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I.

Application for Permit for Public Display


under the Marine Mammal Protection Act
II. Date of Application: November 6, 1991
/
I
III. Applicant
The applicant, Sea World, Inc. is a direct subsidiary of
Busch Entertainment Corporation, and an indirect
subsidiary of the Anheuser-Busch companies, Inc. , a
publicly owned corporation. Sea World, Inc. operates
marine zoological parks located in San Diego, California;
Aurora, Ohio: Orlando, Florida; and San Antonio, Texas.
Address all correspondence regarding this application to:
Brad f. Andrews
Vice President/Zoological Operations
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
orlando, Florida 32821-8097
(407) 363-2155
rv. Description of animals:
A. Number:
a.
Type:
2 adult female killer whales (Orcinys orcs)
1 adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca)
Progeny - this request includes authorization
for progeny of the female whales which appear
to be pregnant, as described below. Juveniles
would be imported with their mothers at a time
after at least twelve months of age and as
prescribed by sea World veterinary staff.
Import for public display.
Estimated

Est. Reproductive
Age condition

Identification
Male_
Female
Female
20
1
17'1n
18'
11
11
12
adult
adult
adult
Tillikum
Nootka
Haida
Haida's calf is expected in November of 1991.
Nootka's calf is expected in February of 1992.
c. Dates/Locations:
Authorization is requested as described below for
the import of the whales from Sealand of the Pacifi'c
Ltd., 1327 Beach Drive, Victoria, B.C. VSS 2N4.
2
Sealand of the Pacific plans to discontinue the
display of killer whales in its facility in 1992.
Tillikum: Due to the disruptive and potentially
harmful impact this male may have on the success of
motherjcalf nursing and bonding, authorization is
requested for the relocation of this animal to Sea
World of Florida as soon as possible.
Haida: If Haida gives birth successfully, she and
her calf would be imported to Sea World of Florida
not sooner than 12 months after the birth, and more
likely in early 1993. If Haida, who is carrying her
first calf, is unsuccessful, she may remain in
Canada with Nootka for purposes of companionship
until import to Sea World of Florida when Nootka
andjor Nootka's calf (if Nootka gives birth
successfully), are imported to Sea World of Texas
(see below) unless compatibility problems require
an earlier import.
Nootka: If Nootka gives birth successfully, she and
her calf would be imported to Sea World of Texas not
sooner than 12 months after the birth, and more
likely in the early summer of 1993. If Nootka, who
is also carrying her first calf, is unsuccessful,
she may remain in Canada with Haida for purposes of
companionship until import to Sea World of Texas
when Haida andjor Haida's calf (if Haida gives birth
successfully), are imported to Sea World of Florida
(see above) unless compatibility problems require
an earlier import.
A description of the condition of the animals at
Sealand is provided in Attachment IV C,
correspondence from Jim McBain, D.V.M.
We request that this authorization remain valid
until December 1993.
D. Description of the status of stocks:
The status of killer whales in the North Atlantic
was reviewed in 1987 (Sigurjonsson and Leatherwood,
Eds. 1988) During postcard censuses conducted in
conjunction with herring fishing in the fall of
1982, a minimum of 284 animals were counted on a
single day, 15 October (Sigurjonsson, 1984). All
were within a few nautical miles of shore along the
east and southeast coast of Iceland. Scientists and
fishermen expressed the belief that there were many
more than 284 killer whales off Iceland, a view that
3
as supported by the fact that the census covered
such a small area and short time period and because
whales are known to occur during the same period
elsewhere off Iceland. Nevertheless, in the absence
of other information, this count has stood as the
estimate of the population of killer whales in
Icelandic coastal waters.
Low effort photoidentification studies conducted in
1985 and 1986 focused on the same area of the east
coast represented by the postcard census.
Supplemented with a few photographs from other years
since 1981, these studies resulted in the
identification of at least 143 recognizable
individual whales and provided some insight into
composition and production in the population
(Lyrholm et al. 1987; Sigurjonsson et al 1988).
The coverage was 1 imi ted in area and time and
corresponded with low light levels. Many more
animals were thought seen than could be
photoidentified. Thus, this represents a small
subset of the 284 animal minimum count and was
considered by the investigators to be an extremely
small proportion of the population of killer whales
in Icelandic waters.
In 1987, three Icelandic sighting vessels conducted
1 ine transect surveys in and near the extended
economic zone of Iceland. Observers aboard the
three vessels reported a total of 25 sightings
totalling 177 individuals.
The animals were widely distributed around Iceland,
although there was a notable area of concentration
some 40-100 nautical miles east of Iceland. This
survey sample supports a statistical estimate of
6,847 killer whales in the areas surveyed, with a
lower 95% confidence limit of about 4, 000
(Sigurjonsson et al. 1988; Gunlaugsson and
Sigurj onsson 1988) . Surveys were conducted
simultaneously in Faroese waters. When these
figures are included, an estimate of 8,272 killer
whales is obtained for these two contiguous regions
of the northeastern North Atlantic (coefficient of
variation 0.32).
Christensen (1984;1988) estimated that there was a
minimum of about 1,300 killer whales in Norwegian
coastal waters during the same period the surveys
were conducted off Iceland and the Faroese. Evans
(1988) reviewed sightings data for killer whales in
British and Irish waters and concluded that there
4
was little evidence for any change in the status of
killer whales in those waters. There are no
estimates for other areas of the North Atlantic
although it is known that killer whales occur in
many other areas, including the pelagic regions in
which few studies have been conducted. Therefore,
it is certain that the surveys cited above do not
account for all killer whales in the North Atlantic.
It is reasonable then to offer an estimate of 9,572
killer whales for studied areas of the North
Atlantic, and of at least 4,000 for the extended
economic zone of Iceland.
There is no reason to believe that the population
of killer whales in the North Atlantic has increased
or deceased significantly in recent decades. The
larger estimate currently available simply reflects
an increased knowledge concerning these populations.
E. Reason:
Not applicable.
F. Country, Manner of Taking and Management
The male killer whale was collected, utilizing a
purse seine net (Asper 1975) from Icelandic waters
in 1983. The female whales were collected from
Icelandic waters in the same manner in 1982. The
Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries has regulated the
collection of killer whales in cooperation with the
Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik and the State
Veterinarian since 1976. Permits were issued on the
basis of the best available information on size and
status of the Icelandic killer whale stock(s)
(Sigurjonsson and Leatherwood, 1988) .
Sealand of the Pacific has maintained these killer
whales in its facility at 1327 Beach Drive,
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8S 2N4. The
order Cetacea (all species except those listed in
Appendix I or listed under earlier dates in Appendix
II) were listed on the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), Appendix II on
June 28, 1979. Under the regulations implementing
the CITES, the Canadian Wildlife Service, Department
of the Environment is responsible for licensing
activities pertaining to the transfer of cetaceans.
5
v. Visitation
The educational, conservation and scientific endeavors
of Sea World are widely known and respected. By the end
of 1990, more than 140 million visitors had benefitted
from the exposure to Sea World's marine mammals,
including killer whales, as well as the birds and fish.
While innovative family recreational programs are Sea
World's most visible facets, the company's commitment to
education and conservation is indisputably significant.
Sea World's formal and informal educational programs are
truly representative of the very best that the zoological
community provides. Sea World public displays expose the
public to marine mammals in an exhilarating and
educational manner. This is accomplished through a
variety of media, including live animal exhibits,
presentations, demonstrations, audiovisual and graphic
displays, and narrated tours and other group activities.
In addition to these award winning public displays, Sea
World offers an extraordinary number of special programs
designed for visitors wishing to learn more about marine
mammals. More than one million children and adults
participated in formal instructional programs at the four
Sea World parks in 1990. The curricula for these
programs are developed by certified and experienced
educators. These programs are designed to enhance and
reinforce state academic requirements for grades pre-
school through college. Teachers whose schools
participate in educational programs receive a curriculum
aid packet developed for specific grade levels.
Curriculum materials enable teachers to prepare students
for the special animal presentations and exhibits they
will visit at Sea World. Instructional field trips
generally include two marine mammal presentations and
visits to exhibit areas where specially trained education
staff provide animal narrations geared to the grade level
of the students and are available to answer students'
questions about the animals. This program provides
students the opportunity to investigate the exciting
topic of marine ecosystem and addresses the subjects such
as natural history of the animals, principles of ecology,
adaptations, natural behavior, as well as the timely
topics of conservation and responsible human behavior.
Outreach programs are made available for those schools
that cannot visit the parks. Schools choose appropriate
age levels and topics for the presentation. Sea World
instructors present the assembly style programs utilizing
slides, videos, biological artifacts, songs, skits and
6
animal adaptation "dress up" activities. Live marine
mammals are not presented. A number of these programs
have been recognized by national awards from the American
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums.
All Sea World parks offer specially designed classes,
seminars and college sessions concentrating on special
topics requested by professors. Many of the classes
conducted make participants eligible for college credit
or teacher re-accreditation.
Teacher training workshops and seminars offer
opportunities for school teachers to obtain professional
enrichment, career advancement, and college credit. Sea
World instructors provide solid factual background
information and assist teachers in integrating marine
science into their own curriculum and individual lesson
plans. These workshops and seminars include valuable
information, laboratory procedures and activities that
teachers can use in their classrooms. Outreach workshops
are also made available to school districts that want
their teachers trained in conservation and marine science
integrated programs.
Special programs are available for people of all levels
and abilities. Programs for accelerated students focus
on high level thinking skills and cooperative learning
activities. Disabled students are offered specially
designed programs that meet their individual needs.
Materials are also available for the vision and hearing
impaired, including a braille book of Sea World animal
information, an animal sounds audio tape and activity
book and an award winning video tape in sign language
for the hearing impaired. Several parks provide
bilingualjESL (English as a second language) specialists
and programs that enable Spanish speaking students to
experience Sea World in their own language.
Throughout the year, Sea World offers a wide variety of
on-site lectures, classroom presentations and camp
sessions which highlight the marine life, including
killer whales, that are displayed in the parks. These
programs are available to the general public of all ages
by individual enrollment.
Educational programs are available at reduced rates which
enable students of all ages, abilities and socio-economic
backgrounds to benefit from educational opportunities.
This may give some students the only opportunity they may
ever have to see these animals and develop an
appreciation and concern for the marine environment and
all of its inhabitants.
7
Consistent with the purposes of the Marine Mammal
Protection Act, the educational programs at Sea World
create an enthusiastic, imaginative and intellectually
stimulating atmosphere that contribute to a better
understanding and appreciation of marine mammal science,
research and conservation.
Research and conservation have been an integral part of
Sea World from the beginning. In 1963, the founders of
Sea World organized and incorporated the Mission Bay
Research Foundation, a non-profit research institute, now
over a quarter century old known as the Hubbs Sea World
Research Institute.
The Institute conducts scientific research in the areas
of marine mammal conservation, mariculture, resource
management and marine ecology. Although operated
independently of Sea World, its scientists work closely
with Sea World staff through frequent use of the park's
facilities and zoological collections.
Nonharmful studies on marine mammals, including killer
whales, maintained in Sea World zoological collections
complement research efforts conducted in the field, and
vice versa. Research in both areas is necessary for a
full understanding of the biology of any species. Sea
World plays an important role in the recovery of injured
or diseased marine mammals through its active
participation in regional stranding programs and other
federal, state and local rescue and rehabilitation
programs.
The treatment of wildlife brought to the parks for care
and rehabilitation, including endangered and threatened
marine mammals, is work that Sea World visitors may
observe. In this way, Sea World expands not only the
knowledge of the scientific community, but the
understanding and concern of the general public as well.
Furthermore, the compilation of basic biological and
medical information gathered through participation in
fieldwork, involving beached and stranded animals, and
through work conducted with marine mammals maintained at
Sea World provides important data necessary for use in
conservation efforts.
Complementing its work in the recovery of injured or
diseased animals is the role the parks play through the
provision of sanctuary for endangered or threatened
species, including the Florida Manatee, California Sea
Otter, Kemp's Ridley and the Green Sea Turtle.
8
Sea World offers a wide variety of educational and
conservation programs which contribute to the
understanding and shaping of positive public attitudes
about marine mammals consistent with the policies of the
Marine Mammal Protection Act. Furthermore, Sea World
parks represent many years of expertise in, and
commitment to, the rescue and rehabilitation of
distressed marine mammals; significant contributions to
scientific research; and ongoing collaborations with
other zoological parks, universities, academic
institutions, and state and federal agencies which are
also engaged in educational conservation endeavors
throughout the United States and the world.
Sea World's unique and successful killer whale
propagation program received the prestigious Edward H.
Bean Award from the American Association of Zoological
Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA) in 1985. Six killer whale
calves currently represent the species in this successful
breeding program. Other breeding programs conducted at
Sea World have resulted in significant numbers of
captive-born seals and sea lions, bottlenose dolphins,
and Commerson's dolphins.
All Sea World parks are accredited institutions of the
American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums.
Furthermore, the parks are open to the public on a
regularly scheduled basis and access is not limited or
restricted other than by an admission fee. Operating
schedules and fees are described in the brochures
attached. Examples of some of the programs offered at
Sea World for educational or conservation purposes are
attached.
VI. Not applicable
VII. Information supplied as appropriate
A. Not applicable
B. 1. Not applicable
2. Not applicable
3. Not applicable
4. Transportation:
The killer whales will be transported in a specially
designed and constructed transport unit from Sealand of
the Pacific to the U.S. government approved Sea World
facility described in Section IV (C) . Mother/calf pairs
will be imported together in separate transport units.
Transport will be via charter aircraft and truck, in
accordance with professionally accepted techniques and
9
in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards
and conditions set forth, under the Marine Mammal
Protection Act, the Animal Welfare Act and the Lacey Act.
Transport is anticipated to take less than 12 hours,
absent unusual circumstances.
5. Transport Supervision
The animals will be transported under the direct
superv1s1on of Sea World professional staff with
extensive experience in the transport, medical care and
management of killer whales. The names of some of these
individuals are listed below. These individual may be
assisted by additional qualified Sea World personnel:
Brad F. Andrews
Vice President/Zoological Operations
19 years of experience with marine mammals.
James E. Antrim
Vice President/General Curator
18 years of experience with marine mammals.
w. Glenn Young
Vice President/General Curator
18 years of experience with marine mammals.
Thomas A. Goff
Curator of Mammals
16 years of experience with marine mammals.
Jack c. Pearson
Curator of Mammals
30 years of experience with marine mammals.
Dudley Wigdahl
Curator of Mammals
16 years of experience with marine mammals.
James F. McBain, D.V.M.
Corporate Director of Veterinary Medicine
17 years of experience with marine mammals.
Diedrich o. Beusse, D.V.M.
Veterinarian Consultant
16 years of experience with marine mammals.
Michael T. Walsh, D.V.M.
Staff Veterinarian
7 years of experience with marine mammals.
10
Bill Hughes
Vice President/General Curator
12 years of experience with marine mammals.
Les Dalton, D.V.M.
Staff Veterinarian
12 years of experience with marine mammals.
6. See attached letter from James F. McBain, D.V.M.
c. Sea World facilities are licensed under the Animal
Welfare Act. A copy of the most recent inspection report
filed for each of the four parks is attached.
Sea World, San Diego, California
Sea World, Aurora, Ohio
Sea World, Orlando, Florida
Sea World, San Antonio, Texas
93-C-069
31-C-013
58-C-077
74-C-180
sea World maintains the largest killer whale
display facilities in the world. (Specifications are
attached.) The killer whales requested can be
accommodated comfortably in the facilities described as
their destination. This determination is based upon the
space requirements of Section 3.104 of the specification
for the Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of
Marine Mammals (9 CFR part 3, Subpart E).
D. Not applicable
E. Sea World's marine mammal inventory and necropsy
report are current and on file with the National
Marine Fisheries Service.
2. The killer whale health programs, as well as the
other marine mammal health programs practiced at Sea
World are based upon a preventive medicine approach
throuah the correlation of and
clinical diagnostic techniques. These programs are
the responsibility of en-site attending
veterinarians
1
working closely with professional
animal care and training staffs. The park in
Florida has two full-ti:ne veterinarians and one
part-time veterinarian. The California park has
twc full-time while Texas employs one
full-time and one part-time veterinarian. The Ohio
park employs one full-time and one part-time
veterinarian.
Every killer whale is observed periodically
throughout the day by several members of the
professional animal care staff for variations in
11
appetite and activity. The information derived from
daily observations is tremendously important in the
prevention of illness. Sea World's prevention
program includes regular physical examinations with
complete laboratory evaluation of blood and other
specimen samples, a balanced diet, and maintenance
of a clean, safe environment. Disease prevention
programs are conducted with minimum disruption to
normal patterns of activity.
When the occurrence of a potential disease or
condition is detected, further diagnostic techniques
are utilized in order to prescribe the most
effective means of intervention. Every Sea World
park operates fully equipped clinical laboratories.
Laboratory specialists are available around the
clock to analyze blood samples, perform
microbiologic analysis, conduct special diagnostic
procedures; i.e. urinalysis, cytology, monitor water
quality and, if necessary, dispense medication
prescribed by the attending veterinarian.
Complete medical records are maintained to allow
quick access to all laboratory test results. These
laboratories not only support veterinarians in their
care of Sea World animals, but in their work with
beached or stranded animals. Sea World maintains
radiography and endoscopy equipment for diagnostic
purposes. Furthermore, as necessary, the parks
access the supplemental support of outside
specialists and researchers with expertise in
surgery, ultrasonography, thermography, fluoroscopy,
and CAT scans.
Marine mammal medicine is a rapidly developing
field. Sea World veterinary staff, laboratory
technicians and animal care professionals are
actively involved in searching for new or refined
diagnostic techniques, therapeutic applications and
animal husbandry practices in an effort to enhance
marine mammal health. The data collection, analysis
and interpretations of Sea World studies are
evaluated through weekly conferences of Sea World
veterinary staff and further disseminated at
scientific meetings and the published literature for
use by other institutions in their health programs.
Each illness and mortality, as shown by recent
deaths in killer whales, undergoes an in-depth
investigation and evaluation, further adding to the
clinical and pathological information base for this
species. Preventative programs, including
12
observational techniques, medical principles and
husbandry practices are continually adjusted in an
attempt to alleviate similar problems which have
resulted in mortalities.
13
VIII.
IX.
Certification
B. "I hereby certify that the foregoing information is
complete, true, and correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief. I understand that this
information is submitted for the purpose of
obtaining a permit under the Marine Mammal
Protection Act of 1972 (16 u.s.c. 1361-1407) and
regulations promulgated thereunder, and that any
false statement may subject me to the criminal
penalties of 18 u.s.c. 1001, or to penalties
provided under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of
1972.
11
~ j ~ ~
Brad F. Andrews
Vice President
Zoological Operations
Sea World, Inc.
14
Application Attachment - Section IV c
Correspondence from Jim McBain, D.V.M.
Application Attachment - Section IV D & F
References
Application Attachment - Section VII B. 6
Transport and Care Certification
Application Attachment - Section VII C
Killer Whale Facility Specifications
USDA/APHIS Inspection Reports
15
~ Saa , .. o l d
~ fl'U .
Dr. William W. Fox, Jr.
Assistant Administrator
November 6, 1991
National Marine Fisheries Service
United States Department of Commerce
Washington, D.C. 20235
RE: Application for Public Display
Dear Dr. Fox:
This letter is to certify that I am a graduate veterinarian,
licensed in the states of Oregon and Minnesota and in the province
of British Columbia, Canada. I am knowledgeable in the field of
marine mammal medicine and care.
I further certify that the professional veterinary staff has
reviewed the facilities and methods for the transport and care of
the killer whales (Orcinus orca) referred to in this permit
application. The methods and facilities described will adequately
provide for the well-being of the killer whales.
JFM/ldf
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
(407) 351-3600
FAX (407) 345-5397
M Busch Entertainment
lliiiJ Corporation
ONE OF THE ANHEUSER BUSCH COMPANIES
Sincerely,
James F. McBain, D.V.M.
Corporate Director of
Veterinary Medicine
SEA WORLD OF FLORIDA - Habitat comprised of interconnecting pools.
Habitat exceeds MHO.
Display and Breeding Pools
Pool 1
Pool 2
Pool 3
Pool 4
Two Med Pools each
Depth - 34 ft.
Volume - 2
1
692
1
800 gallons
(3601000 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 10
1
000 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pools exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume - 436
1
682 gallons
(581379 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 3
1
892 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume - 436
1
682 gallons
(581379 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 3
1
892 sq. ft.
MHO - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume - 706
1
860 gallons
( 9 4 1 50 0 CU ft )
Surface Area - 6
1
300 sq. ft.
MHO - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 12 ft.
Volume - 98
1
511 gallons
( 13 1 169 CU ft )
surface Area - 878 sq. ft.
MHD - not required
As of November 1
1
1991 - Killer whales presently housed = 4
17
SEA WORLD OF CALIFORNIA - Habitat comprised of interconnecting
pools.
Habitat exceeds MHD.
Display and Breeding Pools
Pool 1
Pool 2
Pool 3
Med Pool
Depth - 35 ft.
Volume - 2,491,400 gallons
(333,074 cut. ft.)
surface Area - 10,000 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume - 1,058,500 gallons
(141,510 cu. ft.)
surface Area - 9,000 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume - 1,058,500 gallons
( 141 1 51 0 CU ft )
Surface Area - 9,000 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 8 ft.
Volume- 67,600 gallons
(9,037 cu. ft.)
surface Area - 1,000 sq. ft.
MHD - not required
As of November 1, 1991 - Killer whales presently housed = 3
18
SEA WORLD OF OHIO - Habitat comprised of interconnecting pools.
Habitat exceeds MHO.
Display and Breeding Pools
Pool 1
Pool 2
Depth - 26 ft.
Volume - 511,105 gallons
(68,329 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 2,728 cu. ft.
MHO - individual pool 45 ft.
Depth - 15 ft.
Volume- 327,943 gallons
( 4 3 , 8 4 2 cu . ft . )
surface Area - 3000 sq. ft.
MHO - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Transfer - Connecting - Med Pools
Pool 3
Pool 4
Depth - 8 ft.
Volume - 81,049 gallons
(9, 991 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 1,268 sq. ft.
MHO - not required
Depth - 9 ft.
Volume - 66,250 gallons
(8, 660 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 961.6 sq. ft.
MHO - not required
As of November 1, 1991 - Killer whales presently housed = 2
19
SEA WORLD OF TEXAS - Habitat comprised of interconnecting pools.
Habitat exceeds MHD.
Display and Breeding Pools
Pool 1
Pool 2
Pool 3
Med Pool
Depth - 35 ft.
Volume - 2,110,000 gallons
(282,085 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 11,215 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 16 ft. 9 inches
Volume - 998,000 gallons
(133,422 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 8,122 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 16 ft. 9 inches
Volume - 998,000 gallons
(133,422 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 8,122 sq. ft.
MHD - individual pool exceeds 48 ft.
Depth - 10 ft.
Volume - 60,000 gallons
(8,021 cu. ft.)
Surface Area - 800 sq. ft.
MHD - not required
As of November 1, 1991 - Killer whales presently housed = 3
20
References:
Asper, E.D. 1975. Techniques of live capture of smaller cetacea.
J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 32 (7): 1191-1196.
Christensen, I. 1984. Growth and reproduction for killer whales,
Orcinus orca, in Norwegian coastal waters. Rep. int. Whal.
Commn., Special Issue 6, pp 253-258.
Christensen, I. 1988. Distribution, movements and abundance of
killer whales Orcinus orca in Norwegian coastal waters, 1982-
1987, based on questionnaire surveys. Rit Fiskideildar,
11:79-88.
Evans, P.G.H. 1988. Killer whales Orcinus orca in British and
Irish waters. Rit Fiskideildar, 11:42-54.
Gunlaugsson, s. and J. Sigurjonsson. 1988. NAS-1987: Estimation
of abundance of large cetaceans from observations made abroad
Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels. Presented to the IWC
Scientific Committee, May 1988.
Lyrholm, T., s. Leatherwood and J. Sigurjonsson. 1987.
Photoidentification of killer whales Orcinus orca off Iceland,
October 1985. Cetology, 52:1-14.
Sigurjonsson, J. 1984. Killer whale census off Iceland during
October 1982. Rep. int. Whal. Commn, 34:609-612.
Sigurjonsson, J. and S. Leatherwood (Eds.). 1988. North Atlantic
Killer Whales. Rit Fiskideildar, 11:1-316.
Sigurjonsson, J .T. Lyrholm, s. Leatherwood, E. Jonsson and G.
Vikingsson. 1988. Photoidentification of killer whales,
Orcinus orca, off Iceland, 1981 through 1986. Rit
Fiskideildar, 11:99-114.
21
~ . I WOrld
Application Attachment - Section IV.C.
Dr. William w. Fox, Jr.
Assistant Administrator
November 6, 1991
National Marine Fisheries Service
United States Department of Commerce
Washington, D.C. 20235
RE: Sealand Killer Whale Facility
Dear Dr. Fox:
The killer whales at the Sealand park in Victoria, British
Columbia are maintained in a small main pool that is constructed
of nylon net suspended from floating dock structures. This
enclosure measures approximately 100' x 70'. The sides of the
enclosure are tied to pipes all the way around the perimeter. The
depth of the enclosure at the perimeter is approximately 20', while
the depth at the center of the enclosure can be 40
1
or less at low
tide. Attached to the main pool is a small medical pool which
measures 31'1 x 23'w x 12'd. The walls of the pool are steel, and
the bottom of the pool is fibergrate. The only function of the
pool other than for medical procedures is short-term holding (hours
not days). The facility is moored at Oak Bay Marina.
The two female killer whales residing at Sealand appear
pregnant based on serum progesterone levels. One of the females
(Haida) had a low progesterone on 519190 and an elevated proges-
terone on 6 I 13 I 9 0. The progesterones on Haida have remained
elevated from that time to the present. The other female (Nootka)
had a low progesterone on 8110190 with a high on 1011190, which has
remained elevated to the present. Based on conception occurring
between the last low and the first high progesterone, and a 17-
month gestation period, Haida would be expected to calve in
November 1991, while Nootka would be expected to calve in February
1992.
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
(407) 351-3600
FAX (407) 345-5397
ra Busch Entertainment
liil Corporation
ONE OF THE ANHEUSER-BUSCH COMPANIES
Dr. William W. Fox, Jr.
November 6, 1991
page two
The impending births make it desirable to remove the male
killer whale from the Sea land facility as soon as possible to
eliminate his potential interference in the birth, bonding or
nursing process. For example, a male killer whale at Vancouver
Aquarium raked a calf during the birth process. This did not
directly lead to the calf's death three weeks later, but incidents
of this type should be avoided, if possible, by removing the male
from the calving pool. At Sea World, male killer whales are
prevented from being in the same pool with pregnant whales
approaching birth. There is ample evidence that male killer whales
and dolphins can interfere with the nursing and bonding process.
The main problem posed by females to a birthing whale is the
stealing of calves, which has been observed numerous times with
dolphins and has been experienced with killer whales. Because of
this potential problem, Sea World routinely separates the birthing
female from the other whales during the birthing and bonding
process. The theft of calves by nonparturient females has been
experienced with dolphins as well as killer whales. The potential
for raking is less significant. These episodes are most likely if
the birthing female is subordinate to the non-birthing female.
Haida is dominate over the other female, so one would not
expect Nootka to interfere with Haida. If Haida fails to produce
a viable calf, she could be a problem for the subordinate female,
Nootka, during the birth process. This possibility would lead to
the conclusion that it would enhance Nootka's chance of success if
Haida was moved from Sealand prior to February 1991. This
obviously would be precluded if Haida calved successfully. It
would be unwise to move her and her calf before the calf is one
year of age. However, I would not expect Haida to be a problem
for Nootka if Haida is nursing a calf at the time Nootka gives
birth. If Nootka's birth fails, she could remain until Haida and
her calf were ready for transport. If Nootka has a successful
calving, she and her offspring should not be transported until the
calf is at least one year of age.
JFM/ldf
Sincerely,
Or//L;
James F. McBain, D.V.M.
Corporate Director of
Veterinary Medicine
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Brad F. Andrews
Vice President/Zoological Operations
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
Dear Mr. Andrews:
"e have completed our initial review of the applications
submitted by Sea World, Inc. for permits to import up to six
killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Canada. Concerning the permit
application for importation of the single juvenile killer whale
from Marineland of Canada, Inc. in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada
(P2X), we have determined the application complete and are ready
to forward the notice of receipt and opportunity for public
comment to the Federal Register, as required under the Marine
Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended.
Before we can determine that the other permit application is
complete, i.g., for importation of up to five killer whales from
Sealand of the Pacific, Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
(P2W), some additional information is needed. In this regard,
please provide the following information:
A statement regarding responsibility for: (1) the care and
maintenance of the subject killer whales prior to their
importation, and (2) the decision regarding each animal's
readiness for importation. In this regard, please also
provide an update concerning the condition of Haida, who had
been expected to deliver a calf in November;
A detailed description of the transport method (i.g.,
including a detailed description of the transport
enclosure(s)jequipment to be used and any special care
required), logistics, and any other special arrangements for
importation/transport of the motherjcalf pairs;
A description of the manner in which the imported killer
whales will be isolated/quarantined upon arrival at Sea World
facilities, and the manner ir which .. t!'lese _a_rimals will . __
....... ,. _ ---- hoiciing ___ -- .. ..,.. -
whales presently on public display; and
A discussion of Sea World's consideration of the tragic
incident at Sealand of the Pacific in which a trainer drowned
in the killer whale enclosure, and what actions Sea World has
taken or will take to prevent a recurrence both prior to
...., .. ....
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import. :.!nd at Sea \iorld following importation.
discussion should 1nclude: the factors which Sealano of the
Pacific, the involved Canadian governmental agencies, and Sea
World believe were involved in the incident (g.g., please
submit copies of reports, findings, etc. that are otherwise
available to the public); and the recommendations made by
each of these entities.
Following our review of this and determination that
it is sufficient, a notice equivalent to that described above for
P2X will also be readied, and both notices will be forwarded for
publication in the Federal Register.
Your quick response will 3ssist us in our effort to process your
applications. Please contact us at 301/713-2289 {NEW
NUMBER) if you have any questions.
.. .. ,...
Sincerely,
Ann D. Terbush
Chief, Permits Division
Office of Prot"ected Resources
-.,.-?.'-"'-
;..


Sea WOrld
Anne D. Terbush
Chief, Permits Division
Office of Protected Resources
NOAA/NMFS
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Dear Ms. Terbush:
We have received your lette:r of December 17, l?'Jl :requesti:1g
additional information regarding Sea World's to
import killer whales from Sealand of the Pacific ("Sealand").
Since Sea World's application was filed on November 7, 1991 in a
complete state and in accordance the NMFS requirements and
application instructions, we understand the supplementary
information requested is to clarify certain matters for
1. Care and maintenance of the whales orior to imoo:rtation.
The animals will continue to be owned by Sealand until the
import permit is granted. Responsibility for the animals prior
to impor't rests with Sea land. However, Sea land is consulting
with Sea World on appropriate care and maintenance
2. Decision regarding each animal's readiness :or
importation.
As described in Section IV. A. of our application,
importation will be conducted in a manner prescribec by Sea World
veterinary staff. The timing of the transport will be based upon
the medical opinion of veterinarians that the animals are in good
health and that the move will not create any risk to their healt"h
or well being. The determination regarding their health will he
made by a Sea t'lorld veterinarian experienced i;-1 physicn.l
examination and interpretation of cetacean laboratory results.
as described in Section VII. B. 4. of the application,
animals will be transported under the direct supervision of the
Sea ld professional staff referenced. .l\ veter ir-.. ::1r i;u: Hi 11
accompany the animals at all times dJring
Sea World. Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
(407) 351-3600
FAX (407) 345-5397
01 Busch Entertainment
. :__" Corporation
As 1n Section IV. A. C., Haida appearej to he
pregnant. appa re::. t con1i-: ion 1vas further desc:c i bed i:1
correspondence from Jim attached to the application as
Section IV. C.
Haida gave to a li'Je vigorous calf on December 24,
1991, at ap_?roximately 12:45 _?.m. PST. NMFS was notified of the
birth an "lour of C:elivery.
4. Tra;1soort method.
Sea World has been in the development of
successful transport techniques for marine mammals. (Joseph,
Asper and Antrim, 1991). Killer whales have been transported
successfully by Sea World since 1965 and transport of this nature
is not without precedent. Numerous killer whales of the size the
juvenile can be expected to reach after 12 months of age have
been successfully collected and transported by Sea Norld and
others in years past.
As described in Section VII. B. 4. and 5., the killer whales
will be transported in specially designed and constructed
transport units. Transport will be via charter aircraft and
truck in, accordance with professionally accepted techniques and
in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards and
conditions set forth under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the
Animal Welfare Act and the Lacey Act. Transport is anticipated
to take less than 12 'hours.. absent unusual circumstances. The
transport procedures were reviewed and certified as appropriate
in a letter from Dr. McBain attached to the application.
The protocol for moving cow/calf pairs will be the same as
described in the The co1v and her calf will be moved
at the same time to the same destination in individual transport
units sized appropriately for each animal. The transport units
will be kept as close together' as safe-and practical throughout
the traasport. The .:.nimals will be transpotted under the direct
supervision of the Sea World professional staff referenced in the
application. A veterinarian will accompany the animals at all
times during the move. We have attached for your consideratio'1
illustrations depict our transport units.
Reference -- CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine:
Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation: Leslie A. Dierauf, V.M.D.,
CRC Press Boston: 1990
u e c '2 r:1 e r 3 r) ' =- 0 ' l
?age 3
5. Accli'"'latiot1 into SeCJ. l:orL'i collection.
The ani:1als '>Jeing complete medi.c;:;.l
histories. Thes2 animals :tave no ap2arent medical c0ncition
requiring quarantine upon arrival. Sea personnel who have
ex a mined the animals believe t:1e animals are behaviorally
normal.
The animals will be visually and physic<1.lly separated from
the resident Sea World killer whales in one of the breeding and
research pools specified as attachments to Section VII. C.
Behavioral Ol)servation and appropriate medical evaluation will
guide the integration of animals into resident
groups. The Sealand animals will not be allowed to associate
with the resident Sea Norld animals if there are any signs of
disease or incompatible behavior.
After the veterinary and training staff have concluded the
Sealand animals are ready to associate with the resident animals,
the animals will be allowed to enter the main pool. Should any
conflict develop other than the expected behavior associated with
establishing relative dominance wit}lin the group, Sea Norld 's
resident animals will be called to separate areas using the
acoustic signals which t!1e animals have been trained to folloVT.
6. Sea World's Employee Training and Safety Program.
In 1987, Sea World commenced a detailed review of its
employee training and safety procedures. Thereafter, Sea 'i7orld
implemented an enhanced employee training and safety program.
Since implementing this program, there have been no accidents
involving killer whales at Sea lvorld facilities.
Although we are generally familiar with the circumstances
surrounding the accidental death of a trainer in the killer whale
pool at Sealand on February 20, 1991, we do not have any of
Sealand's records or reports on this matter. Sea World urges
NMFS to request whatever documents NMFS-bel_ieves necessary for
NMFS' from the appropriate of Sealdnd and
the Government of Canada. However, we believe the accident was
unique to Sealand and was due to the unfortunate combination of a
poor pool design which prohibited exit from the water, inadequate
energency life saving
unaccustomed to the presence of people in the water.
Sea World understands the historical interest regarding the
incident at Sealand, but Sea vlorld believes its present employee
training and safety program should be judged on its merits by
comparison to current industry standards, particularly since the
situation at Sealand is so different fr-om that .vhich exists at
S':'a vorld. For example, Sea animals ar-e all
and are accustomed to with trainers and
staff. Sealand's animals are untraineJ
ani will be managed initially by Sea World as untrained
animals. Sea World's facilities are structurally
di:ferent from Sealand's facility in significant respects.
At Sea World, safety for bot"h employees and killer whales 13
paramount in all our work.
Please let us know if we can be of further assistance 1n
expediting your processing of this application.
Very truly yours,
r)/Y'd
Brad F. Andrews )
Vice President
Zoological Operations
Sea lvor ld, Inc.
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Mr. Brad F. Andrews
Vice President
Zoological Operations
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, Florida 32821-8097
Dear Mr. Andrews:
JAN I 4 1992
We have completed our review of the application
information submitted in your letter of December 30, 1991. With
the addition of this information, we have determined the
applications to be complete sufficient to initiate the public
comment phase of the permit review process. Consequently,
enclosed are copies of two notices which were published today in
the Federal Register notifying the public of Sea World's
applications and initiating the 30-day comment period. Please
review these notices and let us know if any of the information is
in error.
Although your letter of December 30, 1991, provided additional
information sufficient to initiate the public comment phase of
the permit process, your response to our request for additional
information did not provide sufficient information on which to
base a decision to issue a public display permit. In short,
will need additional information on a few of the issues raised in
our letter of December 17, 1991, before such a permit decision
can be made. In this regard, please provide additional
information on the following:
1. Care and maintenance of the whales prior to importation.
This issue is of immediate concern regarding the killer whales
helct at the Sealand facility, the
importation of Tillikum for medical treatment otherwise
unavailable and in consideration of the circumstances which
precipitated that emergency (see letter to you from Nancy
Foster dated January 8, concernina the emeraency
authorization tor the import o: What are
SealandjSea World's contingency plans if there are problems
with the composition/interactive behavior of these animals,
especially leading up to or following the birth of the
< ....
2
calves - one now born and the other birth expected soon?
Because long-term holding in the small "medical" pool at
Sealand is not an option, what alternative arrangements have
been made to address these potential problems? What are
MarinelandjSea World's contingency plans involving the
juvenile male killer whale to be imported if such problems
occur at the Marineland of Canada facility in Ontario?
2. Discussion of Sea World's consideration of the tragic incident
at Sealand of the Pacific in which a trainer drowned in the
killer whale enclosure .... [including] the factors which
Sealand of the Pacific, the involved Canadian governmental
agencies, and Sea World believe were involved in the incident
please submit copies of reports, findings, etc. that
are otherwise available to the public); and the
recommendations made by each of these entities. (See NMFS
request for additional information dated December 17, 1991.)
The information provided on this subject in your letter of
December 30, 1991, was a general response in which you stated
Sea World's position on employee training and safety,
explained that the Sealand animals will be managed initially
as untrained animals, and stated that Sea World does not have
any of Sealand's records or reports on this matter. This
information is helpful in our consideration of your
application. However, this incident is a significant enough
event and, as a result, issue arising out of the past care and
maintenance of these killer whales that it should be
thoroughly addressed by Sea World prior to issuance of a
permit for their importation for purposes of public display.
In this regard, Sea World should obtain and closely examine
all relevant reports and documentation resulting from the
incident; consider the recommendations which were made and
whether and how they may apply to Sea World's facilities,
animal care and training practices, and trainerjanimal
interactions policies and procedures; and provide, for NMFS
review, Sea World's position regarding each such report and
recommendation, and, where applicable, the manner in which
each will be addressed in the care and maintenance of these
killer whales at Sea World following their proposed
3. A description of the manner in which the imported killer
whales will be isolated/quarantined upon arrival at Sea World
: :_
In your December 30, 1991, response, you stated that these
animals have complete medical histories, are behaviorally
normal, and that they will be visually and physically
separated from the resident Sea World killer whales pending
behavioral observation and medical evaluation. However, you
also state that, "These animals have no apparent medical
condition requiring quarantine upon arrival." Please clarify
the meaning of this statement. is concerned that the
animals to be imported be initially isolated in a manner
sufficient to prevent transmission of any communicable disease
pending an adequate period of medical On the
basis of periodic consultation with officials of the Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service, we have generally
interpreted such initial isolation procedures to reasonably
include separate water circulations systems. If it is not the
intent of Sea World to maintain these animals initially after
import in a manner isolated from the other killer whales
presently held at Sea World's facilities, please explain why
you believe such isolation is not necessary or required to
protect the health and welfare of both the animals to be
imported and those now at Sea World's facilities.
A response which addresses thoroughly each issue above will
assist us in our effort to process your permit applications.
Please contact us at 301/713-2289 (NEW PHONE NUMBER) if you have
any questions.
Division
of Protected Resources
Enclosures
~ e a WOrld
February 14, 1992
Ann D. Terbush
Chief, Permits Division
Office of Protected Resources
and Habitat Programs
National Marine Fisheries Service
1335 East West Highway, Room 7324
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
Dear Ms. Terbush:
This letter responds to your January 14, 1992 letter
requesting additional information on three issues relating to our
pending applications to import killer whales. We believe the
following information is responsive to your letter.
care and Maintenance of the Whales Prior to Importation
With respect to the whales of Sealand, we previously advised
you of the February 4, 1992 birth of a calf to Nootka. We are
cautiously optimistic about the condition of the new calf and the
overall situation at Sealand. Both mother/calf pairs appear
healthy and, currently, there is no indication of interference
from either pair.
As we have previously explained, after reaching agreement
with Sealand in mid-October on the potential acquisition of the
animals, the management options were severely limited. Soon
thereafter, on November 1, 1991, we met with NMFS staff and
described the circumstances which ultimately precipitated the
emergency import of Tilikum.
After being advised by NMFS on November 1 that no emergency
existed and that no options were available to address the
potential problems we described, we submitted our permit
application on November 7, 1991 and asked for prompt action to
avert any possible emergency.
After the successful birth of Haidas calf on December 24,
1991, it was necessary to expedite the removal of Tilikum from
the facility for the reasons we had previously explained. This
was, and is, the only appropriate contingency plan for dealing
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
(407) 351-3600
FAX ( 407) 345-5397
1M! Busch Entertainment
llal Corporation
ONE OF THE ANHEUSER-BUSCH COMPANIES
Ann D. Terbush
February 14, 1992
Page 2
with the mother/calf pair(s) at Sealand. Reasonable alternative
arrangements were not, and are not, available.
Given the advanced stages of the potential pregnancies, we
would not have moved the females even if alternative housing
existed. We stated in our application:
[I]f Haida gives birth successfully, she and
her calf would be imported to Sea World of
Florida not sooner than 12 months after the
birth, and more likely in early 1993. If
Haida, who is carrying her first calf, is
unsuccessful, she may remain in Canada with
Nootka for companionship until import to Sea
World of Florida when Nootka and/or Nootka's
calf (if Nootka gives birth successfully) are
imported to Sea World of Texas . unless
compatibility problems require an earlier
import.
If Nootka gives birth successfully, she and
her calf would be imported to Sea World of
Texas not sooner than 12 months after the
birth, and more likely in the early summer of
1993. If Nootka, who is also carrying her
first calf, is unsuccessful, she may remain in
Canada with Haida and/or Haida's calf (if
Haida gives birth successfully) .. unless
compatibility problems require an earlier
import.
In a letter attached to the application, Dr. Jim McBain
stated:
Haida is dominant over the other female, so
one would not expect Nootka to interfere with
Haida. If Haida fails to produce a viable
calf, she could be a problem for the
subordinate female, Nootka, during the birth
process. This possibility would lead to the
conclusion that it would enhance Nootka's
chance of success if Haida was moved from
Sealand prior to February 1992. This
obviously would be precluded if Haida calved
successfully. It would be unwise to move her
and her calf before the calf is one year of
age. However, I would not expect Haida to be
a problem for Nootka if Haida is nursing a
calf at the time Nootka gives birth. If
Nootka's birth fails, she could remain until
Ann D. Terbush
February 14, 1992
Page 3
Haida and her calf were ready for transport.
If Nootka has a successful calving, she and
her offspring should not be transported until
the calf is at least one year of age.
We believe we have considered and described in our
application every reasonable option for managing the difficult
situation at Sealand. Given the position taken by NMFS in its
cover letter to the cooperative agreement with Sea World dated
January 8, 1992, we are requesting that NMFS be prepared to take
immediate action in the event (l) Haida loses her calf and
interferes with Nootka's bonding process or (2) Nootka is
unsuccessful in rearing a viable calf and begins to interfere
with Haida's nursing of her calf. If either event arises, the
female interfering with an established mother/calf pair should be
immediately removed.
Our application submitted on November 7, 1991 for the import
of a juvenile captive-born male from Marineland was submitted as
the solution to the potential compatibility problems at
Marineland. Therefore, we requested and expect a decision on
this request within the time frame necessary to provide for the
health and welfare of this animal.
Discussion of Sea World's Consideration of the Incident at
Sealand of the Pacific in Which a Trainer Drowned in the Killer
Whale Enclosure
We have reviewed the recommendations of the Workers
Compensation Board-Employer's Accident Investigation Report and
Sealand's policy statements issued in response to various reports
and recommendations. This review confirms the determination
stated in our letter of December 30, 1991 that the reports and
recommendations made regarding the incident of Sealand are unique
to the configuration and operation of the Sealand facility, or
they address fundamental trainer and public safety procedures
which have been in effect at Sea World for several years.
Furthermore, the documents we have reviewed do not identify any
behavioral characteristics or problems unique to Tilikum or the
other killer whales at Sealand which require special
consideration.
As stated in our letter of December 30, 1991, Sea World
professional staff have been actively observing all the whales
since November 7, 1991. These observations confirm that the
animals are behaviorally normal. Thus, no special actions are
needed to augment regular Sea World procedures.

Ann D. Terbush
February 14, 1992
Page 4
the Manner in Which the Im orted Killer Whales
Quarantined Upon Arrival at Sea World
As described in our letter of December 30, 1991, the animals
to be imported have complete medical histories. Based on these
histories and current observations, the animals are in good
health and there is no apparent medical condition requiring
quarantine. Therefore, the quarantine of the animals under the
definition of "isolation" as set forth in the applicable APHIS
regulations, 9 C.F.R. 1.1, is not necessary or required to
protect the health and welfare of either the animals to be
imported or the resident Sea World animals.
We believe this responds to your January 14 letter and we
urge prompt and favorable action on Sea World's pending permit
applications.
Sincerely,
Vice President
Zoological Operations
. '

November 6, 1992
Dr. Nancy Foster
Director, Office of Protected Resources
National Marine Fisheries Service
1335 East-West Highway, Room 8268
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
Re: Permit No. 774
Dear Dr. Foster:
Brad Andrews
Vice President
Zoological Operations
This letter is our notification of intent to Permit
No. 744 to import the three killer whales from Sealand of the
Pacific between December 24, 1992, and January 31, 1993, depending
upon the availability of the proper charter aircraft.
Transportation and Maintenance of the Animals
Condition B (1) (c) requests information on the plans and
facilities for transportation and maintenance during transport. In
transporting these animals, we will follow the procedures detailed
in section VII. B. 4. and 5 and attachments to the applicatiOJ)
submitted on November 7, 1991 and in the supplemental discussion of
these procedures provided in our letters to you dated Decembei 30,
1991 and February 14, 1992. The procedures described above are
i dent i ca 1 to those utili zed in the April 17, 1992 import of the
k i 11 er wha 1 e, Sp 1 ash, transferred under Permit No. 733, and the
January 9, 1991 emergency import of Ti 1 i kum, transferred under
Agreement No. 1Q. These imports were accomplished without incident
and without adverse impact on the animals.
Sea World, Inc.
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097
(407) 363-2661
FAX ( 407) 345-5397
a Busch Entertainment
MJ Corporation
ONE OF THE ANHEUSER BUSCH COMPANIES
Dr. Nancy Foster
November 6, 1992
Page Two
In addition, the transport and maintenance of killer whales by
Sea World complies with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's
regulations and standards "Specifications for the Humane Handling,
Care, Treatment and Transportation of Marine Mammals."
Specifically, the animals will be transferred from Sealand
using the following procedure. The three animals will leave the
Sealand facility together via charter truck to charter aircraft.
Each animal will be transported in individual units sized
appropriately and designed for comfort during the transport.
Illustrations of our transport units were supplied as an attachment
to our letter of December 30, 1991. The animals will be
transported under the direction of a team of Sea World professional
staff. A veterinarian will accompany the animals at all times
during the transport. The facilities and methods for the transport
and care of these animals were reviewed and certified as adequate
on behalf of our veterinary staff by Dr. J. McBain as an attachment
to our application. As noted above, these procedures are identical
to those used to import Tilikum and Splash.
The animals will be maintained by Sea World Inc. Haida and
her calf will arrive at Sea World of Texas on the first leg of the
transport and will remain there. The transit time will be
approximately eight hours. The flight will continue with Nootka
going to Sea World of Florida. That transit time will be
approximately four hours. The total transport should not exceed 12
hours absent unusual circumstances. The placement of the animals
has been changed since the application was originally submitted on
November 7, 1991. Since submitting the application, we have
determined from observations of all the animals involved that
social compatibility will most likely be achieved with the animals
going to the respective parks as indicated above.
Medical Determinations
Condition B (1) (c) appears to require that the importation
plan include a determination that the animals are ready for
transport and a determination, to the extent pract i cab 1 e, that
lactation/nursing has ceased and the calf has been weaned. At the
time the transport is arranged, we will determine, to the extent
Dr. Nancy Foster
November 6, 1992
Page Three
practicable, that lactation/nursing has ceased and the killer whale
calf has been weaned. This will be accomplished by comparing the
observed food consumption and absence of nursing of the calf with
similar behavior of the six other killer whales that have been
successfully weaned at Sea World parks. With respect to each
animal's fitness for transport, at this time, each killer whale is
in apparent good he a 1 th. At the time of transport, fitness for
transport will be determined using standard laboratory and
behavioral evaluations. A health certificate will be issued for
each animal prior to the transport.
Although Condition B (1) (c), read literally, would require
that these medical determinations be made thirty days in advance as
part of the importation plan, such determinations are premature
thirty days in advance. Responsible veterinary practice requires
that each of the medical determinations provided for in Condition
B (1) (c) be made as close to transport as possible so that the
greatest amount of data is available and that the data on these
animals' condition is the most current relative to the time of
transport.
Assumption of Responsibility
Condition B (1) (c) requests a statement of when Sea World
will assume sole responsibility for the care and maintenance of the
killer whales. Sea World will assume this responsibility as the
animals are lifted from the water to be placed in the transport
units. Responsibility for the animals prior to the import rests
with Sealand. However, Sealand is consulting with Sea World on
appropriate care and maintenance procedures.
Conclusion
Sea World's importation procedures are fully adequate to
provide for the health and well-being of the killer whales to be
imported from Sealand. We believe that has been established by the
successful transport of other killer whales using identical
transportation methods and identical procedures for determining the
animals' medical fitness for transport.
.
Dr. Nancy Foster
November 6, 1992
Page Four
If you have any questions regarding this matter, please do not
hesitate to call. Your timely approval of this plan will
facilitate the progress of the importation.
Sincerely,
~ v ~
Brad Andrews
Vice President
Zoological Operations
jas
APPLICATION FILE COVER SHEET
File No: P2W Permit No: Action Individual: AJ/PHB
Name of Applicant: SEA WORLD INC
7007 SEA WORLD DRIVE
ORLANDO, FL 32821-8097
Primary Contact: ANDREWS, MR BRAD Phone: 407-363-2155
Abstract: TO IMPORT TWO (2} ADULT FEMALE KILLER WHALES (ORCINUS ORCA}
AND ONE (1} ADULT MALE KILLER WHALE FROM SEALAND OF THE
PACIFIC IN CANADA FOR PUBLIC DISPLAY. THIS REQUEST INCLUDES
AUTHORIZATION FOR PROGENY OF THE FEMALE WHALES, WHICH APPEAR
PREGNANT, TO BE IMPORTED WITH THEIR MOTHERS AT A TIME AT
LEAST 12 MONTHS OF AGE AND AS PRESCRIBED BY SEA WORLD
VETERINARY STAFF.
NMFS Reviewers Comments Expected? Comments Received
F /NER . .....
FISER . ............ .
F I SWR
F /NWR
F I AKR .....
Date of Application
Date Received
Additional Information
Requested
Date Complete
FR Notice of Receipt
Close of Comment Period
MMC Comments Received
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
11/06/91
11/07/91
Dates of Permit Modifications:
Dates of Permit Authorizations:
Section 7 Signed
Application Returned
Application Withdrawn
Permit Issued/Denied
Expiration Date
Extended to
Extended to
Extended to
NOTE: Please run this report each time there is an action on the Permit.