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TUGAS ELEMEN MESIN III

RODA GIGI

Disusun oleh :
Indra Pradana

(3331110591)

JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN FAKULTAS TEKNIK


UNIVERSITAS SULTAN AGENG TIRTAYASA
CILEGON-BANTEN
2014

I.

SPUR DAN HELICAL GEARS


Pada buku ini menggunakan standar AGMA (The American Gear Manufacturers
Assosiation).
1.1 Menghitung Bending Stress
=
dimana :

..................................................................... (a)

Tabel 1.1 Simbol dan Pengertiannya


Simbol

Keterangan

Simbol

Keterangan

Lebar dari permukaan terkecil

Ce

Faktor koreksi kesejajaran mesh

Cf

Faktor kondisi permukaan

CH

Faktor rasio kekerasan

Cma

Faktor kesejajaran mesh

Cmc

Faktor koreksi beban

Cmf

Faktor beban distribusi

Cp

Koefisien elastis

permukaan
Cpf

Faktor proporsi pinion

Cpm

Pengubah proporsi pinion

Diameter pitch operasi pinion

dp

Diameter pitch pinion

dG

Diameter pitch gear

Modulus elastisitas

Lebar permukaan dari bagian

fp

Permukaan akhir pinion

terkecil
H

Power

HB

Brinell hardness

HBG

Brinell hardness gear

HBP

Brinell hardness pinion

hp

Horsepower

ht

Kedalaman kaki gear

Faktor geometri dari tahan

Faktor geometri dari tahan pitting

KB

Faktor rim-thickness

Km

Faktor beban terdistribusi

pitting
K

Faktor beban kejut untuk


tahan pitting

Kf

Faktor fatigue stressconcentration

KO

Overload factor

KR

Faktor reliability

KS

Faktor size

KT

Faktor temperature

KV

Faktor dinamik

Modu metric

mB

Ratio back up

mG

Rasio gear

mN

Rasio load-sharing

Nomor siklus stress

NG

Nomor dari roda gigi gear

NP

Nomor dari gigi pinion

kecepatan

nP

Kecepatan pinion

Diametral pitch

Pd

Diametral pitch pinion

PN

Normal base pitch

Pn

Normal circular pitch

Px

Axial pitch

QV

Nomor akurasi transmisi

Reliability

Ra

Root-mean-squared roughness

rf

Radius gigi fillet

rG

Radius pitch circle gear

rP

Radius pitch circle pinion

rbp

Radius pinion base circle

rbG

Radius gear base circle

SC

Ketahanan permukaan
Buckingham

Sc

Ketahanan permukaan AGMA

St

AGMA bending strength

S1

Pinion offset dari pusat span

SF

Safety factor bending

SH

Safety factor pitting

Wt

Transmitted load

YN

Factor cycle stress for bending

ZN

Factor cycle stress for pitting

strength

resistance

Eksponen

Bending stress

Contact stress from Heitzian

Contact stress from AGMA

all

Allowable bending stress

c,all

Allowable contact stress AGMA

Pressure angle

Transverse pressure angle

atau x =

................................................................................(b)

Dengan menyusun kembali persamaan (a)


=

............................................................. (c)

substitusi x dari persamaan (b) di persamaan (c) dan pembilang, penyebut dikali p
=

( )

................................................................................................ (d)

misal y = 2x/3p , maka


=

..................................................................................................................... (1)

substitusi P = /p dan Y = y di persamaan (1) , maka


=

..................................................................................................................... (2)

dimana Y =

........................................................................................................ (3)

Y berarti hanya bending dari gigi, nilai Y diberikan pada tabel 1.2
Tabel 1.2 Nilai factor Y dari jumlah gigi
Jumlah gigi

Jumlah gigi

12

0,245

28

0,353

13

0,261

30

0,359

14

0,271

34

0,371

15

0,290

38

0,384

16

0,296

43

0,397

17

0,303

50

0,409

18

0,309

60

0,422

19

0,314

75

0,435

20

0,322

100

0,447

21

0,328

150

0,460

22

0,331

300

0,472

24

0,337

400

0,480

26

0,346

Rack

0,485

Efek dinamik
Ketika sepasang gear digerakkan pada kecepatan sedang atau tinggi dan menghasikan
kebisingan, efek dinamik terjadi. KV adalah factor dinamik
Kv =

(cast iron, cast profile) ......................................................................... (4a)

Kv =

(cast or milled profile) ....................................................................... (4b)

Dimana V adalah pitch-line velocity (ft/min)

Kv =

(hobbed or shaped profile) ................................................................... (5a)

Kv =

(shaved or fround profile) ................................................................ (5b)

Memperkenalkan faktor velocity ke persamaan (2), maka


=

................................................................................................ (7)

atau pada versi metric


=

.................................................................................................. (8)

1.2 Surface Durability (Daya Tahan Permukaan)


Pada bagian ini akan dibahas dari kegagalan pada permukaan roda gigi, yaitu pitting dan
scoring

.................................................................................................. (a)

pmax =
dimana

pmax = tekanan maksimum permukaan


F = gaya tekan dua siinder bersamaan
l = panjang dari silinder
dari persamaan diperoleh
[(

b={

]
(

[(

) (

} ................................................................. (9)

atau
( ) ( )

C 2 =

[(

] [(

....................................................... (10)

dimana
r1 =

r2 =

...................................................................... (11)

AGMA mendefinisikan koefisien elastis CP sebagai berikut


CP = [

.............................................................................. (12)

C = - C P *

( )

( )+

.............................................................. (13)

tanda negatif karena C adalah tekanan kompresif


1.3 AGMA Stress Equation
Persamaan dasar tegangan
=

WTKOKVKS

(satuan US)

WTKOKVKS

(satuan SI) ................................ (14)

Sebeum untuk mengetahui persamaan (14), tinjau apakah sudah mengikuti standar atau
belum, seperti

Ukuran beban ditransmisikan

Overload

Tambahan dari beban ditransmisikan

Ukuran

Geometri : pitch dan lebar permukaan

Distribusi beban melintang gigi

Rim support dari gigi

Factor Lewis form dan konsentrasi tekanan fillet dasar

Persamaan untuk tahan pitting (tekanan kontak) adalah

C =

CP

(satuan US)

ZE

(satuan SI) ............................... (15)

1.4 AGMA Strength Equation


Persamaan untuk allowable bending stress adalah
all =

(satuan US)
(satuan SI) ............................................. (16)

Persamaan untuk allowable contact stress adalah


C, all =

(satuan US)
(satuan SI) ............................................ (17)

1.5 Geometry Factors I and J (Z1 and YJ)


Menentukan I dan J tergantung pada lebar permukaan kontak mF
mF =

....................................................................................................................... (18)

dimana px adalah axial pitch, F adalah lebar permukaan. Untuk spur gear mF = 0

Bending strength geometry factor J (YJ)


J=
mN =

........................................................................................................ (19)
..................................................................................................... (20)

untuk spur gear, mN = 1,0 untuk helical gear dengan mF > 2,0 maka
menggunakan persamaan (20) untuk mencari mN

Surface strength geometry factor I (ZI)


Rasio kecepatan mG
mG =

.............................................................................................. (21)

I=

eksternal gear
internal gear ......................... (22)

Dimana mN = 1 untuk spur gear, maka


PN = Pn cos n ................................................................................................ (23)
Z = [(rP+a)2 r2bP]1/2 + [(rG+a)2 r2bG]1/2 - (rP+rG)sint ................................ (24)
rB = r cos t .................................................................................................... (25)

1.6 Dynamic Factor KV

KV =

) V in ft/min
) V in m/s................................................. (26)

Dimana A = 50 + 56 (1 - B)
B = 0,25 (12 QV)2/3 .................................................................................. (27)

(Vt) max =

[A + (QV 3)]2
[

)]

ft/min
m/s .............................................. (28)

1.7 Size factor KS

KS =

............................................................................ (29)

1.8 Load-distribution Factor Km (KH)


Km = Cmf = 1 + Cmc (Cpf Cpm + Cma Ce) .................................................................... (30)
Dimana Cmc = 1

untuk uncrowned teeth

Cmc = 0,8 untuk crowned teeth ................................................................... (31)

Cpf =

Cpm =

0,025

F 1 in

0,0375 + 0,0125 F

1 < F 17 in .............. (32)

0,1109 + 0,0207 F 0,000228 F2

17 < F 40 in

untuk S1/S < 0,175

1,1 untuk S1/S 0,175

.......................................................... (33)

Cma = A + BF + CF2 ................................................................................................. (34)


Ce =

0,8 untuk gear pada assembly dengan lapping, atau keduanya


1

untuk semua kondisi kecuali di atas ...................................... (35)

1.9 Hardness Ratio Factor CH


CH = 1,0 + A (mG 1,0) ........................................................................................ (36)
CH = 1,0 + B (450 HBG) ........................................................................................ (37)
Dimana

A =

jika

< 1,2

jika

> 1,7

B = 0,00075 exp [- 0,0112 fP]


1.10 Reliability Factor KR (YZ)
KR =

0,658 0,0759 ln (1 R)

0,5 < R < 0,99

0,50 0,109 ln (1 R)

0,99 R 0,9999 ....................... (38)

Untuk nilai pokok dari R, ambil KR dari tabel


Tabel 1.3 Reliability Factor KR (YZ)
Reliability

KR (YZ)

0,9999

1,50

0,999

1,25

0,99

1,00

0,90

0,85

0,50

0,70

1.11 Temperature Factor KT (Y)


Untuk oli atau gear-blank temperature yang mencapai 250o F (120o C), pakai KT = Y
= 1,0. Untuk temperature yang ebih tinggi, factor harus menjadi lebih besar dari satu.

1.12 Rim-thickness Factor KB


mB =

............................................................................................................................ (39)

dimana tR = rim thickness beow the tooth, ht = tooth height

KB =

1,6 ln

mB < 1,2

mB 1,2

....................................................... (40)

1.13 Safety Factor SF and SH


(

SF =

SH =

........................................ (41)
)

.................................... (42)

SH = (

) .......................................................... (43)

1.14 Analisa

Spur gear bending based on ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04


dP =
V=
Wt =
= WTKOKVKS
all =
SF =

Tabel overload factor, KO


Driven Machine
Power Source

Uniform

Moderate Shock

Heavy Shock

Uniform

1,00

1,25

1,75

Light Shock

1,25

1,50

2,00

Medium Shock

1,50

1,75

2,25

Spur gear wear based on ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04


dP =
V=
Wt =
C = CP
C, all =
(

SH =

1.15 Design of a gear mesh


Keputusan yang diambil untuk spur dan helical gears termasuk

Fungsi : load, speed, reliability, life, KO

Resiko yang akan terjadi : design factor nd

Tooth system : , , addendum, dedendum, root fillet radius

Gear ratio mG, NP, NG

Quality number QV

Diametral pitch Pd

Face width F

Pinion material, core hardness, case hardness

Gear material, core hardness, case hardness

}
}

A priority
decision

Design
decision

II BEVEL AND WORM GEARS


2.1 Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strength
S C = C = C P (

satuan US

H = ZE (

satuan SI ............................................ (1)

Tabel 2.1 Simbol pada bevel gear


AGMA

ISO

Symbol

Symbol

Description

Units

Am

Rm

Rata-rata jarak puncak

in (mm)

AO

Re

Jarak luar puncak

in (mm)

CH

ZW

Factor rasio kekerasan untuk tahan pitting

Ci

Zi

Factor inersia untuk tahan pitting

CL

ZNT

Factor siklus tekanan untuk tahan pitting

CP

ZE

Koefisien eastisitas

(lbf/in2)0,5
([N/mm2]0,5)

CR

ZZ

CSF

Factor reliability untuk pitting


Factor service untuk tahan pitting

CS

ZX

Factor size untuk tahan pitting

D, d

de2, de1

Diameter luar pitch dari gear dan pinion

in (mm)

EG , EP

E2, E1

Modulus elastisitas untuk material dari gear dan

lbf/in2

pinion

(N/mm2)

Base of natural (Naperian) logarithms

Net face width

in (mm)

FeG, FeP

b2, b1

Ebar efektif permukaan dari gear dan pinion

in (mm)

fP

Ra1

Kekasaran permukaan pinion

in (m)

HBG

HB2

Minimum Brinell hardness number untuk gear

HB

material
HBP

HB1

Minimum Brinel hardness number untuk pinion

HB

material
hC

Eht min

Minimum total case depth at tooth mid depth

in (mm)

he

hC

Minimum effective case depth

in (mm)

he lim

hC lim

Suggested maximum effective case depth limit

in (mm)

at tooth mid depth


I

ZI

Factor geometri untuk tahan pitting

YJ

Factor geometri untuk bending strength

JG, JP

YJ2, YJ1

Factor geometri untuk bending strength gear dan


pinion

KF

YF

Koreksi tekanan dan factor konsentrasi

Ki

Yi

Faktor inersia untuk bending strength

KL

YNT

Factor siklus tekanan untuk bending strength

Km

KHB

Factor beban terdistribusi

KO

KA

Factor overload

KR

YZ

Factor reliability untuk bendng strength

KS

YX

Factor size untuk bending strength

KSF

Factor service untuk bending strength

KT

Faktor temperatur

KV

KV

Factor dynamic

KX

Lengthwise curvature factor for bending


strength

met

Outer transverse module

(mm)

mmt

Mean transverse module

(mm)

mmn

Mean normal module

(mm)

mNI

NI

Rasio load-sharing, pitting

mNJ

NJ

Rasio load-sharing, bending

Z2

Number of gear teeth

NL

nL

Number of load cycles

Z1

Number of pinion teeth

nP

n1

Kecepatan pinion

rev/min

Design power through gear pair

hp (kW)

Pa

Pa

Allowable transmitted power

hp (kW)

Pac

Paz

Allowable transmitted power untuk tahan pitting

hp (kW)

Pacu

Pazu

Allowable transmitted power untuk tahan pitting

hp (kW)

service factor
Pat

Pay

Allowable transmitted power untuk bending


strength

hp (kW)

Patu

Payu

Allowable transmitted power for bending

hp (kW)

strength service factor


Pd

Outer transverse diametral pitch

in-1

Pm

Mean transverse diametral pitch

in-1

Pmn

Mean normal diametra pitch

in-1

QV

QV

Transmission accuracy number

Exponent used in formula for lengthwise


curvature factor

R, r

rmpt2, rmpt1

Mean transverse pitch radii for gear and pinion

in (mm)

Rt, rt

rmyo2, rmyo1

Mean transverse radii to point of load

in (mm)

application for gear and pinion


rC

rCO

Outer radius used for producing zerol bevel and

in (mm)

spiral bevel gear


S

gC

Length of the instantaneous line of contact

in (mm)

between mating tooth surface


Sac

Hlim

Allowable contact stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

Sat

Flim

Bending stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

SC

Calculated contact stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

SF

sF

Factor keamanan bending

SH

sH

Factor keamanan contact

St

Calculated bending stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

SWC

HP

Permissible contact stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

SWt

FP

Permissible bending stress number

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

TP

T1

Torsi operasi pinion

lbf in (Nm)

TT

Operating gear blank temperature

F (oC)

tO

sai

Normal tooth top land thickness at narrowest

in (mm)

point
UC

UC

Core hardness coefficient for nitride gear

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

UH

UH

Hardening process factor for steel

lbf/in2
(N/mm2)

Vt

Vet

Pitch-line velocity at outer pitch circle

Permissible contact stress number (strength) equation


SWC = (C)all =

satuan US

HP =

satuan SI ............................................................... (2)

Bending Stress
St =

satuan US

F =

ft/min (m/s)

satuan SI .......................................................... (3)

Permissible bending stress equation


SWT =

satuan US

FP =

satuan SI ............................................................................. (4)

2.2 AGMA equation factors


KV = (

KV = (

satuan US

satuan SI .............................................................................. (5)

Dimana A = 50 + 56 (1 B)
B = 0,25 (12 QV)2/3 ................................................................................. (6)
vt = dP nP / 12 satuan US
vet = 5,236 (10-5) d1n1 satuan SI ............................................................................ (7)
vt max = [A + (Qv 3)]2 satuan US
vte max =

)]

Size factor for pitting resistance CS (ZX)


CS =

ZX =

{
{

0,5

F < 0,5 in

0,125 F + 0,4375

0,5 F 4,5 in

F > 4,5 in

0,5

b < 12,7 mm

0,00492 b + 0,4375

12,7 b 114,3 mm satuan SI .. (9)

b > 114,3 mm

satuan US

Size factor for bending KS (YX)


KS =
YX =

satuan SI ............................................................................ (8)

{
{

0,4867 + 0,2132 / Pd

0,5 Pd 16 in-1

0,5

Pd > 16 in-1

0,5

met < 1,6 mm

0,4867 + 0,00839 met

1,6 met 50 mm

satuan US
satuan SI ..... (10)

Load distribution factor Km (KH)


Km = Kmb + 0,0036 F2

satuan US

KH = Kmb + 5,6 (10-6) b2

satuan SI ....................................................... (11)

Dimana
Kmb =

1,00

both members straddle-mounted

1,10

one member straddle-mounted

1,25

neither member straddle-mounted

Crowning factor for pitting CXC (ZXC)

CXC = ZXC =

ZNT =

on larger uncrowned teeth .............................. (12)

(untuk straight bevel gear) ..................................................... (13)

{
{

103 NL 104

3,4822 NL-0,0602

104 NL 1010

103 nL 104

3,4822

nL-0,0602

10 nL 10

.................................... (14)

10

Stress-cycle factor for bending strength KL (YNT)

CL =

YNT =

2,0

Stress-cycle factor for pitting resistance CL (ZNT)


CL =

properly crowned teeth

Lengthwise curvature factor for bending strength KX (Y)


KX = Y = 1

1,5

{
{

2,7

102 NL 103

6,1514 NL-0,1182

103 NL 3(106)

1,6831 NL-0,0323

3(106) NL 1010 general

1,3558 NL-0,0178

3(106) NL 1010 critical

2,7

102 nL 103 ............................... (15)

6,1514 nL-0,1182

103 nL 3(106)

1,6831 nL-0,0323

3(106) nL 1010 general

1,3558 nL-0,0178

3(106) nL 1010 critical

Hardness ratio factor CH (ZW)


CH = 1 + B1 (N/n 1)

B1 = 0,00898 (HBP/HBG) 0,00829

ZW = 1 + B1 (z1/z2 1)

B1 = 0,00898 (HB1/HB2) 0,00829 ............ (16)

CH = 1 + B2 (450 HBG)

B2 = 0,00075 exp (-0,0122 fP)

ZW = 1 + B2 (450 HB2)

B2 = 0,00075 exp (-0,52 fP)

Dimana fP (Ra1) = pinion surface hardness


HBG (HB2) = minimum Brinell hardness

..................... (17)

Temperature factor KT (K)

{
{

KT =

K =

ZE =

0oC

1
(273 + )/393

.............................................. (18)

> 120oC

0,50 0,25 log (1 R)

0,99 R 0,999

.......... (19)

0,70 0,15 log (1 R)

0,90 R 0,99

.......... (20)

Elastic coefficient for pitting resistance CP (ZE)


CP =

t > 250oF

(460 + t)/710

Reliability factor CR (Zz) and KR (YZ)

YZ = KR =

32oF t 250oF

.............................................................................. (21)

Allowable contact stress


sac = 341 HB + 23620 psi

grade 1

H lim = 2,35 HB + 162,89 MPa

grade 1 ...................................................... (22)

sac = 363,6 HB + 29560 psi

grade 2

H lim = 2,51 HB + 203,86 MPa

grade 2

Allowable bending stress number


sat = 44 HB + 2100 psi

grade 1

F lim = 0,30 HB + 14,48 MPa

grade 1 ......................................................... (23)

sat = 48 HB + 5980 psi

grade 2

F lim = 0,33 HB + 41,24 MPa

grade 2

2.3 Design of a straight-bevel gear mesh


F = min (0,3 AO, 10/Pd) ........................................................................................... (24)
Dimana AO =

................................................................................. (25)

2.4 Worm gearing-AGMA equation


= P G ............................................................................................................. (26)
Dimana = shaft angle
............................................................................................ (27)
(Wt)all = CSDm0,8FeCmCV .......................................................................................... (28)
Wf =

..................................................................................................... (29)

VS =

............................................................................................................. (30)

TG =

............................................................................................................... (31)

CS = 270 + 10,37 C3

C 3 in

....................................................................... (32)

Untuk sand-cast gears


CS =

1000

C>3

dG 2,5 in

1190 477 log dCt C > 3

dG > 2,5 in .................... (33)

1000

dG 8 in

Untuk chilled-cast gears


CS =

C>3

1412 456 log dCt C > 3

dG > 8 in ....................... (34)

Untuk centrifugally cast gears

CS =

1000

C>3

1251 180 log dCt C > 3

dG 25 in
dG > 25 in ..................... (35)

The ratio correction factor Cm

Cm =

0,02

3 < mG 20

0,0107

20 < mG 76

1,1483 0,00658 mG

mG > 76 .......... (36)

The velocity factor CV

CV =

0,659 exp (- 0,0011 VS)

VS < 700 ft/min

13,31 VS- 0,571

700 VS < 3000 ft/min ......... (37)

65,52

VS- 0,774

VS > 3000 ft/min

Coefficient of friction f

CV =

0,15

VS = 0

0,124 exp (- 0,074 VS0,645) 0 <VS 10 ft/min ................. (38)


0,103 exp (- 0,110 VS0,45)

VS > 10 ft/min

a=

= 0,3183 pX .................................................................................................. (39)

b=

= 0,3683 pX ........................................................................................ (40)

ht =

= 0,6866 pX

pX 0,16 in

+ 0,002 = 0,7003 pX + 0,002

pX < 0,16 in ..... (41)

The worm outside diameter

dO = d + 2a .................................................... (42)

The worm root diameter

dr = d 2b ..................................................... (43)

The worm-gear throat diameter

Dt = D + 2a .................................................... (44)
Dr = D 2b ................................................... (45)
c = b a ....................................................... (46)

The clearance

(FW) max = 2 ( )
FG =

The heat loss

) =2

............................................................ (47)

2dm/3
1,125 (

pX > 0,16 in
)

pX 0,16 in ..... (48)

Hloss = 33000 (1 e) Hin ............................................................. (49)

CR =

no fan on worm shaft


fan on worm shaft

............................ (50)

The temperature oil


(

tS = ta +

)( )

+ ta ................................................................... (51)

A min = 43,20 C1,7 .................................................................................................... (52)


a =

................................................................................................................ (53)

2.5 Worm-Gear Analysis


Mechanical efficiency
eW =

.................................................................................................. (54)

dengan penggerak gear set, mechanical efficiency


eG =

.................................................................................................. (55)

untuk memastikan worm gear akan bergerak


fsat < cos n tan ...................................................................................................... (56)
W tW = W tG

................................................................................. (57)

Dengan mengabaikan gesekan


WtW = WtG tan
W tG =

................................................................................................ (58)

HW =

HG =
Wf =

)
)

hp ......................................................................... (59)
hp ............................................................................ (60)

......................................................................................... (61)

VS =

............................................................................................................. (62)

The friction power


Hf =

hp ....................................................................................................... (63)