of the bar and inversely proportional to its
thickness.
When a load is placed on the bar or beamsupported at its ends, maximum
stress is present in the centre and zero stress at the supported ends.
A bar supported at both its ends can be divided into two parts namely the
parabolic and quarticparts. The parabolic part forms the middle2/4
th
of the distance
between the supports and the remainingl/4th on either sides of the bar form the
quartic part.
The parabolic part shows maximum stress concentration and thequartic part
shows minimum or zero stress concentration. Hence, if we design a bar such that it
has a smaller parabolic part and a larger quartic part it will be less flexible. The
material becomes more rigid (less flexible) without adding bulk to the bar.
The next question is how do we do this? The answer is very simple. IT we
bend the bar on either side, the length of the bar lying in the quartic part will
increase.
Now apply this concept in the design of amajor connector. The palate has a
flat vault and two lateral slopes.
If the slopes are shallow, the quartic part of the major connector also
decreases leading to increased flexibility of the prosthesis under occlusal load. The
major connector should be located and designed such that it lies over the steeper
slopesin the palate.
Hence, broad palatal major connectors, palatal strap major connectors canbe
fabricated with lesser bulk of material (but with adequate rigidity) because it extends
in three planes (one central vault and two lateral slopes) with the length of the
quartic part (the two lateral slopes) beinggreater than the parabolic part.
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Circular configuration
The advantage of a circle is that it is a continuous unit without an end. Any
force acting on a circular bar can be easily distributed all along the circumference.
Hence, a circular bar is more rigid than a linear bar with the same area of cross
section. This concept can be used to reduce the bulk of themajor connector with a
circular configurationanteroposterior double palatal bar and closedhorseshoe.
Strut configuration
According to this configuration, a
straight bar bent at its ends near the
support is more rigid because, the bent
slopes of the bar aid to transfer the load
acting on thehorizontal portion.
This is similar to the linear bar
theory (L-beam discusses stress
concentration but struts discuss stress
distribution).
The major connector on a narrow
vault ismore rigid than a major connector
extending over a shallow vault. In other
words, the major connector extending in
two different planes has morerigidity.
This concept is seen in the
anterior plate of the double palatal bar,
where the slope of therugae area acts as
an additional strut.
6- Minor Connector
The most intimate tooth-to-partial denture contact takes place between the
minor connector joining the clasp assembly to the major connector and the guiding
planes on the abutment tooth surfaces. This close metal-to-enamel contact serves
two purposes:
1- It offers horizontal stability of RPD against lateral forces.
2- Through the contact of the minor connector and the abutment teeth, the teeth
receivestabilization against lateral stresses.
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7- Rests
One of the most critical points of the rest seat is that the floor of the
preparation must form an angle of less than 90 degreeswith thelong axis of
the tooth. This permits the rest, whether occlusal, incisal or lingual, to grasp
the tooth securely and prevent its migration. If more than 90 degrees, an
inclined plane action is set up and stress against the abutment tooth is
magnified.
In class I and II RPD the rest seat preparation must be saucer-shaped,
completely devoid of any sharp angles or ledges. As the forces are applied to
the partial denture, the rest must be free to move within the rest seat to
release stresses that would otherwise be transferred to the tooth. The more
teeth bear rest seats, the less will be the stress placed on each individual
tooth.
8- Splinting of abutment teeth :
Adjacent teeth may be splinted by means of crownsto control stress transmitted to
a week abutment tooth. splinting two or more teeth actually increases the
periodontal ligament attachment area and distributes the stress over a large area
of support. It also stabilizes the abutment teeth in a mesio-distal or antro-posterior
direction.
Splinting could be achieved by clasping more than one toothon each side of the
arch using a number of rests for additional support and stabilization and preparing
guiding planes on as many teeth as possible to contribute to horizontal
stabilization of the teeth and the prosthesis. The multiple clasps should not all be
retentive.
Splinting is indicated for the followingclinical conditions.
Abutments with a tapered or short root.
Terminal abutments located on the edentulous side of a distal extension
denture base.
Fixed splinting is given if there is some loss of periodontal attachment, after a
periodontal disease and therapy.
PARTIAL DENTURE DESIGN 14 RPD THEORY AND PRACTICE
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ESSENTI ALS OF PARTI AL DENTURE DESI GN
Decision Making in RPD Design
o Designing of partial denture necessitates a proper planning for the form and extent of a
dental prosthesis and studying of all the factors involved.
o The prosthesis must be designed following the most favorable biomechanical principles,
as the proper design helps in reducing the harmful effects on the supporting structures.
A Pr oper l y c onst r uc t ed par t i al dent ur e must ac hi eve:
A- Support: Adequate distribution of the load to the teeth and mucosa.
B- Retention: Sufficient resistance to vertical displacing forces.
C- Bracing: Anchorage sufficient to resist lateral and rotational forces.
D- Stabilization: Sufficient resistance to resist tipping forces.
C- Reciprocation: Nullifying the effect of pressure on one side of a tooth by the
application of pressure, equal in amount but in an opposing direction, on the opposite
side of the tooth.
PHILOSOPHYOF PARTIAL DENTURE DESIGN
There are four design concepts, which can be used to distribute the force evenly along the
tissues and supporting tooth structure. They are :
Conventional rigid design.
Stress equalization.
Physiologic basing.
Broad stress distribution.
Conventional Rigid Design
The denture is designed with rigid component which act like a raft foundation to
evenly distribute the forces on the supporting tissues. This design is used in all general
cases. The flexible component of these dentures is their retentive terminal.
Advantages
Easy to construct and economical.
Equal distribution of stress between the abutment and the residual ridge.
Reduced need for relining as the ridge and abutment share the load.
Indirect retainers prevent rotational movement and also stabilize the denture during
horizontal movements.
Less susceptible to distortion.
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Disadvantages
Increased torquing forces on the abutment teeth.
Rigid continuous clasping may damage the abutment teeth.
Dovetail intracoronal retainers cannot be used in these cases as tipping forces from the
denture base will be directly transmitted to the abutment teeth.
Tapered wrought wire retentive arm (combination clasp) cannot be used, as it is
difficult to construct.
Relining is difficult and inappropriate relining leads to damage of the abutment teeth.
Stress Equalization or Stress Breaker or Stress Directing Concept
A stress breaker is defined as, A device which relieves the abutment teeth of all or
part of the occlusal forces" GPT. [See also stress breaker]
The soft tissues are more compressible than the abutment teeth. In a tooth tissue
supported partial denture, when an occlusal load is applied, the denture tends to rock
due to the difference in the compressibility of the abutment teeth and the soft tissue As
the tissues are more compressible, the amount of stress acting on the abutments is
increased. This can produce harmful effects on the abutment teeth.
In order to protect the abutment from such conditions, stress breakers are incorporated
into a denture.
A stress director is a device that allows movement between the denture base and the
direct retainer which may be intracoronal or extracoronal. Dentures with a stress
breaker are also called a broken stress partial dentures or articulated prostheses.
There are two types of stress breakers:
Type I
Here a movable joint is placed between the direct retainer and denture base.
This joint may either be a hinge or a ball and socket or a sleeve and cylinder.
Examples for hinges include DALBO, CRISMANI, ASC 52 attachments.
Adding these stress breakers to the junction of the direct retainer and the denture base,
allows the denture base to move independently. This decreases the amount of force acting on
the abutment. The combined resiliency of the periodontal ligament and the stress director will
be equal to the resiliency of the oral mucosa overlying the ridge.
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Type I I
Those which have a flexible connection between the direct retainer and the
denture base. It can be a wrought wire connector, divided or split major
connector or a movable joint between two major connectors.
In a split major connector, the major connector is split by an incomplete cut
parallel to the occlusal surface of the teeth into two units namely the upper unit
(more near to the tooth) and the lower unit. The denture base is connected to
the lower unit and the rests and direct retainers are connected to the upper unit.
Advantages
The alveolar support of the abutment teeth is preserved as the stresses acting
on the abutment teeth are reduced.
The stress on the residual ridge and the abutment teeth are balanced.
Weak abutment teeth are well splinted even during the movement of the
denture base. Abutment teeth are not damaged even if relining is not done
appropriately (after the denture wears out).
Minimal requirement of direct retention.
Movement of the denture base produces a massaging effect on the soft tissues..
This avoids the frequent need for relining and rebasing.
Disadvantages
Design is complicated and expensive.
The assembly is very weak and tends to fracture easily.
It is difficult to repair.
It can be used only to counter the vertical forces on the denture. Inability to
counteract lateral stress acting on the ridge leads to ridge resorption.
Reduced stability against horizontal forces.
vertical and horizontal forces are concentrated on ridge leading to resorption.
Inappropriate relining leads to excessive ridge resorption.
Reduced indirect retention.
The split major connector tends to collect food debris at the area of split.
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Physiologic Basing
This technique distributes the occlusal load between the abutment teeth and the soft
tissues by fabricating a denture based on a functional record. Functional record is
obtained by recording the tissues under occlusal load or by relining the denture under
functional stress. This technique involves making an impression of the soft tissues in a
compressed state.
Since the denture is fabricated using a functional record (compressed tissues), the soft
tissues offer more resistance to further compression. This increased resistance to
compression provided by the oral mucosa equates to that of the periodontal
ligament of the abutment tooth. In this manner the abutment tooth is protected from
excessive forces and the denture can distribute occlusal load evenly to the teeth and
tissues.
Disadvantage: the denture tends to compress the soft tissues even at rest. This can
lead to excess ridge resorption.
Requirements for Physiological Basing
rigid metal framework
Functional occlusal rests
Indirect retainers to provide additional stability.
Well-adapted, broad coverage denture bases.
Advantages
Good adaptation of the denture base.
Simple design and economical.
Minimal direct retention decreases the
functional stress on the abutment tooth.
Disadvantages
Decrease in the number of retentive components provides less stability.
The denture tends to lift at rest. This leads to premature contacts.
Indirect retention is decreased due to vertical movement of the denture due to tissue
rebound at rest.
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Broad Stress Distribution
According to this philosophy of design, the occlusal load acting on the denture should
be distributed over a wider soft tissue area and maximum number of teeth.
This is achieved by increasing the number of direct retainers, indirect retainers, and
rests and by increasing the area of the denture base.
Advantages
This design with multiple clasps acts as a form of removable splinting.
It increases the health of the abutment teeth (due to splinting action).
Easier to construct and economical.
Disadvantages
Less comfortable.
Difficult to maintain adequate oral hygiene.
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Designing of Partial Denture
Factors influencing design
A. Preservation of teeth and periodontal structures. A primary objective in design is to
maintain healthy bone, teeth, and supporting soft tissue structures.
B. Minimal tooth and minimal gingival coverage. Designs which minimize coverage of
these tissues are preferred since they tend to reduce plaque accumulation.
C. The nature of the support: tooth borne or tooth-mucosa borne. In the tooth-mucosa borne
partial denture, consideration must be given to equitable distribution of forces between the
abutment teeth and the residual (edentulous) ridge.
D. Anatomic limitations. The presence of certain congenital or acquired anatomic features
such as bony exostoses, reduced vestibular depth, undercuts, or anomalies may influence the
design.
E. Tooth inclination, position, or co tour. may prevent a design feature from being utilized,
dictating an alternative choice.
F. Contingency planning possible future loss of teeth may require provision for modifica-
tions of the prosthesis.
G. Potential magnitude of applied forces. Increased functional forces or parafunctional
forces may increase the structural requirements of the framework or require splinting of
abutment teeth.
H. Ease of placement and removal. Handicapped individuals may be limited in their ability
to place and remove the partial denture.
I. Esthetics may be the most important factor from the viewpoint of the patient. may
influence the type of clasps used.
J. Desires and previous experience of the patient. The desires of the patient and the opinion
of the dentist may not always be in accord. Whenever possible, acceptable options should be
presented to the patient.
One or more of the above-mentioned factors may strongly influence the final design. A partial
denture usually permits a variety of designs which are acceptable in meeting established
criteria.
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Sequence of designing partial dentures:
1- Denture base designing.
2- Designing for support.
3- Providing retention.
4- Designing for bracing and reciprocation.
5- Designing for resistance to anteroposterior movements of the saddles.
6- Connecting the saddles and retainers.
7- Esthetics
I- Denture base designing:
It is the part of the partial denture which rests on the mucoperiosteum and to which the
denture teeth are attached.
Functions:
1-Retain the artificial teeth.
2-It provides addition retention to the prosthesis.
3-It provides addition stabilization for the RPD against the horizontal forces.
4-It provides support for the distal extension base RPD.
5-the contour of its polished surface provide a stabilizing and retentive effect when
acted on by the oral musculature.
Design:
It is desirable to extend the denture base into the sulcus to assure the maximum
coverage especially in mucosa and tooth-mucosa supported RPD.
Types of contact between the denture and abutment teeth:
1- Closed design with long guiding plane.
2- Open design with short guiding plane.
3- Open design without guiding plane and with wide embrasure.
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II-Designing for support:
Definition: It is the resistance against the vertical seating forces which occurring during
{mastication, swallowing and Para function}.
Classification of RPD according to their support:
(1) Tissue-borne dentures: It gets all support from the soft tissue covering the jaws.
(2) Tooth-borne dentures: called (removable bridges)
It gets all its support from the natural teeth.
They are a very small dentures replacing one or two teeth on one side only.
(3) Tooth-and tissue born dentures:
They are supported by the soft tissue and the natural teeth.
The best example of this type is RPD with distal extension bases.
Support can provided from:
1- Denture base. 2- Maxillary major connectors.
3- Rests. 4- Rigid portions of the clasps placed above the survey line.
Factors influencing the support of distal extension base: see class problem
Number of rests:
1- Required number if possible 4 well distributed rest. Such a case will be considered as
self-indirect retained case.
2- If not possible, 3 will be required, 2 will make fulcrum line (the two main posteriors)
and the 3
rd
one will act for support and indirect retention.
3- In some cases the possible number will be only 2 , in such case , indirect retention will
be from the resistance form by maximum coverage & seal, as complete denture base.
Rest Placement:
Tooth-Borne RPDs: Adjacent Edentulous Space
Most effective placement of support
Ease of preparation
Reduces minor connectors
Very rare exceptions
Tooth/Tissue-Borne RPDs : Mesial Rest
Reduced rotational forces
Exceptions: Mesial rest not indicated
- Mesial Restorations - Rotations
- Mesial plunger cusp opposing
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III-Designing for retention:
It is the resistance to vertical dislodging force; which occurs during:
1- Mastication of sticky food. 2- Muscles of lips, tongue, and cheeks.
3- Gravity on maxillary denture.
Means of retention: {see direct retainer for detail}
A] Physical factors
Adhesion between saliva / denture & tissue
Cohesion between saliva molecules
surface tension
Atmospheric Pressure
Effect of Gravity
Plastic molding between tissues / denture polished surfaces aid to little
extent in retention of partial denture
b] Mechanical means
(1) Direct retainers:
A- Intracoronal (precision attachments).
B- Extracoronal (clasps)
(2) Frictional fit between the denture and the abutment teeth.
(3) Parts of the denture base engaging in undercuts on the teeth.
(4) Parts of the denture base engaging in undercuts on the soft tissues.
(5) Indirect retainers. {Prevent rocking movements of the denture}.
C] Physiological means of retention:
1- The physiologic molding of the tissues around the polished surfaces of the
denture helps to perfect the border seal.
2- Neuromuscular control
Direct retainers:
A- precision attachments:
They are fitted more to the small unilateral RPDs (side-plates).
They are bought ready-made (usually the mail portion is attached to the denture,
while the other is soldered into a crown or large inlay in an abutment tooth.)
B- Clasps:
1- To resist displacement of the denture by vertically applied forces .
2- To resist displacement of the denture by horizontal applied forces.
Stress and its control by clasp design see direct retainers
Factors governing the choice of retentive clasp: see direct retainers
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III-Designing for bracing and reciprocation:
Bracing: It is the resistance to horizontal (lateral and antero-posterior ) movements of the
denture caused by lateral forces which occurred during:
1- Mastication as a component of the obliquely applied force.
2- Para function.
Resistance to lateral shifting is gained by:
1- Maximum extension and coverage of the sides of the residual ridge with the
denture base within the physiological limit.
2- Rigid bracing clasp arms.
3- Use of a continuous bar resting on lingual surfaces of natural teeth (Kennedy bar).
4- Rigid major and minor connectors
5- The magnitude of the lateral forces may reduced by:
- Reducing the steepness of the Cuspal angles of the teeth.
- Reducing the size of the occlusal table.
- Ensuring that the cusps are efficient during mastication.
Reciprocation:
It is the resistance to horizontal forces exerted on a tooth by the retentive clasp
arm during insertion and removal of the RPD.
This can be obtained by bracing clasp arm or plate contacting the tooth surface
while movement of retentive tips over the height of contour of the abutment.
Resistance of the antero posterior movement of the saddles:
As there is a tendency of the upper denture to move forwards and the lower denture
to move backwards, Resistance to anteroposterior movement is gained by:
1. The presence of healthy well supported natural anterior teeth in the upper jaw
and molar tooth or teeth in lower jaw.
2. Covering the anterior slope of the hard palate, and the tuberosity.
3. The use of posterior abutment.
4. Steeply sloping mucosa in the retro molar region.

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Stabilizing Components
Stabilization is the resistance of partial denture to tipping forces.
Causes of tipping, rocking and rotation of RPD:
1- Different quality in the nature of the supporting structures
In tooth supported RPDs, the abutment teeth on both sides of the edentulous
area provide adequate support and resistance to rotational forces through
supporting rests and clasps placed on them.
In Tooth-tissue supported distal extension partial dentures derive support
from two different tissues. This results in vertical movement of the denture base
either in tissue-ward or tissue-away direction when occlusal forces act on
artificial teeth.
2- Sticky foods and muscle pull, acting on the periphery of the denture.
3- Intercuspation and occlusion of teeth
Resistance to vertical and lateral tipping forces (rocking) is gained by:
1. Adequate base coverage.
2. The use of three, and if possible four, widely separated areas of tooth support
3. Rigid bracing clasp arms
4. Balanced occlusal contact and reduction of cusp slope.
5. The use of additional rests serves as, indirect retainers.
6. Coverage of the rugea area acts as an indirect retainer.
Stabilizing components of the removable partial denture framework are those rigid components that
assist in stabilizing the denture against horizontal movement.
o minor connectors that contact vertical tooth surfaces
o reciprocal clasp arms
Minor connectors
should have sufficient bulk to be rigid
Little bulk to the tongue as possible.
Should be confined to interdental embrasures whenever possible.
When minor connectors are located on vertical tooth surfaces, it is best that these surfaces be
parallel to the path of placement.
A modification of minor connector design has been proposed that places the minor connector in
the center of the lingual surface of the abutment tooth. Proponents of this design claim that it reduces
the amount of gingival tissue coverage and provides enhanced bracing and guidance during placement.
Disadvantages may include increased encroachment on the tongue space, more obvious borders, and
potentially greater space between the connector and the abutment.
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Reciprocal clasp arms
o It must be rigid, and they must be placed occlusally to the height of contour of
the abutment teeth
o When crown restorations are used, a lingual reciprocal clasp arm maybe insert
into the tooth contour by providing a ledge on the crown on which the clasp
arm may rest. This permits the use of a wider clasp arm and restores a more
nearly normal tooth contour, at the same time maintaining its strength and
rigidity.
Guiding Plane
It is defined as two or more parallel, vertical surfaces of abutment teeth, so shaped to
direct prosthesis during placement and removal.
Guiding planes may be contacted by various components of the partial denture:
The body of an extracoronal direct retainer, the stabilizing arm of a direct
retainer, the minor connector portion of an indirect retainer, or by a minor
connector specifically designed to contact the guiding plane surface.
The functions of guiding plane surfaces are as follows:
(1) To provide for one path of placement and removal of the restoration (to
eliminate detrimental strain to abutment and framework during placement and
removal).
(2) To ensure the intended actions of reciprocal, stabilizing, and retentive
components (to provide retention against dislodgment of the restoration when
the dislodging force is directed other than parallel to the path of removal and
also to provide stabilization against horizontal rotation of the denture).
(3) To eliminate gross food traps between abutment teeth and the denture.
Dimensions of guiding plane surfaces:
Proximal guiding plane surfaces should be about one half the width of the
distance between the tips of adjacent buccal and lingual cusps or about one
third of the buccal lingual width of the tooth.
They should extend vertically about two thirds of the length of the enamel
crown portion of the tooth from the marginal ridge cervically.
Guiding planes squarely facing each other should not be prepared
on lone standing abutment. Minor connectors of framework (gray areas)
would place undue strain on abutment when denture rotated vertically either
superiorly or inferiorly.
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V-Designing for indirect retention:
Methods of indirect retention:
For distal extension bases (Class I and II) indirect retainers placed on the anterior
part of the jaw are necessary.
A class III denture whose saddles cannot, for some reasons, be clasped adequately
may require anterior and posterior indirect retainers.
Class IV dentures require an indirect retainer placed posteriorly to counteract a
displacement of the anterior saddle away from the ridge
Factors influence the effectiveness of indirect retention: see indirect retainer
VI- Designing the connector:
Types of maxillary major connector:
1- Single palatal bar.
2- Anteroposterior or double palatal bar.
3- Single palatal strap.
4- Horseshoe or U-shaped palatal bar.
5- Closed shoe or Anteroposterior palatal strap.
6- Complete palatal plate.
Types of Mandibular major connector:
1- Lingual bar.
2- Sublingual bar.
3- Double lingual bar.
4- Lingual plate.
5- Labial bar.
Choice of connector type is based upon the requirements of:
Function (eg connection of components, support, retention).
Anatomical constraints.
Hygiene.
Rigidity.
Patient acceptability.
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VII-Minor connectors:
Design considerations:
-it should be ensuring that there is 5 mm of space between adjacent vertical minor
connectors to prevent food impaction.
- must contact the guiding plane surfaces of the teeth to facilitate path of insertion and
provide bracing.
-should cross the gingival tissue abruptly and join the major connector at rounded right
angles. These allow them to cover as little as possible of the gingival tissues.
VIII- Esthetic:
The function and esthetics of removable partial denture are dependent on the
correct orientation of the occlusal plane. The main esthetic problem is the presence of
visible retainers in the buccal vestibule. Rotational path partial denture may be used to
improve esthetic
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ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS INFLUENCING DESIGN
Use of a Splint Bar for Denture Support
A removable partial denture should replace only the missing posterior teeth after the
remainder of the arch has been made intact by fixed restorations.
Occasionally, it is necessary that several missing anterior teeth be replaced with the
RPD rather than by fixed restorations. This may be because of
The length of the edentulous span,
The loss of a large amount of the residual ridge by
resorption,
Accident or surgery,
The result of a situation in which too much vertical
space prevents the use of a fixed partial denture or
If esthetic requirements can better be met through using of teeth added to the
denture framework.
With RPD it is necessary to provide the best possible support for the replaced
anterior teeth. Ordinarily, this is done through the placement of occlusal or lingual
rests, or both, on the adjacent natural teeth, but when the edentulous span is too
large to ensure adequate support from the adjacent teeth, other methods must be used.
An anterior splint bar may be attached to the adjacent
abutment teeth in such a manner that fixed splinting of the
abutment teeth results, with a smooth, contoured bar resting
lightly on the gingival tissue to support the RPD. the
connecting bar may be cast of a rigid alloy, or a commercially
available bar may be used and cast to the abutments or attached to the abutments by
soldering. The length of the span influences the size of a splint bar. Long spans require
more rigid bars (10 gauge) than short spans (13 gauge).
The proximal contours of abutments adjacent to splint bars should be parallel to the
path of placement. The splint bar must be positioned antero posteriorly just lingual to
the residual ridge to allow an esthetic arrangement of artificial teeth.
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Internal Clip Attachment
The internal clip attachment differs from the splint bar in that the internal clip
attachment provides both support and retention from the connecting bar.
Several preformed connecting bars are commercially available in plastic patterns.
These can be customized for length and cast in the metal alloy of choice. Internal clip
attachments are also commercially available in various metal alloys and durable nylon.
The cast bar should rest lightly or be located slightly above the tissue. Retention is
provided by one of the commercial preformed metal or nylon clips, which is contoured
to fit the bar and is retained in a preformed metal housing or partially embedded by
means of retention spurs or loops into the overlying resin denture base.
The internal clip attachment thus provides support, stability, and retention for the
anterior modification area and may serve to eliminate both occlusal rests and retentive
clasps on the adjacent abutment teeth.
Overlay Abutment (Overdenture abutments and overlay-type prostheses)
In these cases, teeth should be considered for possible support. Endodontic treatment
and preparation of the coronal portion of the tooth as a slightly elevated dome-shaped
abutment should be done.
Indications:
1- When salvage the roots and a portion of the crown of a badly broken-down
molar through endodontic treatment.
2- A periodontally involved molar, indicated for extraction, may sometimes be
salvaged by periodontal and endodontic treatment accompanied by reduction of
the clinical crown almost level with the gingival tissue.
3- An unopposed molar may have extruded to such an extent that restoring the
tooth with a crown is inadequate to develop a harmonious occlusion.
4- A molar that is so grossly tipped anteriorly that it cannot serve as an abutment
unless the clinical crown is reduced drastically.
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Use of a Component Partial to Gain Support
A component partial is a removable partial denture in which the framework is
designed and fabricated in separate parts. The tooth support and tissue-supported
components are individually fabricated, and the two are joined with a high-impact acrylic
resin to become a single, rigid functioning unit.
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Considerations in RPD design
Important points to remember for all designs:
Existing denture.
Tissue preservation.
Occlusal integrity.
Oral hygiene and maintenance.
Resistance to various forces.
Existing denture:
Note the details of any RPD the patient is already wearing , It will tell you what the
patient has or has not been able to cope with in the past and what response this
patient's tissues have had to various denture components. Your design could well copy
nontraumatic elements of the existing design.
Tissue preservation
In '1952 De Van wrote: Our objective should be the preservation of what remains rather than
the meticulous restoration of what is missing. Make sure that your partial denture causes as
little damage as possible:
Place it in the healthy mouth of a patient who will maintain good oral hygiene.
Cover as little tooth and mucosa as is consistent with adequate load distribution and
other mechanical factors. If possible leave gingival margins uncovered, but do not get
caught in a 'small window' situation as the 'window acts as a food and plaque trap and
cause more damage than covering the gingival margin.
To keep the gingival margin truly unaffected by the denture means
a clearance of at least:
10 5 mm on the palatal mucosa in the maxillary arch
10 x 3 mm on the lingual mucosa of the mandibular arch.
If you do need to cover the gingival margin, finish the denture on the tooth structure
on or above the survey line and at least 2 mm above the gingival margin.
Keep clasps on the enamel and at least 1 mm clear of the mucosa and/or the cemento-
enamel junction.
Never finish any part of the denture on the gingival margin.
Keep denture components, for example direct retainers, to a minimum. Use indirect
retention and guiding surfaces to make retentive units more efficient.
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Occlusal integrity
If you intend to use the denture to change the patient's occlusal scheme:
Any tooth modification must leave the occlusion at least as stable as it was before
treatment began, while the patient is not wearing the denture.
When wearing either the upper or the lower denture, the patient must be provided
with a stable occlusion with maximum possible natural tooth contacts in the
intercuspal position.
When wearing both dentures, the patient must have a stable occlusion with maximum
natural tooth contacts.
This also applies to changes in vertical dimension.
If you want to restore an over closed vertical dimension you must do it so that the
patient has stable occlusion without dentures or with one or both dentures in the
mouth.
If the vertical dimension is not over closed, but you plan to open the vertical
dimension because of over eruption of unopposed teeth and lack of space, then:
o Use the minimum amount of space consistent with adequate strength of the
materials involved.
o Do not encroach on the speaking space;
o Keep within the limits of the free way space;
o Make sure that all the opposing teeth which have a natural occlusal stop are
in contact with the denture at the new vertical dimension
Oral hygiene and maintenance
Improvement and maintenance of oral hygiene is fundamental in all dental treatment.
Poor oral hygiene is exacerbated by any prosthesis in the mouth. Teach your patient
how to look after his/her teeth and how to maintain gingival health.
In later stages, recall and maintenance are essential requirements for RPD success.
Many RPDs fail because of lack of patient Care and regular supervision by the dentist.
An RPD which no longer fits will increase the torque on the abutment teeth as the
dentures move in all directions on the tissues, Dentures with DEBs which no longer fit
as the ridge resorbs are also prone to become sore at their distal extremity. Relining
ill-fitting DEBs will lessen the traumatic torquing forces on abutment teeth.
Resistance to various forces
The mechanics of denture d sign relate to providing resistance to the various forces
that can be expected to act on it, and these are outlined in biomechancs.
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Designing Removable Partial Dentures
Problems and General Principles
1- Kennedy Class I Partial Dentures
It is More frequent in lower than upper jaw
Problems associated with bilateral free-end saddles :
1- Support : Support is derived from both the residual ridge and abutment teeth. Factors
influencing the support: see
a) Lack of posterior abutment:
It is usually associated with lack of adequate posterior support and retention.
b) Visco-elastic behavior of the mucosa and periodontal ligament:
The behavior of gingival mucosa is visco-elastic in nature, so under occlusal
load, the mucosa is displaced. When the loading stops, the mucosa returns to
its resting shape leading to upward movement of the denture base.
Several studies were done to estimate the difference in displacebility of the
periodontal ligament and the mucosa covering the residual ridge. Such
difference was estimated to be four, ten, twenty or even twenty five times. This
difference is coupled by the slower rate of recovery of the mucosa which may
extend over several hours.
The variation in displaceability providing this support allows some rotational
movements of the free-end base towards the soft tissues. These harmful
movements are transmitted to abutment teeth resulting in loosening of these
teeth.
2- Residual ridge resorption:
Major support is obtained from the residual ridge especially at the distal part. This
causes frequent residual ridge resorption.
Stereophotogrammetry were used to study alveolar ridge changes with distal
extension partial dentures resulting in a 10% loss of volume after 12 months of
denture insertion.
3- Torque to the abutment teeth:
The magnitude and direction of force transmitted to the abutment teeth of extension
base removable partial denture were measured by using strain gauge and resulting in,
the transmitted force varied when different removable partial denture designs were
used, and that, extension base dentures applied mesially directed force to abutment
teeth during mastication.
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4- The need for indirect retainers:
Denture extension bases direct retention is limited and indirect retention is often
difficult so that the denture tends to feel loose, especially that the movement of distal
extension bases is not restricted to vertical direction.
Equally important are sideway (buccolingual) and backwards (distal or
anteroposterior) movement. This distal movement is a problem connected with the
absence of a distal abutment tooth.
Retention of partial denture can be achieved by:
a- Mechanical means by placing retaining elements of abutment teeth.
b- By the collective action of cohesion, adhesion, interfacial surface tension, atmospheric
pressure, gravity which arises from coverage of the mucosa by the denture and
accurately fitting denture bases.
c- By harnessing the patient's muscular control acting upon the polished surface.
The retainers loose their efficiency by time and thus the long-term successful retention
will depend mainly on physical forces and muscular control. But still retainers ensure
effective mechanical retention especially in the early periods, while the patient learns the
appropriate muscular skills.
5- Stability
There are several factors that affect the denture stability; position of artificial teeth,
shape of polished surfaces, ridge form, site and position of the tongue, orientation of
the occlusal plane, indirect retention, bracing and reciprocation.
5- The need for relining
If resorption occurs and relining of the denture is neglected further bone
resorption occurs with subsequent torque acting on the abutments.
7- Esthetic.
When someone speaking, laughing anterior teeth are seen. In this situation metal
retainer that resides in this part is seen and will bother esthetics.
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Possible rotational movements of distal extension bases:
Rotational about the fulcrum axis formed by the two principle occlusal rests.
Rotational movement along the longitudinal axis of the residual ridge.
Rotational movement along perpendicular axis passing through the centre of the
arch.
MOVEMENTS OF A DISTAL EXTENSION BASE IN RESPONSE TO FORCES
{see biomechanics}
Factors influencing the support of a distal extension base:
Support of a distal extension partial denture depend on :
1-Total occlusal load applied
The more the load applied the higher the degree of tissue displacement.
The reduction of the size of the occlusal table reduces the vertical and the
horizontal force.
Increase the efficiency of the occlusal surface of the artificial teeth by addition
of supplementary groves & sluice ways increase in cutting action & improve the
masticatory performance of the teeth. This leads to less force required in
chewing and less force will then be transmitted to the residual ridge. All these
actions help improved the support for the denture base.
2- Contour and quality of the residual ridge.
oQuality of soft tissues covering the edentulous ridge.
oContour and quality of the residual ridge
oDenture bearing area.
Easily displaceable tissue will not adequately support a denture base. The
thicker the mucoperiosteum the more it is liable to be displaced. A firm, tightly
attached mucosa, several mm thick, will give greatest support.
3-Extent of residual ridge coverage by the denture base
The broad the coverage, the greater is distribution of the load, thereby resulting in
fewer loads per unit area.
4-Accuracy of the fit of the denture base
The better the base fits the denture foundation the less the degree of displacement.
Metal bases have better fit than acrylic resin bases.
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5-Type (anatomical or functional) and accuracy of impression registration against which
the denture bases are fabricated
When an appliance is entirely tissue supported mucosa, tissue-ward movement of
the appliance will take place, to the degree that the tissue will be displaced by
pressure (tissue rebound).
Minimization of tissue ward movement of PD can be done by wide coverage.
6- Design of the partial denture Framework
The rotation forces take place around the fulcrum line can be controlled by using
of indirect retainers anterior to the fulcrum line. If the distal extension denture is
bilateral two indirect retainers are needed one on each side of the arch.
If the edentulous space is unilateral only one indirect retainer is needed anterior to
the fulcrum line on the opposing side of the arch from the distal extension ridge.
7- Denture- bearing area:
In the maxillary arch: - The buccal slopes of ridge, normally covered by a layer of
cortical bone can withstand stress. But the buccal slope is rarely perpendicular to
the vertical force occurring against it, so it gives little resistance to them. However
the buccal slope will resist the lateral forces, reducing the total force.
In the mandibular arch:- the crest of the ridge can't be used as a primary stress
bearing area, because it's composed of cancelous bone, covered by thin & less firm
mucosa. The buccal shelf area is excellent primary stress bearing area in the
mandible, because it is very dense cortical bone covered by firm & dense mucosa.
The buccal shelf area is normally perpendicular or nearly so, to the vertical force
would be occurring against it. The buccal & lingual slopes of the residual ridge
have cortical bone and can contribute to resisting horizontal forces.
DIAGNOSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
A. Evaluate dento-alveolar support potential.
1. Teeth. 2- Periodontium.
3-Alveolar bone.
B.Evaluate muco-osseous support potential.
1.Mucosa.
2.Submucosa.
3.Basal bone.
C.Evaluate potential of applied forces.
1.Opposing occlusion.
2.Muscular force potential
3.Parafunctional habits.
4.Length of edentulous span.
5.History of prosthesis failure.
6.History of poor tissue tolerance.
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Problems of distal extension bases can be reduced by :
I. Controlling the load applied on abutment and residual:
I- Reduction of the load.
II- Distribution of load can be achieved by:
1- Varying the connection between the clasps and saddles:
A-Applying the stress-breaking principle
b- Combining rigid connection and flexible clasps
c. Combining rigid connection and rigid clasps. (load on the tooth)
2- Anterior placement of occlusal rests
3- Improving the supporting quality of edentulous ridges:
- Improving the condition of the residual ridge
- By muco-compression impression techniques
III- Wide distribution of the load.
IV- Providing posterior abutments.
1- Using an implant at the distal part of the ridge.
2- Salvaging a hopeless posterior tooth.
II. Enhancing support by
1- Converting the case to:
A. Removal partial overdenture using endosseous implant in each side.
B. Fixed bridge connecting endosseous implant to the posterior tooth.
C. Fixed bridge connecting two endosseous implants in each side.
2- Ridge augmentation
3- Splinting of abutment
4- Improving the supporting quality of edentulous ridges:
- Improving the condition of the residual ridge
- By muco-compression impression techniques
III. Achieving good stability: Using Rigid Major & Minor Connectors
IV. Using Indirect retainers
V. Using esthetic retainers
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I- Reduction of the load
The vertical load applied on the saddle during mastication should be reduced in order
to minimize vertical displacement of the denture base.
The vertical load may be reduced by
Decreasing the size of the occlusal table
This can be achieved by:
1- Using canines and premolars instead of premolars and molars.
2- Using narrow teeth (bucco-lingually) or reduction of the width of the selected
teeth by removing the lingual cusps.
3- Leaving a tooth off the saddle.
Maximum extension of the denture base within the functional limits of muscular
movements.
Increase the sharpness of the cusps. Cuspless teeth will generate more loads on the
denture base than sharp cusped ones because of the increased power needed to force
them through the bolus.
Increasing efficiency of the occlusal surface of the artificial teeth by addition of
supplemental grooves aids the cutting action and improve masticatory performance of
the teeth.
Resilient layer removable partial denture: Incorporation of a resilient layer into the
partial denture acts as a shock absorber or stress regulator, and reduces forces
transmitted to the alveolar ridge. It also decreases the abutment tooth movement and
reduces the stresses delivered to the supporting alveolar structures surrounding the
abutment teeth.
The lateral forces may be reduced by
The cusp height must be reduced to avoid occlusal interferences and minimize
lateral stresses.
Shape of the denture base: The lateral forces acting on the denture base can be
minimized by suitably shaping the polished surface of the base.
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II- Distribution of the load between abutment teeth and ridge
Distribution of load can be achieved by:
1) Varying the connection between the clasps and saddles:
a- Applying the stress-breaking principle
Movement of the denture base over displaceable mucosa will be transmitted to the
abutment tooth if the tooth is connected to the denture base by a rigid connector. These
stresses will induce torque on the abutment. However, these stresses will be dissipated if
some flexibility is allowed. The stress breaking principle will thus apply less stresses and
less torque on abutments.
Stress breakers:
o A stress breaker or stress equalizer is a device which allows movement
between the saddle unit and the retaining unit.
o Thus, when a vertical load is applied, the stress breaker will allow movement
of the saddle towards the ridge to a greater extent than if the retainer unit is
directly connected to the saddle, although the ridge bone will be subjected to
an increased load. However, this load is widely distributed antero-posteriorly
over the ridge and not on the distal part only. Also flexibility of the stress
breaker can be changed to govern the distribution of load between the ridge
and abutments.
Stress breakers may be in the form of:
Movable joints as hinges between the saddle unit and the retaining unit. e.g.
attachments like Dalbo or Crisimany attachments,
Designs applying the stress breaking principle used in combination with the
main rigid connector (using flexible connection between the direct retainer
and the denture base ).{for detail see stress breaker}
1. Split major connector ( Split casting modifying the lingual plate)
2. Wrought wire connector soldered to lingual bare.
3. Lingual bar connector with flexible distal extension (having thinner section than
lingual bar (use of semi-flexible bar).
4. Disjunct RPD.
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b- Combining rigid connection and flexible clasps (stress releasing clasps)
Flexible gingivally approaching clasps (bar clasps)
The retentive tip of gingivally approaching clasps contacting the abutment tooth'
originates from the saddle in the form of a bar. The degree of flexibility of the
bar can be varied depending on its length, diameter, cross section and die alloy
used. Thus a flexible bar may move gingivally into the undercut which in turn
dissipates some of the stresses falling on the abutment tooth.
Thus, bar clasps apply the stress-breaking principle. I-bar, RPI clasps are
examples of gingivally approaching clasps that provide a stress breaking effect
when a rigid connector is used in distal extension bases.
Flexible occlusally approaching clasps
Occlusally approaching clasps can be used in distal extension bases when a
wrought wire retentive arm is used instead of a cast clasp arm.
The resilient wrought wire arm allows some movement of the clasp over the
tooth, thus following the stress breaking principle. Back-action clasps are also
used in distal extension bases due to their stress breaking effect. It should be
noted that excessive resiliency is not favorable because it results in an unretained
denture.
Flexible combination clasps
c. Combining rigid connection and rigid clasps.
It can be rarely used in young age, will developed ridge, and very short saddle.
Clasps with Stress breaker action as:
1. Gingivally approaching resilient I-bar clasp.
2. Occlusally approaching clasp having resilient retentive wrought gold wire arm
(Combination clasp).
3. Back-action clasp.
4. Reverse back-action clasp.
5. Extended-arm clasp.
6. Ring clasp. 7. Wrought wire clasp.
8. RPI clasp. 9. RPA clasp.
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2) Anterior placement of occlusal rests:
When occlusal rest is placed in distal fossa it result in a great streses on abutment
tooth. The cause of the problem is the "crowbar" stress that many clasp designs place
on abutment teeth. Dr. Krol refers to this as the "pump-handle" effect. And Dr.
Goodman calls it the "class I lever" effect.
By any name it can result in tooth extraction. In a class I lever or a crowbar, the force
(occlusal load) is one side of the fulcrum (rest) and the resistance (the clasp on the
abutment tooth) is on the other. The strength of the force is greatly magnified by the
length of the lever arm (increased distance from the fulcrum) and the closeness of the
resistance to the fulcrum.
An easy step to reduce abutment stress in a free end saddle is to move the rest from the
distal fossa to the mesial fossa. This creates a class II lever' (resistance and force on
the same side as the fulcrum) and greatly reduces the stress on the abutment.
Placement of the occlusal rest in a more anterior position helps in favorable distribution of
occlusal load between the abutment tooth and the residual ridge.
The farther the anterior placement of the rest, the more vertical will be the forces, the
less is the horizontal component of force falling on the ridge,
The rest proximal plate, I bar clasp (RPI) and the reverse circlet clasps have mesially
located rests which can fulfill this requirement,
Advantages:
Achieving a mechanical advantage by changing the stresses acting on the saddle from
a .class I lever to a more favorable class II lever
Greater part of the occlusal load will be borne by the ridge and hence less stresses and
less torque on the abutment.
Even distribution of the load 'in an antero-posterior direction. The bone near the
abutment will thus share the distal part of the ridge in bearing the occlusal load,
Changing the direction of torque on the abutment from the distal to the mesial side of
the tooth where resistance to torque action will be supplied from the neighbouring
teeth.
Disadvantages:
Wedging effect
Food impaction between distal surface of abutment and RPD.
- the RPI System.
- The Equipoise balance of force system. See direct retainer
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3) Improving the supporting quality of edentulous ridges:
5. Improving the condition of the residual ridge
6. By Functional impression techniques
7. Functional impression techniques:
McLeans physiologic impression (done at the master impression stage)
Hindels' physiologic impression (done at the master impression stage)
Functional denture base: Functional relining and fluid wax impression techniques.
Selective pressure impression technique.
4) Functional impression techniques
5) Use of attachments:
Using attachment retainers in extension base removable prosthesis was found to
improve the longevity and prognosis of the abutment teeth. This is due to the action of
low central loading at the base of the attachment as it places their support closer to the
bony support of the abutments, thus reducing the lever arm in relation to the tooth
length.
6) Fixed partial denture (cantilevered pontic):
It is defined as a fixed partial denture in which the pontic is cantilevered, i.e. is
retained and supported only on one end by one or more abutments.
Cantilevered pontics were used successfully in the treatment of distal extension cases.
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III- Wide Distribution of the Load
Distribution of the occlusal load widely is effective in reducing the force per unit area
on the residual ridge.
1- Wide distribution of the load over the ridge.
The denture base should cover the largest possible area and should be adequately
extended to the functional limit of the surrounding musculature. The broader the
coverage, the greater the distribution of load, the more the ability of the denture to
withstand vertical and horizontal stresses.
On lower free end R.P.D.'s, covering the anterior half of the retromolar pad provides
distal support for the appliance and greatly reduces the stress on the abutment teeth. The
mesial half of the pad is stable and does not resorb, as does the alveolar bone. Coverage is
best done by using a cast, "golf cap" extension from the mesh retention areas. The term "golf
cap" means a small cast extension covering only the pad's mesial half and does not overlap
the tissue lateral to it.
2- Wide distribution of load over the teeth:
Distribution of the vertical load on teeth can be achieved by placing an additional rest
on the tooth adjacent to the abutment, by an embrassure clasp, embrasure hooks or by
splinting. Using a Kennedy bar to distribute the lateral load on multiple teeth.
IV- Providing Posterior Abutments
The problem of distal extension bases can be solved by provision of
posterior5ahujtrnents and construction of a partial oeverdenture. This can be achieved
by:
1- Using an implant at the distal part of the ridge.
2- Salvaging a hopeless posterior tooth.
A hopeless badly decayed tooth, a periodontally affected tooth or a tooth with
furcation involvement can be reduced in both contour and height to be used as a partial
overdenture abutment.
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V- Functional impression
The normal mucosa covering the ridge can be recorded in its displaced functional form
rather than the anatomic form. This reduces movement of the denture base towards the
tissues during function, which in turn helps in reducing leverage and torque on the
abutment teeth.
However, maximum displacement of the mucosa should be avoided. This is because
when the mucosa is subjected to heavy continuous pressure, a decrease in the blood
supply and drainage from soft tissues occur, resulting in pain under the denture,
atrophic changes and future bone resorption.
VI-Improving the supporting quality of edentulous ridges
- Improving the condition of the residual ridge : The presence of a well formed residual
ridge covered by healthy firm mucosa, provides favorable partial denture support. However,
the presence of tori or hyperplasic tissues necessitates correction to improve the supportive
ability of the ridge.
A. OPTIMUM MUCO-OSSEO S SUPPORT.
Reduce ,potential for tissue ward movement of the denture base.
1.Preprosthetic surgery.
a. Removal of displaceable hyperplastic tissue to improve support.
b.Removal of bony exostoses or tori to permit optimal extension of denture base.
2.Maximum denture base coverage.
a.Coverage of primary force bearing areas.
b.Maximum extensions, as limited by movable soft tissues.
3.Maxillary major connector coverage of horizontal hard palate.
4.Impression procedures.
a.Altered cast impression.
b.Relining of extension base at delivery.
B. OPTIMUM DENTO-ALVEOLAR SUPPORT.
1.Periodontal therapy.
a.Professional maintenance and home care oral hygiene program instituted.
b.Definitive treatment of existing periodontal disease.
c.Reduction of excessive abutment tooth mobility.
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d.Develop an adequate zone of attached gingiva around abutment teeth.
2.Restorative treatment. Establish structurally sound abutment teeth.
a.Restore structurally compromised teeth.
b.Splinting of abutment teeth to reduce hypermobility or to control abnormal forces.
3.Modifications of abutment tooth contour.
a.Guiding planes.
b.Height of contour (survey line).
c.Retentive grooves.
d.Rest seats.
VII -SPLINTING OF ABUTMENT
If anterior teeth are weakened, strengthen these teeth by splinting may required.
Splinting of the abutment teeth of removable partial prostheses is advocated especially
those adjacent to bilateral distally extended ridges, when there was weakness or
evidence of bone loss related to the anterior abutment.
The use of clasps with splinting action:
Many clasp designs provide splinting action, these designs include; continuous
clasp, multiple circumferential "circlet" clasp , swing lock clasping design and
embrassure clasp "double Aker clasp.
Splinting can be conducted with orthodontic wire, or with composite in inter
proximal area. Splinting wire should place as low as possible in order to more
aesthetic appearance. see periodontal considerations
VIII- ESTHETIC CORRECTION
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1. Gingival Aproaching Retainer
Occlusal aproaching retainer will very bother esthetics. Esthetics of gingival aproaching
retainer will be better because the metal is more hided.
2. Wrought Wire
Wrought wire is more flexible compared to casting retainer. Because of this
characteristic the tip of retentive arm can be placed more cervicaly to be more
esthetic. Combination cast and wrought wire Meacock and Rush Angker
wrought wire retainer may be used in free end saddle cases.
A. Meacock B. Rush Angker
3. Special Design Labial Bow for Retainer
This retainer look like labial bow in orthodontic treatment, but there some differences that is
Loop part is smaller
Wire that patch at anterior teeth should place as
low as possible near ginggival margin, and for
better esthetic the wire close over by red acrylic
base. It is act as splint for anterior teeth.
4- Over Denture :
5- Using esthetic retainers
Esthetic clasp systems are available for distal extension RPD. These clasps can either
utilize the proximal, lingual, labial or buccal retentive undercut.
Examples: Mesiodistal clasp, the De-Van clasp, the Equipoise clasp and twin Flex
clasp
Class I partially edentulous cases when the remaining teeth are weak, periodontally
affected, and require splinting and stabilization are sometimes treated using swing-
lock partial dentures.
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Anterior modification spaces of class I cases, are preferably restored separately with
a fixed bridge. This helps in simplifying the partial denture design and also helps in
saving the anterior ridge from resorption and the anterior abutments from torque.
Possible solutions 1.Extraction of weak abutment. 2. Removable partial
overdenture.3. Splinting by fixed bridge and conventional RPD. 4. Addititional saddle
to the lingual bar with using wrought wire clasp and no occlusal rest on the single
standing tooth.
MAXILLARY BILATERAL FREE END SADDLES
1) Under vertical load the posterior sink of the saddle is less marked due to:
- The submucosa covering the tuberosity has dense fibres than retromolar area.
- Extra palatal coverage >>>> reduce displacement under load
2) Lateral load is shared over a great area of bone (palate) and hence the lateral load falling on
the abutments is less than lower
3) Anteroposterior movement is prevented by: Standing teeth Anterior slope of palate
Tuberosity
In tooth mucosa born PD
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF MAJOR CONNECTORS
See Major connector
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF DENTURE BASES
See Denture bases
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF CLASP ASSEMBLIES
See Retainer
Kennedy Class II Partial Dentures
Problems associated with a unilateral free-end saddle:
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1- Class II partial dentures have problems resulting from the absence of a posterior abutment
which causes lack of proper posterior support and retention.
Being tooth-tissue borne, the difference of displaceability of the supporting tissues
results in tissue ward movement of the denture base with subsequent torque on the
abutment tooth.
Lack of adequate posterior retention causes displacement of the denture away from the
tissues with subsequent torque on the' abutment.
2- The absence of a saddle on the other side of a class II partial denture complicates the
retention of the appliance. This is due to decrease in the physical means of retention and
due to the lack of the retentive effect of the tongue and cheek muscles that would rather act
in the presence of a modification area on the other side.
The main problem: is the same as with the bilateral free-end saddle denture including:
a) Torque of abutment.
b) Ridge resorption.
Management: as Class I-Kennedy RPD.
c) The problem of retention (similar saddle is not present on the other side)
Management: Additional retention must be provided on the intact side by:
- Clasping more than one tooth on this side
- More rigid types of clasp.
b) The problem of bracing (due to absence of rigid major connector)
Management:
- Cross-arch bracing (Through a rigid major connector).
- Bracing components.
Problems of unilateral distal-extension bases can be reduced by:
Load reduction and distribution.
Provision of adequate posterior support.
Using an indirect retainer to counteract rotation of the denture in an occlusal direction.
Providing adequate retention on the dentulous side by using rigid clasping or multiple
clasping on the intact side.
Providing posterior abutment using an implant at the posterior part of the ridge and the
construction of an implant supported partial overdenture.
Designing class II partial dentures:
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Designing class II partial dentures usually follow the same basic principles. However,
some modifications of the design are required depending on the length of the saddle and the
presence of modification areas.
I- Designing class II partial dentures with no modifications: Divided into two groups
depending on:
The nature of the edentulous ridge,
The length of the edentulous ridge and
The condition of the abutment.
Two basic designs can be followed in unmodified class II partial dentures
A- Designs using rigid clasping and rigid connection between the saddle and the
retainer. (Rigid design)
This design is indicated in:
a- Short edentulous span bounded ,
b- Cases having well formed edentulous residual ridge covered with firm mucosa of
normal thickness.
c- strong abutment with healthy periodontium.
B- Designs applying the stress breaking principle. (flexible design)
A class II partial denture design may require a stress breaking effect when the condition
of the abutment, the length of the saddle and the compressibility of the mucosa contra-
indicate the use of rigid clasping and rigid connection.
An embrasure clasp is usually used on the dentulous side.
An indirect retainer should be provided to counteract rotation of the denture away from the
tissues.
- Designs applying the stress breaking principle:
1. The use of semi-flexible bar: This is more applicable with shot saddles, it involves
anterior placement of an occlusal rest.
The occlusal rest is placed on the far zone of the abutment tooth.
The abutment is rigidly clasped, and joined to the clasp onto the
opposite dentulous side by a rigid connector (lingual bar).
The saddle is joined to the retainer unite by a semi-flexible bar that
allows some movement and provides stress breaking action.
An embrasure clasp is usually used on the dentulous side. (used with
short saddle)
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2. Split casting modifying the lingual plate: a split of appropriate length is made at the
inferior border of the plate.
i. The saddle is joined to the more flexible part of the plate. The lower
part must be flexible in the vertical direction, than horizontal direction,
so that the appliance will have lateral rigidity to distribute horizontal
force widely.
ii. This design applied in long class II cases. (used with long saddle)
iii. Disadvantages : The slit opens slightly in function and theoretically is
liable to trap either the tongue or food particles. With a long saddle,
however, the slit is anteriorly placed and in this position may be
intolerable to some patients. The patient using dental floss can clean the
slit easily.
II- Class II with modification spaces:
- The presence of modification spaces on the opposite side of a Kennedy class II
simplifies the partial denture design. The problem of retention is solved by the
presence of saddles on the modification areas. The clasps on abutments bounding
the modification area provides retention, bracing and reciprocation together with
indirect retention,
- Retention on the side of the bounded saddle is dependent upon the ability of the single
molar tooth to withstand the loads applied; therefore:
If the periodontal condition of such a single standing tooth is good, rigid
construction is employed and frequent inspection of the appliance is essential
so that rebasing may compensate resorption under the free-end saddle. If this is
not done, a damaging torque will be applied to the single standing molar
leading at least to increased tilting and at worst to loosening and eventual loss.
If the periodontal condition of such a single standing tooth is doubtful, it may
be possible to design the denture incorporating a flexible connector to the
distal extension saddle as already described. In addition less stress will be
applied to the tooth if wrought wire instead of cast metal is used for clasp
construction.
THE MAXILLARY UNILATERAL FREE-END SADDLE DENTURE
Unmodified maxillary unilateral free-end saddle dentures are not common.
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Those with modifications are encountered frequently due to the loss of teeth
due to caries, and hence a well-formed ridge is present.
Rigid constructions are almost always.
Clasping of the abutment tooth (Flexible clasping) and suitable teeth
on the opposite side.
If for any reason complete palatal coverage with a plate is used,
clasping may be unnecessary
As with bilateral free-end saddles the single standing premolar may be a
complication.
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A ] Essentials of Design for Classes I and II
1- Direct retention
Retention should not be considered the prime objective of design. The main objectives
should be the restoration of function and appearance and the maintenance of comfort,
with great emphasis on preservation of the health and integrity of all the oral structures.
Close adaptation and proper contour of an adequately extended denture base and
accurate fit of the framework aga- inst multiple, properly prepared gulde planes should be
used to help the retentive clasp arms retain the pros- thesis.
2- Clasps
a- The simplest type of clasp that will accomplish the design objectives should be employed.
b- The clasp should have good stabilizing qualities, remain passive until activated by
functional stress, and accommodate a minor amount of movement of the base without
transmitting a torque to the abutment tooth.
c- Usually stress releasing designs are preferred.
Stress director attachments.
Wrought wire clasps. RPI, I-bar, combination clasps, back action, reverse back action
or reverse circlet clasps can be used.
Remote rest and other conventional clasps.
Split major connectors - permit more rigid clasp designs.
d- Clasps should be strategically positionedin arch to achieve greatest possible control of stress.
Class I prosthesisusually requires only tworetentive clasp arms: one on each terminal tooth.
If a disto-buccal undercut is present, the vertical projection retentive clasp is preferred.
If a mesio-buccal undercut is present, a wrought wire clasp is indicated.
The reciprocal or bracing arm must be rigid. This component of the clasp system can be
replaced by lingual plating.
Class II prosthesisshould usually have three retentive clasp arms.
distal extension side should be designed with same considerations as for a class I prosthesis.
The tooth supported, or modification, side should usually have two retentive clasp arms : one
as far posterior and one as far anterior as tooth contours and esthetics permit. If a
modification space is present, it is usually most convenient to clasp a tooth anterior and a
tooth posterior to the edentulous space.
- The type of clasp and position of the retentive undercut can be selected for convenience.
- Rigidity is required for all bracing arms. Lingual plating may be substituted.
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Stress releasing clasps
a- Clasps with mesial rest
- RPI - RPA
- Combination clasps
b- Clasps with distal rest
- Wrought wire clasps. - I-bar
- Back action - Reverse back action
- Reverse circlet clasps - c-clasp
3- Rests
Rest seats should be preparedso that stress will be directed along the long axis of the teeth.
Although adjacent (proximate) rests may provide efficient force transmission to abutment
teeth, remote rest clasp designs are often more desirable since they may decrease
unfavourable torquing forces on abutment teeth from clasps.
Rest seats should be carefully located and preparedto avoid torque and allow transmission of
stresses along the long axes of abutment teeth.
The floorof the rest seat should inclined apically as it approaches the center of the tooth. The
angle between the minor connector and the rest should be less than 90 to prevent slippage
of the prosthesis creating an orthodontic like force and to direct the forces along the long axis
of the tooth.
Mesially placed rests are preferablyused on abutment teeth. However, absence of a rest
adjacent to the edentulous area may permit packing of food. This could be avoided by using .
Saucer-shaped restseats are preferred over box shaped seats to avoid locking of the rest and
transmission of torque on abutments.
The occlusal rest must fit the tooth to minimize the food collection beneath it and preserve
their location in relation to the tooth.
It must be strongenough to withstand the loads without deformation.
It must not raisethe vertical dimension of occlusion.
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4- Indirect Retention
1. Indirect retention should be employed to neutralize unseating forces.
The indirect retainer should be located as far anterior to the fulcrum line as possible.
Two indirect retainers should generally be used in a class I design, whereas one placed on the side
opposite the distal extension base may be adequate in a class II-design.
The indirect retainers should be positioned in teeth prepared with positive rest seats that will
direct forces along the long axis of the tooth.
2. Lingual plating can be used to extend the effectiveness of indirect retention to several teeth. It
must always be supported by positive rest seats.
5- Major connector
a- The simplest connector that will accomplish the objective should be selected.
1- The major connector must be rigid.
2- Promotes cross-arch force transmission (contributes to cross arch stability and support)
3- It must not impinge on gingival tissue.
b- Supportfrom the hard palate should be used in the design of the maxillary major connector when
it would be beneficial.
c- Extension of the major connector onto the lingual surfaces of the teeth may be employed to
increase rigidity, distribute or eliminate potential food impaction areas. Lingual plating should
always be supported by adequate rest seats.
d- Antero posterior palatal bars and palatal plates are preferred for maxillaryclass I cases to provide
maximum support, direct and indirect retention.
e- For mandibularclass I cases, lingual bars with terminal rests are preferred due to their simplicity,
limited coverage and patient's tolerance. However, mechanically, lingual plates with terminal
rests are biologically preferred due to their rigidity, distribution of lateral forces and due to
improved indirect retention.
6- Minor connectors
1. Minor connectors must be rigid.
2. Minor connectors should be positioned to enhance comfort, cleanliness, and the placement
of artificial teeth.
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7- Proximal plates (guiding Plates)
-Guiding planes areflat axial parallel surfaces in an occluso-gingival direction on the proximal or
lingual surfaces of teeth. They are 2-4 mm in height, extending from the marginal ridge
to the junction of the middle and gingival third of the abutment tooth. The bucco-lingual
widthof the proximal plate is determined by the proximal contour of the tooth.
-For bounded basea well-engineered guiding planes are contacted by the truss arms of the
framework as the prosthesis is inserted and removed, thus horizontal wedging is virtually
eliminated.
-In distal extension basea pronounced guiding plane is not recommended
-The proximal plate minor connector is placed on a distal guiding plane. It should
contact approximately 1 mm of the gingival portion of the guiding plane in distal
extension cases. The interface between the tooth surface and the clasp should be
such that a slight degree of movement of the base and the clasp is permitted
without transmitting torsional stress to the tooth.
-The proximal plate together with the mesiolingually placed minor connector
provides stabilization and reciprocation of the assembly.
Guiding plane surface should be like area of cylindrical object It should be continuous surface unbounded by
even rounded line angle. B, Minor connector contacting guiding plane surface has same curvature as does
that surface. From occlusal view it tapers buccally from thicker lingual portion, thus permitting closer contact
of abutment tooth and prosthetically supplied tooth. Viewed from buccal aspect, minor connector contacts
enamel of tooth on its proximal surfaces about two-thirds its length.
Diagrammatic illustration showing comparative width of the proximal plates for differently contoured teeth.
(A). Proximal plate (p) relatively wide due to the square contour of the 2nd bicuspid. (B). Proximal palate
(p) relatively narrow due to the tapering contour of the 1st bicuspid. The proximal plate should be designed
as narrow as possible but should prevent lingual migration of the tooth. A narrow proximal plane permits
greater exposure of the gingival tissue (g).
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8- Occlusion
1.Centric occlusionand centric relation should be coincide.
2.A harmonious occlusionshould be established with no interceptive contacts and with all eccentric
movements dictated by, or in harmony with, the remaining natural teeth.
3.Artificial teeth should be selected and positioned to minimize stresses produced by the prosthesis.
Smaller and/or fewer teeth, and teeth that are narrower bucco-linguallymay be selected.
For mechanical advantage teeth should be positioned over thecrestof the ridge when possible.
Teeth should be modified if necessary to produces sharp cutting edgesand ample escape-ways.
9- Denture base
1.The base should be designed with broad coverageso that the occlusal stresses can be distributed
over as wide an area of support as possible. The extension of the borders must not interferewith
functional movements of the surrounding tissues.
2.A selective pressure impression should record the residual ridge in a functional form. Or it may be
constructed in the static form if the stress breaking principle is applied.
3.The polished surfaces should be contoured to enable the patient to exercise maximum
neuromuscular control.
4. A combined metal-acrylic base is used to allow for future relining as bone resorption is usually
anticipated.
Recontouring
The contours of the natural teeth most often require adjustments for the proper placement and
functioning of the RPD.
Recontouring may be required to
1. Improve survey lines (improve clasp location),
2.Improve clasp retention (dimpling)
3.Improve the occlusal plane by grinding of the cusp tips and incisal edges of
anterior teeth.
Excessive tooth contoursare reduced by lowering the height of contour so that;
1. The origin of the circumferential clasp is placed preferably at the junction of the
middle and gingival third of the crown
2. The retentive terminal is placed in the gingival third of the crown for better
esthetics and better mechanical advantage.
3. The reciprocal clasp is placed above the height of contour, but not higher than
the cervical portion of the middle third of the crown.
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Kennedy Class III Partial Dentures
Problems associated with unilateral bounded saddles:
Two opinions exist to restore short edentulous space by removable partial dentures.
1- Restoring a single tooth or a short span unilateral area is not practical especially in cases
having bad oral hygiene and caries susceptibility.
2- Restoration of any missing tooth is necessary in order to: -Restore the integrity of the
dental arch, prevent tilting, drifting, rotation or over eruption of the remaining natural teeth.
- Restore the masticatory mechanism. - Restore aesthetics.
Restoration of the unmodified class III: (Unilateral bounded areas)
I - Implant retained restoration
II - Fixed bridges: the treatment of choice for short span bounded edentulous areas when:
- Implant restoration is contraindicated.
- Abutments are healthy
- Aesthetics is of great concern.
- Minimum bone loss exists.
- The oral hygiene is good.
III - Unilateral partial dentures (side plates or removable bridges):
Unilateral partial denture is constructed to restore one side of the arch and not
extended to the other side. This prosthesis has less retention and stability, permits limited load
distribution and is unsafe to use due to the probability of being inhaled or swallowed.
The following measures are used to avoid instability of unilateral partial dentures:
a- Provision of lingual and buccal cusp contacts on the working side in lateral movement.
b- Maximum extension of the rest seat preparation and the occlusal rest especially to the
buccal side. This keeps the axis of rotation as far buccally as possible and ensures
transmission of vertical component of force lingual to this axis.
c- Providing adequate bracing against lateral movement especially buccal movement. by:-
- Extending the denture base on the vertical slope of the hard palate.
- Bracing arms located on the abutment tooth and the tooth adjacent to it.
- Clasping adjacent teeth to allow wider load distribution laterally.
- Using box shaped rest seat preparation to increase bracing.
d- Providing adequate retention against both vertical and buccal displacement. This can
be achieved by using clasps that provide both buccal and lingual or palatal retention
i.e. a clasp with bilateral bracing and retention.
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Contra indications of unilateral partial dentures:
Unilateral partial dentures are contra indicated in the following cases:
- Patients employing excessive lateral movement during mastication.
- Patients exhibiting bruxism.
- Conical shaped abutment teeth, weak teeth, or teeth having short crowns that cannot
provide adequate retention and bracing.
- In old patients.
IV - Bilateral partial denture:
A partial denture restoring a unilateral bounded edentulous area is extended to the
other side of the intact arch . Bilateral removable partial dentures provide better retention and
stability together with wider load distribution.
Bilateral class III partial denture design:
1-Denture base:
It is designed to fit the static rather than the functional form of the ridge because the
denture base is adequately supported on both sides, i.e. tooth supported.
Metal plates are usually used except in the following cases:
- Long span bounded edentulous areas.
- Weak posterior abutments that may be possibly removed and change the case into a
Kennedy class II
- Anterior edentulous spans requiring aesthetic that is provided by acrylic resin.
- Patients susceptible to bone resorption that may require future relining e.g. diabetic
patient and after recent extractions.
2- Rests:
- Rests are usually placed on the near zone of the abutment teeth to provide adequate
support. Rest seats can be prepared in either a box-shaped or saucer -shaped
configuration depending on the condition of the abutment teeth.
3- Clasps:
- Rigid clasps are usually used on abutments bounding the edentulous area. An
embrasure clasp is used on the intact (dentulous) side.
4- Major connectors:
A lingual bar is used for mandibular denture and a palatal bar or palatal strap is used
for maxillary denture.
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Class III having modification areas:
Modification of class III involving short saddle are common in upper jaw. When the
saddles are short and the abutment teeth are supported with sound healthy bone, a number of
small fixed bridges may be the treatment of choice. Also a removable partial denture can be
constructed.
When a modification space is present, the same principles for designing a bilateral
denture are followed. However, four supporting rests should be used one on each abutment
bounding the edentulous areas.
When Class III having long edentulous spans and modification spaces, they are
usually considered tooth tissue supported dentures. Maximum coverage of the residual ridge
and palatal tissues is required to provide adequate denture support retention of the denture
abutment from physical forces as adhesion in addition to wrought wire clasps.
When the condition of upper teeth is not good, the best result can be obtained by using
Every denture.
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Every denture
Indication of Every denture:
Indicated in class III with many modifications and when the condition of the abutment
is not good.
Principles of Every's partial denture design
1- Point contact between the abutment and artificial teeth:
By making. contact point, not contact area, the lateral forces are distributed
mesiodistally along many teeth in the arch. Porcelain teeth is preferable to reduce wear in this
cases. The lateral forces in Every denture are resisted by the palate, the buccal mucosa and
anterior abutment teeth if present.
2- Wide embrasures between abutment and artificial teeth:
To allow natural stimulation of the gingiva and cleaning of the teeth .
3- Uncovered gingival
To prevent pockets between the denture and the tooth substance and allow natural stimulation
of the gingiva .
4- Contact of the denture with a stabilizer (round Wire) distal surface of the last
standing tooth:
This stabilizer (round Wire) is used to prevent distal drifting of this tooth.
5- Maximum retention following the principles used in complete denture construction:
- Maximum coverage of the palate and full extension of the flanges.
- Peripheral darning antroposterior.
- Proper shaping of the polished surface to allow better muscular control.
- Free sliding occlusion: To reduce denture displacement during lateral movement.
- Free occlusion: Is a type of occlusion which permits the mandible to slide from one position
to another, with the upper and lower teeth in contact and without intercuspation.
N.B. The base material will be acrylic resin with straight round wire used to form the
stabilizer positioned posterior to the last standing tooth on each side of the arch.
Cobalt Chromium base may be used to overcome the disadvantages of acrylic resin
(lack of strength).
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Essentials of Design for Class III
I- Direct retention
1. Retention can be achieved with much less potential harmful effect on the abutment teeth than
with the class I or II arch.
2. The position of the retentive undercut on abutment teeth is not critical.
2- Clasps :
1. The quadrilateral positioning of direct retainers is ideal.
2. The type of clasp selected is not critical.
Tooth and tissue contours and esthetics should be considered, and the simplest clasp possible
selected.
If restorations are required to correct tooth contours, the wax patterns must be shaped with the
surveyor.
Bracing arms must be rigid.
3- Rests
1. Rest seats should be prepared next to the edentulous space when possible.
2. Rests should be used to support the major connector and lingual plating.
4- Indirect retention
1- Indirect retention is usually not required.
2- If one or both of the posterior abutment teeth are used for vertical support alone without retentive clasp
arms, the entire design must follow the requirements of a class I or II design.
5- Major and minor connectors
- They must be rigid and meet the same requirements as for a class ! or II design.
6- Occlusion
- The requirements for occlusion are same as for a class I or II design.
7- Denture base
1. A functional type impression is not required.
2. The extent of coverage of the residual ridge areas should be determined by appearance, comfort, and
the avoidance of food impaction areas.
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Differentiation between two main types of removable partial dentures
Distal extension bases Bounded short saddle
Manner of support derive their primary support from
the tissue underlying the base and
secondary support
from the abutment teeth
derives all of its support from the
abutment teeth
Method of impression registration
Need for indirect retention
Base material Necessitates the use of a base
material that can be relined to
compensate for tissue changes.
Metal bases are more frequently
used
requirements for direct retention - clasp used in conjunction with a
mesial rest, wrought-wire or bar-
type retentive arm, combination
clasp
- must be able to flex sufficiently to
dissipate stresses that otherwise
would be transmitted directly to the
abutment tooth as leverage.
- Cast retentive arms are generally
used
- Only requirement of such clasps is
that they flex sufficiently
during placement and removal of
the denture to pass over the height
of contour of the teeth in
approaching or escaping from an
undercut area.
In tooth born PD
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF MAJOR CONNECTORS
See Major connector
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF DENTURE BASES
See Denture bases
FACTORS DETERMINING THE SELECTION OF CLASP ASSEMBLIES
See Retainer
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Kennedy Class IV
Kennedy class IV partial dentures are constructed to restore anterior edentulous spans
that cross the midline. Long class IV cases are designed following the principles of free end
saddle cases because the edentulous area exhibits abutments that lie posterior to the
edentulous area and lacks anterior abutments.
Problems associated with class IV cases
1-Class IV cases are tooth-tissue supported; they are supported anteriorly by the tissues
and posteriorly by the abutment teeth. Thus they exhibit problems associated with free
end saddles. Lack of adequate support and retention causes rotation of the partial
denture around the abutment resulting in torque effect on abutment teeth. The amount of
torque is affected by:
- The degree of resiliency of the mucosa covering the residual ridge.
- Form of the dental arch; In V-shaped arches the artificial anterior teeth will
be more distant from the fulcrum axis, thus, the magnitude of displacing forces
will be more leading to excessive torque on abutment teeth.
2- Class IV cases occur at any age but are usually predominant in children and adolescents
because anterior teeth especially upper teeth are subjected to trauma.
3- The need for an esthetic restoration is a pre-requisite due to the anterior location of the
edentulous area.
4- Frequent follow-up is usually required to detect the need for relining to compensate for
ridge resorption.
Restoration of class IV cases
Missing anterior teeth are preferably restored with fixed partial dentures, implant
supported removable or fixed partial dentures, or cast metal partial dentures depending on the
condition and length of the edentulous area and the condition of abutment teeth.
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I- Temporary restorations for class IV cases
II- Skeleton designs for class IV cases (metal RPDs)
A- Skeleton design (metal RPDs) for short anterior spans
The first Design uses an anterior clasping system.
The second design uses a posteriorly placed clasping system
B- Skeleton design (metal RPDs) for long anterior spans
I- Temporary restorations for class IV cases
Temporary acrylic partial dentures may sometimes be required as in the following cases;
-In children where:
*Roots of abutment teeth are still incompletely formed.
*Bone growth is not yet completed.
*Space maintainer is required.
*Danger of further trauma is still expected.
-In adults where:
*Extensive mouth preparation is required.
*Bone remodeling is anticipated after recent extraction of teeth.
The most commonly used temporary appliance for restoring anterior teeth is the Spoon
denture. It can be constructed for both children and adults.
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Spoon Dentures
- The spoon denture is a tissue supported denture
- usually constructed in acrylic resin but may sometimes be made in cast metal.
- The spoon denture usually covers a large area of the palate to attain adequate
support and to overcome the problem of retention usually associated with
temporary appliances.
- The lateral borders of the denture are usually placed 3-4mm away from the
gingival margin to avoid caries and gingivitis especially in children where
adequate oral hygiene measures cannot be fulfilled.
- It is usually extended to the junction of hard and soft palate in order to:
-Gain retention through physical means as adhesion, cohesion and
interfacial surface tension.
-Obtain posterior palatal seal required to enhance retention.
Spoon dentures could be modified to enhance retention by:
- Extending the posterior part of the palatal plate laterally above the survey line of the first
permanent molars. The first molar is then clasped by a 7mm stainless steel wire in the
form of an Adam's crib. This design may be used where it is possible to adapte thin
wire between opposing arches without interfering with occlusion.
- Production of a cast cobalt chromium base with clasps engaging the buccal undercuts of
the molar teeth (T-shaped cobalt chromium denture).
- Construction of a combined metal acrylic palatal portion. The anterior part is made in
the form of cast chromium cobalt base joined to an acrylic resin posterior extension
carrying an Adam's clasp on the first molar.
The success of spoon denture depends on:
o The nature of the mucosa: best retention is obtained from firm mucosa of adequate
thickness rather than thin mucosa.
o Form of the hard palate: Large palate having moderate slopes provides better
retention by adhesion and cohesion and good stability. Flat palate provides better
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retention and less stability compared to palates exhibiting steep slopes where better
stability and less retention are anticipated.
o Presence of an anterior labial flange to counteract displacement of the posterior part of
the restoration.
o The degree of overlap of anterior teeth; the presence of deep overlap usually
associated with partial loss of teeth especially in adults induces excessive stresses on
the partial denture.
o The closeness of the occlusion: metal backings may have to be provided as an integral
part of the casting.
o Incising food by the anterior denture teeth should be avoided to prevent displacement
of the denture.
Advantages:
Small technical and chairside time.
Gingivitis and caries are not caused (the gingival margins are left uncovered
and no extensive contact is made with the standing teeth)
Disadvantage:
Poor retention.
Displaced during incision so It is advisable to use radio opaque resin .
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II- Skeleton designs for class IV cases (metal RPDs)
Removable partial dentures are alternatives to fixed bridges in the following cases:
Cases where marked bone resorption necessitates the addition of an anterior
labial flange to restore esthetics and provide lip support.
Cases having long, markedly curved edentulous spans as this may add
excessive stresses to abutments.
Patients who refuse extensive preparations required to prepare abutments for
fixed bridges.
A- Skeleton design (metal RPDs) for short anterior spans
Two skeleton designs are proposed for short span class IV cases:
1-The first Design uses an anterior clasping system.
o Retainers in the form of attachments or bar clasps are placed on the canines or
the first premolars. However, this places excessive stresses on the canines. For
this reason," the canines should be diagnosed with long well formed roots to
resist torque.
o In this case, the denture is designed with a combined denture base, rests on the
neighboring natural teeth for support, bar clasps as retainers, preferably on first
premolars, and an anterior palatal strap as the major connector.
- Anterior retention may gained by using mesio-distal clasping on canine and may
reinforce by using Aker on first premolar. M. Connector: U-Shaped horse shoe.
Indirect R. : distal O-Rest on 4.
- It is indicated only when 1\ 1 are only missed and perfect bone support for canines.
Contra-indicated in cases where torque is marked as in excessive bone resorption or more
than 2 teeth are missing.
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2-The second design uses a posteriorly placed clasping system.
o The clasps are placed as far posteriorly as possible. This system is more
favorable because it provides better retention and indirect retention. It is also
esthetically more satisfactory. Canines are also protected from torque that may
be implied by clasping.
o In this case, the denture is designed with a combined denture base, rests on the
neighboring natural teeth usually canines for support and an Aker clasp
(embrasure clasp) or multiple Aker clasp placed on the two last standing
molars on each side of the dental arch.
Support: rests on canines & posterior abutments or tooth supported posteriorly &
tissue supported anteriorly.
Retention: Double or Multiple Aker posteriorly and anterior flange engaging tissue
undercut.
Major connector: two palatal bar connectors arising from the saddle and placed on the
lateral walls of the palate equi-distance between the gingival margins and the midline. The
distal ends of the bars are attached to the posteriorly placed double Aker clasps on both
sides.
Indirect retention is encountered by the rests of the posterior clasps
3- An alternative form of treatment when the saddle is short is the sectional
denture in cases of large proximal undercuts on the natural anterior teeth.
One section is cast in metal and is inserted from the palatal aspect of the ridge, which
enables the proximal undercuts of the abutment teeth to be engaged. The labial section
which carries the teeth and the labial flange is inserted from below in an upwards and
backwards path. It is frictionally retained to the first section by means of split post
matrices attached to the cast portion, which will engage a stainless steel tube matrix in
the labial section.
A design can also be used which incorporates a hinge between the two parts, with
the anterior flange and teeth being rotated into place and held in position by a locking
bolt. Retention may be improved by use of intracoronal attachments for the first
section.
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Composite Bonded Bridges
When the permanent replacement of a single lost anterior tooth by a removable
partial denture is not entirely satisfactory and fixed bridge is rejected most of these objections
can be overcome by the use of an etched cast ceramometal restoration which can be bonded to
minimally prepared and etched enamel surfaces.
Retention of the framework was improved by subjecting its fitting surface to an
electrolytic etching process. This improved the resin bond by establishing mechanical
retention between the micropores of the etched alloy surface and the composite resin in a
manner similar to its attachment to an etched enamel surface.
Teeth with inadequate support, large carious lesions, extensive restorations, and
evidence of severe attrition are not suitable for use as abutments.
Tooth preparation for this prosthesis should be minimal. Enamel may be reduced to
free the occlusal if necessary, but it must be stressed that it is preferable that the attachment is
placed on a non-functional surface. This will reduce the possibility of mechanical
displacement. A definitive path of insertion should be created which should be vertical with
small grooves or slots prepared on the proximal surfaces of the abutment teeth Defining a
cingulum rest area will also provide additional vertical support. The whole area of the
preparation should be kept clear of the gingival margin by at least 1 mm. At insertion the
tooth surface is prepared in the normal manner for an acid etched restoration. A bonding agent
is used on the enamel and the luting composite applied to the casting.
The advantages of this technique are that a saddle of limited span can be restored
economically without loss of healthy tooth substance or the wearing of a large partial denture.
For aesthetic reasons it is not suitable where there is obvious soft tissue loss.
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B- Skeleton design (metal RPDs) for long anterior spans
Long anterior edentulous areas which may extend to include premolars usually occur
in adults. Hence, a permanent restoration in the form of metal partial dentures is the treatment
of choice.
- Denture base: The denture is tooth-tissue supported; therefore a combination metal-acrylic
base is required. In upper class IV dentures the whole of the anterior part of the hard palate
can be covered to provide adequate denture support, resist sinking of the denture and to
increase retention by adhesion.
- Multiple clasping is required to help in splinting of the remaining teeth and in order to
widely distribute the stresses and torque action. Since the remaining naturally teeth are
usually posterior teeth. Therefore the clasping system is usually better than in long class I
cases having anterior teeth as abutments.
- Indirect retention is obtained by extending the palatal plate major connector posterior to
the fulcrum axis and through the rests of the posteriorly located clasps.
- Stress breakers may not be necessarily used in upper class IV cases due to the good
support obtained from palatal coverage. However, a stress broken design may be required if a
long edentulous area covered by compressible tissues is to be restored.
- As with free end saddles frequent inspection and rebasing are necessary since only a slight
degree of rotation about the occlusal rests will open up a space between the posterior
periphery of the denture base and the hard palate, into which food will find its way.
Class IV in lower denture
- Usually required in adults who have lost the four lower anterior teeth through periodontal
disease or rarely caries. In this situation a cast metal denture is the treatment of choice.
- The design consists of bilateral lingual bars extending posteriorly from the saddle,
terminating in clasps; continuous clasping may or may not be present. The saddle must be
adequately tooth supported anteriorly, and this can be accomplished by using rests on the
mesial aspect of the occlusal surfaces of the premolars. The use of the canines for
support has the advantage of bringing the axis of rotation forward so that the posterior
clasping is consequently more effectively but will necessitate extensive preparation of the
teeth to provide effective seats for the rests on the cingula or else the use of incisal edge
rests with their obvious aesthetic disadvantages.
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Essentials of Design for Class IV
1.The movements of this type of removable partial denture and the resulting stresses
transmitted to the abutment teeth are unlike the pattern seen in any other type of prosthesis.
2.The esthetic arrangement of the anterior replacement teeth may necessitate their placement
anterior to the crest of the residual ridge, resulting in potential tilting leverage.
Every effort should be made to minimize these stresses. Some possibilities follow:
1.As much of the labial alveolar process should be preserved as possible.
2.A central incisor or other tooth should be retained to serve as an intermediate abutment or as
an overdenture abutment.
3.A critical evaluation of each remaining tooth in the arch should be made with the intent of
retaining as many teeth as possible.
The shorter the edentulous area, the less will be the harmful tilting leverage.
Strategic clasp position should be used. The quadrilateral configuration, with the
anterior clasps placed as far anterior and the posterior clasps placed as far posterior
as possible, would be the ideal.
The major connector should be rigid, and broad palatal coverage should be used
in the maxillary arch.
Indirect retention should be used as far posterior to the fulcrum line as possible.
- An ideal quadrilateral configuration of clasping may preclude the need for an
additional indirect retainer.
- A functional type of impression may be indicated if the edentulous area is
extensive.
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Preparation Of Mouth For Removable Partial Dentures
Mouth preparation follows the preliminary diagnosis and the development of
a tentative treatment plan. Final treatment planning may be deferred until the response
to the preparatory procedures can be ascertained.
In general, mouth preparation includes procedures in four categories:
Relief of Pain and Infection
oral surgical preparation,
conditioning of abused and irritated tissue,
periodontal preparation,
preparation of abutment teeth.
Relief of Pain and Infection:
Dental conditions that are causing discomfort should be treated as soon as
possible such as necessary endodontic treatment or restorative filling for
carious teeth.
Gingival tissues should be treated to prevent exacerbation of inflammatory
response. Also scaling, root planning, and prophylaxis should be performed.
A] RESTORATIVE PREPARATION
A. Removal of caries.
B. Replacement of defective restorations.
C. Restoration of structurally compromised teeth.
D. Occlusal modification.
E. Correction of malocclusion.
F. Splinting of natural teeth.
G. Correction of unacceptable abutment tooth contours not correctable through
enamel modification.
H. Exposure of dentin during abutment tooth modification.
1. Sensitivity.
2. Caries susceptibility.
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B] ENDODONTIC
A. Non-vital teeth. Non-vital teeth should be endodontically treated.
B. Endodontically treated abutment teeth.
1. Placement of conservative intraradicular posts with minimal removal
of tooth structure may increase resistance to structural failure.
2. May require restoration with extracoronal cast restorations to resist
structural failure.
C] ORTHODONTIC
A. Abutment teeth.
1. Axial inclination may require correction.
2. Infraeruption or supraeruption requiring correction.
B. Occlusal plane. Irregularities may be corrected by orthodontic therapy.
C. Edentulous spans. Asymmetrical or undersized edentulous areas which are
not conducive to the artificial replacement of missing teeth may require
modification.
D]ORAL SURGICAL PREPARATION:
Oral surgical and periodontal procedures should precede abutment tooth
preparation and should be completed far enough in advance to allow the necessary
healing period. If at all possible, at least 6 weeks, but preferably 3 to 6 months, should
be provided between surgical and restorative dentistry procedures.
Extractions:
Regardless of its condition, each tooth must be evaluated concerning its
strategic importance and its potential contribution to the success of the
removable partial denture.
Removal of Residual Roots
All retained roots or root fragments should be removed. This is particularly
true if they are in close proximity to the tissue surface or if there is evidence of
associated pathological findings. Residual roots adjacent to abutment teeth
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may contribute to the progression of periodontal pockets and compromise the
results from subsequent periodontal therapy.
Impacted Teeth
All impacted teeth, including those in edentulous areas and those adjacent to
abutment teeth, should be considered for removal. If an impacted tooth is left,
it should be recorded in the patient's record and the patient should be informed
of its presence. Roentgenograms should be taken at reasonable intervals to be
sure that no adverse changes occur.
Any impacted teeth that can be reached with a periodontal probe must be
removed to treat the periodontal pocket and prevent more extensive damage
Malposed Teeth
Individual teeth or groups of teeth and their supporting alveolar bone can be
surgically repositioned. Orthodontics may be useful in correcting many
occlusal discrepancies, but for some patients, such treatment may not be
practical because of a lack of teeth for anchoring orthodontic appliances or for
other reasons.
Cysts and Odontogenic Tumors
The patient should be informed of the diagnosis and provided with various
options for resolution of the abnormality as confirmed by the pathologist's
report.
Exostoses and Tori
Modification of denture design can accommodate for exostoses, this may
results in additional stress to the supporting elements and compromised
function.
The removal of exostoses and tori is not a complex procedure, and the
advantages from removal are great in contrast to the deleterious effects their
continued presence cancreate.
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Hyperplastic Tissue
Hyperplastic tissue is seen in the form of fibrous tuberosities, soft flabby
ridges, folds of redundant tissue in the vestibule or floor of the mouth, and
palatal papillomatosis.
All these forms of excess tissue should be removed to provide a firm base for
the denture. This removal will produce a more stable denture, reduce stress
and strain on the supporting teeth and tissue, and in many instances will
provide a more favorable orientation of the occlusal plane and arch form for
the arrangement of the artificial teeth.
Muscle Attachments and Frena
The maxillary labial and mandibular lingual frena are the most common
sources of frenum interference with denture design. These can be modified
easily with any of several surgical procedures. Under no circumstances should
a frenum be allowed to compromise the design or comfort of a RPD.
Bony Spines and Knife-Edge Ridges
Sharp bony spicules should be removed and knifelike crests gently rounded.
If, the correction of (a knife-edge) residual crest results in insufficient ridge
support for the denture base, the dentist should resort to vestibular deepening
for correction of the deficiency or insertion of the various bone grafting
materials that have demonstrated successful clinical trials.
Polyps, Papillomas, and Traumatic Hemangiomas
All abnormal soft tissue lesions should be excised and submitted for
pathological examination before the fabrication of a removable partial denture.
Hyperkeratoses, Erythroplasia, and Ulcerations
All abnormal, white, red, or ulcerative lesions should be investigated
regardless of their relationship to the proposed denture base or framework. A
biopsy of areas larger than 5 mm should be completed, and if the lesions are
large (more than 2 cm in diameter), multiple biopsies should be taken.
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Dentofacial Deformity
Patients with a dentofacial deformity often have multiple missing teeth as part
of their problem. Correction of the jaw deformity can simplify the dental
rehabilitation.
Osseointegrated Devices
A number of implant devices to support the replacement of teeth have been
introduced to the dental profession. These devices offer a significant
stabilizing effect on dental prostheses through a rigid connection to living
bone.
Augmentation of Alveolar Bone
Considerable attention has been devoted to ridge augmentation with the use of
autogenous and alloplastic materials, especially in preparation for implant
placement.
E] CONDITIONING OF ABUSED AND IRRITATED TISSUE
Patients who require conditioning treatment often hasthe following symptoms:
1. Inflammation and irritation of mucosa covering the denture bearing areas
2. Distortion of normal anatomic structures, such as incisive papillae, the
rugae, and the retromolar pads
3. A burning sensation in residual ridge areas, tongue, and the cheeks and lips.
These conditions are usually associated with ill fitting or poorly occluding removable
partial dentures. However, nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances, severe
health problems (diabetes or blood dyscrasias), and bruxism must be considered in a
differential diagnosis.
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Treatment
The first treatment procedure should be institution of a good home care program.
A suggested home care program includes rinsing the mouth three times a day
with a prescribed saline solution;
massaging the residual ridge areas, palate,and tongue with a soft toothbrush;
removing the prosthesis at night;
using a prescribed therapeutic multiple vitamin
Prescribed high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet.
Removing the ill-fitting dentures for extended periods.
Use of Tissue Conditioning Materials
o These soft materials apparently have a massaging effect on irritated
mucosa, and because they are soft, occlusal forces are probably more
evenly distributed.
o Maximum benefit from using conditioning materials may be obtained by
(1) Eliminating deflective or interfering occlusal contacts of old
dentures (by remounting in an articulator if necessary);
(2) Prpper denture extensionto enhance support, and stability
(3) Relieving tissue side of denture bases sufficiently (2 mm) to
provide space for even thickness of conditioning material;
(4) applying in amount sufficient to givesupport andcushioning effect
(5) following the manufacturer's directions.
Many dentists find that intervals of 4 to 7 days between changes of the
conditioning material are acceptable. If positive results are not seen within 3 to
4 weeks, suspect more serious health problems and request a consultation .
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F] PERIODONTAL PREPARATION
The periodontal health of the remaining teeth, especially those to be used as
abutments, must be evaluated carefully by the dentist and corrective measures
instituted before removable partial denture fabrication.
It is strongly recommended that a gross debridement be performed before
tooth extraction when patients have significant calculus accumulation. This helps
limit the possibility of accidentally dislodging a piece of calculus into the extraction
socket, which could lead to an infection.
Objectives of Periodontal Therapy
1. Removal and control of all etiological factors contributing to periodontal
disease, along with a reduction or elimination of bleeding on probing
2. Elimination of, reduction in, pocket depths of all pockets.
3. Establishment of functional atraumatic occlusal relationships and tooth
stability
4. Development of a personal plaque control program and definitive
maintenance schedule.
Periodontal Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Evaluation procedure :
1) Explorationof the gingival sulcus and
2) Recordingof the probing pocket depth
3) Sitesthat bleed on probing with a suitably designed periodontal probe.
4) Dental radiographs can be used to supplement theclinical examination
but should not be used as a substitutefor it.
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A critical evaluation of the following factors should be made:
(1) Type, location, and severityof bone loss;
(2) Location, severity, and distribution of furcation involvements;
(3) Alterationsof the periodontal ligament space;
(4) Alterationsof the laminadura;
(5) Presenceof calcified deposits;
(6) Locationand conformity of restorative margins;
(7) Evaluationof crown and root morphologies;
(8) Root proximity;
(9) Caries;
(10) Evaluation of other associatedanatomic features, such as the mandibular
canal or sinus proximity.
Treatment Planning
Periodontal treatment planning canUsuallybe divided into three phases.
The first phaseis considered disease control or initial therapy which
include oral hygiene instruction, scaling, and root planning and
polishing along with endodontic, occlusal adjustment, and temporary
splinting,
In the secondor periodontalsurgical phase, any needed periodontal
surgery is accomplished, including free gingival grafts, osseous grafts,
or pocket reduction.
maintenance of periodontal health (definitive recall) phase ; A
definitive recall schedule should be established with the patient and is
usually kept at 3- to 4- month intervals.
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Tooth mobility
Each tooth should be evaluated carefully for mobility. Normal mobility is in
the order of 0. 05 to 0. 10 mm.
Primary mobility caused by; inflammatory changes in the periodontal
ligament, traumatic occlusion, loss of attachment, or a combination of the
three factors. Mobility due to occlusal interference may disappear after
selective grinding.
Secondary mobility resulting from the presence of an inflammatory lesion
may be reversible if the disease process has not destroyed too much of the
attachment apparatus.
Grade I mobility is present when there is less than 1 mm of movement
in a buccolingual direction;
grade II is present when mobility in the buccolingual direction is
between 1 to 2 mm,
grade III is present when there is greater than 2 mm of mobility in the
buccolingual direction and/or the tooth is vertically depressible.
Management
Teeth may be immobilized during periodontal treatment by acid
etching teeth with composite resin, with fiber reinforced resins, with
cast removable splints, or with intracoronal attachments.
After periodontal treatment, splinting may be accomplished with
cast removable restorations or cast cemented restorations. The
preferred form of permanent splinting is with two or more cast
restorations soldered or cast together. They may be cemented with
either permanent (zinc oxyphosphate or resin) cements or temporary
(zinc oxide-eugenol) cements. A properly designed removable partial
denture can also stabilize mobile teeth if provision for such
immobilization is planned as the denture is designed.
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The night guard is a removable acrylic resin splint, originally designed as an
aid in eliminating the deleterious effect of nocturnal clenching and grinding. It
may be helpful as a form of temporary splinting if worn at night after the
removal of the removable partial denture. The flat occlusal surface prevents the
intercuspation of the teeth, which eliminates lateral occlusal forces
Elimination of Cross Occlusal Interferences
Traumatic cuspal interferences are removed by a selective grinding
procedure. An attempt is made to establish a positive planned intercuspal
position that coincides with centric relation. Deflective contacts in the
centric path of closure are removed,
The presence of working and nonworking interferences should be
evaluated, and if present, they should be removed.
The indication for occlusal adjustment is based on the presence of a
pathological condition rather than on a preconceived articulationpattern.
Guide to Occlusal Adjustment:
In evaluation of occlusal disharmony of the natural dentition, accurately
mounted diagnostic casts are essential in determining static cusp to fossa
contacts of opposing teeth and as a guide in the correction of occlusal
anomalies in both centric and eccentric functional relations. Ground tooth
surfaces should be subsequently smoothed and polished.
Schuyler has provided the following guide to occlusal adjustment by
selective grinding
I-Grinding In Centric Occlusion:
A static coordinated occlusal contact of the maximum number of teeth
(maximum intercuspal position) when the mandible is in centric relation to
the maxilla should be the first objective.
Articulating paper is used with an open and close movement of the
articulator or the mandible in intraoral method, to discover any traumatic
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points on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. These are removed until even
contact throughout the arch is obtained.
In the posterior teeth the surfaces to be reduced are selected according to
two basic rules:
a- If the cusp is high in both centric and eccentric occlusion,
reduce the cusp.
b- If the cusp is high in centric but not in eccentric occlusion,
deepen the fossa.
In anterior teeth:
a- When anterior teeth are in premature contact in centric relation, or in both
centric and eccentric relations, corrections should be made by grinding the
incisal edges of the mandibular teeth.
b- If premature contact occurs only in the eccentric relation, correction must
be made by grinding the lingual inclines of the maxillary teeth.
Premature contacts in centric relation are relieved by:
- Grinding the buccal cusps of the mandibular teeth,
- The lingual cusps of maxillary teeth,
- The incisal edges of the mandibular anterior teeth.
Deepening the fossa of a posterior tooth or the lingual contact area in centric relation
of a maxillary anterior tooth changes and increases the steepness of the eccentric
guiding inclines of the tooth. Although this relieves trauma in centric relation, it may
predispose the tooth to trauma in eccentric relations.
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II-Grinding To Obtain Occlusal Balance in Lateral Movements:
A- Anterior teeth:
If the anterior dentition is found to be in traumatic contact reduce the
traumatic areas of contact using the following rules:
a- Reduce the lingual surfaces of the maxillary incisal edges.
b- Reduce the labial surfaces of the mandibular incisal edges.
c- Reduce the disto-lingual slopes of the maxillary cuspids
(canines).
d- Reduce the mesio-labial slopes of the mandibular cuspids.
B- Posterior teeth:
Where the posterior dentition is found to be in traumatic contact reduce
the traumatic area of contact. The attention is directed first to balancing side
contacts. Usingthe following rules:
1- Care must be exercised to prevent the loss of a static supporting contact
in centric relation. This static support in centric relation may exist
between the mandibular buccal cusp fitting into the central fossa of the
maxillary tooth or between the maxillary lingual cusp fitting into the
central fossa of the mandibular tooth or it may exist in both situations.
2- The mandibular buccal cusp is in a static central contact in the maxillary
sulcus more often than the maxillary lingual cusp is in a static contact in its
opposing mandibular sulcus. Therefore corrective grinding to relieve
premature balancing contacts is more often done on the maxillary
lingual cusps.
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Evidence of excessive balancing contacts:
It is extremely difficult to differentiate the harmless from the destructive because we
cannot visualize the influence of these fulcrum contacts on the functional movements
of the condyle in the articular fossa.
- Subluxation,
- Pain,
- Lack of normal functional movement of the joint,
- Lossof alveolar support of the teeth involved
This may be evidence of excessive balancing contacts. Balancing-side contacts
receive less frictional wear than working-side contacts, and premature contacts may
develop progressively with wear.
Balancing side:
Corrective grinding to relieve premature balancing contacts is more
often done on the maxillary lingual cusps.
In complete denture reduce the inner inclines of the mandibular buccal cusps in
preference to the opposing maxillary slope. This is important because grinding usually
involves removal in part or whole of the cusp, which is an established centric occlusal
contact. Therefore the maxillary cusp is left to provide a more stabilizing effect for the
lower denture.
Working side:
Anterior teeth: necessary grinding must be done on the lingual surfaces of the
maxillary anterior teeth.
posterior teeth: done on the buccal maxillary cusp of premolars and molars
and on the lingual mandibular cusp of the premolars and molars.
Grind on 'bull' rule, to avoid the supporting cusps (the upper palatal and the
lower buccal cusps) whichpreserve the vertical dimension of occlusion
1- Reduce the inner inclines of maxillary buccal cusps.
2- Reduce inner inclines of mandibular lingual cusps.
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Grinding of mandibular buccal cusps or maxillary lingual cusps at this
time would rob these cusps of their static contact in the opposing central sulci
in centric relation.
III-Grinding to Obtain Occlusal Balance in Protrusive Movements:
1- If the anterior dentition is found to be in traumatic contact reduce the
traumatic areas of contact by grinding the lingual surface of the maxillary
anterior teeth.
Anterior teeth should never be ground to bring the posterior teeth into
contact in either protrusive position or on the balancing side.
2- If the posterior dentition is found to be in traumatic contact reduce
the traumatic areas of contact, grinding in accordance with the
BULL Rule: Grind only cuspal slopes, which are not providing centric
contact. Grind distal inclines of maxillary buccal cusps and mesial inclines of
mandibular lingual cusps.
3- Any sharp edges left by grinding should be rounded off.
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G] Preparation of abutment teeth:
CLASSIFICATION OF ABUTMENT TEETH
The subject of abutment preparations may be grouped as follows:
(1) those abutment teeth that require only minor modifications to their coronal
portions, include: teeth with sound enamel, those with small restorations not
involved in the removable partialdenture design, those with acceptable
restorations that will be involved in the removable partial denture design, and
those that have existing crownrestorations requiring minor modification that
will not jeopardize the integrity of the crown.
(2) Thosethat are to have restorations other than complete coverage crowns,
(3) Those that are to have crowns (complete coverage). they provide the best
possible support for occlusal rests.
SEQUENCE OF ABUTMENT PREPARATIONS ON SOUND ENAMEL OR
EXISTING RESTORATIONS
Abutment preparations should be done in the following order:
1. Proximal surfaces parallel to the path of placement should be prepared to provide
guiding planes.
2. Tooth contours should be modified, lowering the height of contour so that
(a) The origin of the circumferential clasp arms may be placed well below the
occlusal surface, preferably at the junction of the middle and gingival thirds;
(b) Retentiveclasp terminals may be placed in the gingival third of the crown for
better esthetics and better mechanical advantage; and
(c) Reciprocal clasp arms may be placed on and above a height of contour that is
no higher than the cervical portion of the middle third of the crown of the
abutment tooth.
3. After alterations of axial contours are accomplished and before rest seat
preparations are instituted, an impression of the arch should be made in irreversible
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hydrocolloid and a cast formed in a fast-setting stone. This cast can be returned to
the surveyor to determine the adequacy of axial alterations before proceeding with
rest seat preparations. If axial surfaces require additional axial recontouring, it can be
performed during the same appointment and without compromise.
4. Occlusal rest areas should be prepared that will direct occlusal forces along the
long axis of the abutment tooth.
Mouth preparation should follow the removable partial denture design
that was outlined on the diagnostic cast at the time the cast was surveyed and the
treatment plan confirmed. Proposed changes to abutment teeth should be made on
the diagnostic cast and outlined in colored pencil to indicate the area, amount, and
angulation of the modification to be done.
Preparation of the abutment teeth may be in the form of:
A. Reshaping of abutment teeth.
B. Crowns.
C. Rest seat preparation.
A- Reshaping of Abutment Teeth:
1- Enameloplasty:
Conservatism must be the rule when recontouring enamel surface.
Enameloplasty may be performed for:
a) Developing Guiding Planes:
Guiding planes are surfaces on proximal or lingual surfaces of teeth that are
parallel to each other and, more importantly, to the path of insertion and removal
of a removable partial denture (RPD). There functions are:
o On the proximal walls adjacent to edentulous spaces they
provide parallism needed for ensuring stabilization.
o Minimize wedging action between RPD and abutment.
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o Decrease undesirable space between RPD and the abutment tooth to
increase retention by frictional resistance.
o On lingual surfaces of teeth provides maximum resistance to lateral
stresses exerted by retentive arm during insertion and removal of RPD.
Dimensions of the Guiding Plane:
It is prepared by cylindrical diamond in the following dimensions:
occlusogingivally it is 2-4 mm in length prepared flat on the occlusal third of
the abutment. is usually one half to two thirds the crown length
Buccolingually it is 3-4 mm in width and curved in harmony with
the existing tooth contour.
Ideal guiding plane is 2-4 mm occlusogingivally
Normal tooth contour should be maintained
The preparation of guide surfaces The required location of a guide
surface will be dependent on its function.
The red guide surfaces on the proximal surfaces of the
abutment teeth facing the edentulous space will be
needed to control the path of insertion of the saddle. The
green guide surfaces on the tooth surfaces diametrically
opposite the retentive portion of the clasp will be needed
for the latter's reciprocation.
Generally, guide surface preparations for extension RPDs are shorter than tooth
supported RPD, leaving a small space below the gingival extent of the preparation.
The space. in conjunc-tion with physiologic relief, prevents the guide plate from
binding against the abutment during functional movements of the extension base
(those toward the residual ridge).
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The advantages of guide surfaces
It is widely accepted on the basis of clinical observation that the use of guide surfaces
confers a number of benefits in RPDconstruction. The benefits include the following:
Increased stability.: This is achieved by the guide
surfaces resisting displacement of the denture (red
arrows) in directions other than along the planned path of
displacement.
Reciprocation.: A guide surface* allows a reciprocating
component to maintaincontinuous contact with a tooth as
the denture is displaced occlusally. The retentive arm of
the clasp is thus forced toflex as it moves up thetooth. It
is this elastic deformation of the clasp that creates the retentiveforce.
Prevention of clasp deformation.: Guide surfaces
ensure that the patient removes the denture along a
planned path (1). The clasps are therefore flexed to
the extent for which they were designed. Without
guide surfaces the patient may tilt or rotate the
denture onremoval (2), causing clasps to flex beyond their proportional limit.
Improved appearance.: A guide surface on an
anterior abutment tooth permits an intimate contact
between saddle and tooth which allows the one to
blend with theother, creating a convincing, natural
appearance. Guide surfaces may occur naturally in this situation and if so,
tooth preparation is not required.
Guide surface preparations for anterior teeth
It is usually restricted to the linguoproximal aspect. The
mesiodistal width of the abutments should not be reduced
unless space is needed for an artificial replacement
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Guide surfaces for minor connectors
It is sometimes possible to create small guide surfaces in areas
where minor connectors pass between teeth to connect major
connectors and rests . When a mesial rest with I bar clasp
assembly is used on the terminal abutment for a distal extension RPD. a small guide
surface should be prepared on the mesiolingual aspect whenever possible
Guide surfaces for lingual plating and reciprocating bracing elements
Creation of lingual guide surfaces is frequently advantageous, particularly on
mandibular posterior teethwhere the height of contour is very close to the occlusal
aspect of the tooth. The preparation of flat surfaces allows for true reciprocation by
plating or rigid lingual arms.
True reciprocation does not exist (A) because the rigid lingual
arm (LA) is not in contact with the tooth as the buccal arm (BA)
passes over the height of contour. The lingual arm thus
functions for bracing only However, if the shaded area is
removed (B). a guide surface parallel to the path of
insertion/dislodgement is created, and the lingual arm contacts
the tooth during the entire time the buccal retentive arm is
traversing the height of contour The lingual arm now provides
both bracing and reciprocation.
Guide surfaces for esthetics
Although guide surfaces for anterior teeth are usu-ally
restricted to the linguoproximal aspect they may occasionally
be utilized to increase space where drifting prevents
placement of an artificial tooth or teeth consistent with
adjacent natural teeth.
A maxillary left lateral incisor replacement tooth would be
narrow and unesthetic unless the central incisor and canine
were recontoured by removing the shaded areas .
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b) Changing Height of Contour: Unfavourable survey lines
The retentive clasp arm should be ideally located at the junction of the
gingival and middle thirds not higher, for esthetic purpose
and for definite mechanical advantage.
But when, the height of contour lies near the occlusal
surface in the tipped tooth this can be lowered by grinding
(enameloplasty). High survey line may cause deformation of the clasp.
C) Modification of Retentive Undercut:
When there is insufficient under cut and when the patient has good oral
hygiene and low caries index, these teeth can be modified by
increasing amount of the undercut by contouring the enamel
surface; By creation of gentle depression (concavity) about 4mm
in mesiodistal length and 0.01inch deep (not a pit or hole).
This concavity is prepared by using a small, round end tapered diamond stone.
d) Reducing interferences
The lingual surfaces of lingually inclined mandibular
premolars may interfere with the placement of the major
connector If these surfaces are not reduced, the lingual bar
will be located medially in the floor of the mouth when the
prosthesis is fully seated If thelingual aspects of the teeth
are reduced parallel to the path of insertion/dislodgement,
guide surfaces may be prepared concomitantly.
Overlapping proximal surfaces, particularly on
mandibular anterior teeth, create interferences if a
linguoplate major connector must be used these teeth
should be recontoured to avoid inter proximal undercuts
at the incisal corners. Failure to do so will result in poor adaptation of the
plate and impaction of food between its superior border and the teeth.
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2- Bulding toothsurface
There is some scientific evidence that demonstrates
that individually cast chromium-cobalt alloy rest seat
forms (attached to lingual surfaces of anterior teeth by
use of composite resin cements with acid-etched tooth
preparation), laminates, and composite resins have been
successfully used as conservativeapproaches to forming rest seats on teeth with
unacceptable lingual contours. Sapphire ceramic orthodontic brackets have
also been bonded to the lingual surfaces of mandibular canines and shaped as
rest seats.
Undercut areas can also be created by the use of acid-etch
composite restorations. the use of modern ultrafine and
hybrid composites results in minimal mutual abrasion of
composite and clasp so that the technique is a durable,
effective and conservative method of enhancing RPD
retention.
B- crowns:
When the remaining teeth do not posses natural contours and the enamel
surfaces cannot be modified to create undercut, cast restoration should be
planed. Cast crown also may be planned in case of extensive caries, defective
restoration, tooth fracture, and endodontically treated teeth.
To shape the wax pattern of the crown, the wax knife is used to carve the
guiding plane on the surveyor.
The pattern must be hand carved tom place the height of contour in the middle
third of lingual surface if the tooth is to receive a reciprocal clasp arm and at
the junction of the gingival and middle third of the buccal surface to receive a
retentive clasp arm.
The position and depth of the retentive undercut can be verified by use of an
undercut gauge.
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Contouring Wax Patterns
Modern indirect techniques permit the contouring of wax patterns on the
master cast with the aid of the surveyor blade. All abutment teeth to be restored with
castings can be prepared at one time and an impression made that will provide an
accurate stone replica of the prepared arch. Wax patterns may then be refined on
separated individual dies or removable dies. All abutment surfaces facing edentulous
areas should be made parallel to the path of placement by the use of the surveyor
blade
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C- Rest Seat Preparation:
The purposes and functions of rests basically, are to:
Direct the forces of mastication parallel to long axis of the abutment.
Prevents the gingival displacement of a RPD.
Maintains the relationship between a clasp assembly and the tooth.
In certain applications a rest may act as an indirect retainer.
It may be used to close a small space between teeth, which restoring
continuity of the arch and preventing food impaction.
Each seat must be positioned in a properly prepared rest seat. These rest seats must be
prepared before final impression and master cast are made.
Rest Seat Preparation for Posterior Teeth:
1) Occlusal Rest Seat in Enamel:
The basically outline form of an occlusal rest seat is triangular, with its base
directed at the marginal ridge and the apex toward the tooth center, occupying
about one half of the buccolingual width of the occlusal surface, and the apex
should be rounded as all margins of the preparation.
An occlusal rest must be at least 1 mm thick at its thinnest point
if chrome alloy is used for framework and about 1.5 mm if gold
is to be used.
Extension of the rest seat mesiodistally about one third to one
half of the mesiodistal diameter.
The floor of the occlusal rest seat must be inclined toward
the center of the tooth to place the deepest part of the rest
nearly at the center of the preparation.
The floor of the rest seat should be spoon in shape.
Any sharp angle should be smoothed.
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An occlusal rest seat may be prepared using a variety of rotatory instruments.
Many practitioners use round diamond burs, while others prefer diamond bur
with rounded ends and tapering sides.
When using round diamond bur care must be taken to avoid creation of
mechanical undercut at the peripheries of the preparation.
2) Occlusal Rest Seat as Part of a New Cast-metal Restoration:
When one or more fixed restoration will be placed in conjunction with RPD,
these restorations must be carefully planed and fabricated. Accordingly,
occlusal rest seat for cast gold restorations should
always be carved into the wax pattern following
placement of guiding planes.
If tooth structure has been removed to provide placement of the occlusal rest
seat, it may be ideally placed in the wax pattern by using a No. 8 round bur to
lower the marginal ridge and establish the outline form of the rest, and then
using a No. 6 round bur to slightly deepen the floor of the rest seat inside this
lowered marginal ridge. This approach provides an occlusal rest that best
satisfies the requirements that it be placed so that any occlusal force will be
directed axially and that there will be the least possible interference to
occlusion with the opposing teeth.
A round carbide bur (N
o
4 or 6) is used to perform the initial shaping
procedure for box-shaped rest
Upon completion of the casting process, the restoration is finished and
polished using a small round fishing bur.
3) Occlusal Rest Seat on the Surface of an Existing Cast-metal Restoration:
o Sometimes a RPD is indicated for a patient with one or more cast restorations
on proposed partial denture abutments. Although it would be ideal to replace
these restorations, the practitioner should try to contour these restorations to
satisfy the requirements of the designed RPD.
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o When preparing rest seats in existing cast restoration, the establishment of
sufficient space should be the highest priority; so the patient must be informed
if perforation of this existing restoration occurred that perforated restoration
must be replaced.
o The instrumentation and procedures for preparing rest seats on existing fixed
restorations are identical to those for preparing rest seats on enamel surfaces.
4) Occlusal Rest Seats on an Amalgam Restoration:
A rest seat preparation on a multiple-surface amalgam restoration is less
desirable than a rest seat preparation on sound enamel or a cast restoration.
The amalgam alloy tends to deform when exposed to constant load.
Care must be taken to avoid weaken the proximal portion of the
amalgam restoration at the ismuth during preparation.
Experience indicates that rest seat should not be placed entirely on
amalgam. If a substantial portion of the rest seat cannot be placed on sound
tooth structure, then a complete- or partial-coverage casting should be
considered.
5) Embrasure Rest Seat:
This preparation crosses the occlusal embrasure of two approximating
posterior teeth, from the mesial fossa of one tooth to the distal fossa of the
adjacent tooth; to receive an embrasure clasp.
A diamond bur with a rounded end and
Taperingsides is ideal for preparing embrasure rest seats.
Contact between the teeth should not be broken since this
may result in tooth migration or food impaction.
The form and depth of rest seat: at the facial and lingual
embrasures, the embrasure rest seat should be 3.0 to 3.5
mm wide and 1.5 to 2.0 mm deep.
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Occlusal clearance can be checked by laying two pieces of 18 gauge wires
side byside across the preparation.
The patient should be able to close without contacting the metal.
The buccal inclines of the preparation must be rounded after the
preparation is completed.
Where a clasp is to extend buccally from an occlusal rest
and there is no space occlusally for it to do so, the
preparation must be extended as a channel on to the
buccal surface of the tooth. In some circumstances it may also be
necessary to reduce and recontour the cusp of the tooth in the opposing
arch.
6) box-shaped rest seat
The use of a box-shaped rest seat within a cast restoration
may result inthe rest applying damaging horizontal loads on
the abutment tooth. These rest seats should be restricted to
tooth-supported dentures wherethe periodontal health of the
abutment teeth is good.
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Rest Seat Preparation for Anterior Teeth:
In most cases an occlusal rest seat on a posterior tooth is preferred than a
cingulum or incisal rest seat on an anterior teeth. Because of its size and
position, this permits forces to be directed along the long axis of the teeth.
1) Lingual or Cingulum Rest Seat:
Indications:
1- When there is no posterior tooth to place an occlusal rest.
2- Maxillary canine is mainly used for lingual or cingulum rest, because the
morphologyof the tooth permits preparation of the seat.
3- It is rarely used on incisors when the canine is missing. In this case multiple
rests should be used to distribute the force over a number of incisors.
4- To prepare rest seat in the enamel there should be (prominent cingulum,
good oral hygiene, and low caries index).
Design:
1-the outline form of a cingulum rest seat should be crescent shaped when
widowed from the lingual aspect. Its broadest portion is in the middle of the
lingual surface and get less broad as it approaches the proximal surface.
2- The rest seat should be V-shaped when viewed from the proximal; with
rounded line angles. (This permits direction of the force along the long axis of
the tooth).
3- Mesiodistal length of preparation should be a minimum of 2.5 mm.
labiolingual width about 2 mm, and incisal apical depth a minimum of 1.5 mm.
4- It is often difficult to obtain a positive epically inclined rest seat due to tooth
angulations or anatomy. The use of cast restoration may be required to establish
a definite rest seat.
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a) Cingulum Rest Seat in Enamel:
A lingual or cingulum rest seat may be prepared in enamel if the
tooth is sound, low caries index, good oral hygiene and
prominent cingulum.
A cingulum rest seat is accomplished using a carbide inverted cone
bur (side- and end- cutting surfaces) in a high speed hand piece. The
preparation is finished, polished, smoothen, and gently rounded
using a rubber wheel in a low speed hand piece.
A cylindrical diamond stone with a rounded tip should be used
to prepare the rest seat. A spherical instrument tends to create
unwanted undercuts.
b) Cingulum Rest Seat in Cast Restorations:
The most satisfactory cingulum rest from the stand point of support is one that
is placed on a prepared rest seat in a cast restoration. The rest seat should be
carved in during the wax pattern stage, not cited or prepared in the cast
restoration.
2- Incisal Rest Seats in Enamel:
Incisal rest seats are least desirable rest seats for anterior teeth. Because of its
bad esthetic, interference with occlusion, and its damaging effect on abutment.
Indications:
1- Incisal rests are used mostly on mandibular canines when the abutment is sound
and when a cast restoration is not indicated.
2- It may be used as an auxiliary rest for indirect retention.
Disadvantages:
a) The bad esthetic of metal.
b) Greater mechanical leverage than lingual rests, due tolonger minor connector.
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Design:
1- An incisal rest seat is usually placed near a proximal surface, mostly on the
proximal distal line angle of the tooth for esthetic.
2- When viewed from the facial surface, its floor is concave in shape and inclined
toward the center of the tooth to direct the force along to the long axis of the tooth.
3- When viewed from the proximal, the outline form is convex (saddle shape) with
buccal and lingual bevels.
4- All borders are rounded and smooth.
5- Its dimensions are approximately (2.5 mm wide and 1.5 mm deep).
Preparation:
An initial depth cut is made, using a tapered cylindrical stone, at the junction of the
middle and the mesial or distal third of the abutment tooth.
The walls of the rest seat are created by flaring the edges of the depth cut
preparation and beveling the buccal and lingual walls with finishing bur.
completed preparation shouldbe smooth and comfortable for the patient.
Incisal rest seats can be prepared using a tapered cylindrical diamond.
Alternative, more aesthetic options are to produce a rest seat incomposite applied to
cingulum area of selected tooth, or to bonda cast metal cingulum rest seat to tooth.
Rest preparations can be evaluated with soft, non- sticky wax. The
wax is pressed into the recess, removed, and inspected for proper form.
Occlusal clearance can be estimated by having the patient close the teeth
together and move into lateral excursions while the wax is in place A
more precise evaluation of all preparations (especially guiding surfaces) can be
achieved by analyzing a cast made from an alginate impression and poured in quick-
set plaster
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Special consideration
Abutment preparations using conservative restorations
When an inlay is the restoration of choice for an abutment tooth, certain
modifications of the outline form are necessary. To prevent the buccal and
lingual proximal margins from lying at or near the minor connector or the
occlusal rest, these margins must be extended well beyond the line angles of
the tooth. This additional extension may be accomplished by widening the
conventional box preparation.
The restoration should be with maximum resistance and retention, and with
clinically imperceptible margins. The first requisite can be satisfied by
preparing opposing cavity walls 5 or less from parallel and producing flat
floors and sharp, clean line angles.
Abutment preparations using crowns
One of the advantages of making cast restorations for abutment teeth is that
mouth preparations that would otherwise have to be done in the mouth may be
done on the surveyor with far greater accuracy. It is generally impossible to
make several proximal surfaces parallel to one another when preparing them
intraorally.
The ideal crown restoration for a removable partial denture abutment is the
complete coverage crown, which can be carved, cast, and finished to ideally
satisfy all requirements for support, stabilization, and retention without
compromise for cosmetic reasons.
The preparation should be made to provide the
appropriate depth for the occlusal rest seat. This is
best accomplished by altering the axial contours of
the tooth to the ideal before preparing the tooth and
creating a depression in the prepared tooth at the occlusal rest area.
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Ledges on Abutment Crowns
The functions of the reciprocal clasp arm are reciprocation, stabilization,
and auxiliary indirect retention. Any rigid reciprocal arm may provide horizontal
stabilization if it is located on axial surfaces parallel to the path of placement.
Its function as a reciprocating arm against the action of the retentive clasp arm
is limited only to stabilization against possible orthodontic movement when the
denture framework is in its terminal position. Such reciprocation is needed when the
retentive clasp produces an active orthodontic force because of accidental distortion
or improper design.
The term orthodontic force is incorrect, because the term signifies a slight
but continuous influence that would logically reach equilibrium when the tooth is
orthodontically moved. Instead, the transient forces of placement and removal are
intermittent but forceful, which can lead to periodontal destruction and eventual
instability rather than to orthodontic movement.
True reciprocation is not possible with a clasp arm that is placed on an
occlusally inclined tooth surface because it does not become effective until the
prosthesis is fully seated. When a dislodging force is applied, the reciprocal clasp arm,
along with the occlusal rest, breaks contact with the supporting tooth surfaces, and
they are no longer effective. Thus as the retentive clasp flexes over the height of
contour and exerts a horizontal force on the abutment, reciprocation is nonexistent
just when it is needed most.
True reciprocation can be obtained only by creating a path of placement for
the reciprocal clasp arm that is parallel to other guiding planes. In this manner the
inferior border of the reciprocal clasp makes contact with its guiding surface before
the retentive clasp on the other side of the tooth begins to flex.
The presence of a ledge on the abutment crown acts as a terminal stop for the
reciprocal clasp arm. It also augments the occlusal rest and provides indirect retention
for a distal extension removable partial denture.
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A reciprocal clasp arm built on a crown ledge is actually inlayed into the
crown and reproduces more normal crown contours. The patient's tongue then
contacts acontinuously convex surface rather than the projection of a clasp arm.
a; Open circle at top and bottom illustrates that retentive clasp is only passive at its first contact
with tooth during placement and when in its terminal position with denture fully seated. During
placement and removal, reciprocal rigid clasp arm placed on opposite side of tooth cannot provide
resistance against these horizontal forces.
b. True reciprocation throughout full path of placement and removal is possible when reciprocal
clasp arm is inlaid onto ledge on abutment crown.
The crown ledge may be used on any complete or three-quarter crown restored
surface that is opposite the retentive side of an abutment tooth. It is used most
frequently on premolars and molars but also may be used on canine restorations. It is
not ordinarily used on buccal surfaces for reciprocation against lingual retention
because of the excessive display of metal, but it may be used just as effectively on
posterior abutments when esthetics is not a factor.
Spark Erosion
Spark erosion technology is a highly advanced system for producing the
ultimate in precision fit of the reciprocal arm to the ledge on the casting. This
technology uses a tool system that permits repositioning the casting with great
accuracy and an electric discharge machine that is programmed to erode minute metal
particles through periodic spark intervals.
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Veneered Crowns for Support of Clasp Arms
o Veneered crowns must be contoured to provide suitable retention. This
means that the veneer must be slightly overcontoured and then shaped to
provide the desired undercut for the location of the retentive clasp arm. If the
veneer is of porcelain, this procedure must precede glazing; if it is of resin, it
must precede final polishing.
o Porcelain laminates have demonstrated resistance to wear for the equivalent
of 5 years. The porcelain, however, resulted in slight wear on the clasps. The
flat underside of the cast clasp makes sufficient contact with the surface of the
veneer so that abrasion of the resin veneer may result.
o Present-day acrylic resins, being cross-linked copolymers, will withstand
abrasion for considerable time but not nearly to the same degree as porcelain.
Therefore acrylic resin veneers are best used in conjunction with metal that
supports the half-round clasp terminal.
SPLINTING OF ABUTMENT TEETH
Splinting to the adjacent tooth or teeth can be used as a means of improving
abutment support. Thus two single-rooted teeth serve as a multirooted
abutment. Splinting should not be used to retain a tooth that would otherwise
be condemned for periodontal reasons.
The most common application of the use of multiple abutments is the splinting
of two premolars or a first premolar and a canine. Mandibular premolars
generally have round and tapered roots, which are easily loosened by
rotational and tipping forces. They are the weakest of the posterior abutments.
Anterior teeth on which lingual rests are to be placed
often must be splinted together to prevent
orthodontic movement of individual teeth.
Mandibular anterior teeth are seldom used for
support, but if they are, splinting of the teeth involved is advisable.
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When splinting is impossible, individual lingual rests on cast restorations may be
slightly inclined apically to prevent possible tooth displacement, or lingual rests may
be used in conjunction with incisal rests, slightly engaging the labial surface of the
teeth.
USE OF ISOLATED TEETH AS ABUTMENTS
The average abutment tooth is subjected to some distal tipping, rotation,
torquing, and horizontal movement, The isolated abutment tooth, however, is
subjected also to mesial tipping because of lack of proximal contact.
In a tooth