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FLUID MECHANICS (505)

Q.1 Explain what is dynamic and kinematic viscosity. What is the effect of temperature on the viscosity of gases
and liquid?
Q.2 What is Newton’s law of viscosity? Classify the fluids with examples, according to Newton’s law of viscosity.
Q.3 Write a short note on Newtonian and Non – Newtonian fluids
Q.4 Explain the phenomenon of capillarity and obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid.
Q.5 What forces act on a fluid element in static equilibrium? Derive mathematical condition for hydrostatic
equilibrium.
Q.6 Explain Pascal’s Law.
Q.7 Drive expression for total pressure and center of pressure for an inclined surface immersed in water.
Q.8 Drive expression for total pressure and center of pressure for a vertical surface immersed in water.
Q.9 Explain the term center of buoyancy and meta-center. Obtain an expression for calculating meta-centric
height.
Q.10 Write short note on Stability of floating bodies.
Q.11 Explain unstable, stable and neutral equilibrium of a submerged body. What is the criterion of stability of
submerged body?
3
Q.12 The velocity distribution over a plate is given by u = y − y , where u is the velocity in m/s at distance y
2

4
meters above the plate. Determine the velocity gradient and shear stress at 0, 0.25, and 0.5 maters from the plate.
Take the dynamic viscosity of the fluid as 0.834 N.s/m2.
Q.13 A 15 cm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter 15.10cm. Both
cylinders are 25 cm high. The space between the cylinders is filled with a fluid of unknown viscosity. If is a torque
of 12 N.m is required to rotate the inner cylinder at the speed of 100 rpm. Determine viscosity of the fluid, and
power lost.
Q.14 two large plane surfaces are 20mm apart. The space between the surfaces is filled with a fluid of viscosity 8.5
poise. What force is required to drag a very thin plate of surface area 0.4m2 between two large surfaces at a speed
of 0.8m/s, if the thin plate is at a distance of 5mm from one of the plane surface?
Q.15 A 20mm wide gap between two vertical plane surfaces is filled with an oil of specific gravity 0.85 and dynamic
viscosity 2.5 N.s/m2. A metal plate 1.25m× 1.25m× 2mm thick and weighing 30N is placed midway in the gap.
Determine the force required to lift the plate with a constant velocity of 0.18m/s.
Q.16 An isosceles triangular plate of base 5m and altitude 5m is immersed vertically in an oil of specific gravity 0.8.
the base of the plate is 1m below the free water surface, determine-
(1) the total pressure
(2) the center of pressure
Q.17 A circular opening of 4m diameter in a vertical side of a tank is closed by a disc of 4m diameter, which can
rotate about a horizontal diameter. Calculate the torque required to maintain the disc in equilibrium in the
vertical position when the head of the water above the horizontal diameter is 6m.
Q.18 A big tank has an aperture of square size whose one diagonal is vertical and is covered by a plane plate and
hinged along one side of the apparatus. The tank contains an oil of sp.gr. of 1.2 and level of oil in tank is 1.5m
above the center of apparatus. Find the total force acting and position of its action if the diagonal of the apparatus
is 2m.
Q.19 A oil pipe line 2m in diameter carries the oil and the oil pressure at the center of pipe is 200KN/m 2. Find out
the total pressure force exerted on the gate valve, which is fixed in the pipe and the position of center of pressure.
Take sp.gr. of oil = 0.85.
Q.20 Find the magnitude and position of the pressure Force on the lamina shown.

h1
h1*
2
m
G
1
.

h2 .P
1
h2*

.G2 3
m

P
2
.

2
m
Q.21 A rectangular plane surface 2m wide and 3m deep lies in water in such a way that its plane makes an angle of
450 with the free surface of water. Determine the total pressure force and position of center of pressure when the
upper edge is 2m below the free surface.
Q.22 A thin plate of very large area is placed in a gap of height t with oils of viscosities µ’ and µ” on the two sides
of the plate. The plate is pulled at a constant velocity U. Calculate the position of plate so that the force required to
drag the plate is minimum.
Q.23 A 120 mm disc rotates on a table separated by an oil film of 1.2 mm thickness. Find the viscosity of oil if the
torque required to rotate the disc at 60 RPM is 1.8 × 10-4 N.m.
Q.24 The right limb of is simple U-tube manometer-containing
mercury is open to the atmosphere winter the left limb is Water
connected to the pipe in which a fluid of specific gravity 0.9 is
flowing. The center of the pipe is 12cm below the level of mercury
in the right limb. Find the pressure of fluid in the pipe of the Oil of s.g. 0.9 B
difference of mercury level in the to limbs is 20 cm.
Q.25 A single column manometer is connected to pipe containing A 20c 60cm
liquid of sp. gravity 0.9 as shown is fig. Find the pressure in the m
pipe, if the area of the reservoir is 100 times the area of the tube
for the manometer reading shown in fig. The sp.gr. of mercury is Y 10cm Y
13.6.
Q.26 A differential manometer is connected at the two points A
and B
as shown in fig. At B the air pressure is 9.81N/cm2, find the
pressure Oil of s.g. = 0.7

Q.27 An inverted U-tube is connected across two pipes A and B


Y Y
carrying fluids as shown. Calculate the pressure difference
between the centerlines of the pipes. Liquid of 5cm
s.g. = 1.1 Water
Q.28 For the fig. shown, determine the specific gravity of liquid Y 20cm
if the gauge pressure at M is – 18 kN/m2.
A

A 10cm
C B
0.8 Air
E D m
B
M
Q.30 Find the pressure difference between A and B
0.6m in fig.
B
Liquid Y A Liquid X
s.g. =? s.g. = 1.5

-
-
G 2m
B
2m

5m
Q.31 A block of wood of sp.gr. 0.5 floats in water. Determine the meta-centric
height of the Block of size 5×2×2 m3. (Fig. 1)

2m
Q.32 A rectangular pontoon is 4m long, 3m wide and 1.4m high. The depth of immersion in sea is water of pontoon
is 1.0m. If the center of gravity is 0.70m above the bottom of the pontoon, determine the metacentric height. Take
the density of water as 1030 kg/m3. (Fig. 2)
Q.33 A rectangular block of size 10 m long, 7m width and 3 m deep weight 600kN. It carries on its upper surface
an empty boiler of 4 m diameter weighting 500 kN. Find the meta-centric height. (Fig. 3)

Q.34 A cylindrical buoy 1.8m in diameter, 1.2m high and weighing 10 kN floats in salt water of density 1025 kg/m 3.
Its center of gravity is 0.45m from the bottom. If a load of 2kN is placed on the top, find the maximum height of the
center of gravity of this load above the bottom if the buoy is to remain in stable
equilibrium. (Fig. 4)
Fig 1

3m
Y - G2 G2-
4
G
1m B 1.4m -G

O -- G
G11 3
G- 1.2m
7 G1-
B-
4m
A 1.8m
10

Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Q.35 A wooden prism of sp.gr. 0.5 and square in cross section is required to ploat in oil (sp.gr. = 0.8). Find the L/b
ratio for the square prism to float with its longitudinal axis vertical in oil, where L is height and b is width of side
of square.
Q.36 Distinguish between the following giving examples-
(i) Uniform and non-uniform flow
(ii) Steady and un-steady flow
(iii) Laminar and turbulent flow
(iv) Rotational and irrotational flow.
Q.37 Drive continuity equation for three-dimensional flow in
differential form.
Q.38 Explain the following terms,
(i) Stream line
(ii) Path line
(iii) Streak line
Q.39 Define stream function and velocity potential
Q.40 Explain various types of motions of a fluid particle.
Q.41 Write short note on flow-nets.
Q.42 Determine the missing component of the velocity distribution such that they satisfy continuity equation.
u = 2x2 + 2xy, ν =2yz2 + 3z2, w = ?
Q.43 The velocity component of a three dimensional incompressible fluid flow is as-
u = x2 + y2 + z2, and ν = xy + yz + zx
Find the third component of the velocity that satisfies the continuity equation.
Q.44 The velocity potential function is given by an expression
φ = xy3 –x2 - x3y + y2
(i) Find the velocity component in x and y diction
(ii) Show that φ represents a possible ease of flow.
Q.45 For a two dimensional flow, the velocity potential is given by
φ=2x(3y-1)
Determine the velocity at the point (2,3). Determine also the value of stream function ψ at the same point.
Q.46 The stream function of a flow is given by Ψ = 3x2y. Find the velocity potential function
Q.47 In a two-dimensional flow, the fluid velocity components are given by
u = x – 3y and ν = -y -3x
Show that velocity potential exists and determine its form. Find also the stream function
8 3
Q.48 The velocity component in a two dimensional flow are u = 8 x y − y and
2

3
8
v = −8 xy 2 + x 3
3
Show that these velocity components represent a possible case of an irrotational flow. Find the steam function and
velocity potential.
Q.49 State of the flow represented by u = 3x + 4y and v = 2x -3y is rotational or irrotational. Find the potential
function if the flow is irrotational and vorticity if the flow is rotational.
Q.50 A fluid flow is given by v = 4x2i – 3x2yj. Find the shear strain rate and state weather the flow is rotational
or irrotational.
Q. 51 Drive Euler’s equation of motion in three dimensional flows.
Q. 52Write a short note on –Limitation of Bernoulli’s theorem.
Q. 53 Explain the working of Rotameter and currontmeter.
Q. 54 A reducing bend is incorporated in a pipeline so that the direction of flow is turned through 60 0in the
horizontal plane and the pipe diameter is reduced from .025 to 0.15m.The velocity &pressure at the entry to the
bend are 1.5m and 300kn/m2 gauge respectively and at the exit the pressure is 287.2 kn/m 2 gauge. Find the
magnitude and direction of the reaction force in the bend in the horizontal plane due to flowing water.
Q. 55 The angle of a reducing bend is 600 (that is deviation from initial direction to final direction). Its initial
diameter is 300mm and final diameter is 150mm and fitted in a pipeline, carrying a discharge of 360lit./s. The
pressure at the commencement of the bend is 2.943 bar. The friction loss in the pipe bend may be assumed as 10%
of kinetic energy at the exit of the bend. Determine the force exerted by the reducing bend.
Q. 56 A pipe AB carries water tapers uniformly from a diameter of 0.1m at A to 0.2m at B over a length of
2m.Pressure gauges are installed at A &B and also at C, the mid point of AB. If the pipe centerline slopes upward
from A to B at an angle of 300 and the pressure recorded at A and B are 2.0 and 2.3 bar respectively. Determine the
flow through the pipe and pressure recorded at C, neglecting all the losses.
Q 57 A venturimeter with a throat of 100mm is fitted in vertical pipe line of 200 mm diameter with oil of specific
gravity 0.88 flowing upwards. The venturimeter coefficient is 0.96.two pressure gauges calibrated in kn/m 2 are
fitted at tapping points, one at the throat and other in the inlet pipe 320 mm below the throat. The difference
between the two-gauge pressure readings is 28kn/m2. Determine –
(1) Volume flow rate of oil through the pipe.
(II)If a mercury manometer is connected at the pressure toppings then what will be the manometer reading.

Q.58 Calculate the discharge of water flowing through a pipe35 cm, diameter placed in an inclined position where
a venturimeter is inserted having a throat diameter of 15cm.the difference of pressure between the main and
throat is measured by a liquid of specific gravity 0.60 in an inverted U- tube which gives a reading of 35cm. The
loss of head between the main and throat is 0.2 times the kinematic head of the pipe.
Q. 59 Water flow’s in a circular pipe. At one section the diameter is 0.3 m, the static pressure is 260 kpa, the
velocity is 3 m/s and the elevation is 10 m above ground level. The elevation at a section down stream is zero
meters, and the pipe diameter is 0.15 m. find out the pressure at down stream section.
Q. 60 A non-uniform part of a pipe line 5 m long is laid at a slope of 2 in 5. Two pressure gauges each fitted at
upper and lower ends read 20 N/cm2 and 12.5 N/cm2. If the diameters at the upper and lower ends are 15 cm and 10
cm respectively, determine the quantity of water flowing per second.
Q. 61 A pump has a tapering pipe running full of water. The pipe is placed vertically with the diameters at the base
and top being 1.2 m and 0.6 m respectively. The pressure at the upper end is 240 mm of Hg vacuum, while the
pressure at the lower end is 15 KN/m2. Assume the head loss to be 20% of difference of velocity head. Calculate the
discharge, the flow is vertically upwards and difference of elevation is 3.9 m.
Q. 62 A conical tube is fixed vertically with its smaller end upwards and it forms a part of pipeline. The velocity at
the smaller end is 4.5 m/s and at the large ends 1.5 m/s. Length of conical tube is 1.5 m. The pressure at the upper
end is equivalent to a head of 10 m of water. If the head loss in the tube is
1
0.3( v1 − v2 )
2
, where v1 is the velocity at smaller and v2 is the velocity at large end,
2g
determine the pressure at lower end (large section).
Q. 63 The closed tank of a fire engine is partly filled with water, the air above being
under pressure. A 6 cm bore connected to the tank discharges on roof of a building 2.5
m above the level of water in tank. The friction losses are 45 cm of water. 1.5m
Determine the air pressure which must be maintained in the tank to deliver 20 lit/sec
on the roof. ( Fig.5)
2 2

2.5m
1 Air

Fig. 5 fig. 6
Q. 64 Fig. show’s a pump employed for lifting water from a sump. If it is required to pump 60 lit./sec. of water
through a 0.1 m diameter pipe from the sump to a point 10 m above, determine the power required. Also
determine the pressure intensities at L and M.
Assume overall efficiency of 70%.( Fig. 6)

Q. 65 A venturimeter is used for measurement of discharge of water in a horizontal pipeline. If the ratio of
upstream diameter to that of throat is 2:1, upstream diameter is 300 mm, the difference of pressure between the
throat and upstream is equal to 3m head of water and loss of head through meter is one fourth of the throat
velocity head. Calculate the discharge in the pipe.
Q. 66 The inlet and throat diameter of a horizontal venturimeter are 25 cm and 15 cm. Pressure head at inlet is 14
m of water and vacuum pressure head at throat is 35 cm of mercury. Find the rate of flow. Assume that 2% of the
differential head is lost.
Find the value of Cd.
Q. 67A venturimeter is having the ratio of upstream pipe diameter to that of throat is 2:1, upstream diameter is
300 mm, the difference of pressure between the throat and upstream is equal to 3m head of water, and loss of head
1
is th of the throat velocity head. Calculate discharge of water in pipe.
8
Q. 68 In a vertical pipe carrying oil of sp. gr. 0.9, two pressure gauges are filled at 1 and 2, where the diameters are
10 cm and 5 cm L is 2 meters above M. The pressure at 2 is greater then at (1) by 0.981 N/cm 2. Neglecting all the
losses, calculate the flow rate. If the gauge at 1 and 2 are replaced by U-tube filled with mercury. Calculate the
difference of level of mercury in U-tube.
Q. 69 State Buckingham’s pi- theorem. What do you mean by repeating variables? How the repeating variables are
selected in dimensional analysis.
Q. 70 Write short note on – Similitude criteria.
Or
What is kinematic and dynamic similarity? Explain with example.
Q. 71 Define various non-dimensional numbers used in fluid flow and explain their physical significance.
Q. 72 The performance of a lubricating oil ring depends upon the following variables-
Q. 73 Quantity of oil delivered per unit time Q, inside diameter of the ring D, shaft speed in revolution per unit
time N, oil viscosity µ , oil density ρ , and surface tension σ . Find a convenient set of coordinates for organizing
the Data. Use Buckingham’s π -theorem.
Q. 74 Show that the frictional torque T of a disc of diameter D rotating at speed N in a fluid of viscosity µ and
density ρ in a turbulent flow is given by
 µ 
T = D 5 N 2 ρφ  2 
 D Nρ 
Q.37 Drive continuity equation for three-dimensional flow in
differential form.
Q. 76 Using Buckingham-π theorem, show that the velocity through a circular orifice is given by
D µ 
V = 2 gH φ ,  where H is the head causing flow, D is the diameter of the orifice, µ is co-efficient of
 H ρVH 
viscosity, ρ is the mass density and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Q. 77 The pressure difference ∆p in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to turbulent flow depends upon the
velocity V, viscosity μ, density ρ and roughness k. using Buckingham’s pi-theorem obtain an expression for ∆p.
∆p 4 fLV 2
= hf =
ρg 2 gD
Q. 78 The test were conducted on a model of ship of ratio 1 : 100 in a wind tunnel in which air is bowing at a rate of
20m/s and the resistance offered by model is 50N. Determine the velocity of ship of length 200m in sea water of
density 900kg/m3.also determine the resistance of sea water on ship. The density of air is 1.24 kg/m3 kinematic
viscosity of air and water are 0.018 stokes and 0.012 stokes respectively.
Q. 79 in a geometrically similar model of spillway the discharge per meter length is 0.3 m 3/s. if the scale ratio of the
model and prototype is 1/36, determine the discharge per meter run of the prototype
1
Q. 80 A ship model of scale is towed through sea water at a speed of 5m/s. A force of 20 N is required to tow
30
the model. Determine the speed of ship and the propulsive force on the ship, if prototype is subjected to wave
resistance only.
Q. 81 Drive the equation for velocity distribution in a pipe for laminar flow.
Uman
Q. 82 Prove that ratio of maxi. To average velocity is =2
u
Q. 83 Drive Hagen- Poiseullie equation for Laminar flow
Through pipes.
_
P1 − P2
Q. 84 prove that for parallel plates h f = = 12 µ u L
ρg ρgt 2
Q. 85 prove Darcy-Weisbach equation
Q. 86 In a pipe oil is flowing having density 800 kg/m3, and viscosity 0.95 poise. Diameter of pipe is 90 mm and
length is 15 m. calculate the difference of pressure at the two ends of the pipe. If the discharge of oil through pipe is
100 kg/20 sec. Assuming laminar flow.
Q. 87 An oil of viscosity 0.2 Ns/m2 and specific gravity 0.8 is flowing through a pipe of diameter 40 mm and length
250 m. The discharge through the pipe is 4 lit/sec. Find the pressure drop in a length of 200 m and shear stress at
the pipe wall.
Q.88 Determine the power required to maintain the flow of a liquid having kinematic viscosity 5 stroke against the
viscous resistance caused by liquid.
Take µ = 8 poise, diameter of pipe 200 mm, discharge 15 lit/sec. and length of pipe 1000 m.
Q. 89 In a pipe of diameter 300 mm fluid is flowing at a maximum velocity 2.5 m/s. assuming the flow is laminar.
Determine the velocity at 5 cm from wall.
Q. 90 Calculate the pressure gradient, average velocity and discharge for an oil of viscosity 0.03 N.S/m2 flowing
between tow parallel plates 2 m wide and 5 mm apart. Maximum velocity at the centre-line between plates is 3 m/s.
Also determine the drop of pressure in the length of 1.5 m.
Q.91 Water flows between two parallel plates at a distance of 2 mm apart. Determine.
(a) The maximum Velocity (b) Pressure drop per unit length
(c) Shear stress at the plates.
If average velocity is 0.5 m/s. Take µ = 0.02 Poise.
Q.92 A siphon of diameter 200 mm connects two reservoirs having a difference in elevation as 20m.total length of
the siphon is 800m and the summit is 5m above the water level in the upper reservoir .if the separation takes place
a 2.8 m of water absolute, find the maximum length of siphon from upper reservoir to the summit. Take f=0.004
and atmospheric pressure=10.3m of water.
Q.93 An oil of viscosity 1.5 poise and specific gravity 0.85 flows in a 15cm diameter pipe. Observation indicate that
the velocity along the center line of the pipe is 3.5 m/s. Presuming that flow is laminar and the velocity variation is
parabolic, calculate
(1) Quantity of oil being conveyed
(2) Shear stress art the wall
(3) The head loss per unit length of the pipe.
Verify that the assumption of laminar flow is valid.
Q.94 A straight 25cm pipeline 5 km is laid between two reservoirs having a difference of levels of 40 m. To increase
the capacity of the system an additional 2.5 km long 25 cm pipe is laid parallel from the reservoir to the mid- point
of the original pipe. Find the increase in discharge due to installation of the new pipe. Assume 4f = 0.025 in the
4 flv 2
Darcy Weisbach equation hf = for both pipes.
2 gd
Q.95 A farmer wishes to connect two pipes of different lengths and diameters to a common header supplied with
8× 10-3 m3/s of water from a pump. One pipe is 100m long and 5cm in diameter. The other pipe is 800 m long.
Determine the diameter of the second pipe such that both pipes have the same flow rate. Assume the pipe to be laid
on level ground and friction coefficient for both pipes as 0.02.Also determine the head loss in meters of water in the
pipes.
Q.96 in a pipe of diameter of 300mm and length 75m, water is flowing at a speed of 3m/s. Find the head lost due to
friction using Dracy formula and Chezy’s formula. Take C = 55 and kinematic viscosity of water 0.05 stroke.
Q.97 An oil of specific gravity 0.8 is flowing through a pipe of diameter 25m at the rate of 40lit/sec.Find the head
lost due to friction and power required to maintain the flow for a length of 900m. Take υ = 0.3 stroke.
Q.98 A pump delivers water from a pond to the tank. The elevation of water surface in pond is 100m and in tank is
300m.length of suction pipe is 40m (f = 0.03) and diameter is 30cm.the delivery pipe is 800m long (f = 0.032) and 28
cm in diameter. The relationship between head and discharge is given by H = (50 – 2500Q2), where H is in meter
and Q in m3/s. Calculate the discharge in pipe and power delivered by the pump.

P TANK

300m

100m
POND
Q.99 at a sudden enlargement of a water main from 20cm to 50 cm, the hydraulic gradient rises by 15mm.
Determine the power lost due to sudden enlargement.
Q.100 A pipe of diameter 400mm is suddenly reduced in diameter to 200mm. The pressure in prior and later pipe
is 120KN/m2 and 110KN/m2. Find the loss of head due to contraction, if Cc = 0.60, also determine the discharge.
Q.101 A horizontal pipe line 50m long is connected to a water tank at one end and discharges freely into the
atmosphere at other end. For the 25 0f its length from the tank the pipe is 100mm diameter its diameter is
suddenly enlarged to 200mm. The height of the water level in the tank is 18 meters. Considering all the losses of
fluid, determine the discharge. Take f = 0.01 for both of the section of pipe.
Q.102 The difference of water levels between two water reservoirs is 8m. They are connected by a 40m long pipe.
For the first 25m length, the diameter of pipe is 120mm and for the remaining length the diameter is 200mm. The
change in diameter being sudden. Find the discharge into the lower reservoir. Take f = 0.008
Q.103 Determine the gauge pressure required to cause
0.125 m3/s of water to flow through the system shown 2
in fig. Neglect minor losses. f = 0.005. Diameter of pipe 60m
is 15cm.

1
45m

30m

150m
Q.104 Calculate the power required to pump 0.095 cum/sec of oil of density 950 Kg/cum from a low level tank to an
overhead tank through a pipe 150mm in diameter and 30m long . The level of the oil in the overhead tank is 8m
above that in the lower tank. Dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.065 poise.

8m
d =150mm
P
1 PUMP

Q.105 For sudden expansion in a pipe flow, workout the optimum ratio between the diameters of the pipe before
and after expansion, so that pressure rise is maximum. Also find the maximum pressure rise.
Q.106 Two reservoirs with a difference in elevation of 25m are connected by three pipes in series. The pipes are
300m long of diameter 30cm, 150mlong of 20cm diameter, and 200m long of 25cm diameter. The friction factor in
4 flv 2
the relation h f = , for the three pipes are 0.018, 0.02, and 0.019 and which account for friction and all losses.
2 gd
The contraction and expansion are sudden. Coefficient of contraction = 0.24.
Q.107 In a industry feed water is supplied to boiler through a pipe consist of three pipe arranged in series. The
lengths of the pipes are 600m, 350m, and 200m, and diameters are 500mm, 200mm, 250mm respectively. These
pipes are to be replaced by a single pipe of 1150m .Determine the diameter of single pipe.