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MENARA DESTILASI

Kondisi Umpan :
Kondisi umpan masuk :
T

= 87C

= 1 atm

Kondisi destilasi :
T

= 87C

= 1 atm

Kondisi umpan bottom :


T

= 87C

= 1 atm

Diketahui :
Umpan masuk = 658,7728 kg/jam terdiri dari :
Etanol = 468,5535 kg/jam
Air

= 190,2193 kg/jam

Komponen heavy key (HK) adalah air, sehingga :


i

Maka diperoleh :
etanol =
air

= 0,4415

= 1,0000

Jadi :
1q=

Dengan metode trial & error diperoleh, = 0,9399


Data komposisi buble :
Komposisi

Xd

C2H5OH

0,9399

0,9482

0,4415

H2O

2,1011

0,0518

1,0000

Maka,

Rm + 1 =

Rm + 1 =

= 1,8701
Rm

= 0,8701

Destilasi dilakukan dengan refluks ration 3 kali refluks minimum.


Rop

= 3 . Rm
= 3 x 0,8701
= 2,6103

Dari perhitungan neraca massa diperoleh jumlah uap yang keluar pada kolom
atas:
Etanol = 445,1256 kg/jam
Air

= 9,5102 kg/jam

Untuk :
Etanol

= Rop x 445,1256 kg/jam


= 2,6103 x 445,1256 kg/jam
= 1161,9206 kg/jam

Air

= Rop x 9,5102 kg/jam


= 2,6103 x 9,5102 kg/jam
= 24,8247 kg/jam

Jadi total aliran refluks adalah

= etanol + air
= (1161,9206 + 24,8247) kg/jam
= 1186,7453 kg/jam

Maka jumlah uap yang masuk kondesor :


= jumlah destilasi + jumlah refluks
Etanol = (445,1256 + 1161,9206) kg/jam
= 1607,0462 kg/jam
Air

= (9,5102 + 24,8247) kg/jam


= 34,3349 kg/jam

Total aliran uap sebelum masuk kondensor adalah = 1641,3811 kg/jam

Perhitungan neraca panas destilasi :


Untuk Qin yang masuk destilasi = Qout dari heater
Qin

= Qetanol + QH2O
= (19154,4669 + 13886,0100) kg/jam
= 33040,4769 kg/jam

Untuk Qout yang keluar destilasi :


T reff = 25C
T out = 98C
Qetanol =
= 445,1257 x

= 445,1257 ((9,014 x (98-25)) +(


(

)) + (

)) (

))

= 445,1257 x 1593,23458 kJ/kmol


=

x 380,6106 kkal/kmol

= 9,6766 kmol/ jam x 389,6186 kkal/jam


= 3683,03332 kkal/jam
Q

=
=

= 9,5103(32,243(98-25)+

(983-253)

= 9,5103(2353,739+8,6369+3,2565-0,0826
= 9,5103 kg/jam x 2365,5498 kj/kmol
=

x 565,1098 kkal/kmol

= 116,8336 kkal/jam
Total Qout destilasi :
= Qetanol + QAir
= (3683,033 + 116,834) kg

(984-254)

= 3799,8668 kg

Untuk Qout yang keluar dari kolom bawah (bottom)


T reff = 25C
T out = 180C
Qet

=23,4278(9,0141(180-25)+
253)+

(1802-252)+

(1803-

(1804-254)

= 23,4278(1397,1700+3401,0371-162,6646+0,3603
=2342 kg/ jam x 4635,9028 kj/ kmol
=

x 1107,4780 kkal/ kmol

= 664,0385 kkal/jam
Qair

= 180,7090 (32,243 (180-25)+

(1802-252) +

(1804-254)

= 180,7090 x (4997,665 + 30,5644 + 20,4639 0,9439)


= 180,7090 kg/jam x 5047,7499 kj/kmol
=

x 1205,8648 kkal/jam

= 4737,1885 kkal/jam
Panas laten kondensasi (QCD)
Q
Dimana :

= n x Hv
n = kg mol komponen terkondensasi (kkal/kg)
Hv = entalpi kondensasi komponen (kkal/kg)

(1803-253)

Metode perhitungan kondensasi komponen pada suhu 85C dihitung dengan


persamaan

Dimana :
n= TETAPAN (0,38)
Tr1= Suhu reduce komponen pada suhu terhitung
Tr2= Suhu reduce komponen pada titik didih normal
Hv1= Entalphi penguapan komponen pada titik didih normal
Hv2= entalphi penguapan komponen pada titik didih terhitung
Dari appendiks D engineering, volume 6,coulsn & Richardsons diperoleh data
Komponen

TBP0C

TC0C

HVAP kkal/kmol

Etanol

78,30

516,20

9261,83

air

100

647,30

9718,82

Panas penguapan masung-masing komponen pada suhu 850C:


Etanol :
Tr1 =

= 0,1517
= 0,3113

Tr2 =
Hv = 9261,825 [

= 420375,13

x8688,4478

Q etanol =
= 420375,13

Air :
Tr1=

= 0,1517

= 0,3113

Tr2 =
Hv= 9718,825 [

=9115,052

Jadi

x9115,0521

Q Air=

= 24079,613
QCD = Qet + Qair
= 420375,13 + 24079,613
= 444454,7390 kkal/jam
Kebutuhan air pendingin (Md)
Sebagai pendingin digunakan air :
Suhu air masuk = 280C
Suhu air keluar = 400C
Md =

=
=
=37037,8949 kg/ jam
Beban pans reboiler :
Neraca massa Destilasi
QF + QRB = QD + QB + QCD
QRB

= (QD + QB + QCD)-QF
= (3799,8668 + 5301,2270+44454,74 33040,4758
= 453555,8329 33040,758
= 420515,3570 kkal/jam

Kebutuhan steam (Ms)


Temperature steam yang digunakan = 2500C
= 409,8231 kkal/kg
Ms =

=
=1026,090 kg/jam
Menara destilasi
Panas masuk

Panas keluar

(kkal/jam)

(kkal/jam)

Q etanol

19154,4659

QB

5301,2270

Q H2Q

13886,01

QD

3799,8668

Q RB

= 420515,36

QCD

= 444454,7390

Total

= 453555,8329

Total

= 453555,8329

5. COOLER - 01

28C

Cooler-01

98C

30C

40C

A. Panas yang masuk ke cooler = panas yang keluar di destilat


Q in = 3799,8668 kkal/jam
B. Panas keluar cooler
Treff = 250C
Tout = 300C
Qet =
=

= 23,4278(9,04141(30-25)+
253)+

(302-252)

(303-

(304-254)

= 445,1257(45,0700+29,4346-0,3181+0,0001
= 445,1257 kg/jam x 74,1866 kj/kmol
=

x 17,7226 kkal/kmol

= 564171,4949 kkal/jam
Air =
=

= 9,5103 (32,243(30-25)+

(302-252)-

= 9,5103 (161,215+0,2645-0,0400-0,0400)
=

x 38,5856 kkal/kmol

= 7,9774 kkal/jam
Total Qout destilasi :
= Qetanol + Qair
= 171,4949 + 7,9774
= 179,4723 kkal/jam
C. Beban panas pendingin (Qp)
Qp =Qin- Qout
=3799,8668 179,4723
= 3620,3945 kkal/jam
D.jumlah air pendingin yang dibutuhkan
Mp =

=
= 301,6995 kg/jam

(304-254)

Neraca pana total tangki cooler-01


Panas masuk

Panas keluar

Kkal/jam

Kkal/jam

Panas masuk Qin

Panas sensible keluar Qout

Q etanol

= 3683,0332

Q etanol

171,4949

Q H2O

Q H2O

7,9774

QP

= 3620,3945

Total

Total

116,83

3799,8668

3799,8668

COOLER- 02
A. Panas yang masuk ke cooler= pans yang keluar di destilat
Qin = 5301,2270 kkal/jam
Treff= 250C
Tout = 300C

Qet =

=23,4278(9,014(30-25)+
253)+

(302-252)-

(303-

(304-254)

=23,4278(45,0700+29,4346-0,3181+0,0001
=23,4278 kg/jam x74,18866kj/kmo
=

x 17,7226 kkal/kmol

= 9,0261 kkal/jam
QAir =

)dt
=180,7090(32,243(30-25)+
253)+

(302-252)-

(304-254)

=180,7090(161,215+0,2645-0,0400-0,0400)

(303-

=180,7090 kg/jam x 161,5192 kj/kmol


=151,5817 kkal/jam
Total Out :
= Qetanol + Qair
= 9,0261 + 151,5817
160,6078 kkal/jam
C. Beban panas pendingin (Qp)
Qp = Qin- Qout
=5301,2270-160,6078
=5140,6192 kkal/jam
D. Jumlah air pendingin yang dibutuhkan
Mp =

=
= 428,3849 kg/ jam
Neraca panas total tangki cooler-02
Panas masuk

Panas keluar

Kkal/jam

Kkal/jam

Panas masuk Qin

Panas sensible Qout

Q etanol

Q H2O

= 4737,19

Total

564,0385

= 5301,2270

Q etanol

9,0261

Q H2O

151,5817

QP

= 5740,6192

Total

5301,2270