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TH-28/480/480B Training Manual

5/29/2008 2007 Edition 2



For Training Purposes Only





Introduction 3

Aircraft Description 4

Construction details 7

Aircraft Systems 17

Electrical 17
Caution and warning 23
Instruments 29
Rotor Systems 37
Fuel System 42
Power Train 45
Flight Controls 50
Power Plant 57

Operation Procedures 63

Aircraft Servicing 63
Performance Data 67
Engine 74
Emergency Procedures 84
Weight & Balance 98

Pilot Notes 105



Table of Contents



TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 3

For Training Purposes Only


INTRODUCTION


Enstrom TH-28/ 480 Series Helicopter Pilot Training Course
Objectives


The purpose of this course is to prepare an experienced helicopter pilot for a smooth
transition into the Enstrom Turbine powered helicopters.

This course includes descriptions and theory of operation for the systems, and the
location of the system components.

The course also includes the description of the pilot pre-flight procedures and the pilots
are expected to perform these pre-flight inspections.






















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AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION

The TH-28/480 helicopter is a 3 bladed, single engine helicopter manufactured by the
Enstrom Helicopter Corporation and certificated by the FAA under FAR Part 27.

Turning Radius

The turning radius is about 23 feet when pivoted on the wheels about the mast.

Principal Dimensions




























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Characteristics

Helicopter Description

The Enstrom 480B helicopter is a single-engine; turbine-powered helicopter certified for
day and night VFR flight, that can be equipped for IFR flight. The 480B was developed
for light commercial, municipal, and military uses and was certified to FAR 27 standards
in February 2001. Its predecessor, the 480, was designed between 1988 and 1993,
and was certified to FAR 27 standards in 1994.

It is a relatively quiet helicopter that was certified to meet FAR 3 Appendix J noise
limits. The main and tail rotors are relatively slow turning which contribute to the low
noise signature.




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The Enstrom 480B features a three-bladed, fully articulated main rotor system which
has over 3,000,000 flight hours and which has never had a catastrophic failure or
thrown a blade. The tail rotor is two bladed and completely unblocked for exceptional
effectiveness. Due to the high inertia rotor design, the helicopter possesses
outstanding auto-rotational capabilities. There have been no fatalities from any accident
involving an Enstrom 480 model of helicopter. ( As of the date of this manual revision)

In the event of a mishap, the 480 is extremely crashworthy. The basic landing gear
and airframe feature an integrated energy absorbing system.

The 480 comes standard with high skid landing gear which consists of aluminum skid
tubes and nitrogen air-oleo struts to cushion ground contact. Replaceable hardened
steel skid shoes are installed on each skid to resist wear on hard surfaces.

In addition to being a versatile and crashworthy helicopter, the 480 is designed to be
procured and operated for minimum costs. The basic modular design is simple and
inexpensive to manufacture. The helicopter does not require hydraulic boost, electric
boost pumps, or a stability augmentation system. The entire control system consists of
mechanical linkages. The avionics package is designed for easy installation and
accessibility and the 480 is configured with five hinged doors and five removable panels
for maintenance accessibility.

The limited number of fatigue critical parts, the long overhaul intervals, and the low
maintenance hour/flight hour ratio resulting from high reliability and easy maintenance
combine to yield low operating and support costs.












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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS


Fuselage


The fuselage is the forward section of the airframe extending from the nose to the
forward end of the tailcone. The primary fuselage structure consists of the keel
assembly (two longitudinal beams with transverse bulkheads) which is attached to a
welded steel tubular truss structure called the pylon. All of the major components of
the aircraft are attached to the pylon. The keel assembly is the main supporting
structure for the cabin and forward landing gear cross tube. The pylon forms the
supporting structure for the cabin, fuel cells, transmission, engine, aft landing gear
cross tube, and the tailcone. The cabin shell is of composite construction with
reinforcing where necessary to add structural stiffness.



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Cabin Floor and Backwall



Keel Attach Structure




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Tailcone


The tailcone is bolted to the aft end of the pylon. It is a tapered, semi-monocoque
structure comprised of skins, bulkheads, longerons, and stringers. The tailcone supports
the tail rotor, tail rotor transmission, horizontal and vertical stabilizers, and the tail rotor
guard. It houses the tail rotor drive shaft and some electronic equipment.



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Landing Gear


Main Landing Gear: The main landing gear consists of two tubular aluminum skids
attached to the airframe by means of the forward and aft cross tubes through four air-
oil oleo struts. The struts cushion ground contact during landing.

Drag struts give the gear stability and strength and prevent fore and aft movement
during ground contact maneuvers. Due to their design, the drag struts will sustain
landings with significant forward movement of the helicopter; however, landing with
rearward movement may overload the structure and cause its collapse.

Replaceable hardened steel skid shoes are installed on each skid to resist skid wear on
hard surfaces.









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Ground Handling Wheels

Each landing gear skid tube has provisions for installing ground handling wheel
assemblies. Each skid has two lugs that the wheel assemblies are installed on. Each
assembly has a manually operated over-centering device to lift the skids clear of the
ground.

The ground handling wheels must be removed before flight.

When the helicopter is placed up on the wheels for ground movement, care must be
taken to support the tail hoop to prevent inadvertent contact with the ground. It is
advisable to place the tail rotor in the horizontal position to prevent damage to the tail
rotor blades in the event that the helicopter tips on to the tail as the wheels are
installed close to the helicopter center of gravity.




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Crew Compartment


The crew compartment contains the pilot and copilot/passenger seating, a complete set
of dual flight controls, a lower radio console, and an instrument panel all enclosed by
the composite cabin.





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Cabin Doors


The two cabin doors are composite reinforced structure with transparent plexiglass
windows in the upper section. Ventilation is supplied by sliding vent windows to draw
fresh air into the cabin. Positive retention door latches are used to secure the doors.

Cabin ventilation is provided by pop-out vents, sliding vent windows, a ram air
ventilation system or a bleed air heating system depending on the optional equipment
installed on the aircraft. There is also a ceiling mounted air circulation fan installed in
many 480Bs.

A Freon air-conditioning system is available for the 480Bs as optional equipment.






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Seats


The pilot and copilot/passenger seats are adjustable for fore and aft positioning and are
easily removed from the aircraft to facilitate maintenance on the seats or the cockpit
area. Both seats use a composite bucket mounted on a pedestal assembly. A four-
point restraint system with a release buckle, adjusters in the lap and shoulder belts, and
an inertia reel mounted on the back of the seat pedestal are an integral part of the
seat.

Passenger Seats: The passenger seats are mounted to the pylon assembly through
the cockpit bulkhead and fold up to the stowed position when not in use. The
passenger seats use a three-point automotive style single shoulder strap with an inertial
reel.



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Inertia Reel Shoulder Harness

An inertia reel and shoulder harness is incorporated in all seats. There is no
independent control to manually lock the harness. With the shoulder straps properly
adjusted, the reel strap will extend to allow the occupant to lean forward; however, the
reel automatically locks when the helicopter encounters an impact force of 2 to 3 "G"
deceleration. To release the lock, it is necessary to lean back slightly to release tension
on the lock.

If the Pilot and co-pilot shoulder straps are adjusted too loosely, the webbing splice will
catch in the slot in the top of the seat back. This has the effect of the shoulder harness
inertial reel locking up and preventing the crew member from leaning forward. For this
reason the shoulder straps must be adjusted so that the y splice is close to the seat
occupants neck.







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Engine Assembly


The TH-28/480 is equipped with an Allison designed, Rolls Royce built, 250-C20W free-
turbine, turboshaft engine rated at 420 SHP but derated in this installation to 285 SHP
for a five minute take-off rating, and 256 SHP for maximum continuous operation.

In the 480B, the engine is rated at 305 SHP for a five minute take-off rating and at 277
SHP continuous.

Refer to the Rolls Royce 250-C20 Operation and Maintenance Manual) for a complete
description of the engine assembly and its sub-components.



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AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS


ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS


Description - Starter/ Generator Systems


Rolls Royce helicopter engines are cycle limited (start limited). Overhaul of the hot
section, (mini-turbine) is required at 3000 starts or 1750 hours, which ever occurs first.
Because start counters can be inaccurate, it is recommended that the pilot keep careful
records of starts.

Most commercial operators keep a trip log which records: Date, hour meter, total
number of starts, pilot name and the purpose of the flight. For the pilot / owner, it is
worth considering removing the start counter and substituting a trip log in its place.




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Battery shelf, Master and Starter Relays and GPU Plug


The starter system is used to start the aircraft powerplant. Using either battery power
or external power and with the battery switch turned ON to supply electrical power to
the main electrical terminal strip, the starter system is engaged by pressing the start
switch located on the pilot's collective stick control head. When the start switch is
engaged, the start relay coil is energized and electrical power is supplied to the starter
side of the starter/generator and electrical power is supplied to the ignition exciter and
the start counter.




















The starter ignition lock is key operated and must be ON for power to be applied to the
starter-generator, ignition exciter, and the start counter. The starter/generator cannot
be engaged with the starter ignition lock in the OFF position. However, once the
helicopter is running, the key can be removed if necessary to access a door lock.

DO NOT FLY THE HELICOPTER WITH THE KEY IN THE OFF POSITION OR
WITH THE KEY REMOVED.



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The generator system is used to supply 28 Vdc electrical power to the main electrical
terminal strip and to recharge the battery after a battery powered start. The generator
system is controlled by the generator control unit (GCU). The GCU performs the
following functions: voltage regulation, overvoltage protection, reverse current
protection, over current protection, generator failure indication for the caution panel,
and generator field excitation.

The voltage regulator portion of the GCU can be adjusted. When the generator switch
is placed in the on position, the GCU connects the starter-generator to the main
electrical terminal strip via the generator relay. When the starter-generator is on-line,
the dual volt/ammeter monitors generator current output via the generator shunt.

Helicopters built after November 2007 incorporate a cooling duct that directs cooling air
from the transmission inlet scoop to the generator.




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GCU plug

The ground power plug is installed on the inside forward bulkhead of the
right side engine compartment just in front of the battery. Beginning in
2007 there is an optional access door available.








When the APU is being used to
assist starting the 480 helicopters, the battery switch must be in the on
position. It is important for the pilot to instruct the ground crew not to
disconnect the APU power untill after the start is completed and the pilot
gives the disconnect signal.

If the auxiliary power is being used to start an aircraft with a low battery,
serious engine damage can result if there is an interruption of electrical
supply.



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Description - Generator Control Unit (GCU)


The GCU, located on the bottom right hand side of the oil cooler/blower shelf, or under
the cabin floor after S/N 5043, performs the following functions: voltage regulation,
overvoltage protection, reverse current protection, over-current protection, generator
failure indication for the caution panel, and generator field excitation.




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At flight idle RPM and above, the voltage regulator portion of the GCU maintains the
correct generator output voltage by varying the generator field current. If the
generator voltage exceeds 32.0 Vdc .5 Vdc, the internal overvoltage sensor will cause
current to flow in the trip coil of the generator switch and trip the switch to the OFF
position. This removes the current from the generator field and power from the
generator relay-actuating coil, disconnecting the starter/generator from the main
electrical terminal strip.

The reverse current portion of the GCU de-energizes the generator relay when the
generator output voltage falls below the battery voltage.

The over-current protection circuitry will cause current to flow in the trip coil of the
generator switch when the generator maximum output current rating is continuously
exceeded for 10 seconds 2 seconds. This trips the generator switch to the off
position removing the current form the form the generator field and the power from the
generator relay-actuating coil. The circuitry in the GCU will illuminate the generator
caution light (DC GEN) in the caution panel any time the generator voltage is less than
the battery voltage, the generator switch is OFF, or the generator is not connected to
the main electrical terminal strip. The GCU will also flash the generator field circuitry if
required.


N1-N2-NR-TOT










The N1-N2-NR-TOT switch installed in the top right section of the instrument panel will
connect the N1, N2/NR and TOT gauges directly to the battery in the event of a
complete electrical power failure in the helicopter.






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CAUTI ON AND WARNI NG SYSTEMS



Description - Caution and Warning Systems

The caution system consists of a caution panel, two annunciator/switches (one on the
480), a test/dim switch, and 14 input circuits. The warning system consists of 3
individual warning lights and their associated input circuits.

The caution system is used to provide a visual indication that a fault condition has
occurred. The caution panel, located in the instrument panel, has 15 individual worded
segments which when illuminated identify specific fault conditions. When a fault
occurs, the associated segment on the caution panel illuminates and flashes at a 2 Hz
rate, and the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches, located on the left and right side
of the instrument panel, will illuminate and flash at the same rate.

When the fault is acknowledged by pressing the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switch,
the MASTER CAUTION light will extinguish and the fault on the caution panel will reset
to a steady (on) condition. As each fault condition occurs, it is indicated by the same
sequence of events as described above. Only a new fault will flash until it is
acknowledged. The MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches will only be illuminated by
faults associated with the caution panel; the warning system will not activate the
MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches.






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SEGMENT COLOR DESCRI PTION OF FAULT
ENG CHI P AMBER
Engine scavenge oil has ferrous metal
fragments
MAI N XMSN
CHI P
AMBER
Main transmission chip detector has
detected ferrous metal fragments
TAI L CHI P AMBER
Tail rotor gearbox chip detector has
detected ferrous metal fragments
ENG OI L TEMP AMBER
Engine oil temperature is above 107
degrees C
MAI N XMSN
HOT
AMBER
Main transmission oil temperature is above
107 degrees C
DRIVE BRG
HOT
AMBER
Either the fwd or aft lower pulley bearings
are above 120 degrees C
ENG OI L
PRESS
AMBER
Engine N
1
RPM is above 78.5% and engine
oil pressure is below 90 psi
ENG I NLET
AIR
AMBER
Engine inlet swirl tube particle separator
partially blocked
A/ F Filter AMBER Airframe fuel filter bypass is impending
DC GEN AMBER DC Generator failure
FUEL FI LTER AMBER Fuel filter bypass is impending
FUEL LOW
AMBER Less than 5 gallons remaining
ENG DEI CE GREEN Engine anti-ice has been activated
SPARE AMBER Unused segment



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Note: An optional external fuel filter can be installed on the TH-28 (S/N, 3007 and
subsequent) and the 480 (S/N, 5003 and subsequent). If the external filter is installed,
the SPARE segment on the caution panel will be connected to the impending bypass
switch incorporated in the filter assembly. The segment for the impending bypass will
be labeled A/F FILTER.

Note: The BATT HOT and BATT TEMP segments of the caution panel will only be
functional if an optional Nicad battery is installed.


Note: The ENG DEICE segment of the caution panel will not flash or cause the
MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switch to illuminate or flash. The SPARE segment of
the caution panel will not cause the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switch to illuminate
or flash.

Functional Test: Caution Panel


Place the caution panel test/dim switch in the TEST position. Check that the MASTER
CAUTION annunciator/switch is illuminated and flashing and that all the caution panel
segment lights are illuminated and with the exception of the ENG OIL PRESS, DC GEN,
ENG DEICE, and possible the FUEL LOW, all the segments are flashing. Release the
switch and reset the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches.

The ENG CHIP, MAIN XMSN CHIP, and TAIL CHIP segments should only be illuminated
for approximately 5 seconds and then extinguish due to programmed continuity sensors
in each detector circuit.

Reset the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches by pressing in on the
annunciator/switch. Check that the MASTER CAUTION annunciator/switches extinguish
and the illuminated caution panel segments are in a steady bright condition.










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Warning Systems

The warning system consists of three independent red warning lights located at the top
of the instrument panel. When each light is activated, it comes on steady and full
bright with no dimming capability. These lights are for conditions that require
immediate action.









LI GHTS COLOR DESCRI PTI ON OF FAULT

ROTOR RPM

RED

Main rotor RPM below 334 RPM

ENGINE OUT

RED

Engine N
1
below 58%

FIRE

RED

The fire detection system has detected either
a fire or an extreme overheat condition in
either the upper or lower engine
compartment.











ROTOR
RPM
ENGINE
OUT
FIRE



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Functional Tests - Warning System


Turn on the master switch:

Check that the ROTOR RPM and ENGINE OUT warning lights are illuminated and the
associated audio horns are not activated.

Place the place the caution panel test/dim switch in the TEST position and check that
the FIRE warning light illuminates. Release the switch.

Release the collective friction and raise the collective controls off of the down stop.
Check that the low rotor and engine out audio horns activate.

Run up the aircraft I/A/W the operator's manual. Check that the ENGINE OUT warning
light extinguishes when the N
1
passes through 58%.

Increase the power to bring the NR up to 334 rpm and check that the ROTOR RPM
warning light extinguishes at 334 1 rpm.

Place the caution panel test/dim switch in the TEST position and check that the ROTOR
RPM, ENGINE OUT, and FIRE warning lights illuminate. Release the switch.

Check the operation of the ROTOR RPM and ENGINE OUT warning lights during the
shutdown procedure



















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I ndicator Caution Activation

TORQUE

NO


Exceeds 72 PSI for 1 second

N1 TACH NO Exceeds 105%
TOT NO
Exceeds 10 seconds between 810 927C
during start.
Exceeds 810C for 5 seconds during normal
operations.
DC VOLTS NO Exceeds 30 Vdc for 5 seconds
DC AMPS NO Exceeds 110 amps for 5 seconds
ENG OIL TEMP YES* Exceeds 107C for 5 seconds
ENG OIL PRESS YES
Less than 50 PSI for 5 seconds
Exceeds 130 PSI for 5 seconds
XMSN OIL TEMP YES Exceeds 107C for 5 seconds
FUEL QTY YES** Less than 35 lbs for 5 seconds

* The caution panel monitors both N1 speed and engine oil pressure for controlling the
ENG OIL PRESS segment. The indicator caution activation only uses engine oil
pressure.

** The indicator panel is independent of the FUEL LOW segment in the caution panel.





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I NSTRUMENTS


Dual Tach





















The N2 (power turbine) RPM is generated by a tach generator mounted of the left side
of the engine accessory gearbox and the Rotor RPM is generated by a magnetic sensor
installed in the forward section of the MRGB.

The rotor and power turbine tachometer (dual tach) is a digital system powered by the
aircraft 28-volt electrical system.













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Rotor Limitations


Minimum Transient Rotor Speed

The minimum allowable transient rotor speed following engine failure or sudden power
reduction for practice forced landing is 300 RPM. This is a transient limit and positive
corrective action (lowering the collective) must be taken immediately by the pilot to
regain at least 334 RPM (minimum power off rotor RPM).



ROTOR

385 RPM

Red Radial

Max Power Off

334-385 RPM

Green Arc

Continuous Operation
(Including Autorotation)

334 RPM

Red Radial

Minimum Power OFF



POWER TURBINE


113% RPM

Red Arrowhead

15 Second Max Transient N2
See Flight Manual Page 1-16.2

103% RPM

Red Radial

Maximum N2 Continuous

101-103% RPM

Green Arc

Normal Operating Range

101% RPM

Red Radial

Minimum N2 Continuous





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Early 480B Beginning 2007


















Engine I nstruments

Description

Helicopters built during 2005, 20006 and 2007 are fitted with instrument gauges
supplied by Horizon/Ultra which incorporate a diagnostic check which is performed
when power is first switched on. The indicator light will start out red, and the needle
will swing to the full right position before settling at the correct reading. When the
diagnosis program is completed, the indicator lamp will also indicate correctly, red or
green, corresponding to the gauge reading.

Helicopters delivered after 2007 are supplied with the Ahlers gauges which have the
indicator lamp but which do not perform the needle swing function test procedure.







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Torque Indicator




TORQUEMETER

72 PSI

Red Radial

Max for Takeoff

65-72 PSI

Yellow Arc

5 Minute limit

0-65 PSI

Green Arc

Continuous operation

The engine torque indicator is a microprocessor based indicator which uses the signal
from an engine mounted pressure transducer to indicate engine power. The indicator is
powered by the aircraft electrical system through the TORQUE, or TRQ circuit breaker.

The Horizon/Ultra gauges microprocessor performs a power on self-test when power
initialized and monitor self reasonableness.

The Ahlers gauges do not incorporate the self-test function. Both types of torque
gauge incorporate a red indicator light that will illuminate when 72 PSI is exceeded for
1 second. (480B)


Oil Pressure/ Oil Temperature


The engine oil temperature and pressure indicator is a microprocessor based dual
indicator which uses a temperature bulb located in the engine oil reservoir for engine oil
temperature indications and a pressure transducer connected to the engine oil pressure
line on the engine.

The microprocessor in the indicator will illuminate the red indicator lights when the
engine oil temperature exceeds 107C for 5 seconds, the oil pressure is less than 50 PSI
for 5 seconds or the oil pressure exceeds 130 PSI for 5 seconds.




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TOT


The turbine outlet temperature (TOT) indicator is a microprocessor based instrument
that uses DC voltage through the TOT thermocouple harness to indicate the turbine
outlet temperature in degrees Celsius. The indicator receives and averages
temperature indications from four thermocouples mounted radially around the engine
between the N1(gas producer) and N2 (power turbine) sections of the turbine.

On the TH-28, and some 480 aircraft the TOT system is passive, and on the 480B the
TOT system is active. The active system requires aircraft power to be supplied for the
system to indicate. In the event of a main electrical buss failure, the instrument can be
driven directly from the aircraft battery by selecting BAT on the N1-N2-NR-TOT
switch.

The microprocessor in the indicator will illuminate the red indicator light when the
maximum TOT exceeds 10 seconds between 810C and 927C during the start, or if the
TOT exceeds 810C for 5 seconds during normal operations.



TURBI NE OUTLET TEMPERATURE


927C

Red Diamond

Maximum Temperature, (1 Sec-Starting Only)

843C

Red Arrowhead

Maximum Transient Limit, (10 Sec on Start)

810-843C



Maximum 6 Sec during transient power only

810C

Red Radial

Maximum starting and takeoff (5 minutes)

737-810C

Yellow Arc

Maximum 5 Minutes

0-737C

Green Arc

Continuous Operation




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Transmission Oil Temperature

The transmission oil temperature indicator is a microprocessor based instrument that
displays transmission oil temperature in degrees Celsius by means of an electrical
resistance type temperature bulb which is located on the left front bottom of the main
rotor transmission. The microprocessor will illuminate the red indicator light in the
instrument when the transmission oil temperature exceeds 107C for 5 seconds.


Gas Producer Tachometer (N1)

The gas producer Tachometer,(N1 Gauge) is a microprocessor based indicator that
uses AC voltage produced by the right side tach generator to indicate the N1 turbine
speed in terms of percent RPM. The microprocessor in the indicator will light the red
light when the N1 speed exceeds 105%. The 480B systems are active which requires
that they be powered by the aircraft electrical system. In the event of a main electrical
buss failure, the instrument can be driven directly from the aircraft battery by selecting
BAT on the N1-N2-NR-TOT switch.


Fuel Quantity

The fuel quantity system is a capacitance type quantity indicating system and consists
of a fuel quantity indicator, a signal conditioner, and a fuel quantity probe. The
instrument is a microprocessor based unit that compensates for the non-linear shape of
the fuel tank to maintain accuracy between the full fuel and the empty fuel quantity
readings. The red light in the indicator will light if the fuel quantity indicates less than
35 lbs for 5 seconds.

The right fuel tank has a float switch that activates the low fuel light on the annunciator
panel when the fuel level reaches between 5 and 8 gallons fuel remaining. The light on
the annunciator panel and the light in the instrument are not interconnected.









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Hour Meter

The hour meter, located in the left side of the center pedestal records helicopter flight
time. It is activated when the engine is running through an oil pressure switch when
the collective is raised and therefore records helicopter time off the ground.

There is a second optional hour meter available that records time anytime that the
engine is running through the oil pressure switch.

Start Counter

The Rolls Royce helicopter engines are start limited (cycle limited). The hot section of
the engine must be overhauled at 3000 cycles or 1750 hours, which ever occurs first.

The start counter is located in the left side of the center pedestal and it records each
time that the starter button is activated to track engine cycles. Any time that the
engine is motored without the intention of making an engine start, the IGN EXCITE
circuit breaker should be pulled to avoid recording a cycle on the start counter.


Airspeed Indicator/ Altimeter/ VSI

The pitot system is connected to the airspeed indicator and the forward static system is
connected to the airspeed, altimeter, and VSI.

There are 4 static ports on the 480 series aircraft. The forward two static ports are
connected to the instruments, and the two on the tail cone are reference air for the
Engine Inlet Air Caution Segment pressure differential pressure switch.

The forward two static ports have a set of vortex generators that correct the airflow
past the vent.




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Flight Instruments

















Airspeed Indicator



AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS


125 Kts

Red Line

Max Power On Vne

85Kts

Barber Pole

Max Autorotation Vne



Note: In order to avoid excessive rates of descent in autorotation, it is recommended
that autorotation speeds be limited to 85 KIAS or Vne, whichever is lower.








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ROTOR SYSTEMS

Main Rotor

The main rotor system is a three bladed, high inertia, fully articulated rotor system.
The main rotor hub assembly is composed of two opposing forged aluminum hub plates
separated by an aluminum cylindrical spacer. Through bolts hold these items together
along with steel spline adapters.

Three steel universal blocks are mounted on roller bearing units that permit flapping
and lead-lag motions. Laminated phenolic pads are used to limit blade travel in both
the lead-lag and flapping axes. A thrust nut on the bottom of each universal block
transfers vertical blade forces to both hub plates through the universal block.








Dampers
480B Hub



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The rotor blades are secured to
each universal block on the hub
through a forged aluminum grip
which is in turn secured to a steel
spindle assembly through a retention nut or an optional tension-torsion strap assembly
and supporting bearings. On some of the early 480s, centrifugal blade loads are carried
by Lamiflex elastomeric bearing assemblies. On most of the 480 series aircraft and the
480Bs, tension-torsion strap assemblies mounted between the blade grip and the
spindle are used.

Closed circuit hydraulic dampers are incorporated between each flapping pin and the
rotor hub to limit the lead-lag velocity of the blades. Because the hydraulic dampers
have no centering spring, they are quite limber; this, coupled with the large heavy
blades causes the ground rock that is often experienced while the helicopter rotor
system is spooling up.

A single retention pin connects the
blade root to the grip and a non-
adjustable drag brace connects the
trailing edge of the blade to the grip.














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The main rotor blades are of hollow construction
consisting of an extruded leading edge spar, with a 7-
degree twist, to which is bonded upper and lower
aluminum skins. The blade root is composed of a
bonded doubler assembly.

A cap is bonded to the tip of each blade in which there
are provisions for spanwise and cordwise balance
weights. Two tracking tabs are riveted to the trailing
edge of each blade.





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Tail Rotor Assembly


The tail rotor assembly is a two
bladed, wide cord, teetering, delta
hinged rotor assembly.

The flyweights on the blade retention plates unload the tail rotor twisting forces in flight
so that the pilot does not need to carry left pedal in cruse power settings. They are
weighted so that when the aircraft is being flown at approximately 50lbs torque, the
pedals are neutralized and the slip ball centered.

For this reason, the aircraft requires very little left pedal in hover and in climb, and
significant right pedal in low power situations.







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Tail Rotor Guard


A tubular aluminum tail rotor guard is installed on the aft end of the tailcone. It acts as
a warning to the pilot upon an inadvertent tail-low landing and aids in protecting the tail
rotor from damage while the helicopter is on the ground.












IMPORTANT!

The tail rotor guard will not prevent damage to the tail rotor in the event of a tail rotor
strike during a hard landing or auto-rotation flare.



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FUEL SYSTEM




















Description

The fuel system consists of two 45-gallon bladder type fuel cells mounted on either side
of the main rotor transmission. Each cell is housed in a composite fuel cell structure
and is interconnected to the other fuel cell through a 2" (51mm) fuel crossover line in
the lower forward corner of the fuel cell and a " (13mm) overboard vent crossover
line located at the top of each fuel cell.




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The " (19mm) main fuel supply lines, located at the lowest point in each fuel cell,
interconnect at a "tee" to supply fuel to the engine equally from each fuel cell. The
main fuel shutoff valve is incorporated onto the "tee" and is manually operated from the
cockpit.

Each fuel cell is equipped with sump drains plus the system is equipped with a low point
drain at the fuel shutoff valve. A capacitance fuel quantity probe and a low fuel-
warning switch are mounted in the right hand fuel cell.

The refueling port is located in the top of the left hand fuel cell. The right hand fuel cell
is filled by crossfeeding action during refueling.






















On the 480 series aircraft the fuel cells are filled with blue/green open cell foam. The
purpose of this foam is to help maintain the shape of the cell as the fuel is used and to
prevent the fuel from sloshing around in the tank.

If the fuel nozzle contacts the plastic tube during servicing, it can push the plastic tube
down into the foam or it can dislodge some of the blue / green foam inside the tank
which will then show up in the fuel sumps for a short while.
Blue Foam
Plastic tube to
measure fuel
quantity



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NOTE: Pilots are encouraged to advise line personnel to take care to not
push the fuel nozzle into the tank so that the plastic tube and foam are
disturbed.


To physically measure the fuel level in the tanks. A dip stick can be inserted through the
fuel filler opening and into the clear plastic tube that penetrates into the foam. The top
reference line on the dipstick must be held against the filler opening. The fuel level can
be read in pounds and gallons on the stick.

The fuel quantity display system consists of a capacitance probe and a quantity-
indicating gauge.

Fuel management can be assisted with the use of a fuel flow monitoring system.


If the aircraft is equipped with a fuel flow measuring system, the actual fuel level must
be entered into the computer manually each time the aircraft is fueled.

It is recommended that the fuel level verified before the actual quantity is entered into
the fuel flow totalizer.



I MPORTANT!

Note: Avoid using anti-icing/biocidal additives packaged in aerosol cans. Failure to
exactly follow the additive mixing procedure during refueling can result in incorrect
additive concentrations, fuel system contamination, and possible engine stoppage.






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POWER TRAI N





















Description - Power Train

The power train includes the main rotor transmission, upper pulley, "H"- strut, lower
pulley, lower pulley drive shaft, drive belt, overrunning clutch, power output drive shaft,
tail rotor drive shafts, and the tail rotor transmission.














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Drive System
















Lower Pulley Drive System


The lower pulley drive system consists of the lower pulley drive shaft and hub, lower
pulley, "H"- strut, and flex pack couplings. The lower pulley drive shaft, located in the
hollow center of the lower pulley assembly, is connected to the power output shaft and
the lower pulley assembly with couplings.

The lower pulley shaft is also used to drive the oil cooler blower fan by means of a hub
attached to the aft end of the lower pulley drive shaft. The lower pulley has two
positioning links attached to the right side of the bearing housings. The links are used
to laterally align the lower pulley to the engine.








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Thermocouples are installed in the lower pulley bearing housings to provide
temperature input for the drive bearing hot caution panel segment (DRIVE BRG HOT).


The "H"- strut, used to tension the drive belt, is connected to the lower pulley and to
the pinion bearing support truss and the main rotor transmission at the upper end. The
flex pack couplings consist of multiple thin stainless steel plates bolted to the drive
flanges. The flex pack couplings will allow up to 1.5 of misalignment between the
power output shaft and the lower pulley drive shaft.



I MPORTANT!

Note: Alignment of the lower pulley drive shafts is critical to the integrity of the drive
system. If the Belt tension adjustment is turned a total of turn, the drive system
alignment must be checked.



There is a component page in the airframe log book to record adjustments to the belt
tension and lower pulley alignment.



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Description - Overrunning Clutch

The overrunning clutch is installed on
the front side of the engine accessory
gearbox. The outer housing of the
overrunning clutch forms the driving
portion of the clutch and is driven by
the engine power output shaft.

In the driving direction, the sprags engage and connect the outer housing to an inner
drive housing which transmits the engine torque to a splined drive shaft that passes
through the center of the engine power output shaft and the outer housing of the
clutch assembly to the rear of the engine accessory gearbox where it is coupled to the
lower pulley drive shaft.


Output Shaft

In the overrunning direction, the inner drive shafting, being driven by the rotor system,
will rotate faster than the outer housing of the overrunning clutch and the sprags will
disengage thus disconnecting the engine from the rotor drive system. The overrunning
clutch is a sealed unit and contains its own lubrication separate from the engine.

Overrunning
Clutch




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Oil level Sight Glass


There is a sight glass installed on the forward end of the overrunning clutch (SDB
T-027). The level of the oil in the overrunning clutch should be performed during pre-
flight and if an air bubble is present, the clutch should be serviced before flight.





















The flight hours should be recorded at each service of the overrunning clutch and if the
clutch requires service earlier than each 20 hours of use, Enstrom recommends
investigating the engine for double-lip seal leakage.










Sight Glass



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FLI GHT CONTROLS


Note: the pilot controls are normally on the left side in a 480 and on the right side in a
TH28.


The flight controls include three primary systems: the collective, cyclic, and anti-torque
or directional controls. The aircraft also has fixed horizontal and vertical stabilizers
mounted on the tailcone to provide additional stability and attitude control during high-
speed flight.








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Collective Control System





















The collective control system is comprised of dual collective controls mechanically
interconnected and linked to the main rotor swashplate through a series of push-pull
tubes, a torque tube, a bellcrank, and a collective walking beam at the base of the main
rotor transmission.

Both collective controls have interconnected twist grip throttles and a switch box
mounted forward of the throttles. The pilots collective incorporates the landing light
controls, N
2
power turbine governor increase/decrease (GOV INCR/DECR) switch
(governor beeper), and the engine starter switch.


The copilot's collective switch box only has two switches; a landing light attitude control
switch, and a N
2
power turbine governor increase/decrease (GOV INCR/DECR) switch.








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The pilot's collective control incorporates a collective friction system located on the
collective control. The collective friction system consists of a simple stop bracket that
incorporates both the up and down collective stops and a knob/lever assembly used to
clamp two friction disks to the stop bracket

Idle Detent
Button
Starter
Button
Throttle
Landing Light Angle
Adjustment
Governor
Beeper
Landing
Light
Switch



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Collective Friction


















When the Friction lever is moved to the horizontal position by rotating the knob/lever
assembly 90 degrees in the forward direction, the friction is fully applied.

The control may be positioned in any intermediate position for any desired level of
friction. The collective friction system is designed so that positive locking of the
collective controls cannot be obtained at the maximum friction point. Safety of flight
considerations require that the pilot be able to instantly overcome the established
friction without any further pilot action to adjust it in the case of engine failure.

Collective control forces are reduced by means of a collective trim system located aft of
the collective bellcrank in the engine compartment. The collective trim system consists
of a spring capsule, bracketry, and an adjusting link.










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Cyclic Control System




Description




Note: The cyclic control system is a
fully mechanical control system which
is linked to the swashplate through a
series of interconnected push-pull
tubes, a torque tube, and bellcranks.
Both longitudinal and lateral control
systems are totally independent with
no intermixing before the individual
inputs reach the swashplate.












Non-rotating control inputs are transmitted to the rotating controls via a universal joint
type swashplate at the base of the transmission. Inputs are mixed at the swashplate
and transmitted through a set of three push-pull tubes though the center of the mast to
pitch change walking beams at the top of the hub. The motion is then transmitted
through pitch change links to the blade pitch horns located on the leading edge of each
blade.






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The aircraft is equipped with a cyclic stick, located directly in front of the pilot seats.
The switches mounted on the cyclic grip assembly are all non-functional (before the
installation of optional equipment) except the four way toggle switch at the top center
of the grip, used to control the four way cyclic trim system. The cyclic trim system
maintains the position of the cyclic control stick and reduces rotor feedback to zero.

Cyclic Grip


























Trim Switch
Freq. Transfer
Radio & Intercom
Transmit Switch
Transponder
Ident.



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Cyclic Trim


The system consists of a cyclic trim switch located at the top of each cyclic grip, a pair
of electrically operated jack screw actuators that vary spring tension produced by the
longitudinal and lateral trim units, and a pair of trim switch units which reverse the
direction of the current operating the actuators.


The cyclic trim switches each have five positions which are: normally OFF in the center,
and momentary FORWARD, AFT, LEFT, AND RIGHT. Both trim mechanisms include an
electrically operated reversible motor and a cylindrical spring assembly connected to the
cyclic control linkage and both are mounted on the cabin bulkhead in the upper engine
compartment.

When a trim switch is moved off of center to any one of the four trim directions, power
applied through the TRIM circuit breaker energizes one of the trim motors to apply trim
spring force in the desired direction. By momentarily moving the switch, very small trim
increments may be obtained.

Trim force cannot be applied in two directions simultaneously; when both longitudinal
and lateral trim corrections are desired, it is necessary to apply first one and then the
other. The cyclic trim system does not limit travel of the cyclic control; the pilot may
override the trim forces at any time.




















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POWER PLANT

Description

The Enstrom TH-28 and 480 series helicopters utilize an Allison designed, Rolls Royce
built 250-C20W reverse-flow freepower-turbine turbo-shaft engine. The engine
maximum rating is 420 shaft horsepower. In the 480B, the engine is rated at 277
shaft horsepower continuous and 305 shp for 5 minutes. This is a transmission based
limitation.

In the TH28 and early 480 aircraft, the engine is derated to 256 shaft horsepower
maximum continuous power and 285 shp for 5-minutes.









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Engine Compartment Cooling


The engine and transmissions are cooled by a fan cast into the transmission pulley.
There is a baffle installed at the bottom of the transmission to separate the engine
compartment from the transmission compartment. Beginning on helicopters delivered
in 2008 and on helicopters that have the high temperature modification installed, the
baffle has been removed.

The fan pulls air through the transmission and engine area and over the transmission oil
cooler tubes to cool the MRGB oil.

The engine oil is cooled by a fan installed just forward of the baggage compartment
which draws air in to a vent on the left side forward of the baggage compartment door,
through the fan, and out through the oil cooler on the right side of the helicopter.

Beginning on helicopters
delivered in 2008,
additional ventilation holes
have been added in the
lower engine cowl panels
and the bottom engine
cover access hole has been
opened up to assist in
engine cooling.
















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The high temperature cooling kit also includes ventilated engine side cowls which raises
the maximum operational ambient air temperature from 106F (41C) to 122F (50C).









































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Air Induction System


The upper plenum chamber is equipped with dual full flow swirl tube inertial type
particle separators. Engine inlet air is directed into the upper plenum chamber through
a series of swirl tubes which impart a centrifugal spin to the air as it enters the tubes,
thereby inertially separating the heavier foreign matter.

The particulate matter falls down into a collector and is then purged overboard through
one of two bleed air driven venturi-type ejectors that exit at the aft side of the upper
plenum. Operation of the scavenge ejectors is manually controlled by a handle
mounted in the cockpit.

During takeoff, hovering, or cruise operations in dusty atmospheric conditions the bleed
air shutoff valve can be opened by placing the SCAV AIR control handle in the ON
position. The inlet air moves from the upper plenum chamber to the lower plenum
chamber via two (2) transfer ducts located on either side of the aircraft.

Note: Use of the engine Anti-ice and Scavenge Air will increase the TOT. The engine
may not deliver rated power when they are engaged.

The lower plenum chamber is mounted directly behind the engine and is connected to
the engine by a bell mouth inlet. The inlet is attached to the engine and a foam-rubber
gasket on the inlet provides the seal between the inlet and the lower plenum chamber.
The lower plenum chamber has drain holes located at its lowest point to drain any
moisture that might happen to accumulate during operation or while the engine is not
running.

A fitting is also installed in the left side for connection to the ENG
INLET AI R caution light differential pressure switch.

Engine Oil System


The engine oil system consists of an engine oil reservoir, oil cooler, blower assembly;
scavenge oil filter, and connecting lines and fittings. The oil reservoir is located on the
right side of the engine compartment and is accessible through the right side engine
access panel.



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Care must be taken to be sure that the cap is straight and flush before it is
latched to prevent leakage.

The oil cooler is located on the right side of the aircraft and is accessible through the oil
cooler access panel. The scavenge oil filter with an integral impending bypass pop-out
indicator, located at the bottom of the filter bowl, is located on the right side of the
aircraft and is accessible through the step access panel, and the right engine access
panel.

The blower assembly is located aft of the lower drive pulley. The assembly consists of
a fan mounted on a drive shaft which is mounted on a platform, a connecting drive
shaft between the lower pulley and the fan drive shaft, and air intake and exhaust
ducts.




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OPERATIONAL PROCEEDURES

AI RCRAFT SERVI CI NG

Fuel

Approved Standard, Alternate, and Emergency Fuels


TYPE

SPECI FI CATI ON

LI MI TATI ONS

Primary

MIL-T-5624 J P-4 & J P-5,
MIL-T-83133 J P-8, ASTM
D-1655 J et B, J et A, and
A1 (See note 1 below)

J P-1, Diesel #1, or Arctic
Diesel DF-A (VV-F-800B)
conforming to ASTM D-
1655, J et A or
J et A1






With anti ice additive
conforming to MIL-I-27886


Emergency

MIL-G-5572E AVGAS
(without TCP)

All Grades, Maximum 6 hours
operation per overhaul period.

With anti ice additive

Cold Weather
MIL-T-5624 J P-4 ASTM D-
1655 J et B Avgas-J et fuel
mixture
(See note 2 below)




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Note 1: All fuels used in the TH-28/480 shall contain Anti-icing and Biocidal Additive
conforming to MIL-I-27686. The additive provides anti-icing protection and also
functions as a biocide to microbial growths in helicopter fuel systems. Icing inhibitor
conforming to MIL-I-27686 shall be added to all commercial fuel, not already containing
an icing inhibitor, during refueling operations, regardless of the ambient temperatures.
Refueling operations shall be accomplished in accordance with accepted commercial
procedures. Commercial product "PRIST" conforms to MIL-I-27686.

Note 2: The AVGAS-jet fuel mixture is an alternate fuel which may be used if starting
problems are encountered in areas where J P-4 or commercial J et B cannot be obtained.
The mixture shall be one part by volume AVGAS to two parts by volume commercial jet
fuel. The AVGAS shall conform to MIL-G-5572C, grade 80/87, or grade 100/130 with a
maximum of 2.0 ml/gal lead content. Do Not use grade 100/130 with 4.6 ml/gal lead
content. (The 2.0 ml/gal max. lead content grade 100/130 AVGAS is known as 100L in
European areas). The commercial jet fuel may be kerosene; J P-5 or commercial J et A
conforming to MIL-T-5624, grade J P-5 or ASTM D-1655, J et A or A1.

IMPORTANT!
Note: Avoid using anti-icing/biocidal additives packaged in aerosol cans. Failure to
exactly follow the additive mixing procedure during refueling can result in incorrect
additive concentrations, fuel system contamination, and possible engine stoppage





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Engine Lubrication Oils

Note: Rolls Royce recommends not mixing oils within a series unless absolutely
necessary.

Warning: Mixing of oils from different series is not permitted. (MIL-L-7808 or MIL-L-
23699). Refer to the Rolls Royce 250-C20 series operation and maintenance manual.

Approved Domestic Commercial Oils for MI L-L-7808

Manufacturer Manufacturers Designation
American Oil American PQ Turbine Oil 8365
Brayco Oil Brayco 880H
EXXON Company EXXON Turbo Oil 2389
Mobil Oil Mobil Avrex S Turbo 256, Mobil RM-201A
Mobil Oil Mobil RM-184A
Stauffer Chemical Stauffer J et 1


MIL-PRF-23699F Series High Thermal Stability (HTS)

Manufacturer Manufacturers Designation
Royal Lubricants Company Aeroshell / Royco Turbine Oil 254
Shell International Petroleum Co. Aeroshell Turbine Oil 560
Mobil Oil Mobil J et Oil 254



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Approved Domestic Commercial Oils for MIL-PRF-23699
(Formerly MIL-23699)

Manufacturer Manufacturers Designation
Mobil Oil Mobil J et II
NYCO S.A. Turbonycoil 600 (TN600)
Royal Lubricants Company Aeroshell / Royco Turbine Oil 500
EXXON Company EXXON TURBO OIL 2380
Stauffer Chemical Staufer J et 11 (Castrol 205)
Caltex Petrolium Corp. Caltrex RPM J et Engine Oil 5
Chevron International Oil. Co. Cheveron J et Engine Oil 5
American Oil and Supply Co. American PQ Lubricants 6700
Castrol Inc. BRAYCO 899
Hatcol HATCOL 3211
Air BP Air BP BPTO 2380




WARNING; ONLY DISCRETIONARY MIXING OF OILS WITHIN AN OIL SERIES IS
PERMITTED WITHOUT A TIME PENALTY. SEE THE ROLLS ROYCE
MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION.





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PERFORMANCE DATA

The following general conditions are applicable to the performance data:

1. All airframe and engine controls are assumed to be rigged within allowable
tolerances.
2. Normal pilot technique is assumed, control movements should be smooth and
continuous.
3. No two aircraft are exactly the same; however variations are considered to be
small and cannot be individually accounted for.
4. The data presented presumes that all instruments and systems have been
properly maintained, are in proper working condition and are calibrated.

Torque Available

The torque available chart shows the effects of altitude and temperature on engine
power available. The primary use of the chart is to provide the pilot information on
the maximum power available either as a function of the helicopter limits or the
flight conditions.

Operation of the engine anti-ice, scavenge-air or bleed air will result in higher TOT,
N1 speed and fuel flow. Because the engine is de-rated and torque limited, torque
will normally be the limiting consideration, however in some conditions TOT or N1
may approach operational limits and limit the power available.

See table 4-1 in the RFM for exact information as to the effects of engine bleed air
usage on performance.

By using maximum torque available chart, and the hover chart, the pilot can
determine the power margin for an intended operation.











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Hover Performance






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Cruise Performance























The cruse performance charts show the torque pressure and fuel flow for level flight at
various pressure altitudes, airspeeds and gross weights. The two charts on the page are
not connected together. To obtain the expected fuel flow, knowing the torque, the left
chart must be used to obtain the airspeed. This airspeed is then entered into the chart
on the right and the fuel flow can be obtained. There are charts for sea level, 3000,
6000, and 9000 feet pressure altitude.




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Power Assurance Check

The power assurance chart provides the pilot with a method to assure that the installed
engine will provide the expected power required to achieve the performance presented
in the RFM and also to monitor the engine performance over time.

The pilot should come to a stabilized hover, record the pressure altitude, OAT, Torque
and TOT, and then land and plot the actual data on this power assurance chart. If the
actual TOT is less than or equal to the TOT determined from this chart, then the
helicopter be expected to achieve the pre-flight calculated performance for the flight.

The conditions for using this chart are 103% N2 engine RPM, and 372 rotor RPM at a
stable hover. It may be necessary to hover for at least 2 minutes to allow the engine to
completely stabilize before taking engine performance numbers

During a hover, The TOT, Torque, Pressure Altitude (29.92), and Temperature are
recorded. These parameters can be plotted on the Power Assurance chart to see that
engine is performing within the recommended parameters.

If the actual TOT reading is higher than the calculated TOT of the Engine Power
Assurance Chart in the TH-28/480 Operators Manual and pilot error has been ruled
out, the engine will not meet the performance figures called out in the Performance
Data section of the TH-28/480 Operators Manual.

Turbine engines normally degrade or lose power through engine operation (Refer to the
Trend Check Procedure section of the Rolls Royce 250-C20 Operation and Maintenance
Manual for further information). A gradual increase in TOT that is above the normal
engine degradation trend line is normally caused by a dirty compressor.

Performing a compressor wash will usually return the TOT indications to the normal
engine degradation trend line.

If the actual TOT readings significantly increase or decrease over a short
period of time, a potential problem may exist with the engine or an airframe
system.




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Height Velocity Diagram










































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Engine



Engine Power Controls

The engine power control system is a mechanical linkage/ cable system, actuated by a
twist-grip on the collective sticks, which provides manual control of the power lever on
the fuel control unit.

A flight idle stop located above the throttle twist grip is incorporated in the pilot's
collective stick. The stop prevents the engine power setting from being reduced below
the flight idle position causing an accidental engine shutdown. The release does not
have to be pushed for engine start or run-up but does have to be pushed for engine
shutdown. Rolling the throttle back past the stop has the effect of shutting off the fuel
flow to the engine, thereby shutting it down.




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An electrically operated linear actuator operates a lever connected to the power turbine
governor. The linear actuator controls the power turbine (N
2
) RPM and is operated via
the GOVN INCR/DECR switch located on the control box on the collective sticks.

A droop compensation system is incorporated to stabilize N
2
RPM as the engine load
fluctuates with changes in the main rotor pitch. It consists of a series of linkages and
bellcranks that connect the collective control to the governor on the engine an
accumulator that is installed in the engine PC system. The linkage is designed in such a
way as to cause the governor to anticipate the requirement for increases or decreases
in power requirements to help prevent the rotor speed from lagging behind the pilot
inputs.

The accumulator in the PC lines acts as a spring and dampens out the governor
reaction to smooth the power changes.

Understanding the operation of and the relationship between the governor and the fuel
control will help prevent the pilot from getting into some situations which can lead to
accidents.

The governor reads the N2 RPM (output-shaft speed of the engine) and schedules the
fuel to the fuel control to keep the N2 speed, (also the rotor speed) constant. The
governor is sensing RPM and will always attempt to maintain this RPM. Because
turbine engines take some time to spool up, the purpose of the droop compensator is
to lead the pilot-control inputs to compensate for this time lag.

It is important that the pilot understands that the governor reacts to and compensates
for changes in the N2 (Rotor Speed), and that both changes in collective and tail rotor
inputs will affect N2. However, the droop compensator system is only connected to the
collective and not to the tail rotor, so there are possible situations where large left tail
rotor inputs can spike the torque as the governor tries to react to, and compensate for
changes in the Main Rotor RPM. The engine will not respond to a tail rotor input until
the main rotor RPM (N2) changes, so there may be a lag in the engine response.


I MPORTANT!

Closing the throttle during autorotations can result in situations where the governor
cannot react to the pilot inputs with the resulting loss of the aircraft.




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During autorotation, and especially in the flare, the rotor RPM will be on the high end of
the scale. Especially if the throttle has been closed, the governor will try to react to this
high Rotor RPM by scheduling back the fuel to the fuel control in an effort to slow the
rotor. So at the maximum point of the flare, just as the pilot needs to roll the throttle
back on for the recovery, the governor is still trying to slow the rotor by cutting back
the fuel!

When the pilot rolls the throttle back on, the N1 will be slow, and due to the lag in the
turbine engine, there may not be enough time to power up for a successful recovery.
As the blade RPM decays, the pilot will need to add more left pedal, and of course this
only aggravates a bad situation! The addition of left pedal drags the rotor RPM down
even more.

When the governor does react to the rotor RPM which is now low due to the
autorotation recovery and the addition of left tail rotor pedal, the governor is behind
and the result is a spike in torque as it tries to catch up.

Enstrom Helicopter recommends that the throttle not be rolled off during practice
autorotations. The pilot should begin a power recovery by increasing collective pitch
slightly during the flare to give the engine a jump start on delivering the power that will
be needed in the recovery.

Allowing the helicopter to drift forward, at least one rotor diameter during the
autorotation recovery will assist in keeping the helicopter in clean air and will
dramatically reduce the torque necessary for the recovery







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Starting Procedures



I MPORTANT!

Note: During a start the throttle must never be advanced out of the fuel off position
until after the starter has been energized and the desired cranking speed has been
attained




Hot Starts

For the most part, hot starts are a result of not enough air passing through the engine
when fuel is added. Usually this is a result of either a low battery or improper
starting procedure.


Low Battery

The C-20 engine requires starter assistance to boost the acceleration through the start
sequence. The starter will accelerate the engine to a maximum of 20% on its own.

The engine will not accelerate past about 30% without the assistance of the starter so
there are two consequences of low battery.

1. The engine does not achieve enough RPM before light-off and the TOT
exceeds the manufactures limits due to insufficient air flow.

2. The engine hangs in the 30 % range and wont carry through. (This can also
be the result of an overheated starter) (Also known as a stagnated start)










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Starting procedures

There are three or four common procedures in general use for starting Rolls Royce 250
C-20 B and W series, engines. Any of these procedures that the pilot is comfortable
with can be used for starting the Enstrom 480 helicopters. The pilot needs to be aware
that due to the design of the 480 collective throttle and detent system, if the throttle is
rolled off and held against the idle stop detent position, the detent button cannot be
depressed. Pressure against the detent position must be relieved before the detent
button can be depressed.

The following procedure is an alternate method of starting the helicopter that can be
used that will alleviate the difficulty of depressing the detent button to roll of the
throttle and aborting a start in the event that the TOT temperatures are not within
acceptable tolerances. NOTE

The starting sequence on the C-20-W engine with the Bendix fuel control is
completely automatic. The only action that the operator can effect is to shut
off the fuel and terminate the start. Opening the throttle further to speed
the acceleration or even opening the throttle fully has no effect. (Until the
engine reaches 58%)

The reason for not opening the throttle to the detent during the start is that
in the case of a hot-start, if the operator is holding the throttle pressure
against the detent button, it can be difficult or impossible to depress the lock
button and abort the start. Also, not passing the detent position gives the
instructor in the co-pilot seat the ability to abort the start in case the student
does not recognize an impending hot start.

If the throttle is advanced past the idle position before the engine reaches
58%, there will be a surge in torque as the engine passes 58% that might be
uncontrollable. This is because the governor is sensing that the operating
RPM is less than the throttle position is calling for and it will schedule full
fuel to catch up. The C-20 engine will develop maximum torque at situations
where the RPM is low and increasing.









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Recommended starting procedure follows

1. Master on
2. Check TOT (Do not initiate the start unless the TOT is 150C or less)
3. Open the throttle past the cut-off detent and then close it back to the full
off position. (Again, past the detent)
4. Press the starter button and when the Ni reaches 12% begin to slowly open
the throttle.
5. When the engine starts, stop turning the throttle
6. (If the engine does not start within 3 seconds, close the throttle to the full
shut off position, release the starter button, allow the system to drain and
start again.)
7. After the engine TOT peaks, tweak the throttle open just a bit to prevent
inadvertent shut-down.
8. When the N1 reaches 58% carefully advance the throttle until the detent
button pops up.
9. Allow the N2 to reach a maximum indication and stabilize, and then turn on
the generator.
10. Monitor N1 and TOT when turning the generator switch on. If N1 decays
below 60% or TOT approaches 750C, turn the generator off and increase
N1 speed with the throttle to 70% and reset the generator switch to on.
11. Wait for the charging amperage to decrease to below 50 amps and turn on
the Avionics Master Switch.
12. Do not exceed 40PSI torque while rolling the N2 RPM to 98%.



I MPORTANT!

Note: If the throttle detent button pops up before light off, or before peak
TOT is reached, push and hold it down until after peak has been passed.












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Recommended procedure for starting the engine when warm or hot

1 Master on
2 Check TOT (Do not initiate the start unless the TOT is 150C or less)
7 Engage the starter button and motor the engine while watching the TOT. When
the TOT has reached 150C, slowly open the throttle.
8 During the cooling period, the pilot should also monitor the N1. Normally, if the
TOT was higher than 150C, the N1 will reach more than 15% before the TOT is
at 150C.
7 After the engine starts, stop opening the throttle.
8 After the TOT peaks, tweak the throttle open just a bit more to prevent
inadvertent shut-down.
9 When the N1 reaches 58% carefully advance the throttle until the detent button
pops up.
10 Allow the N2 to reach a maximum indication and stabilize, and then turn on the
generator.
11 Monitor N1 and TOT when turning the generator switch on. If N1 decays below
60% or TOT approaches 750C, turn the generator off and increase N1 speed
with the throttle to 70% and reset the generator switch to on.
12 Wait for the charging amperage to decrease to below 50 amps and turn on the
generator. Do not exceed 40PSI torque while rolling the N2 RPM to 98%.
13 Do not exceed 40PSI torque while rolling the N2 RPM to 98%.




I MPORTANT!

Note: If the throttle detent button pops up before light off, or before peak TOT is
reached, push and hold it down until after peak has been passed.




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Hung Starts. (Stagnated Starts)


A stagnated start occurs when the engine stops accelerating before it reaches 58% N1.
If this occurs in the 20 to 30% range it is most likely due to a cold soaked engine. In
this case, waiting five minutes and reinitiating the start will usually be successful as
sitting allows the engine to warm from the initial light off. If it occurs in the 40 to 50%
range during the first start of the day, it is usually a scheduling problem in the fuel
control and is field adjustable.

If a stagnated start is experienced, shut down, wait 5 minutes and repeat the
start procedure.

The start should be complete in one minute: however, if N1 and N2 are
accelerating and TOT is within limits, the start may be continued longer than
one minute.

The engine will have warmed up by the second start and will operate normally. IF the
subsequent warm starts are cool enough, the start-acceleration can be clicked up one
notch and the cold start checked at the next flight.

Dramatic changes in altitude or temperature may necessitate occasional readjustments
of the start-acceleration.

Rolls Royce defines a good first start as one taking less than 25 seconds from the
introduction of fuel until the engine reaches ground idle. J udging starts should be
accomplished on the first start of the day, with a fully charged battery in ambient
temperatures of 40F or above.

To obtain an optimized start, move the throttle to begin fuel flow as the N1 RPM
accelerates through 12 15% N1. Do not wait for N1 RPM to peak out before initiating
fuel flow, as this will unnecessarily utilize battery capacity early in the start cycle.

Consistent long, cool starts (35 seconds of more) can be detrimental to the gas
producer turbine life. (N1 wheels and Nozzles) The probes for the TOT system are
installed radially around the engine between the gas producer and the power turbine
sections and may not reflect the actual temperatures being experienced by the first
stage turbine wheel and nozzle assembly. The recommended quick warm starts
actually increase cooling air flow in the combustion section to help cool the gas
producer turbine



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There are two procedures in general use to cool and start a hot engine.

1. Cool and start the engine in one event.
See the above recommended procedure for starting a warm engine.

2. Cool and start the engine in two events.
a. Use the above procedure with the exception:
b. Pull the ignition excite circuit breaker.
c. Motor the starter until the TOT is 200 C or below.
d. Push in the ignition excite circuit breaker.
e. Use normal starting procedure taking care not to introduce fuel until the
TOT is 150 C or below.


The engine requires the starter to help accelerate the engine through the 30 to 50%
range, but the starter by itself can only carry the engine to around 20%.

The engine also requires the boost from the starting acceleration to help carry it
through the start. The earlier (lower RPM) that the start is initiated, the more of the
start is carried through by the natural acceleration of the engine, and the less work that
the starter has to accomplish.

On a cold soaked engine, if the RPM is too high when the start is initiated, there may
not be enough boost from acceleration to carry the start, and the result is that the start
may stagnate. This is due to the natural tendency of the battery to deliver lower voltage
when cold, and the additional resistance of a cold engine.

On a warm or hot engine, the battery will be drained less by cooling the engine and
making the start in one event, than in two. It is possible to get a stagnated start with a
warm or hot engine if the starter has overheated.

If a stagnated star occurs during a warm or hot start, allow the engine to cool for 15 or
20 minutes and use an APU for the start. Initiate the fuel as the N1 passes 12% for
maximum boost from the acceleration.



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The recommended TOT temperatures and time for start are as follows.

First Start of the day:

TOT 750C, 20 to 40 seconds from engine light-off.
Maximum time one minute.

Starts with the engine at 150C

The limits for TOT during start are as follows.

1. 843C, 10 seconds on start (Red arrowhead)
2. 927C. 1 second on start. (Red Diamond)

(Rolls Royce has changed the allowable time between 810C and 926C to 10 seconds.
The Enstrom 480 Aircraft Hand Book will be revised to reflect this change.)

(You may notice that the red arrowhead appears to be at the incorrect position on the
TOT gauge. There is a scale change at 850C on the gauge. 850C is the last mark
before 900C.)














Note: I t is recommended that the pilot abort the start if the TOT is still
accelerating at 850 TOT. Generally there is a rapid increase in TOT
between 850 and 927C and if the pilot delays shutting off the fuel until
close to 900C, the TOT will exceed 927C.



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EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

This section describes the foreseeable helicopter and systems emergencies and
presents the procedures to be followed. Emergency procedures are given in checklist
form when applicable.

Definition of Terms

Immediate Emergency Actions. Those actions that must be performed immediately
in an emergency procedure are underlined. These immediate emergency actions must
be committed to memory.

Note: The urgency of certain emergencies requires immediate and instinctive action by
the pilot. The most important single consideration is helicopter control. All procedures
are subordinate to this requirement.

Urgency to Land

Land Immediately - Perform a landing at the closest suitable landing site.

Land as Soon as Practicable - Land at the nearest suitable airport or landing facility.


Emergency Exit

To exit the cabin in the event of an emergency, first attempt to open the doors. If the
doors will not open, break or kick out the door windows, overhead windows, or
windshields as the situation requires.





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Engine Failure

The indications of an engine failure, either a partial power loss or a complete
power loss are:

A left yaw caused by the drop in torque applied to the main rotor.
A drop in engine (N
2
) RPM.
The ENGINE OUT warning light and audio triggered by the N
1
speed
dropping below 58%.
A change in engine noise.

Immediate reaction to an engine failure or power loss is essential. After
immediate emergency actions have been accomplished, verify the engine
failure by cross checking all of the engine instruments.

Note: The first indication of an engine failure will normally be an
uncommanded left yaw of the nose of the helicopter. The engine-out
warning horn is activated by the N1 tach-generator. If there is a horn, and
NO left yaw, before entering autorotation, verify that the engine is actually
not providing power and that the problem is not actually an instrument
failure.

If the pilot instinctively reacts to a warning horn or light by immediately
bottoming the collective, it is recommended that after the glide is
established, the pilot try gently raising the collective while monitoring the
torque gauge. If the torque reading shows an increase the pilot would be
advised to attempt to reestablish powered flight, while considering the
possibility of a false engine out indication.

Under partial power conditions, the engine may operate smoothly at reduced power or
it may operate roughly and erratically with intermittent surges of power.

In instances where a power loss is experienced without accompanying engine
roughness or surging, the helicopter may sometimes be flown at reduced power to a
favorable landing area; however, under these conditions the pilot should always be
prepared for a complete power failure at any time.




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After an engine failure in flight, an engine restart may be attempted if time and altitude
permit. Because the exact cause of engine failure cannot be determined in flight, the
decision to attempt the restart will depend on the altitude and time available, rate of
descent, potential landing areas, and crew assistance available.

Under ideal conditions, approximately 30-45 seconds is required to regain powered
flight from the time the attempted start is begun if the start is commenced with an
engine that is not windmilling. If the engine start button is depressed immediately after
autorotation has been established, powered flight can usually be resumed within a
matter of 20 to 25 seconds.

There are two alternative types of restart that will be discussed below. The first is an
immediate relight; the second is a restart from a full shutdown with the N
1
below 15%.

Note: Unless there is a reason to believe that the engine has failed due to
some obvious mechanical failure, always attempt relight immediately after
entering autorotation if time and altitude permit.


Immediate Engine Relight


Although there is a formal step-by-step checklist provided below for engine restart in
flight, if circumstances such as terrain or flight condition require an immediate relight
attempt, the procedure need only involve two steps;

1. Enter autorotation

2. Depress and hold the starter button.

The throttle does not have to be retarded to idle if the elapsed time between failure
and attempted relight has not exceeded 5 seconds. There will be a slight surge as the
engine comes back on line but it will be well controlled and will not damage the engine
or drive train. To control the engine surge as it returns to flight RPM, it is recommended
that the rotor RPM be reduced to minimum (334 RPM).

3. Land Immediately - After the engine is started and powered flight is
reestablished, perform a power on approach and landing without delay if the engine
was not intentionally shutdown.




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Engine Restart - During Flight

1. Establish Autorotative glide

2. Attempt Start:

Throttle Closed
Starter Button Depress
Throttle - Idle (N
1
15% or greater)
TOT and N
1
Monitor
Starter Button - Release (at 58% N
1
)
Throttle - Advance to Full ON (N
2
/N
R
needles rejoined)
Powered Flight - Resume

3. Land Immediately - After the engine is started and powered flight is
reestablished, perform a power on approach and landing without delay if the engine
was not intentionally shutdown.

Autorotation

Rotor RPM recovery becomes very slow below 300 rotor RPM and the rotor
RPM cannot be recovered below 240 rotor RPM. Never allow the rotor RPM to
fall below 300 RPM in flight. In practice autorotations, if the rotor RPM falls
below 300 rotor RPM, and the aircraft is not very close to touchdown (less
than 1 foot), IMMEDIATELY bring the engine back on line to recover from the
maneuver.

NOTE: Normally this situation will not occur if autorotation practice is done
with the throttle at the full open position.

Minimum rate of descent and maximum glide are obtained at minimum rotor
RPM. See Chapter 4, Performance, in the flight manual, for appropriate
airspeeds and further information.

Minimum Transient Rotor RPM - The minimum transient rotor speed can and may be as
low as 300 rotor RPM during the initial response time following engine failure and
during the initial recovery control inputs.






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Note: Although operation below 334 RPM may be unavoidable during the
initial stages of the autorotation, it should be minimized and immediate
corrective action is required.

Minimum Rotor RPM - The minimum steady state rotor speed is 334 rotor RPM. This is
the minimum allowable sustained rotor speed in steady flight, power off.

Minimum Flare Airspeed - The minimum flare airspeed is 50 KIAS. This is the minimum
airspeed that will allow effective tradeoff of forward airspeed for rotor RPM in the flare
prior to touchdown and efficient energy conversion to arrest the rate of descent. A 25
rotor RPM increase can be achieved from a flare at 50 KIAS.

The Height-Velocity Diagram is published to assist the pilot in defining
the limiting combinations of height and airspeed below which it will be
impossible to maneuver the helicopter to intercept the autorotation
profile prior to touchdown. The most likely outcome for an engine
failure within the boundaries of the H-V diagram is a crash landing.


Note: The Height-Velocity Diagram has been established with the engine shut down
and can therefore be relied upon as being accurate for the actual engine failure case.



Rotor RPM Low

Rotor RPM is below normal. Lower collective as required to regain RPM and ensure that
the throttle is FULL OPEN.





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Caution Lights


Engine Oil - Low Pressure/ High Temperature - Eng Oil Press
Caution Light I lluminated


Land Immediately

If engine oil pressure drops below the operating limit, or oil temperature increases
above the operating limit or the ENG OIL PRESS caution light illuminates, accomplish a
power on approach and landing immediately.

If these conditions exist over terrain not suitable for landing, flight may be continued at
reduced power to a favorable landing area; however, under these conditions the pilot
should always be prepared for a complete engine failure.


Engine Chip Caution Light


Land Immediately

If the ENG CHIP caution light illuminates, accomplish a power on approach and landing
immediately. If these conditions exist over terrain not suitable for landing, flight may
be continued at reduced power to a favorable landing area; however, under these
conditions the pilot should always be prepared for a complete engine failure.




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Engine I nlet Air Caution Light

Land as soon as Practical

If the ENG INLET AIR caution light illuminates, pull the engine Scav-Air control handle
full on, reduce power and accomplish a power on approach and landing as soon as
practicable.

The caution light is activated by a differential pressure switch that measures the
pressure drop across the swirl tube particle separator system into the lower plenum and
indicates a partial blockage of the swirl tubes. Once the aircraft has been landed and
shut down, investigate and correct the cause of the blockage prior to continuing flight.

Note: Some 480B aircraft have had engine inlet air caution lights at high in-cruse
airspeeds. In this case, reducing airspeed slightly will cause the light to extinguish. If a
slight reduction in airspeed causes the light to go out, the flight may be continued
without further action.


Main XMSN pressure

Land as soon as Practical

After landing and shutdown, inspect the main rotor transmission filtration/cooling
system for oil leaks and broken oil lines. Inspect the main rotor transmission for proper
oil level.

If no leaks are found and the oil level is correct the fault is likely a pump failure or a
pressure switch malfunction.


Pull the XMSN PUMP circuit breaker and continue operation of aircraft to destination

Monitor transmission temperature. In hot weather, reduced power may be required to
keep the temperatures within limits..





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Main XMSN Hot

Land Immediately

Main transmission temperature is at or near the red line. Reduce power, Monitor the
transmission chip light and the transmission oil pressure light.

Main or Tail XMSN Chip

Land as soon as Practical

Metallic particles on chip detector. Monitor transmission temperature (Main
Transmission). Land as soon as practicable and inspect the chip detector for condition.

Drive Bearing Hot

Land Immediately

If this condition occurs over terrain not suitable for a landing, flight may be continued
at reduced power to a favorable landing area.

Early 480 models use grease lubricated bearings. If this condition occurs after
prolonged hover at high ambient temperatures, the bearings may need to be serviced.

If the indication occurs shortly after the helicopter emerges from maintenance, and it
has the grease lubricated bearings, the most likely cause is over-servicing of the
bearings.

In these two cases, shutting the helicopter down and allowing it to cool will most likely
allow the flight to continue.



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Battery Temp

Land as soon as Practical

The Battery Temperature Caution light is only operational if the optional Nicad type
battery is installed. In the event that a Nicad battery overheats, turn off the Battery
Switch, allow the battery to cool and then turn on the Battery Switch again. Monitor
the caution light.

Battery Hot

Land Immediately

The Battery Hot Caution Light is only operational if the optional Nicad battery is
installed. Turn the Battery Switch off and land immediately.

DC GEN

A malfunctioning Generator will be indicated by a zero indication on the ammeter and
the DC GEN caution light illuminating.

Reset the Generator as follows:

GEN Field circuit breaker IN
MAIN GEN Switch OFF then ON
Newer aircraft use the API starter / generator system. These aircraft have a
reset position on the generator switch. The switch must be cycled through the
reset position before turning it on.

If the main generator does not come back on line, or if it goes off line again, MAIN
GEN Switch OFF, Turn off all unnecessary electrical equipment and land as soon as
practical.



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Fuel Filter

Land as soon as Practical

Airframe Fuel Filter

Land as soon as Practical


Fuel Low

Land as soon as Practical

When the FUEL LOW caution light illuminates there are approximately 5 gallons of fuel
remaining. At normal power settings this will last approximately 10 minutes.


Engine and Drive System


Main Drive Shaft Failure

Land Immediately

A failure of the main drive shaft will be indicated by a sudden increase of N2 engine
RPM, decrease of rotor RPM, and activation of the LOW ROTOR RPM warning light and
audio horn.

A transient overspeed of N
1
and N
2
may occur but will stabilize as fuel topping limits are
reached and the overspeed governor assumes control of the engine. The indications to
the pilot will initially be conflicting and confusing; therefore, the initial reaction should
be the same as for an engine failure.




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Once autorotation has been established, the pilot should be able to sort out the nature
of the failure. In the event of driveshaft failure, proceed as follows:

Collective Pitch - Down Establish autorotational glide.
Throttle Close
Land - Accomplish autorotational descent and landing.

Engine Overspeed

Land Immediately

If an engine overspeed occurs, proceed as follows:

Collective Pitch - Increase to load the rotor and sustain engine RPM below the
maximum operating limit.
Throttle - Reduce until normal operating RPM is attained.
Land - Perform a power on approach and landing by controlling the throttle
manually.
If RPM cannot be controlled manually, an autorotation may be necessary.

Engine Underspeed

Land Immediately

If an engine under speed is experienced, proceed as follows:

Collective Pitch - Down Establish autorotational glide
Check Throttle is FULL OPEN.
Flight may be continued until a safe landing zone is encountered at reduced
power.



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Engine Surges

Land Immediately

If surges in engine RPM are experienced proceed as follows:

GOV INCR/DECR Switch - Increase for maximum RPM



Throttle - Reduce to 101% N
2

Land Immediately Perform a power on approach and landing without delay.

If engine surges cannot be controlled using the procedure above, proceed as outlined in
the following steps:

Throttle - Closed when over a safe landing area.
Collective Pitch - Down establish autorotational glide.
Land

Engine Compressor Stall

Land as soon as practical

Engine compressor stall (surge) is characterized by a sharp rumble or a series of loud
sharp reports, severe engine vibration, and a rapid rise of TOT, depending on the
severity of the surge. Maneuvers requiring rapid or maximum power applications should
be avoided. Should the compressor stall continue, the following steps should be
accomplished:

Power Reduce
Engine Anti-ice OFF
Heater OFF
Defog OFF
SCAV AIR - OFF unless in snow or ice.

If the stall still persists;

Land - As soon as practicable.
After landing perform normal shutdown.




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Tail Rotor Malfunctions

There can be three types of tail rotor failure associated with the Enstrom style of tail
rotor system:

Complete loss of thrust

Land as soon as possible:

Enter autorotation and land.
Maintain 50K indicated during the decent.

Note: Airflow past the cabin, tailcone, and tail fins may permit controlled flight at low
power levels and sufficient airspeeds to reach a suitable landing site. The landing
should be made with the throttle closed.

Note: When the collective is raised to cushion the landing, the helicopter will have a
tendency to rotate nose left because of friction in the transmission mast bearings. To
reduce the chances of the helicopter rolling over, the landing must be made with no
forward drift.

Tail Rotor Cable Failure

Land as soon as Possible:

The flyweights on the tail rotor blade retention plates rotor will maintain blade pitch
settings suitable for allowing controlled flight with airspeeds above 50Kts and torque
settings in the 40 to 50 PSI range.

The most effective approach is a long flat approach which terminates over the runway
at hovering altitude and translational speed. The landing is then accomplished by using
a combination of increased collective and reduced throttle to allow the helicopter to
settle onto the ground without spinning.

The pilot can easily remember which way the nose will respond to the throttle
movement by grasping the throttle twist grip with the index finger pointed down. As
the throttle is turned, the index finger will indicate which way the nose will swing.



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Stuck Right or Left Pedal

Land as soon as possible:

The procedures for stuck pedals are essentially the same as for a broken tail rotor
cable. The more left pedal that is experienced, the more collective and the less throttle
will be necessary to prevent aircraft rotation as the aircraft loses airspeed and sets
down.

With stuck right pedal, the helicopter will have the tendency to turn right as soon as
collective pitch is added to cushion the landing.

FIRE

Land as soon as possible:

Often it is possible to determine whether the fire is electrical in nature. In the case of
an electrical fire behind the instrument panel shutting off the master switch may
extinguish the fire. In that case, land as soon as practical.

If there is smoke in the cabin, unlatch the doors and allow them to trail. Open the air
vents and the sliding windows and point the deflectors to direct air into the cabin.






TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 98

For Training Purposes Only
WEI GHT AND BALANCE

Log book record of weighing form


WEIGHT SHEET

MODEL SERIAL NO. REG. NO.




WEIGHT POINT

SCALE-LBS.

TARE

NET. WT.

ARM

MOMENT
IN. LBS.

LEFT GEAR





(W
L
)

143.4



RIGHT GEAR





(W
R
)

143.4



TAIL





(W
T
)

369.7



TOTAL

XXX

X



X





W
T
(369.7)+(W
L
+W
R
)(143.4)
LCG= --------------------------------------- = -----------------------
W
T
+W
L
+W
R


= ------------------- IN.

Date WEIGHED BY




TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 99

For Training Purposes Only
Log book page for recording current weight and balance
information

This form is where to look to find the weight and moment information for calculation of
helicopter weight and balance information for flight.





TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 100

For Training Purposes Only




Chart for plotting weight and CG limits.



TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 101

For Training Purposes Only
Chart for calculation of fuel level moments










TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 102

For Training Purposes Only
Chart of crew and baggage locations

WEIGHT & BALANCE CALCULATIONS


COMPONENT



WEIGHT


ARM

MOMENT


LATERAL
ARM


LATERAL
MOMENT


EMPTY WT.




PILOT

99.0

-20.3


C0-PILOT

99.0

21.3

FWD. RIGHT
PASSENGER

89.0

11.5

REAR-RI GHT
PASSENGER

113.1

24.0

REAR-CENTER
PASSENGER

113.1

14.0

REAR-LEFT
PASSENGER

113.1

-2.0

BAGGAGE AFT
OF PILOT

119.0

-24.0

BAGGAGE
COMPARTENT

192.0


FUEL

145.0

BATTERY RE-
LOCATED AFT
NO
CHANGE


2697.0


-1618.0
TAKE-OFF
WEIGHT





TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 103

For Training Purposes Only



Notes: To calculate weight and balance:

1. Multiply the weight times the arm in each row and record the sum in the
moment column.
2. Add the weight column and record the total in the take-off weight box.
3. Add the moment column and record the total in the take-off weight box.
4. Divide the total moment by the total weight to get the center of gravity.
5. Plot the weight and C.G on the Weight and C.G Limits chart.

The Fuel loading chart is to provide moment information for varying
quantities of fuel.


The right seat track of the forward passenger seat is marked with C.G.
locations to identify the location of the occupant in the seat and should be
used in calculating C.G when the seat is occupied.



















TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 104

For Training Purposes Only




THIS INFORMATION IS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PURPOSES
ONLY. USE THE OPERATORS MANUAL FOR ACTUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE COMPUTATIONS.


Operating Limitations and Restrictions


Refer to the TH-28 or the 480 Rotorcraft Series Flight Manual for the aircraft operating
limitations and restrictions.


Placards


Refer to the TH-28 or the 480 Rotorcraft Flight Manual for the required placards.



The owner or operator is responsible for ensuring that current
maintenance publications are available to ensure continued
airworthiness of the aircraft.




TH-28/480/480B Training Manual
5/29/2008 2007 Edition 105

For Training Purposes Only
PILOT NOTES

Headset J acks

Because of the flexible seating in the 480/480B aircraft, the crew must understand the
arrangement of the headset jacks. There is a set of headset/mike jacks in the side of
the console on the co-pilots side of the aircraft. This is for the passenger in the front
seat when the seat is in the forward position. In most aircraft, this is not the co-pilots
headset position and will not enable radio operation.

In aircraft with Bose or David Clark noise canceling interfaces installed in parallel with
the normal headset jacks, care must be taken not to plug a passenger headset into
either the spare pilot or co-pilot jacks.