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SYLLABUS

1. JUSTIFICATION HOMICIDE; SELF-DEFENSE; MISTAKE OF FACTS. Defendant was a c! and t"e


deceased was a "#se $%& and $t" we'e e()*%ed +n t"e sa(e )*ace and #s#a**% s*e)t +n t"e sa(e '(. One n+,"t&
afte' t"e defendant "ad ,ne t $ed& "e was awa!ened $% s(e ne t'%+n, t )en t"e d'& and ca**ed #t tw+ce&
-w" +s t"e'e.- He 'ece+/ed n answe'& and fea'+n, t"at t"e +nt'#de' was a '$$e'& *ea)ed f'( t"e $ed and a,a+n
ca**ed #t0 -If %# ente' t"e '( I w+** !+** %#.- At t"at ((ent "e was st'#c! $% a c"a+' w"+c" "ad $een )*aced
a,a+nst t"e d'. 1e*+e/+n, t"at "e was $e+n, attac!ed& "e se+2ed a !+tc"en !n+feConcurring opinion
Se/en 3#st+ces $ased +ts dec+s+n n t"e f**w+n, )+nts0
1 Lss f DNA e/+dence nt a ,'#nd f' #t'+,"t ac4#+tta*
2 Un'e*+a$+*+t% f Jess+ca A*fa'5s test+(n%0
o A*fa' "ad )'+' !nw*ed,e n t"e facts f t"e case "a/+n, $een an asset f t"e Nat+na* 1#'ea# f
In/est+,at+n 6N1I7
o A*fa' was nt a$*e t e8)*a+n w"% t"e "#se was 'ansac!ed +f '$$e'% was nt t"e (t+/e f 9e$$
and "+s ,'#)
3 Un'e*+a$+*+t% f test+(n% f'( t"e' w+tnesses
4 9e$$5s st'n, a*+$+ t"at "e was +n t"e Un+ted States
o A*fa'5s test+(n% w+** fa** a)a't +f 9e$$ was nt +n t"e c'+(e scene and w+** 'e*+e/e t"e t"e's
acc#sed f t"e c'+(e
Loss of DNA evidence
9e$$& c+t+n, Brady v. Maryland& sa+d -t"at "e +s ent+t*ed t #t'+,"t ac4#+tta* n t"e ,'#nd f /+*at+n f "+s '+,"t
t d#e )'cess ,+/en t"e State:s fa+*#'e t )'d#ce n 'de' f t"e C#'t e+t"e' $% ne,*+,ence ' w+**f#* s#))'ess+n
t"e se(en s)ec+(en ta!en f'( Ca'(e*a.- T"e c#'t a',#ed t"at t"e c+ted case "as $een s#)e'seded $% Arizona v.
Youngblood& "where the U.S. Supreme Court held that due process does not reuire the State to preserve the semen
specimen although it might be use!ul to the accused unless the latter is able to show bad !aith on the part o! the
prosecution or the police".
T"e c#'t cns+de'ed t"e acc#sed5s "lac" o! interest in having such test done" in which they concluded that the state
"cannot be deemed put on reasonable notice that it would be reuired to produce the semen specimen at some !uture
time".
;<=>
Alfaro's testimony
T"e c#'t '#*ed t"at A*fa' was -a st* )+,en& ne w" ea'ned "e' *+/+n, $% f'ate'n+2+n, w+t" c'+(+na*s s s"e
c#*d s4#ea* n t"e( t "e' N1I "and*e's.- T"e c#'t a*s sa+d t"at +t was -)ss+$*e f' A*fa' t *+e- n t"e deta+*s f
t"e case. A*fa'& w" "ad -)'act+ca**% *+/ed- at t"e N1I5s ff+ces& w#*d "a/e $een a$*e t "ea' a$#t t"e deta+*s& and
,a+n access t t"e dc#(ents& w+t"#t d+ff+c#*t%. T"e c#'t nted t"e +ncns+stenc% $etween A*fa'5s test+(n% f
9e$$ $e+n, Ca'(e*a5s ,+'*f'+end& w" "ad n 'easn +n $'ea!+n, t"e ,*ass )ane* f t"e "#se5s f'nt d' t ente' t"e
"#se; A*fa' sa+d t"at 9e$$ "pic"ed up some stone and# out o! the blue# hurled it at the glass$paneled !ront door".
A*fa'& #)n e8)*a+n+n, n "w t"e "#se was 'ansac!ed& 6t"e ?a'a@a4#e )*+ce "ad ea'*+e' $*a(ed "#se '$$e's as
s#s)ects7& sa+d t"at Aent#'a was *!+n, f' t"e f'nt-d' !e% and t"e ca' !e%.
T"e c#'t sa+d t"e "portion o! Al!aro%s story appears tortured to accommodate the physical evidence o! the ransac"ed
house" add+n, t"at "it is a story made to !it in with the crime scene although robbery was supposedly not the reason
&ebb and his companions entered that house". T"e c#'t a*s sa+d t"e sa(e f' t"e +ss#e f t"e ,a'a,e *+,"t0 s"e
c*a+(ed t"at Aent#'a c*+($ed t"e ca'5s "d& #s+n, a c"a+'& t t#'n t"e *+,"t ff. 1#t& #n*+!e t"e "#se '$$e's&
"we/e' t"e c#'t )+nts #t t"at "&ebb and his !riends did not have anything to do in a dar"ened garage."
;<=>
In
,ene'a*& t"e c#'t sa+d t"at A*fa'5s st'% -*ac!s sense ' s#ffe's f'( +n"e'ent +ncns+stenc+es.-
;<=>
Corroborating witnesses
T"e c#'t "e*d t"at sec#'+t% ,#a'd N'(a* E. 9"+te& J'.5s test+(n% was #n'e*+a$*e. 9"+te was (+sta!en +n sa%+n, t"at
Batc"a*+an and c()an% went +n and #t f t"e ,ated c((#n+t% (an% t+(es& s+nce t"e% n*% ente'ed nce.
;<=>
J#st
Ca$anacan& t"e sec#'+t% s#)e'/+s' f t"e ,ated c((#n+t%& sa+d t"at "e saw 9e$$ ente' t"e ,ated c((#n+t%&
a*t"#," "e d+d nt 'ec'd 9e$$ ente'+n, +n "+s *, $!.
;<=>
T"e c#'t a*s "e*d t"at t"e test+(n% f t"e 9e$$5s (a+d& M+*a Ba/+*a& was a*s #n'e*+a$*e s+nce s"e was nt a$*e t
d+st+n,#+s" +f +t was H#$e't w"( s"e saw n J#ne CD& 1EE1& n' "did she remember any o! the details that happened
in the household on the other days".
;<=>
ebb's alibi
T"e c#'t sa+d t"at "among the accused# &ebb presented the strongest alibi". T"e *we' c#'ts& "we/e'& 'easned
t"at "&ebb%s alibi cannot stand against Al!aro%s positive identi!ication o! him." T"e c#'t sa+d t"at A*fa' was nt a
c'ed+$*e w+tness and t"at "e' "story o! what she personally saw must be believable# not inherently contrived".
;<=>
F' t"e a*+$+ t $e esta$*+s"ed "the accused must prove by positive# clear# and satis!actory evidence... that he was
present at another place at the time o! the perpetration o! the crime# and that it was physically impossible !or him to
be at the scene o! the crime". T"e *we' c#'ts& t"e S#)'e(e C#'t sa+d& "e*d t"at "&ebb was actually in 'ara(aue
when the )izconde "illings too" place". Hwe/e'& t"e c#'t )+nted #t t"at w"+*e 9e$$ ' "+s )a'ents (a% $e a$*e t
"arrange !or the local immigration to put a March *# +**+ departure stamp on his passport and an ,ctober -.# +**-
arrival stamp"& t"e% c#*d nt f+8 a f'e+,n a+'*+nes: )assen,e' (an+fest& and t"e U.S. I((+,'at+n:s 'ec'd s%ste(.
T"e c#'t a*s sa+d t"at +f 9e$$ was +n t"e U.S. w"en t"e c'+(e was c((+tted& t"e A*fa'5s test+(n% w#*d nt
"*d t,et"e'0 "&ithout it# the evidence against the others must necessarily !all.
and st'#c! and fata**% w#nded t"e +nt'#de'& w" t#'ned #t t $e "+s '((ate. T"e'e#)n "e ca**ed t "+s
e()*%e's and '#s"ed $ac! +nt t"e '( t sec#'e $anda,es t $+nd #) t"e w#nd. Defendant was c"a',ed w+t"
(#'de'. 9"+*e t"e'e can $e n d#$t f defendant:s e8e()t+n f'( *+a$+*+t% +f t"e +nt'#de' "ad 'ea**% $een a '$$e'&
t"e 4#est+n )'esented +s w"et"e'& +n t"+s 3#'+sd+ct+n& a )e'sn can $e "e*d c'+(+na**% 'es)ns+$*e w"en& $% 'easn f
a (+sta!e f facts& "e des an act f' w"+c" "e w#*d $e e8e()t +f t"e facts we'e as "e s#))sed t"e( t $e& $#t
w#*d cnst+t#te (#'de' +f "e "ad !nwn t"e t'#e state f facts at t"e t+(e.
He*d& T"at& #nde' s#c" c+'c#(stances& t"e'e +s n c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%& )'/+ded t"at t"e +,n'ance ' (+sta!e f fact was
nt d#e t ne,*+,ence ' $ad fa+t". In t"e' w'ds& +f s#c" +,n'ance ' (+sta!e f facts +s s#ff+c+ent t ne,at+/e a
)a't+c#*a' +ntent w"+c"& #nde' t"e *aw& +s a necessa'% +n,'ed+ent f t"e ffense c"a',ed +t dest'%s t"e )'es#()t+n f
+ntent and w'!s an ac4#+tta*; e8ce)t +n t"se cases w"e'e t"e c+'c#(stances de(and a cn/+ct+n #nde' t"e )ena*
)'/+s+ns ,/e'n+n, ne,*+,ence& and +n cases w"e'e& #nde' t"e )'/+s+ns f a't+c*e 1 f t"e ?ena* Cde& a )e'sn
/*#nta'+*% c((+tt+n, an act +nc#'s c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t% e/en t"#," t"e act $e d+ffe'ent f'( t"at w"+c" "e +ntended t
c((+t.
D ! C " S " # N
CA$S#N% J.&
T"e e/+dence as t (an% f t"e essent+a* and /+ta* facts +n t"+s case +s *+(+ted t t"e test+(n% f t"e acc#sed "+(se*f&
$eca#se f'( t"e /e'% nat#'e f t"ese facts and f'( t"e c+'c#(stances s#''#nd+n, t"e +nc+dent #)n w"+c" t"ese
)'ceed+n,s 'est& n t"e' e/+dence as t t"ese facts was a/a+*a$*e e+t"e' t t"e )'sec#t+n ' t t"e defense. 9e t"+n!
"we/e'& t"at& ,+/+n, t"e acc#sed t"e $enef+t f t"e d#$t as t t"e we+,"t f t"e e/+dence t#c"+n, t"se deta+*s f
t"e +nc+dent as t w"+c" t"e'e can $e sa+d t $e an% d#$t& t"e f**w+n, state(ent f t"e (ate'+a* facts d+sc*sed $%
t"e 'ec'd (a% $e ta!en t $e s#$stant+a**% c''ect0c"an'$1es /+'t#a* 1aw *+$'a'%
T"e defendant& A" C"n,& was e()*%ed as a c! at -Off+ce's: 4#a'te's& N. <F&- F't McK+n*e%& G+2a* ?'/+nce&
and at t"e sa(e )*ace ?asc#a* B#a*$e't& deceased& was e()*%ed as a "#se $% ' (#c"ac". -Off+ce's: 4#a'te's
N. <F- +s a detac"ed "#se s+t#ated s(e HD (ete's f'( t"e nea'est $#+*d+n,& and +n A#,#st& 1EDI& was cc#)+ed
s*e*% as an ff+ce's: (ess ' c*#$. N ne s*e)t +n t"e "#se e8ce)t t"e tw se'/ants& w" 3+nt*% cc#)+ed a s(a**
'( twa'd t"e 'ea' f t"e $#+*d+n,& t"e d' f w"+c" )ened #)n a na''w )'c" '#nn+n, a*n, t"e s+de f t"e
$#+*d+n,& $% w"+c" c((#n+cat+n was "ad w+t" t"e t"e' )a't f t"e "#se. T"+s )'c" was c/e'ed $% a "ea/%
,'wt" f /+nes f' +ts ent+'e *en,t" and "e+,"t. T"e d' f t"e '( was nt f#'n+s"ed w+t" a )e'(anent $*t '
*c!& and t"e cc#)ants& as a (eas#'e f sec#'+t%& "ad attac"ed a s(a** "! ' catc" n t"e +ns+de f t"e d'& and
we'e +n t"e "a$+t f 'e+nf'c+n, t"+s s(ew"at +nsec#'e (eans f fasten+n, t"e d' $% )*ac+n, a,a+nst +t a c"a+'. In
t"e '( t"e'e was $#t ne s"a** w+ndw& w"+c"& *+!e t"e d'& )ened n t"e )'c". As+de f'( t"e d' and
w+ndw& t"e'e we'e n t"e' )en+n,s f an% !+nd +n t"e '(.
On t"e n+,"t f A#,#st 1H& 1EDI& at a$#t 1D :c*c!& t"e defendant& w" "ad 'et+'ed f' t"e n+,"t& was s#dden*%
awa!ened $% s(ene t'%+n, t f'ce )en t"e d' f t"e '(. He sat #) +n $ed and ca**ed #t tw+ce& -9" +s
t"e'e.- He "ea'd n answe' and was cn/+nced $% t"e n+se at t"e d' t"at +t was $e+n, )#s"ed )en $% s(ene
$ent #)n f'c+n, "+s wa% +nt t"e '(. D#e t t"e "ea/% ,'wt" f /+nes a*n, t"e f'nt f t"e )'c"& t"e '( was
/e'% da'!& and t"e defendant& fea'+n, t"at t"e +nt'#de' was a '$$e' ' a t"+ef& *ea)ed t "+s feet and ca**ed #t. -If %#
ente' t"e '(& I w+** !+** %#.- At t"e ((ent "e was st'#c! 3#st a$/e t"e !new $% t"e ed,e f t"e c"a+' w"+c" "ad
$een )*aced a,a+nst t"e d'. In t"e da'!ness and cnf#s+n t"e defendant t"#,"t t"at t"e $*w "ad $een +nf*+cted $%
t"e )e'sn w" "ad f'ced t"e d' )en& w"( "e s#))sed t $e a $#',*a'& t"#," +n t"e *+,"t f afte' e/ents& +t +s
)'$a$*e t"at t"e c"a+' was (e'e*% t"'wn $ac! +nt t"e '( $% t"e s#dden )en+n, f t"e d' a,a+nst w"+c" +t
'ested. Se+2+n, a c((n !+tc"en !n+fe w"+c" "e !e)t #nde' "+s )+**w& t"e defendant st'#c! #t w+*d*% at t"e +nt'#de'
w"& +t afte'wa'ds t#'ned #t& was "+s '((ate& ?asc#a*. ?asc#a* 'an #t #)n t"e )'c" and fe** dwn n t"e ste)s
+n a des)e'ate*% w#nded cnd+t+n& f**wed $% t"e defendant& w" +((ed+ate*% 'ec,n+2ed "+( +n t"e (n*+,"t.
See+n, t"at ?asc#a* was w#nded& "e ca**ed t "+s e()*%e's w" s*e)t +n t"e ne8t "#se& N. <I& and 'an $ac! t "+s
'( t sec#'e $anda,es t $+nd #) ?asc#a*:s w#nds.
T"e'e "ad $een se/e'a* '$$e'+es +n F't McK+n*e% nt *n, )'+' t t"e date f t"e +nc+dent 3#st desc'+$ed& ne f
w"+c" t! )*ace +n a "#se +n w"+c" t"e defendant was e()*%ed as c!; and as defendant a**e,es& +t was $eca#se
f t"ese 'e)eated '$$e'+es "e !e)t a !n+fe #nde' "+s )+**w f' "+s )e'sna* )'tect+n.
T"e deceased and t"e acc#sed& w" '(ed t,et"e' and w" a))ea' t "a/e $een ' f'+end*% and a(+ca$*e te'(s
)'+' t t"e fata* +nc+dent& "ad an #nde'stand+n, t"at w"en e+t"e' 'et#'ned at n+,"t& "e s"#*d !nc! at t"e d' and
ac4#a+nt "+s c()an+n w+t" "+s +dent+t%. ?asc#a* "ad *eft t"e "#se ea'*% +n t"e e/en+n, and ,ne f' a wa*! w+t" "+s
f'+ends& Ce*est+n J#+a($a and Ma'+an I$a@e2& se'/ants e()*%ed at ff+ce's: 4#a'te's N. <I& t"e nea'est "#se t
t"e (ess "a**. T"e t"'ee 'et#'ned f'( t"e+' wa*! at a$#t 1D :c*c!& and Ce*est+n and Ma'+an st))ed at t"e+'
'( at N. <I& ?asc#a* ,+n, n t "+s '( at N. <F. A few ((ents afte' t"e )a't% se)a'ated& Ce*est+n and
Ma'+an "ea'd c'+es f' ass+stance and #)n 'et#'n+n, t N. <F f#nd ?asc#a* s+tt+n, n t"e $ac! ste)s fata**%
w#nded +n t"e st(ac" w"e'e#)n ne f t"e( 'an $ac! t N. <I and ca**ed L+e#tenants Jac$s and Hea*%& w"
+((ed+ate*% went t t"e a+d f t"e w#nded (an.
T"e defendant t"en and t"e'e ad(+tted t"at "e "ad sta$$ed "+s '((ate& $#t sa+d t"at "e d+d +t #nde' t"e +()'ess+n
t"at ?asc#a* was -a *ad'n- $eca#se "e f'ced )en t"e d' f t"e+' s*ee)+n, '(& des)+te defendant:s wa'n+n,s.
N 'easna$*e e8)*anat+n f t"e 'e(a'!a$*e cnd#ct n t"e )a't f ?asc#a* s#,,ests +tse*f& #n*ess +t $e t"at t"e $% +n
a s)+'+t f (+sc"+ef was )*a%+n, a t'+c! n "+s C"+nese '((ate& and s#,"t t f'+,"ten "+( $% f'c+n, "+s wa% +nt
t"e '(& 'ef#s+n, t ,+/e "+s na(e ' sa% w" "e was& +n 'de' t (a!e A" C"n, $e*+e/e t"at "e was $e+n, attac!ed
$% a '$$e'.
Defendant was )*aced #nde' a''est f't"w+t"& and ?asc#a* was cn/e%ed t t"e (+*+ta'% "s)+ta*& w"e'e "e d+ed f'(
t"e effect f t"e w#nd f t"e f**w+n, da%.
T"e defendant was c"a',ed w+t" t"e c'+(e f assass+nat+n& t'+ed& and f#nd ,#+*t% $% t"e t'+a* c#'t f s+()*e
"(+c+de& w+t" e8ten#at+n, c+'c#(stances& and sentenced t s+8 %ea's and ne da% )'es+d+ (a%'& t"e (+n+(#(
)ena*t% )'esc'+$ed $% *aw.
At t"e t'+a* +n t"e c#'t $e*w t"e defendant ad(+tted t"at "e !+**ed "+s '((ate& ?asc#a* B#a*$e't& $#t +ns+sted t"at
"e st'#c! t"e fata* $*w w+t"#t an% +ntent t d a w'n,f#* act& +n t"e e8e'c+se f "+s *awf#* '+,"t f se*f defense.
A't+c*e I f t"e ?ena* Cde )'/+des t"at
-T"e f**w+n, a'e nt de*+n4#ent and a'e t"e'ef'e e8e()t f'( c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-H. He w" acts +n defense f "+s )e'sn ' '+,"ts& )'/+ded t"e'e a'e t"e f**w+n, attendant
c+'c#(stances0c"an'$1es /+'t#a* 1aw *+$'a'%
/ / /
-617 I**e,a* a,,'ess+n.
-6<7 Geasna$*e necess+t% f t"e (eans e()*%ed t )'e/ent ' 'e)e* +t.
-6C7 Lac! f s#ff+c+ent )'/cat+n n t"e )a't f t"e )e'sn defend+n, "+(se*f.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
Unde' t"ese )'/+s+ns we t"+n! t"at t"e'e can $e n d#$t t"at defendant w#*d $e ent+t*ed t c()*ete e8e()t+n
f'( c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t% f' t"e deat" f t"e /+ct+( f "+s fata* $*w& +f t"e +nt'#de' w" f'ced )en t"e d' f "+s
'( "ad $een +n fact a dan,e'#s t"+ef ' -*ad'n&- as t"e defendant $e*+e/ed "+( t $e. N ne& #nde' s#c"
c+'c#(stances& w#*d d#$t t"e '+,"t f t"e defendant t 'es+st and 'e)e* s#c" an +nt'#s+n& and t"e t"+ef "a/+n, f'ced
)en t"e d' ntw+t"stand+n, defendant:s t"'+ce-'e)eated wa'n+n, t des+st& and "+s t"'eat t"at "e w#*d !+** t"e
+nt'#de' +f "e )e's+sted +n "+s atte()t& +t w+** nt $e 4#est+ned t"at +n t"e da'!ness f t"e n+,"t& +n a s(a** 4#est+ned
t"at +n t"e da'!ness f t"e n+,"t& +n a s(a** '(& w+t" n (eans f esca)e& w+t" t"e t"+ef ad/anc+n, #)n "+( des)+te
"+s wa'n+n,& defendant w#*d "a/e $een w"**% 3#st+f+ed +n #s+n, an% a/a+*a$*e wea)n t defend "+(se*f f'( s#c"
an assa#*t& and +n st'+!+n, )'()t*%& w+t"#t wa+t+n, f' t"e t"+ef t d+sc/e' "+s w"e'ea$#ts and de*+/e' t"e f+'st
$*w.
1#t t"e e/+dence c*ea'*% d+sc*ses t"at t"e +nt'#de' was nt a t"+ef ' a -*ad'n.- T"at ne+t"e' t"e defendant n' "+s
)')e't% n' an% f t"e )')e't% #nde' "+s c"a',e was +n 'ea* dan,e' at t"e t+(e w"en "e st'#c! t"e fata* $*w. T"at
t"e'e was n s#c" -#n*awf#* a,,'ess+n- n t"e )a't f a t"+ef ' -*ad'n- as defendant $e*+e/ed "e was 'e)e**+n, and
'es+st+n,& and t"at t"e'e was n 'ea* -necess+t%- f' t"e #se f !n+fe t defend "+s )e'sn ' "+s )')e't% ' t"e
)')e't% #nde' "+s c"a',e.
T"e 4#est+n t"en s4#a'e*% )'esents +tse*f& w"et"e' +n t"+s 3#'+sd+ct+n ne can $e "e*d c'+(+na**% 'es)ns+$*e w"& $%
'easn f a (+sta!e as t t"e facts& des an act f' w"+c" "e w#*d $e e8e()t f'( c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t% +f t"e facts we'e
as "e s#))sed t"e( t $e& $#t w"+c" w#*d cnst+t#te t"e c'+(e f "(+c+de ' assass+nat+n +f t"e act' "ad !nwn
t"e t'#e state f t"e facts at t"e t+(e w"en "e c((+tted t"e act. T t"+s 4#est+n we t"+n! t"e'e can $e $#t ne
answe'& and we "*d t"at #nde' s#c" c+'c#(stances t"e'e +s n c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%& )'/+ded a*wa%s t"at t"e a**e,ed
+,n'ance ' (+sta!e f fact was nt d#e t ne,*+,ence ' $ad fa+t".
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)a't+c#*a' +ntent w"+c" #nde' t"e *aw +s a necessa'% +n,'ed+ent f t"e ffense c"a',ed 6e. ,.& +n *a'cen%& an+(#s
f#'end+; +n (#'de'& (a*+ce; +n c'+(es and (+sde(ean's ,ene'a**% s(e de,'ee f c'+(+na* +ntent7 -cance*s t"e
)'es#()t+n f +ntent&- and w'!s an ac4#+tta*; e8ce)t +n t"se cases w"e'e t"e c+'c#(stances de(and a cn/+ct+n
#nde' t"e )ena* )'/+s+ns t#c"+n, c'+(+na* ne,*+,ence; and +n cases w"e'e& #nde' t"e )'/+s+ns f a't+c*e 1 f t"e
?ena* Cde ne /*#nta'+*% c((+tt+n, a c'+(e ' (+sde(ean' +nc#'s c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t% f' an% w'n,f#* act
c((+tted $% "+(& e/en t"#," +t $e d+ffe'ent f'( t"at w"+c" "e +ntended t c((+t. 69"a'tn:s C'+(+na* Law& sec.
IF and cases c+ted; McC*a+n:s C'+(. Law& sec. 1CC and cases c+ted; ?ett+t /. S.& <I Te8. A).; <HD; C((nwea*t" /.
?we'& F Met.& =EK; Lates /. ?e)*e& C< N. L.& =DE; Is"a( /. State& CI A*a.& <1C; C((nwea*t" /. G,e's& F Met.&
=DD7
T"e ,ene'a* )')s+t+n t"#s stated "a'd*% ad(+ts f d+sc#ss+n& and t"e n*% 4#est+n w't"% f cns+de'at+n +s
w"et"e' (a*+ce f c'+(+na* +ntent +s an essent+a* e*e(ent ' +n,'ed+ent f t"e c'+(es f "(+c+de and assass+nat+n as
def+ned and )ena*+2ed +n t"e ?ena* Cde. It "as $een sa+d t"at s+nce t"e def+n+t+ns t"e'e ,+/en f t"ese as we** as (st
t"e' c'+(es and ffenses t"e'e+n def+ned& d nt s)ec+f+ca**% and e8)'ess*% dec*a'e t"e acts cnst+t#t+n, t"e c'+(e '
ffense (#st $e c((+tted w+t" (a*+ce ' w+t" c'+(+na* +ntent +n 'de' t"at t"e act' (a% $e "e*d c'+(+na**% *+a$*e&
t"e c((+ss+n f t"e acts set #t +n t"e /a'+#s def+n+t+ns s#$3ects t"e act' t t"e )ena*t+es desc'+$ed t"e'e+n&
#n*ess +t a))ea's t"at "e +s e8e()ted f'( *+a$+*+t% #nde' ne ' t"e' f t"e e8)'ess )'/+s+ns f a't+c*e I f t"e
cde& w"+c" t'eats f e8e()t+ns. 1#t w"+*e +t +s t'#e t"at cnt'a'% t t"e ,ene'a* '#*e f *e,+s*at+/e enact(ent +n t"e
Un+ted States& t"e def+n+t+ns f c'+(es and ffenses as set #t +n t"e ?ena* Cde 'a'e*% cnta+n )'/+s+ns e8)'ess*%
dec*a'+n, t"at (a*+ce ' c'+(+na* +ntent +s an essent+a* +n,'ed+ent f t"e c'+(e& ne/e't"e*ess& t"e ,ene'a* )'/+s+ns f
a't+c*e 1 f t"e cde c*ea'*% +nd+cate t"at (a*+ce& ' c'+(+na* +ntent +n s(e f'(& +s an essent+a* 'e4#+s+te f a** c'+(es
and ffenses t"e'e+n def+ned& +n t"e a$sence f e8)'ess )'/+s+ns (d+f%+n, t"e ,ene'a* '#*e& s#c" as a'e t"se
t#c"+n, *+a$+*+t% 'es#*t+n, f'( acts ne,*+,ent*% ' +()'#dent*% c((+tted& and acts dne $% ne /*#nta'+*%
c((+tt+n, a c'+(e ' (+sde(ean'& w"e'e t"e act c((+tted +s d+ffe'ent f'( t"at w"+c" "e +ntended t c((+t.
And +t +s t $e $se'/ed t"at e/en t"ese e8ce)t+ns a'e ('e a))a'ent t"an 'ea*& f' -T"e'e +s a *+tt*e d+st+nct+n&
e8ce)t +n de,'ee& $etween a w+** t d a w'n,f#* t"+n, and +nd+ffe'ence w"et"e' +t +s dne ' nt. T"e'ef'e
ca'e*essness +s c'+(+na*& and w+t"+n *+(+ts s#))*+es t"e )*ace f t"e aff+'(at+/e c'+(+na* +ntent- 61+s"):s New
C'+(+na* Law& /*. 1& s. C1C7; and& a,a+n& -T"e'e +s s *+tt*e defe'ence $etween a d+s)s+t+n t d a ,'eat "a'( and a
d+s)s+t+n t d "a'( t"at ne f t"e( (a% /e'% we** $e *!ed #)n as t"e (eas#'es f t"e t"e'. S+nce& t"e'ef'e&
t"e ,#+*t f a c'+(e cns+sts +n t"e d+s)s+t+n t d "a'(& w"+c" t"e c'+(+na* s"ws $% c((+tt+n, +t& and s+nce t"+s
d+s)s+t+n +s ,'eate' ' *ess +n )')'t+n t t"e "a'( w"+c" +s dne $% t"e c'+(e t"e cnse4#ence +s t"at t"e ,#+*t f
t"e c'+(e f**ws t"e sa(e )')'t+n; +t +s ,'eate' ' *ess "a'(- 6G#t". Ints. C. 1I& ). 117; '& as +t "as $een t"e'w+se
stated t"e t"+n, dne& "a/+n, )'ceeded f'( a c''#)t (+nd& +s t $e /+ewed t"e sa(e w"et"e' t"e c''#)t+n was f
ne )a't+c#*a' f'( ' ant"e'.
A't+c*e 1 f t"e ?ena* Cde +s as f**ws03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-C'+(es ' (+sde(ean's a'e /*#nta'% acts and (+ss+ns )#n+s"ed $% *aw.
-Acts and (+ss+ns )#n+s"ed $% *aw a'e a*wa%s )'es#(ed t $e /*#nta'% #n*ess t"e cnt'a'% s"a** a))ea'.
-An% )e'sn /*#nta'+*% c((+tt+n, a c'+(e ' (+sde(ean' s"a** +nc#' c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%& e/en t"#," t"e w'n,f#*
act c((+tted $e d+ffe'ent f'( t"at w"+c" "e "ad +ntended t c((+t.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
T"e ce*e$'ated S)an+s" 3#'+st ?ac"ec& d+sc#ss+n, t"e (ean+n, f t"e w'd -/*#nta'%- as #sed +n t"+s a't+c*e& sa%s
t"at a /*#nta'% act +s a f'ee& +nte**+,ent& and +ntent+na* act& and '#nd*% asse'ts t"at w+t"#t +ntent+n 6+ntent+n t d
w'n, ' c'+(+na* +ntent+n7 t"e'e can $e n c'+(e; and t"at t"e w'd -/*#nta'%- +()*+es and +nc*#des t"e w'ds
-cn (a*+c+a.- w"+c" we'e e8)'ess*% set #t +n t"e def+n+t+n f t"e w'd -c'+(e- +n t"e cde f 1I<<& $#t (+tted
f'( t"e cde f 1IFD& $eca#se& as ?ac"ec +ns+sts& t"e+' #se +n t"e f'(e' cde was 'ed#ndant& $e+n, +()*+ed and
+nc*#ded +n t"e w'd -/*#nta'%.- 6?ac"ec& Cd+, ?ena*& /*. 1& ). FH.7
A+ada& w"+*e +ns+st+n, t"at t"e a$sence f +ntent+n t c((+t t"e c'+(e can n*% $e sa+d e8e()t f'( c'+(+na*
'es)ns+$+*+t% w"en t"e act w"+c" was act#a**% +ntended t $e dne was +n +tse*f a *awf#* ne& and +n t"e a$sence f
ne,*+,ence ' +()'#dence& ne/e't"e*ess ad(+ts and 'ec,n+2es +n "+s d+sc#ss+n f t"e )'/+s+ns f t"+s a't+c*e f t"e
cde t"at +n ,ene'a* w+t"#t +ntent+n t"e'e can $e n c'+(e. 6A+ada& /*. 1& ). 1K.7 And& as we "a/e s"wn a$/e& t"e
e8ce)t+ns +ns+sted #)n $% A+ada a'e ('e a))a'ent t"an 'ea*.
S+*/e*a& +n d+sc#ss+n, t"e dct'+ne "e'e+n *a+d dwn& sa%s03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-In fact& +t +s s#ff+c+ent t 'e(e($e' t"e f+'st a't+c*e& w"+c" dec*a'es t"at w"e'e t"e'e +s n +ntent+n t"e'e +s n
c'+(e . . . . +n 'de' t aff+'(& w+t"#t fea' f (+sta!e& t"at #nde' #' cde t"e'e can $e n c'+(e +f t"e'e +s n act& an
act w"+c" (#st fa** w+t"+n t"e s)"e'e f et"+cs +f t"e'e +s n ('a* +n3#'%.- 6A*. <& T"e C'+(+na* Law& f*+ 1KE.7
And t t"e sa(e effect a'e /a'+#s dec+s+ns f t"e s#)'e(e c#'t f S)a+n& as& f' e8a()*e +n +ts sentence f Ma% C1&
1II<& +n w"+c" +t (ade #se f t"e f**w+n, *an,#a,e03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-It +s necessa'% t"at t"+s act& +n 'de' t cnst+t#te a c'+(e& +n/*/e a** t"e (a*+ce w"+c" +s s#))sed f'( t"e
)e'at+n f t"e w+** and an +ntent t ca#se t"e +n3#'% w"+c" (a% $e t"e $3ect f t"e c'+(e.- c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw
*+$'a'%
-And a,a+n +n +ts sentence f Ma'c" 1K& 1IE<& w"e'e+n +t "e*d t"at -cns+de'+n, t"at& w"ate/e' (a% $e t"e c+/+* effects
f t"e +nsc'+)t+n f "+s t"'ee sns& (ade $% t"e a))e**ant +n t"e c+/+* 'e,+st'% and +n t"e )a'c"+a* c"#'c"& t"e'e can $e
n c'+(e $eca#se f t"e *ac! f t"e necessa'% e*e(ents ' c'+(+na* +ntent+n& w"+c" c"a'acte'+2es e/e'% act+n '
(+ss+n )#n+s"ed $% *aw; n' +s "e ,#+*t% f c'+(+na* ne,*+,ence.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
And t t"e sa(e effect +n +ts sentence f Dece($e' CD& 1IEK& +t (ade #se f t"e f**w+n,
*an,#a,e03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-. . . Cns+de'+n, t"at t"e ('a* e*e(ent f t"e c'+(e t"at +s +ntent ' (a*+ce ' t"e+' a$sence +n t"e c((+ss+n f an
act def+ned and )#n+s"ed $% *aw as c'+(+na*& +s nt a necessa'% 4#est+n f fact s#$(+tted t t"e e8c*#s+/e 3#d,(ent
and dec+s+n f t"e t'+a* c#'t.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
T"at t"e a#t"' f t"e ?ena* Cde dee(ed c'+(+na* +ntent ' (a*+ce t $e an essent+a* e*e(ent f t"e /a'+#s c'+(es
and (+sde(ean's t"e'e+n def+ned $ec(es c*ea' a*s f'( an e8a(+nat+n f t"e )'/+s+ns f a't+c*e =KI& w"+c" a'e
as f**ws03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
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s"a** $e )#n+s"ed w+t" t"e )ena*t% f a''est (a%' +n +ts (a8+(#( de,'ee& t )'+sn c''ecc+na* +n +ts (+n+(#(
de,'ee& and w+t" a''est (a%' +n +ts (+n+(#( and (ed+#( de,'ees +f +t s"a** cnst+t#te a *ess ,'a/e c'+(e.
-He w" +n /+*at+n f t"e 'e,#*at+ns s"a** c((+t a c'+(e t"'#," s+()*e +()'#dence ' ne,*+,ence s"a** +nc#' t"e
)ena*t% f a''est (a%' +n +ts (ed+#( and (a8+(#( de,'ees.
-In t"e a))*+cat+n f t"ese )ena*t+es t"e c#'ts s"a** )'ceed acc'd+n, t t"e+' d+sc'et+n& w+t"#t $e+n, s#$3ect t
t"e '#*es )'esc'+$ed +n a't+c*e I1.
-T"e )'/+s+ns f t"+s a't+c*e s"a** nt $e a))*+ca$*e +f t"e )ena*t% )'esc'+$ed f' t"e c'+(e +s e4#a* t ' *ess t"an
t"se cnta+ned +n t"e f+'st )a'a,'a)" t"e'ef& +n w"+c" case t"e c#'ts s"a** a))*% t"e ne8t ne t"e'et +n t"e de,'ee
w"+c" t"e% (a% cns+de' )')e'.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
T"e w'd -(a*+ce- +n t"+s a't+c*e +s (an+fest*% s#$stant+a**% e4#+/a*ent t t"e w'ds -c'+(+na* +ntent&- and t"e d+'ect
+nfe'ence f'( +ts )'/+s+ns +s t"at t"e c((+ss+n f t"e acts cnte()*ated t"e'e+n& +n t"e a$sence f (a*+ce
6c'+(+na* +ntent7& ne,*+,ence& and +()'#dence& des nt +()se an% c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t% n t"e act'.
T"e w'd -/*#nta'%- as #sed +n a't+c*e 1 f t"e ?ena* Cde w#*d see( t a))'8+(ate +n (ean+n, t"e w'd
-w+**f#*- as #sed +n En,*+s" and A(e'+can stat#tes t des+,nate a f'( f c'+(+na* +ntent. It "as $een sa+d t"at w"+*e
t"e w'd -w+**f#*- s(et+(es (eans *+tt*e ('e t"an +ntent+na**% ' des+,ned*%& %et +t +s ('e f'e4#ent*% #nde'std
t e8tend a *+tt*e f#'t"e' and a))'8+(ate t"e +dea f t"e (+*de' !+nd f *e,a* (a*+ce; t"at +s& +t s+,n+f+es an e/+* +ntent
w+t"#t 3#st+f+a$*e e8c#se. In ne case +t was sa+d t (ean& as e()*%ed +n a stat#te +n cnte()*at+n& -wantn*%- '
-ca#se*ess*%;- +n ant"e'& -w+t"#t 'easna$*e ,'#nds t $e*+e/e t"e t"+n, *awf#*.- And S"aw& C.0.& nce sa+d t"at
'd+na'+*% +n a stat#te +t (eans -nt (e'e*% :/*#nta'+*%: $#t w+t" a $ad )#')se; +n t"e' w'ds& c''#)t*%.- In En,*+s"
and t"e A(e'+can stat#tes def+n+n, c'+(es -(a*+ce&- -(a*+c+#s*%&- and -(a*+ce af'et"#,"t- a'e w'ds +nd+cat+n,
+ntent& ('e )#'e*% tec"n+ca* t"an -w+**f#*- ' -w+**f#**%&- $#t -t"e d+ffe'ence $etween t"e( +s nt ,'eat;- t"e w'd
-(a*+ce- nt ften $e+n, #nde'std t 'e4#+'e ,ene'a* (a*e/*ence twa'd a )a't+c#*a' +nd+/+d#a*& and s+,n+f%+n,
'at"e' t"e +ntent f'( w"+c" f*ws an% #n*awf#* and +n3#'+#s act c((+tted w+t"#t *e,a* 3#st+f+cat+n. 61+s"):s
New C'+(+na* Law& /*. 1& secs. H<I and H<E& and cases c+ted.7
1#t e/en +n t"e a$sence f e8)'ess w'ds +n a stat#te& sett+n, #t a cnd+t+n +n t"e def+n+t+n f a c'+(e t"at +t $e
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dct'+ne03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
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cnse4#ent*% "as s#))*+ed t #s s#c" (a8+(s as Act#s nn fac+t 'e#( n+s+ (ens s+t 'ea& :t"e act +tse*f des nt (a!e a
(an ,#+*t% #n*ess "+s +ntent+n we'e s;: Act#s (e +n/+t fact#s nn est (e#s act#s& :an act dne $% (e a,a+nst (%
w+** +s nt (% act;: and t"e's f t"e *+!e s't. In t"+s& as 3#st sa+d& c'+(+na* 3#'+s)'#dence d+ffe's f'( c+/+*. S a*s
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w"at +t (a%& we "*d a (an ,#+*t% s+()*% n t"e ,'#nd f +ntent+n; '& n t"e sa(e ,'#nd& we "*d "+( +nncent.:
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we'e t"e (+nd +s )#'e& "e w" d+ffe's +n act f'( "+s ne+,"$'s des nt ffend. And
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"as t"e a))ea'ance f w'n,& w+t" t"e #t(st cnf+dence t"at t"e )*ea& +f +ts t'#t" +s c'ed+ted& w+** $e acce)ted as
,d. Nw t"ese facts a'e n*% t"e /+ce f nat#'e #tte'+n, ne f "e' +((#ta$*e t'#t"s. It +s& t"en t"e dct'+ne f t"e
*aw& s#)e'+' t a** t"e' dct'+nes& $eca#se f+'st +n nat#'e f'( w"+c" t"e *aw +tse*f )'ceeds& t"at n (an +s t $e
)#n+s"ed as a c'+(+na* #n*ess "+s +ntent +s w'n,.- 61+s"):s New C'+(+na* Law& /*. 1& secs. <IK t <ED.7
C()e**ed $% necess+t%& -t"e ,'eat (aste' f a** t"+n,s&- an a))a'ent de)a't#'e f'( t"+s dct'+ne f a$st'act 3#st+ce
'es#*ts f'( t"e ad)t+n f t"e a'$+t'a'% '#*e t"at I,n'ant+a 3#'+s nn e8c#sat 6-I,n'ance f t"e *aw e8c#ses n
(an-7& w+t"#t w"+c" 3#st+ce c#*d nt $e ad(+n+ste'ed +n #' t'+$#na*s; and c()e**ed a*s $% t"e sa(e dct'+ne f
necess+t%& t"e c#'ts "a/e 'ec,n+2ed t"e )we' f t"e *e,+s*at#'e t f'$+d& +n a *+(+ted c*ass f cases& t"e d+n, f
ce'ta+n acts& and t (a!e t"e+' c((+ss+n c'+(+na* w+t"#t 'e,a'd t t"e +ntent f t"e de'. 9+t"#t d+sc#ss+n, t"ese
e8ce)t+na* cases at *en,t"& +t +s s#ff+c+ent "e'e t sa% t"at t"e c#'ts "a/e a*wa%s "e*d t"at t"e +ntent+n f t"e
*aw(a!e' t (a!e t"e c((+ss+n f ce'ta+n acts c'+(+na* w+t"#t 'e,a'd t t"e +ntent f t"e de' +s c*ea' and $e%nd
4#est+n t"e stat#te w+** nt $e s cnst'#ed 6cases c+ted +n C%c.& /*. 1<& ). 1=I& ntes FK and FF7; and t"e '#*e t"at
+,n'ance f t"e *aw e8c#ses n (an "as $een sa+d nt t $e a 'ea* de)a't#'e f'( t"e *aw:s f#nda(enta* )'+nc+)*e
t"at c'+(e e8+sts n*% w"e'e t"e (+nd +s at fa#*t& $eca#se -t"e e/+* )#')se need nt $e t $'ea! t"e *aw& and +t s#ff+ces
+f +t +s s+()*% t d t"+n, w"+c" t"e *aw +n fact f'$+ds.- 61+s"):s New C'+(+na* Law& sec. CDD& and cases c+ted.7
1#t& "we/e' t"+s (a% $e& t"e'e +s n tec"n+ca* '#*e& and n )'ess+n, necess+t% t"e'ef'& 'e4#+'+n, (+sta!e +n fact t $e
dea*t w+t" t"e'w+se t"an +n st'+ct acc'd w+t" t"e )'+nc+)*es f a$st'act 3#st+ce. On t"e cnt'a'% t"e (a8+( "e'e +s
I,n'ant+a fact+ e8c#sat 6-I,n'ance ' (+sta!e +n )+nt f fact +s& +n a** cases f s#))sed ffense& a s#ff+c+ent
e8c#se-7. 61'wn:s Le,. Ma8.& <d ed.& 1ED.7
S+nce e/+* +ntent +s +n ,ene'a* an +nse)a'a$*e e*e(ent +n e/e'% c'+(e& an% s#c" (+sta!e f fact as s"ws t"e act
c((+tted t "a/e )'ceeded f'( n s't f e/+* +n t"e (+nd necessa'+*% 'e*+e/es t"e act' f'( c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%&
)'/+ded a*wa%s t"e'e +s n fa#*t ' ne,*+,ence n "+s )a't; and as *a+d dwn $% 1a'n ?a'!e& -T"e ,#+*t f t"e
acc#sed (#st de)end n t"e c+'c#(stances as t"e% a))ea' t "+(.- 6Ge,. /. T"#'$'n& 1 Den. C. C.& CIF; ?. /.
Ande'sn& HH Ca*.& K=; ?. /. La($& =H 1a'$.& CH<; Lates /s ?.& C< N.L.& =DE; ?atte'sn /. ?.& HK 1a'$.& K<=; Ge,. /s
C"en& I C8 C. C.& H1; ?. /. M+*es& == Ca*.& <DF& <DE; Na**e% /. S.& <I Te8. A).& CIF.7 T"at +s t sa%& t"e 4#est+n as
t w"et"e' "e "nest*%& +n ,d fa+t"& and w+t"#t fa#*t ' ne,*+,ence fe** +nt t"e (+sta!e +s t $e dete'(+ned $% t"e
c+'c#(stances as t"e% a))ea'ed t "+( at t"e t+(e w"en t"e (+sta!e was (ade& and t"e effect w"+c" t"e s#''#nd+n,
c+'c#(stances (+,"t 'easna$*% $e e8)ected t "a/e n "+s (+nd& +n f'(+n, t"e +ntent& c'+(+na* ' t"e'w+se #)n
w"+c" "e acted.
-If +n *an,#a,e nt #nc((n +n t"e cases& ne "as 'easna$*e ca#se t $e*+e/e t"e e8+stence f facts w"+c" w+**
3#st+f% a !+**+n, '& +n te'(s ('e n+ce*% +n acc'd w+t" t"e )'+nc+)*es n w"+c" t"e '#*e +s f#nded& +f w+t"#t fa#*t
' ca'e*essness "e des $e*+e/e t"e( "e +s *e,a**% ,#+*t*ess f t"e "(+c+de; t"#," "e (+st! t"e facts& and s t"e
*+fe f an +nncent )e'sn +s #nf't#nate*% e8t+n,#+s"ed. In 'de' w'ds& and w+t" 'efe'ence t t"e '+,"t f se*f-defense
and t"e nt 4#+te "a'(n+#s a#t"'+t+es& +t +s t"e dct'+ne f 'easn& and s#ff+c+ent*% s#sta+ned +n ad3#d+cat+n& t"at
ntw+t"stand+n, s(e dec+s+ns a))a'ent*% ad/e'se& w"ene/e' a (an #nde'ta!es se*f-defense& "e +s 3#st+f+ed +n act+n,
n t"e facts as t"e% a))ea' t "+(. If w+t"#t fa#*t ' ca'e*essness& "e +s (+s*ed cnce'n+n, t"e(& and defends "+(se*f
c''ect*% acc'd+n, t w"at "e t"#s s#))ses t"e facts t $e& t"e *aw w+** nt )#n+s" "+( t"#," t"e% a'e +n t'#t"
t"e'w+se& and "e "as 'ea**% n ccas+n f' t"e e8t'e(e (eas#'e.- 61+s"):s New C'+(+na* Law& sec. CD=& and *a',e
a''a% f cases t"e'e c+ted.7
T"e c((n +**#st'at+n +n t"e A(e'+can and En,*+s" te8t$!s f t"e a))*+cat+n f t"+s '#*e +s t"e case w"e'e a
(an& (as!ed and d+s,#+sed as a ft)ad& at n+,"t and n a *ne*% 'ad& -"*ds #)- "+s f'+end +n a s)+'+t f (+sc"+ef&
and w+t" *e/e*ed )+st* de(ands "+s (ne% ' "+s *+fe& $#t +s !+**ed $% "+s f'+end #nde' t"e (+sta!en $e*+ef t"at t"e
attac! +s a 'ea* ne& t"at t"e )+st* *e/e*ed at "+s "ead +s *aded& and t"at "+s *+fe and )')e't% a'e +n +((+nent dan,e'
at t"e "ands f t"e a,,'ess'. N ne w+** d#$t t"at +f t"e facts we'e s#c" as t"e s*a%e' $e*+e/ed t"e( t $e "e w#*d
$e +nncent f t"e c((+ss+n f an% c'+(e and w"**% e8e()t f'( c'+(+na* *+a$+*+t%& a*t"#," +f "e !new t"e 'ea*
state f t"e facts w"en "e t! t"e *+fe f "+s f'+end "e w#*d #nd#$ted*% $e ,#+*t% f t"e c'+(e f "(+c+de '
assass+nat+n. Unde' s#c" c+'c#(stances& )'f f "+s +nncent (+sta!e ' c'+(+na* +ntent& and 6s+nce (a*+ce '
c'+(+na* +ntent +s a necessa'% +n,'ed+ent f t"e -act )#n+s"ed $% *aw- +n cases f "(+c+de ' assass+nat+n7
/e'c(es at t"e sa(e t+(e t"e )'es#()t+n esta$*+s"ed +n a't+c*e 1 f t"e cde& t"at t"e -act )#n+s"ed $% *aw- was
c((+tted -/*#nta'+*%.-c'a*aw /+'t#a1aw *+$'a'%
?a'sns& C.0.& +n t"e Massac"#setts c#'t& nce sa+d03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-If t"e )a't% !+**+n, "ad a fe*n+#s des+,n a,a+nst "+(& and #nde' t"at s#))s+t+n !+**ed "+(& a*t"#," +t s"#*d
afte'wa'ds a))ea' t"at t"e'e was n s#c" des+,n& +t w+** nt $e (#'de'& $#t +t w+** $e e+t"e' (ans*a#,"te' ' e8c#sa$*e
"(+c+de& acc'd+n, t t"e de,'ee f ca#t+n #sed and t"e )'$a$*e ,'#nds f s#c" $e*+ef.- 6C"a',e t t"e ,'and 3#'%
+n Se*f'+d,e:s case& 9"a't. H(.& H1F& H1I& L*%d:s 'e)'t f t"e case& ). F.7
In t"+s case& ?a'!e'& 0.& c"a',+n, t"e )et+t& 3#'%& enf'ced t"e dct'+ne as f**ws03,c0c"an'$*es.c(.)"
-A +n t"e )eacea$*e )#'s#+t f "+s affa+'s& sees 1 '#s"+n, 'a)+d*% twa'd "+(& w+t" an #tst'etc"ed a'( and a )+st* +n
"+s "and& and #s+n, /+*ent (enaces a,a+nst "+s *+fe as "e ad/ances. Ha/+n, a))'ac"ed nea' en#," +n t"e sa(e
att+t#de& A& w" "as a c*#$ +n "+s "and& st'+!es 1 /e' t"e "ead $ef'e ' at t"e +nstant t"e )+st* +s d+sc"a',ed; and f
t"e w#nd 1 d+es. It t#'ns #t t"e )+st* was *aded w+t" )wde' n*%& and t"at t"e 'ea* des+,n f 1 was n*% t te''+f%
A. 9+** an% 'easna$*e (an sa% t"at A +s ('e c'+(+na* t"an "e w#*d "a/e $een +f t"e'e "ad $een a $#**et +n t"e
)+st*. T"se w" "*d s#c" dct'+ne (#st 'e4#+'e t"at a (an s attac!ed (#st& $ef'e "e st'+!es t"e assa+*ant& st)
and asce'ta+n "w t"e )+st* +s *aded a dct'+ne w"+c" w#*d ent+'e*% ta!e awa% t"e essent+a* '+,"t f se*f-defense.
And w"en +t +s cns+de'ed t"at t"e 3#'% w" t'% t"e ca#se& and nt t"e )a't% !+**+n,& a'e t 3#d,e f t"e 'easna$*e
,'#nds f "+s a))'e"ens+n& n dan,e' can $e s#))sed t f*w f'( t"+s )'+nc+)*e.- 6L*%d:s Ge).& ). 1KD.7
T t"e sa(e effect a'e /a'+#s dec+s+ns f t"e s#)'e(e c#'t f S)a+n& c+ted $% A+ada& a few f w"+c" a'e "e'e set #t
+n f#** $eca#se t"e facts a'e s(ew"at ana*,#s t t"se +n t"e case at $a'.
-JUESTION III. 9"en +t +s s"wn t"at t"e acc#sed was s+tt+n, at "+s "ea't"& at n+,"t& +n c()an% n*% f "+s w+fe&
w+t"#t t"e' *+,"t t"an t"at 'ef*ected f'( t"e f+'e& and t"at t"e (an w+t" "+s $ac! t t"e d' was attend+n, t t"e
f+'e& t"e'e s#dden*% ente'ed a )e'sn w"( "e d+d nt see ' !nw& w" st'#c! "+( ne ' tw $*ws& )'d#c+n, a
cnt#s+n n t"e s"#*de'& $eca#se f w"+c" "e t#'ned& se+2ed t"e )e'sn and t! f'( "+( t"e st+c! w+t" w"+c" "e
"ad #nd#$ted*% $een st'#c!& and ,a/e t"e #n!nwn )e'sn a $*w& !nc!+n, "+( t t"e f*'& and afte'wa'ds st'+!+n,
"+( ant"e' $*w n t"e "ead& *ea/+n, t"e #n!nwn *%+n, n t"e f*'& and *eft t"e "#se. It t#'ned #t t"e #n!nwn
)e'sn was "+s fat"e'-+n-*aw& t w"( "e 'ende'ed ass+stance as sn as "e *ea'ned "+s +dent+t%& and w" d+ed +n a$#t
s+8 da%s +n cnse4#ence f ce'e$'a* cn,est+n 'es#*t+n, f'( t"e $*w. T"e acc#sed& w" cnfessed t"e facts& "ad
a*wa%s s#sta+ned )*easant 'e*at+ns w+t" "+s fat"e'-+n-*aw& w"( "e /+s+ted d#'+n, "+s s+c!ness& de(nst'at+n, ,'eat
,'+ef /e' t"e cc#''ence. S"a** "e $e cns+de'ed f'ee f'( c'+(+na* 'es)ns+$+*+t%& as "a/+n, acted +n se*f-defense&
w+t" a** t"e c+'c#(stances 'e*ated +n )a'a,'a)" H& a't+c*e I& f t"e ?ena* Cde. T"e c'+(+na* $'anc" f t"e A#d+enc+a
f Aa**ad*+d f#nd t"at "e was an +**e,a* a,,'ess'& w+t"#t s#ff+c+ent )'/cat+n& and t"at t"e'e d+d nt e8+st
'at+na* necess+t% f' t"e e()*%(ent f t"e f'ce #sed& and +n acc'dance w+t" a't+c*es H1E and IF f f'ced #sed&
and +n acc'dance w+t" a't+c*es H1E and IF f t"e ?ena* Cde cnde(ned "+( t twent% (nt"s f +()'+sn(ent&
w+t" access'% )ena*t% and csts. U)n a))ea* $% t"e acc#sed& "e was ac4#+tted $% t"e s#)'e(e c#'t& #nde' t"e
f**w+n, sentence0 :Cns+de'+n,& f'( t"e facts f#nd $% t"e sentence t "a/e $een )'/en& t"at t"e acc#sed was
s#')'+sed f'( $e"+nd& at n+,"t& +n "+s "#se $es+de "+s w+fe& w" was n#'s+n, "e' c"+*d& was attac!ed& st'#c!& and
eaten& w+t"#t $e+n, a$*e t d+st+n,#+s" t"e )e'sn ' )e'sns attac!+n,& n' t"e +nst'#(ents w+t" w"+c" t"e% (+,"t
"a/e e8ec#ted t"e+' c'+(+na* +ntent& $eca#se f t"e fact t"at t"e attac! was (ade f'( $e"+nd and $eca#se t"e'e was
n t"e' t"an f+'e *+,"t +n t"e '(& and cns+de'+n, t"at +n s#c" a s+t#at+n and w"en t"e acts e8ec#ted de(nst'ated
t"at t"e% (+,"t endan,e' "+s e8+stence& and )ss+$*% t"at f "+s w+fe and c"+*d& ('e es)ec+a**% $eca#se "+s assa+*ant
was #n!nwn& "e s"#*d "a/e defended "+(se*f& and +n d+n, s w+t" t"e sa(e st+c! w+t" w"+c" "e was attac!ed& "e
d+d nt e8ceed t"e *+(+ts f se*f-defense& n' d+d "e #se (eans w"+c" we'e nt 'at+na**% necessa'%& )a't+c#*a'*%
$eca#se t"e +nst'#(ent w+t" w"+c" "e !+**ed was t"e ne w"+c" "e t! f'( "+s assa+*ant& and was ca)a$*e f
)'d#c+n, deat"& and +n t"e da'!ness f t"e "#se and t"e cnste'nat+n w"+c" nat#'a**% 'es#*ted f'( s#c" st'n,
a,,'ess+n& +t was nt ,+/en "+( t !nw ' d+st+n,#+s" w"et"e' t"e'e was ne ' ('e assa+*ants& n' t"e a'(s w"+c"
t"e% (+,"t $ea'& n' t"at w"+c" t"e% (+,"t acc()*+s"& and cns+de'+n, t"at t"e *we' c#'t d+d nt f+nd f'( t"e
acce)ted facts t"at t"e'e e8+sted 'at+na* necess+t% f' t"e (eans e()*%ed& and t"at +t d+d nt a))*% )a'a,'a)" H f
a't+c*e I f t"e ?ena* Cde& +t e''ed& etc.: 6Sentence f s#)'e(e c#'t f S)a+n& Fe$'#a'% <I& 1IFK.7- 6A+ada& A*. I& ).
<KK.7
-JUESTION MIM. A )e'sn 'et#'n+n,& at n+,"t& t "+s "#se& w"+c" was s+t#ated +n a 'et+'ed )a't f t"e c+t%& #)n
a''+/+n, at a )+nt w"e'e t"e'e was n *+,"t& "ea'd t"e /+ce f a (an& at a d+stance f s(e I )aces& sa%+n,0 :Face
dwn& "and /e' %#' (ne%N: $eca#se f w"+c" & and a*(st at t"e sa(e ((ent & "e f+'ed tw s"ts f'( "+s )+st*&
d+st+n,#+s"+n, +((ed+ate*% t"e /+ce f ne f "+s f'+ends 6w" "ad $ef'e st+(#*ated a d+ffe'ent /+ce7 sa%+n,& :O"N
t"e% "a/e !+**ed (e&: and "asten+n, t "+s ass+stance& f+nd+n, t"e $d% *%+n, #)n t"e ,'#nd& "e c'+ed& :M+,#e*&
M+,#e*& s)ea!& f' Bd:s sa!e& ' I a( '#+ned&: 'ea*+2+n, t"at "e "ad $een t"e /+ct+( f a 3!e& and nt 'ece+/+n, a
'e)*%& and $se'/+n, t"at "+s f'+end was a c')se& "e 'et+'ed f'( t"e )*ace. S"a** "e $e dec*a'ed e8e()t +n tt f'(
'es)ns+$+*+t% as t"e a#t"' f t"+s "(+c+de& as "a/+n, acted +n 3#st se*f-defense #nde' t"e c+'c#(stances def+ned +n
)a'a,'a)" H& a't+c*e I& ?ena* Cde. T"e c'+(+na* $'anc" f t"e A#d+enc+a f Ma*a,a d+d nt s f+nd& $#t n*% f#nd +n
fa/' f t"e acc#sed tw f t"e 'e4#+s+tes f sa+d a't+c*e& $#t nt t"at f t"e 'easna$*eness f t"e (eans e()*%ed t
'e)e* t"e attac!& and t"e'ef'e& cnde(ned t"e acc#sed t e+,"t %ea's and ne da% f )'+s+n (a%'& etc. T"e s#)'e(e
c#'t ac4#+tted t"e acc#sed n "+s a))ea* f'( t"+s sentence& "*d+n, t"at t"e acc#sed was act+n, #nde' a 3#st+f+a$*e
and e8c#sa$*e (+sta!e f fact as t t"e +dent+t% f t"e )e'sn ca**+n, t "+(& and t"at #nde' t"e c+'c#(stances& t"e
da'!ness and 'e(teness& etc.& t"e (eans e()*%ed we'e 'at+na* and t"e s"t+n, 3#st+f+a$*e. 6Sentence s#)'e(e
c#'t& Ma'c" 1F& 1II=.7- 6A+ada& A*. I& ). 1CK.7
-J#est+n AI. T"e wne' f a (+**& s+t#ated +n a 'e(te s)t& +s awa!ened& at n+,"t& $% a *a',e stne t"'wn a,a+nst
"+s w+ndw at t"+s& "e )#ts "+s "ead #t f t"e w+ndw and +n4#+'es w"at +s wanted& and +s answe'ed :t"e de*+/e'%
f a** "+s (ne%& t"e'w+se "+s "#se w#*d $e $#'ned: $eca#se f w"+c"& and $se'/+n, +n an a**e% ad3acent t t"e
(+** f#' +nd+/+d#a*s& ne f w"( add'essed "+( w+t" $*as)"e(%& "e f+'ed "+s )+st* at ne f t"e (en& w"& n t"e
ne8t ('n+n, was f#nd dead n t"e sa(e s)t. S"a** t"+s (an $e dec*a'ed e8e()t f'( c'+(+na* 'es)ns+$+*+t% as
"a/+n, acted +n 3#st se*f-defense w+t" a** f t"e 'e4#+s+tes f *aw. T"e c'+(+na* $'anc" f t"e A#d+enc+a f Oa'a,2a
f+nds t"at t"e'e e8+sted +n fa/' f t"e acc#sed a (a3'+t% f t"e 'e4#+s+tes t e8e()t "+( f'( c'+(+na* 'es)ns+$+*+t%&
$#t nt t"at f 'easna$*e necess+t% f' t"e (eans& e()*%ed& and cnde(ned t"e acc#sed t twe*/e (nt"s f )'+s+n
c''ecc+na* f' t"e "(+c+de c((+tted. U)n a))ea*& t"e s#)'e(e c#'t ac4#+tted t"e cnde(ned& f+nd+n, t"at t"e
acc#sed& +n f+nd+n, at t"e (a*efact's& w" attac!ed "+s (+** at n+,"t +n a 'e(te s)t $% t"'eaten+n, '$$e'% and
+ncend+a'+s(& was act+n, +n 3#st se*f-defense f "+s )e'sn& )')e't%& and fa(+*%. 6Sentence f Ma% <C& 1IFF7.- 6I
A+ada& ). 1<I.7
A ca'ef#* e8a(+nat+n f t"e facts as d+sc*sed +n t"e case at t"e $a' cn/+nces #s t"at t"e defendant C"+na(an st'#c!
t"e fata* $e*w a**e,ed +n t"e +nf'(at+n +n t"e f+'( $e*+ef t"at t"e +nt'#de' w" f'ced )en t"e d' f "+s s*ee)+n,
'( was a t"+ef& f'( w"se assa#*t "e was an +((+nent )e'+*& $t" f "+s *+fe and f "+s )')e't% and f t"e
)')e't% c((+tted t "+s c"a',e; t"at +n /+ew f a** t"e c+'c#(stances& as t"e% (#st "a/e )'esented t"e(se*/es t t"e
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)')e't% #nde' "+s c"a',e.
T"e 3#d,(ent f cn/+ct+n and t"e sentence +()sed $% t"e t'+a* c#'t s"#*d $e 'e/e'sed& and t"e defendant
ac4#+tted f t"e c'+(e w+t" w"+c" "e +s c"a',ed and "e +s $a+* $nd e8ne'ated& w+t" t"e csts f $t" +nstances de
f+c+. S 'de'ed.
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Separate #pinions
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c((+tted& +nas(#c" as t"e /+ct+( was w+**f#**% 6/*#nta'+a(ente7 !+**ed& and w"+*e t"e act was dne w+t"#t (a*+ce
' c'+(+na* +ntent +t was& e8ec#ted w+t" 'ea* ne,*+,ence& f' t"e acts c((+tted $% t"e deceased c#*d nt wa''ant t"e
a,,'ess+n $% t"e defendant #nde' t"e e''ne#s $e*+ef n t"e )a't f t"e acc#sed t"at t"e )e'sn w" assa#*ted "+(
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3#d,(ent a))ea*ed f'(.

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