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1 Nokia Siemens Networks

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NPO 2G Radio Network Optimization Technology Workshop--veeresh 1 Nokia Siemens Networks


2G Radio Network Optimization Technology
Training

Network Planning & Optimization
Veeresh N


Soc Classification level
2 Nokia Siemens Networks
Course Outline

DAY 1---CALL FLOW ( MTC& MOC)& Network Optimization Principles(
Parameters ,Hoc, Poc, Timers)

DAY2- Network Performance Optimization(Counters, KPIs, ND Reports)

DAY 3-- AMR TRAINING & FEATURES PRESENTATION(Robust AMR
, AMR PPC, SAL)




Soc Classification level
3 Nokia Siemens Networks
Contents
Presentation / Author / Date
Channels Basics

Mobile Originated CallMOC

Mobile Terminating CallMTC

Handover control ---HOC

Power Control POC

Parameters

Timers
4 Nokia Siemens Networks
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4
Logical Channels on Air interface
LOGICAL
CHANNELS
COMMON
CHANNELS
DEDICATED
CHANNELS
BROADCAST
CHANNELS
COMMON
CONTROL
CHANNELS
DEDICATED
CONTROL
CHANNELS
TRAFFIC
CHANNELS
FCCH BCCH SCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH
PCH AGCH RACH TCH/F TCH/EFR TCH/H
Soc Classification level
5 Nokia Siemens Networks
5
GSM Channels
Control Channels
Traffic Channels
(TCHs)
Full
rate
Half
rate
Dedicated Control
Channels
(DCCHs)
Slow Fast
Downlink
Broadcast
Channels
(BCHs)
Common Control
Channels
(CCCHs)
Downlink Uplink
TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH CBCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH
Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing
(down uplink)
GSM Channels
Soc Classification level
6 Nokia Siemens Networks
6
FACCH
BTS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS
MS
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
CBCH
SDCCH
SACCH
TCH
TCH
FACCH
SDCCH
SACCH
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
RACH
PCH
AGCH
RACH
CBCH
Synchronization
Frequency correction
Broadcast control
Access request
Subscriber paging
Answer to Access request
Broadcast info
Dedicated Signaling
Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS
Traffic (speech data)
Associated Signaling
Associated Signaling
Traffic (speech-data)
Radio Measurement + SMS
Dedicated Signaling
Broadcast info
M.S. Pre-synchronization
Access request
Subscriber paging
Answer to Access request
The Logical Channels on Radio Interface
Soc Classification level
7 Nokia Siemens Networks
7
FACCH MESSAGES
Connection establishment from SDCCH
to TCH
End validation of a SDCCH-TCH
commutation
Characteristics of the future used BS
after handover
Connection establishment to BS after
handover
Validation of an handover
SACCH MESSAGES
Measures:
- power level of the communication
- quality level of the communication
- level on the beacon frequency of the
neighboring cells
Timing Advance
Power Control
SMS
TCH MESSAGES
Speech
Data
Handover Access message (uplink)
SDCCH MESSAGES
Request for a SDCCH assignment
Request for the end of channel
assignment
Order of commutation from SDCCH to
TCH
SMS
Logical Channel Description (1/2)
Soc Classification level
8 Nokia Siemens Networks
8
FCCH MESSAGES
no message is sent (all bits 0)
BCCH MESSAGES
System Information type 1, 2, 2
bis
,
2
ter
, 3, 4, 7, 8
(idle mode)
SCH MESSAGES
Frame Number
Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
AGCH MESSAGES
For dedicated channel assignment:
-frequency number
-slot number
-frequency hopping description
-Timing Advance (1
st
estimation)
-MS identification
PCH MESSAGES
messages containing a mobile
identity for a call, a short message
or an authentication
RACH MESSAGES
Service request:
- emergency call
- answer to an incoming call
- outgoing call
- short message
- call re-establishment
- inscription
CBCH MESSAGES
Specific information
(weather, road information
Logical Channel Description (2/2)
Soc Classification level
9 Nokia Siemens Networks
9
Mobile Originated Call
Request for Service
Authentication
Ciphering
Equipment Validation
Call Setup
Handovers
Call Release

Soc Classification level
10 Nokia Siemens Networks
Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on
RACH send channel request
AGCH receive SDCCH
SDCCH do the authentication and TMSI allocation
SDCCH require traffic channel assignment
SDCCH send call establishment request
SDCCH send the setup message and desired number
FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits)
FACCH receive alert signal ringing sound
FACCH acknowledge connect message and use TCH
TCH conversation continues
FACCH receive connect message
Call establishment from a mobile--MOC
Soc Classification level
11 Nokia Siemens Networks
csf_2e
csf_2e
csf_1a
Call establishment from a mobile--MOC
Soc Classification level
12 Nokia Siemens Networks
dcr_3i
dcr_4e
dcr_8e
dcr_5a
dcr_3j
dcr_8c
blck_8d
csf_2e
blck_29
CONTINUE
Soc Classification level
13 Nokia Siemens Networks
dcr_8e
dcr_5a
dcr_3i
dcr_3j
dcr_8c
dcr_4e
Soc Classification level
14 Nokia Siemens Networks
Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on
Receive signaling channel SDCCH on AGCH
Receive alert signal and generate ringing on FACCH
Receive authentication request on SDCCH
Generate Channel Request on RACH
Answer paging message on SDCCH
Authenticate on SDCCH
Receive setup message on SDCCH
FACCH acknowledge connect message and switch to TCH
Receive connect message on FACCH
Receive traffic channel assignment on SDCCH
Mobile receives paging message on PCH
FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits)
Call establishment to a mobile--MTC
Soc Classification level
15 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential

MS
BTS BSC
MSC
Alert
Connect
Connect Ack
Speech
Channel Reqd
Channel Req
Channel Actvn
Imm Assgn
Imm Assgn
Paging Response
CM Service Accept
Security Procedures
Set Up
Call Proceeding
Chan Actvn Ack
Establish ind
CL3 Informant
TCH Assignment
Paging
Paging Command
Paging Request
Mobile Terminated Call
Soc Classification level
16 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
CCCH_ GROUP
BCCH defines the number of PCHN ( timeslots ) supporting CCCH
CCCH can be allocated only to TN 0,2,4,6
CCCH will have the same structure on all allocated timeslots ( 9 blocks )
Each PCHN supporting CCCH is alloted a CCCH_Group No ( range : 0 .. 3 )
Each CCCH_Group carries its own group of Mobiles.
Mobiles will listen to paging messages and send RACH's only in their specific group
Paging is process by which Mobile receives incoming calls
Mobile has to monitor the paging channel to receive paging messages
Mobile will not monitor all paging channels, it will monitor the channel specific
to its CCCH_Group and Paging Group
B
9blocks
DC
9blocks
TC
9blocks
TC
9blocks
T
0
12345
6
7
Paging
Soc Classification level
17 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
Within the CCCH_Group , Mobile listen to paging in specific paging (CCCH)
blocks only
The block specific to a mobile is its Paging Group
0FSBCFSCCFSCCFSCCFSCCI
1D
2ISBCIICCIICCIICCIICCI
3T
4ISBCIICCIICCIICCIICCI
5T
6ISBCIICCIICCIICCIICCI
7T
TN
CCCH_GROUP
PagingGroup
Paging Group
Soc Classification level
18 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
How to derive CCCH_Group and Paging Group for a mobile ?
Let us understand some parameters required to achieve this .
1. BS_CC_CHANS : Total No of PCHN supporting CCCH ( Sys Info Type 3 )
Range : 1 - 4

2. BS_AG_BLKS_RES : Blocks reserved for AGCH

3. BS_PA_MFRMS : Multiframe Repetition rate

4. IMSI : 15 digit Mobile Identity
We will now understand 2 & 3
Paging
Soc Classification level
19 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
Available Paging Blocks = CCCH Blocks -- bs_ag_blks_res
Maximum AGCH Reservation for Non-Combined = 7
Available Paging Blocks = 2
Maximum AGCH Reservation for Combined = 2
Available Paging Blocks = 1

Mimimum AGCH Reservartion for Non-Combined = 0
Available Paging Blocks = 9
Minimum AGCH Reservation for Combined = 0
Available Paging Blocks = 3
No of Paging Blocks will have a range of 1 - 9
Available Paging Blocks on 1 CCCH_Group
Paging
Soc Classification level
20 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
Mobile belonging to Paging Group P0 will remain idle during P1 ,P2,P3

Mobile utilizes power only during PO. This is known as DRX
BS_PA_MFRMS
-- No of Multiframes after which Same Paging Group is repeated
-- This Parameter is broadcasted on BCCH
-- Ranges between 0 -- 9 Multiframes
FSBAFSAAFSAAFSAAFS
P0P1
I
FSBAFSAAFSAAFSAAFS
P2P3
I
FSBAFSAAFSAAFSAAFS
P0P1
I
MF 2
MF 3
Paging
Soc Classification level
21 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential

No of Paging Groups = Paging Blocks x Repitition of Paging BLock
N = [ CCCH - bs_ag_blks_res ] x bs_pa_mfrms
Minimum Available Paging Groups = Min Pag blocks x Min bs_pa_mfrms
= 1 x 1 = 1
Maximum Available Paging Groups = Max Pag blocks x Max bs_pa_mfrms
= 9 x 9 = 81
Range of Paging Groups on 1 CCCH_Group
Total No of Paging Groups on 1 CCCH_Group ( N )
Paging
Soc Classification level
22 Nokia Siemens Networks Company Confidential
How does a Mobile knows it CCCH_Group Paging
Group No ?
Pag Grp No = [ ( IMSI mod 1000 ) mod ( BS_CC_CHANS x N ) ] mod N
N = Total Paging Groups = No of Paging Blocks x bs_pa_mfrms
CCCH_Group = [ ( IMSI mod 1000 ) mod ( BS_CC_CHANS x N ) ] div N
Paging
Soc Classification level
23 Nokia Siemens Networks 23 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / 2005-02-15/ sr
HOW TO WORK OUT WHICH PAGING GROUP AN MS IS
ASSIGNED TO
The paging group is determined by the following:
PAGING GROUP = {(IMSI mod 1000) mod [BS_CC_CHANS*N]} mod N

Where N = No of Paging Groups = No of PCH x
BS_PA_MFRMS
IMSI = International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Mod = MODULUS (see additional notes on modulus
at the end)
BS_CC_CHANS = CCCH (COMBINED (3) or NONCOMBINED
(9))
Example:
Assuming that the relevant parameters for the calculation are as follows:
IMSI= 460003811319045
N = Number of Paging Groups (For this we will assume there are 28 Paging Groups)
Mod = Scientific calculation. Full notes at end explaining mod.
BS_CC_CHANS = 9 (As we will assume for this that NON-COMBINED Signaling is in use)
Soc Classification level
24 Nokia Siemens Networks 24 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / 2005-02-15/ sr
CALCULATION
So the calculation {(IMSI mod 1000) mod [BS_CC_CHANS*N]} mod N based on the information in the previous slide would be as follows:
{(460003811319045 mod 1000) mod [ 9 * 28 ]} mod 28

STEP1.
(IMSI mod 1000) = (460003811319045 mod 1000)
460003811319045 / 1000 = 460003811319.045
mod then requires removing the whole number and multiplying the remainder by the original mod number.
This would give 0.045 *1000 = (45)

STEP2.
From previous slide, (BS_CC_CHANS*N)
BS_CC_CHANS = 9
Number of Paging Groups (N) = 28
(9 * 28) = (252)

STEP3.
{(IMSI mod 100)mod[BS_CC_CHANS*N]} = {(45) mod [252] }
45 / 252 =0.1785
mod requires removing the whole number however as there is no whole number in this case then the remainder is multiplied by 252.
This would give 0.1785 * 252 = 44.982 (Round up to 45)

STEP4.
Result obtained in Step 3, mod 28, therefore: (45) mod 28
45 / 28 = 1.6071
mod requires removing the whole number and multiplying the remainder by the original mod number.
This would give 0.6071 * 28 = 17
Therefore we conclude that IMSI 460003811319045 belongs to Paging Group 17.

For More information on Paging Groups see GSM Specification 05.02.
Soc Classification level
25 Nokia Siemens Networks 25 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / 2005-02-15/ sr
MODULUS EXPLAINED
What is MODULUS?
If you divide 14 by 4 you get an answer of 3 plus a remainder of 2.
When using MODULUS the remainder is the important bit, the whole number is discarded.
Example 14/4 = 3 remainder 2, discard the whole number (3) leaving the answer 2, the
maths for this would be written in the form: [14] mod 2.

Soc Classification level
26 Nokia Siemens Networks
MTC _CALL FLOW
PSR = (first paging response+ repeated paging response)*100/first paging request
The following formula indicates the success rate of paging (call & SMS)
100* sum(succ_page)/sum(fail_page+succ_page)
Paging (MSC to BSC ;BSSMAP)
This message is sent by MSC when it has found out the called MS is somewhere under him (= MSC
recognises this is a GSM_END -call). This message contains mainly four kind of information: message
type, IMSI of the called subscriber, TMSI of the called subscriber and Cell Identifier list. If TMSI -numbers
are defined for use these have the priority one, for security reasons and if the network does not use
TMSIs then IMSI -number is included only. The paging is sent as an UDT (Unit Data) message to the
BSC.

Paging Command (BSC to BTS ;BTSM)
The BSC always calculates so-called paging group. The idea of this calculation is to find out in which radio
time slots the BTS can send the Paging Requests out towards the MS. Reason: in the network, there is a
possibility to have at least three different kind of BCCH-TRX -radio time slot configurations and thus
logical channel PCH can have at least three different kinds of location. If the BSC receives both TMSI and
IMSI from the MSC, then it uses always TMSI number when sending paging further on.

Paging Request (BTS to MS;PCH)
The BTS sends paging on a PCH channel.

Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
27 Nokia Siemens Networks
SMSC
MSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
LA -
1
LA -
2
A - Interface
LAPD (Abis) Interface
MS
MS
Air - Interface
Major Issues that affect Paging Performance




BCSU Processor Overload Lower/Upper Limit Issues
BSC Hardware Utilization
Cell Reselection Strategy ( HYS - Specially in LA borders)
Overshooting of Cells beyond the desired boundary
Distant & Un-necessary neighbor relations
Poor Coverage & Quality
LAPD Load Against the Signaling Link Used ( 16/32/64Kbps)
Paging Load ( High Page Volume) Above Capacity Limits
A Interface( SS7) Signaling Load
Page Time Out
VLR Subscriber Capacity
BHCA ( SMS & Voice)
SMSC Capacity Utilization
Page Time Out
Paging Deletion in Cells
RACH Collisions Overload
Other than Capacity Issues, PAGE TIME OUT is the main reason that is
to be analyzed
Example of
smart
Network --
Philippines
Soc Classification level
28 Nokia Siemens Networks
Paging Scenario in SMART
TMSI is used for both INITIAL PAGING & PAGE REPETITION
Re-page Interval ( INT3.5 Sec )
Re-Paging Attempts is 1 ( PAGE IS REPEATED ONCE)
TMSI Re-Allocation is not done during MT Call & MT SMS
Conclusion
Soc Classification level
29 Nokia Siemens Networks
SMS Assessment No Page Response

Detailed analysis of Trace is in next slidex
Clear Code 12 (NO PAGE RESPONSE) - Reasons
Paging time out
Subscriber is not reachable
No response to paging message

Network Element Capacity & Interface
Analysis - SMSC

Possible reasons
Mobile Station Reason
MS does not give the response to the paging message
Network Availability Issues
Out of Coverage Area
During Location Update Process / LU Update Failure

Soc Classification level
30 Nokia Siemens Networks
SMS Assessment No Page Response

B-Subscriber is in Same BSC ( In this case BSC48)
Indicates need to increase INT ( Re-page Interval) as MS
took long time to RESPOND
Network Element Capacity & Interface
Analysis - SMSC

DX Cause 0x12 indicates NO PAGE RESPONSE ( Or Page Failure).
MS in same location User A sends SMS to User B

NO PAGE RESPONSE to 1
st
Attempt Including, REPAGE ( Time
Out after 7 Sec)
PAGE SUCCESFUL in 2
nd
RETRY , but 5.66 Sec Page Response
time
MT SMS to Same Customer
But Took 2 RETRY
Time Out after 7 Sec
Soc Classification level
31 Nokia Siemens Networks
SMS Assessment No Page Response

B-Subscriber switches between 2 BSC
Length Orig Calling No Msisdn Number Bsc Id Lac Cell Paging Time Dx Cause
19.07.2009 9:16:20 PM 59 639103106764 639071071672 48 0x12
19.07.2009 9:19:06 PM 59 639103106764 639071071672 145 12145 21704 402 0x0
Report Time
Finding from Trace file :
B Subscriber switches between 2 LACs.
When the subscriber was paged 1
st
time, the MS may be under location update process & NO PAGE RESPONSE
Again after 2 min 46 Sec , the customer was again Paged with new LAC / Cell ID
Page was Successful, again the response time was 4.02 Sec.

Main Observations
Location update and/or Cell Reselection process took more time. Observed high setting of Cell Reselect Hysteresis
However its evident that the Page Response time is high as 4.02 Sec, After 1
st
SMS delivery attempt failed.
In SMART the Page Response Timer ( INT- Re Page Interval) is set at 3.5 Sec.

1. Need to increase Re- Page interval from 3.5 Sec 4.5 Sec
2. Review Cell Reselect Hysteresis (HYS) in Cells at LAC border.
Example in later slides ( Slide 22)
Network Element Capacity & Interface
Analysis - SMSC

Soc Classification level
32 Nokia Siemens Networks
Paging Attempt vs. Paging Successful rate (per LAC)
MSCG11
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
200,000
10145 11145 12145 13145 14145 15145 16145 17145 10048 11048 12048 14048
BSC11145 BSC48
LAC/ BSC
P
a
g
i
n
g

A
t
t
e
m
p
t
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P
a
g
i
n
g

S
u
c
c
e
s
s
f
u
l

r
a
t
e
Sum of PAGINGATTEMPTPERLA Sum of PAGINGSUCCRATE
Paging Success Rate Snapshot
Source: VLR measurement report, paging per LAC (353/161H), 30 Jun 09 21:00
Average Paging Success Rate is less than 85% in LACs of MSCG11
Page Volume is quite high across all LACs when compared to No of Cells in LAC ( LA Size)
Snapshot of this in the following slide.
Soc Classification level
33 Nokia Siemens Networks
LAPD ANALYSISPaging
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
34 Nokia Siemens Networks
A Interface Signaling Link Load ( MSC BSC)
XVSFDVG
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
2
0
0
9
-
0
6
-
2
7
2
0
0
9
-
0
6
-
2
8
2
0
0
9
-
0
6
-
2
9
2
0
0
9
-
0
6
-
3
0
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
0
1
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
0
2
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
0
3
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
0
4
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
0
5
2
0
0
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-
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-
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2
0
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-
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-
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2
0
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2
0
0
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-
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-
1
0
2
0
0
9
-
0
7
-
1
1
2
0
0
9
-
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7
-
1
2
2
0
0
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-
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-
1
3
2
0
0
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-
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-
1
4
2
0
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5
2
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2
2
Date
E
r
l
a
n
g
s
B1148
BS145
All of Signaling links towards BSCs (BSC1148 and BSC145) are overload during busy hour.
The average are 0.34 Erlang since before and after new promotion.
NSN recommended Value is 0.2 Erlang.
Recommended to change few VLR/PLMN Parameters to reduce the Signaling Load. Ref: Next Slide
Network Element Capacity & Interface Analysis - MSC

Soc Classification level
35 Nokia Siemens Networks
Cell Overshooting, beyond the expected
Increased number of Adjacency in other LAC ( As a
result of more LACs)
Network Element Capacity & Interface Analysis BTS & Air Interface
Example Case of Cell SH08FTPNR3 is shown in next slide
Cell SH08FTPNR3 which is in LAC border , Overshoots to 3.8Km reaching the 2
nd
neighboring LAC
This Cell has high RACH deletions and considerable Page Deletions
Soc Classification level
36 Nokia Siemens Networks
ND Report--Paging Deletion--186
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
37 Nokia Siemens Networks
Cell having AG DeletionND 202
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
38 Nokia Siemens Networks
BCSU LOADND 184
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
39 Nokia Siemens Networks
Summary of Recommendations for Improving
Paging Performance
Maintain the A Interface (SS7) signaling load below 0.2 Erls ( Currently its above 0.34 Erls)
Traffic Migration from MSCG11 to other MSC to reduce the Traffic Load.
Remove INACTIVE BSCs ( definition) from MSCs . ( MSCG11 has only 2 BSCs where defined
are 7)
Monitor & maintain BCSU Load in safe limits Less than 60% Average Load
Reduce the number LACs ( Combine LAC if Page load is less) Paging Load ( LAPD limits).
Minimum 32Kbps LAPD signaling is to be used. If LAPD Overload Alarm(2133) is present in few
Cells, increase to 64Kbps
Implement the Layering Analysis & Recommendation from NSN.

NSN Recommendation to maintain good Paging Success Rate
Once Paging Success Rate is improved after implementing the recommendations in previous slide, following
activities has to be done or monitored to maintain Good Paging Success Rate
Soc Classification level
40 Nokia Siemens Networks
Paging Optimisation
Paging is a procedure in which the PLMN attempts to reach a mobile
subscriber within the location area in which the subscriber is currently
registered. In a mobile-terminated call, the MSC/VLR sends a paging
order to the BSCs /RNCs controlling the last location area of the mobile
station. To be able to do this, the MSC/MSS has to know which BTSs
belong to which location areas and by which BSCs/RNCs they are
controlled. Paging can be done either with the TMSI or IMSI of the mobile
station. The network operator can define if paging will be repeated in the
case in which the first paging is done with TMSI or IMSI and the MS is not
found. If the paging is repeated, it is done with the IMSI.
The paging retry mechanism consists of two levels. On the one hand, the
Visitor Location Register (VLR) requests the paging first with the
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) and when there is no
response, it can request the paging with the subscriber's International
Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). On the other hand, the Mobile Services
Switching Centre (MSC) can repeat the paging over the A/Iu interface
several times with the actual TMSI or IMSI.
Soc Classification level
41 Nokia Siemens Networks
IMSI paging
Successful Paging
With IMSI
Soc Classification level
42 Nokia Siemens Networks
Re-paging
Unsuccessful Paging
With IMSI
Soc Classification level
43 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Control
Soc Classification level
44 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Control Motivation
Longer service time of battery

Realization of power class
Reduced interference on DL/UL
Activation of DL power
control

powerCtrlEnabled Y,N
Power control independent

for DL and UL
for each call
Soc Classification level
45 Nokia Siemens Networks
30 dB
Range
Power
class
dependent
range
Attenuations
Power Values
Power Control Parameter
Output Power Limits
Maximum MS output power

msTxPwrMaxGSM 5..39 dBm GSM 900 TCH
msTxPwrMaxGSM1x00 0..36/32,33 dBm GSM
1800/1900 TCH
msTxPwrMaxCCH 5..39 dBm GSM 900 CCH
msTxPwrMaxCCH1x00 0..30 dBm GSM 1800 CCH
0..32 dBm GSM 1900 CCH

Minimum MS output power

minMSTxPower 5..39 dBm GSM 900
0..36 dBm GSM 1800
0..32 dBm GSM 1900
Maximum BTS output power (by minimum
attenuation)

bsTxPwrMax 0..30 dB GSM 900
bsTxPwrMax1x00 0..30 dB GSM 1800/1900

Minimum MS output power (by maximum
attenuation)

bsTxPowerMin 0..30 dB

Additional attenuation for super reuse TRx

bsTxPowerOffset 0..30 dB
Soc Classification level
46 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Control Parameters
Power Change Step Sizes
Fixed increment step size

powerIncrStepSize 2,4,6 dB

Fixed decrement step size

powerDecrStepSize 2,4,6 dB
Desired power level can be achieved in 1 or 2 commands
Yes
Fixed step size
No
Variable step size
Soc Classification level
47 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Control Strategy
Triggering
threshold
Actual average samples
Nx samples
Less than Px samples exceed threshold
No power change triggered
Nx samples
Px samples exceed threshold
Power change triggered
Signal level thresholds

pcUpperThresholdLevelDL/UL -110..-47 dBm
pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL -110..-47 dBm

Signal quality thresholds

pcUpperThresholdQualDL/UL 0..7
pcLowerThresholdQualDL/UL 0..7

Number of average samples

Nx 1..32
Px 1..32
Power change step size estimation
Soc Classification level
48 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Control Strategy
Scenarios
Exceeded threshold Action Reason

pcUpperThresholdLevelDL BTS power decrease Signal level
pcLowerThresholdLevelDL BTS power increase Signal level
pcUpperThresholdLevelUL MS power decrease Signal level
pcLowerThresholdLevelUL MS power increase Signal level

pcUpperThresholdQualDL BTS power decrease Signal quality
pcLowerThresholdQualDL BTS power increase Signal quality
pcUpperThresholdQualUL MS power decrease Signal quality
pcLowerThresholdQualUL MS power increase Signal quality
Soc Classification level
49 Nokia Siemens Networks
Power Increase Due to Signal Level
pcLowerThresholdsLevelDL/UL
Power control triggered
UL: Power increase of MS
DL: Power increase of BTS
RXLEV_DL/UL > pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL - 2 powerIncrStepSize
Yes
Fixed step size

PWR_INCR_STEP = powerIncrStepSize
No
Variable step size

PWR_INCR_STEP = pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL
RXLEV_UL/DL
Actual receive level RXLEV_DL/UL
Soc Classification level
50 Nokia Siemens Networks
Lower Level
Upper Level
Upper Quality
Lower Quality
Power Control Summary
No action
Power decrease
due to level
Power increase
due to quality
Power increase
due to level
or quality
Power increase
due to quality
Power decrease
due to level
or quality
Power increase
due to level
Power decrease
due to quality
6 dB
Power increase
due to level
Soc Classification level
51 Nokia Siemens Networks
Handover Control and Adjacencies
Soc Classification level
52 Nokia Siemens Networks
Intra cell ho
Presentation / Author / Date
RELEASE
RESERVATION
BSC BTS MS
MSC
Receiver Ready ( FACCH )
Measurement Report ( SACCH )
Measurement Report/Result
DT1 ( HO Performed )
RF Channel Release
RF Channel Release Ack.
Physical Context Request
Physical Context Confirmed
Channel Activation
Channel Activation Ack.
Assignment Command (FACCH )
SABM ( FACCH )
Establish Indication
UA ( FACCH )
Assignment Complete ( FACCH )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
NEW
AND
ACTIVATION
OLD
HO
MEASUREMENTS
PHYSICAL
CONTEXT
INFORMATION
SIGNALLING ON
FACCH NEW
SIGNALLING
ON FACCH OLD
Soc Classification level
53 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
BSC BTS 2
BTS 1 MS
MSC
Handover Command
Handover Detect
HO Command ( FACCH )
HO Access ( FACCH )
Establish Indication
Physical Info ( FACCH )
SABME ( FACCH )
Handover Complete
Handover Complete ( FACCH )
UA ( FACCH )
Receiver Ready ( FACCH )
Measurement Report ( SACCH )
Measurement Report/Result
Channel Activation
Channel Activation Ack.
DT1 ( HO Performed )
RF Channel Release
RF Channel Release Ack.
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
3
15
12
16
17
18
TCH
RESERVATION AND
ACTIVATION IN BTS2
HO
MEASUREMENTS
SIGNALLING
ON FACCH IN BTS1
SIGNALLING
ON FACCH IN BTS2
TCH RELEASE IN
BTS1
INTRA BSC HO
Soc Classification level
54 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
DOCUMENTTYPE
TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere
TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere
BSC1 BTS 2
BTS 1 MS
MSC
HandoverDetect
HO Command ( FACCH )
HO Access ( FACCH )
Establish Indication
Physical Info ( FACCH )
SABME ( FACCH )
HandoverComplete
HandoverComplete ( FACCH )
UA ( FACCH )
Receiver Ready ( FACCH )
Measurement
Report/Result
Channel Activation
Channel Activation Ack .
DT1 HO Detect
RF Channel Release
RF Channel Release Ack .
Measurement Report ( SACCH
)
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
12
16
18
TCH
RESERVATION
AND
ACTIVATION
IN BSS2
HO
MEASUREMENTS
AND
DECISION
DISCONNECTION
AND TCH
RELEASE
IN BSS1
BSC2
3
CC HO_Req.Ack
CR HO_Request)
DT1 HO Required
DT1
17
19
DT1 HO Complete
20
HandoverCommand
21
22
DT1 Clear Command
23
24
DT1 Clear Complete
HO Command
HO Command
RSLD (SCCP Released)
RLC (SCCP Released Ack)
INTER BSC HO OR INTRA MSC HO
Soc Classification level
55 Nokia Siemens Networks
Synchronized Handover Signalling
New Channel, New Cell
ACTIVE CALL

HANDO CMD

HANDO ACC
HANDO ACC
HANDO ACC
HANDO ACC

HANDO COM

ACTIVE CALL
MS NETWORK
Old Channel, Old Cell
Original and target cells controlled by same BCF
No timing advanced information required for MS

Inter cell handover from one sector to another of same
BTS
Soc Classification level
56 Nokia Siemens Networks
Handover Strategy
Triggering
threshold
Actual average samples
Nx samples
Less than Px samples exceed threshold
No handover triggered
Nx samples
Px samples exceed threshold
handover triggered
Signal interference thresholds
hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL -110..-47 dBm

Signal quality thresholds
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL 0..7

Signal level thresholds
hoThresholdLevelDL/UL -110..-47 dBm
hoThresholdRapidLevelUL -110..-47 dBm

MS speed thresholds
upper/lowerSpeedLimit 0..255 (unit =
2km/h)

Number of average samples
Nx 1..32
Px 1..32
Target cell selection
Soc Classification level
57 Nokia Siemens Networks
Handover Strategy
(Handover Reasons)
Timing
Advance
Adjacent Cells
Downlink Quality
Uplink Quality AV_RXQUAL_UL_H
O
AV_RXQUAL_DL_H
O
Downlink Level
Uplink Level AV_RXLEV_UL_HO
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO
AV_RANGE_HO
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(
n)
INTERFERENCE &
QUALITY
LEVEL
DISTANCE
PERIODIC
RX LEVEL
CHECK
UMBRELLA
POWER BUDGET
IMPERATIVE
HO
CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION
DIRECTED RETRY
THRESHOLD
COMPARISON
RAPID FIELD DROP
MS SPEED
MS Speed AV_MS_SPEED
Others causes (NO TRESHOLD COMPARISON)
- Intelligent Underlay/Overlay (IUO)
- Traffic Reason Handover (TRHO)
- Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B)
Soc Classification level
58 Nokia Siemens Networks
Handover Strategy
(Standard Target Cell Ranking)
Cell a b c

Overloaded? N/Y N N
Priority 4 3 3
hoLoadFactor 2 1 1
Corrected priority 4/2 3 3
Rx level -75 -80 -83

No cell overloaded -> priorities 4,3,3 -> cell list a,b,c
A overloaded -> priorities 2,3,3 -> cell list b,c,a
Adjacent Cell Load Threshold
Can be checked only for cells belonging to the same BSC as the
serving one
btsLoadThreshold 0..100 %

Adjacent Cell Priority
hoPriorityLevel 0..7

Overloaded Cell -> Reduction of Priority
hoLoadFactor 0..7

Ranking (not for imperative and traffic reason handover)
1) Corrected priority
2) Cells with same priority -> RX level
Soc Classification level
59 Nokia Siemens Networks
Handover Strategy
(Decision due to RX level)
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, msTxPwrMax(n) P)
P depends on MS power class
1a
Any kind of handover (except umbrella)
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n) 1b
Umbrella handover
Minimum allowed signal level for target cell

rxLevMinCell -110..-47 dBm any handover (except umbrella)
hoLevelUmbrella -110..-47 dBm umbrella handover
Soc Classification level
60 Nokia Siemens Networks
hoThresholdLevDL = -95 dBm
/Px: 1, Nx: 1
hoMarginLevel = 3 dB
Rx Level Handover
(Example)
enableHandoverMarginLevQual
= Y
BTS output power =
Maximum
Adjacent cells
evaluation
Conditions 1a and 2b:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO
> hoMarginLevel
fulfilled
If no adjacent -> HO
Fail

-95
-
100
-90
Serving cell
RX Level
hoThresholdLevelDL
Level Threshold is exceeded (bad_RxLevel)
LEVEL HO
HO
-95
-100
-90
Serving cell
Adjacent cell(n)
RX Level
3
dB
t
1
t
1
t
2
t
2
Suitable target
cell:
RxLev(n)
RxLev+3dB
Soc Classification level
61 Nokia Siemens Networks
PBGT > hoMarginLev/Qual(n)
PBGT = (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO) -
(btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
2b
PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n)
PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - msTxPwrMax(n))
(AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) -
(btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
2a
General case
Handover Strategy
(Decision due to Power Budget)
Handover due to RX level, RX quality, distance and umbrella
handover
Power budget margin to prevent repeated handovers between adjacent cells
hoMarginPBGT -24..63 dB general case

RX level and RX quality margins to prevent repeated handovers between adjacent
cells
hoMarginQual -24..24 dB handover due to signal
quality
hoMarginLevel -24..24 dB handover due to signal level
EnableHOMarginLevQual Y/N required to enable margins
Soc Classification level
62 Nokia Siemens Networks
PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - msTxPwrMax(n))
(AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) -
(btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
PBGT = (33dBm - 33dBm) - (-90 - (-80)) - (42dBm - 42dBm) = 10 dB > 6 dB
PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n) fulfilled
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, msTxPwrMax(n) - msTxPwrMax)
-80 dBm > -99 dBm + (33 dBm - 33 dBm) = -99 dBm fulfilled
1a
2a
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO = -90 dBm
msTxPwrMax = 33 dBm
BTS_TX_PWR = 42 dBm
btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm
Serving Cell: Best Adjacent Cell:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) = -80 dBm
rxLevMinCell(n) = -99 dBm
msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm
btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm
hoMarginPBGT(n) = 6 dB
Power Budget Handover
(Example)
Soc Classification level
63 Nokia Siemens Networks
Interference Handover
(Parameters)
Thresholds

hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL -110..-47 dBm
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL 0..7

Intra / inter cell handover

hoPreferenceOrderInterDL/UL INTRA for network without frequency
hopping
INTER for network with frequency
hopping
enableIntraHOInterDL/UL Y/N required to enable intra cell
handover
Soc Classification level
64 Nokia Siemens Networks
Interference Handover
(Execution)
AvRX level hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL
AND
AvRX quality value hoThresholdsQualDL/UL
Ranking of adjacent
cells
enableHOMarginLevQual =
Y
enableHOMarginLevQual =
N
Check of adjacent cells with
conditions 1a and 2b
Check of adjacent cells with
conditions 1a and 2a
Suitable adjacent cell
?
Yes No
Inter cell handover If enabled
Intra cell
handover
Otherwise
Handover failure
Soc Classification level
65 Nokia Siemens Networks
hoThresholdQualDL = 4
/Px:4, Nx:6
hoThresholdInterferenceDL = -85 dBm
/Px:1, Nx:1
hoMarginQual = 0 dB
Interference Handover
(Example)
hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL =
INTER
enableHandoverMarginLevQual
= Y
BTS output power =
Maximum
BOTH the Quality and Interference Threshold is
exceeded (bad_RxQuality/good_RxLevel)
INTERFERENCE HO
Adjacent cells
evaluation
Conditions 1a and 2b:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO
> hoMarginQual
fulfilled
If no adjacent -> Intra
HO
-85
-90
-80
Serving cell
Adjacent cell(n)
RX Level
Suitable HO
target cell:
RxLev(n)
RxLev
hoThresholdInterferenceDL
t
1
t
2
RX Quality
hoThresholdQualDL
3
4
2
5
6
Serving cell
t
1
t
2
Adjacent cell(n)
HO
Soc Classification level
66 Nokia Siemens Networks
RX Quality Handover
(Execution)
AvRX quality value hoThresholdsQualDL/UL
Ranking of adjacent
cells
enableHOMarginLevQual =
Y
enableHOMarginLevQual =
N
Check of adjacent cells with
conditions 1a and 2b
Check of adjacent cells with
conditions 1a and 2a
Suitable adjacent cell
?
Yes No
Inter cell handover Handover failure
Thresholds
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL 0..7
Soc Classification level
67 Nokia Siemens Networks
PARAMTERS & EFFECTS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
68 Nokia Siemens Networks
RECOMMENDATION PARAMTERS 2G
Radio
Soc Classification level
69 Nokia Siemens Networks
Summary of parameters
BTS Parameters - BLT, REO, MADR, MIDR, RE

HOC Parameters - IDR, IDN, IDP, IUN, IUP, LDR, LUR, LDW, LUW, QDW,QUW, EIH &
EIC

POC Parameters - LDW, LUW, QDW, QUW, INT, LDR, LUR, LDN, LUN, UDR & UUR.

Adjacency Parameter SL to be implemented.

BSC Parameters - ITCF to be implemented.


Increase MFRMS 4 to 5 in those few cell having Page deletion

RACH DELETION -Lapd load increase from 32kbs to 64kbs-max load
crossing the threshold limit.






Soc Classification level
70 Nokia Siemens Networks
BTS PARAMETERS
HOC PARAMETERS
Soc Classification level
71 Nokia Siemens Networks
POC PARAMETERS
ADCE PARAMETERS
Soc Classification level
72 Nokia Siemens Networks
BSC PARAMETERS
Soc Classification level
73 Nokia Siemens Networks 73 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
1. Default parameters
BSC, BTS, HOC, POC, ADCE, TRX tables

Sensitive parameters
BTS table: HOP, BAR, PLMN, ACC, RXP, TLC, PMAX, DMAX, TRP, IDLE, ACT, RDIV
POC table: PMAX, UDR, UUR, LDR, LUD
HOC table: EPB, HPP, LDWS, LUWS, QDWS, QUWS, QDR, QDP, QDN, QUR, QUP, QUN, LDR,
LDP, LDN, LUR, LUP, LUN,
ADCE table: PMRG, LMRG, QMRG, MRGS

2. Specific parameters
BTS table: BSC id, BCF id, SEG id, BTS id, BTS NAME, Cell id, MCC, MNC, LAC, RAC, NCC, BCC,
MAL, HSN1, HSN2, MO, MS, CDEF, CDED
ADCE table: BSC id, BTS id, N-LAC, N-Cell id, N-BCCH, N-NCC, N-BCC, synchronised
TRX table: BSC id, BTS id, TRX id, FREQ, TSC, TSL configuration





Default, Specific and Sensitive Parameters
Soc Classification level
74 Nokia Siemens Networks 74 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Synchronised handover
Site B
Site A
Non-synchronised Handover
MS sends access bursts (HO_ACCESS) (with varying TA) until it receives
PHYSICAL_INFO
Synchronised Handover
MS sends a few access bursts (HO_ACCESS) and then starts transmission
with previous TA

Non-synchronised handover leads to a longer communication interruption than
synchronised handover (200ms vs. 100ms)
Synchronized HO should be activated between sectors of the same site. If
activated on inter-site adjacencies the handover can fail

Synchronized HO
Non- Synchronized HO
Soc Classification level
75 Nokia Siemens Networks 75 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Examples of wrong parameter set with impact
on network operation/performance call setup,
qual, bands
1. No calls happening in a cell
Cell Barred
Non existent (LAC, Cell ID) in MSC
DMAX = 0

2. Very few calls happening in a cell
RxLevAccesMin
Wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration

3. Very low traffic in a cell
msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30

4. Bad quality in UL after rehoming

5. Few traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network
Soc Classification level
76 Nokia Siemens Networks 76 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1a


Handover
Call Setup
No calls happening in a cell:
The cell has been barred

Soc Classification level
77 Nokia Siemens Networks 77 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1b
MSC does not find
(LAC, CI) in its
database
No calls happening in a cell:
CI different between MSC and BSC or non existent (LAC, Cell
ID) in MSC
Soc Classification level
78 Nokia Siemens Networks
78 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-08-
11
Example 1c
No calls happening in a cell:
MsMaxDistanceInCallSetup (DMAX) = 0

DMAX = 0
RxLevel
= -70
dBm

Call Setup
Despite the coverage
of the cell, no calls
will be established!
Soc Classification level
79 Nokia Siemens Networks 79 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 2b
Very few calls happening in a cell:
Wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration in network - MNC: 01
1 !!! (In OSS correct value)

Soc Classification level
80 Nokia Siemens Networks 80 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 3
bsTxPwrMax 0 30 dB 0 dB
bsTxPwrMin 0 30 dB 30 dB
minMsTxPower 0 36 dBm 0 dB
msTxPwrMax 0 36 dBm
Parameter Value_______Default
value
BTS Max Power = BTS Power (bsTxPwrMax = 0
dB)
BTS Min Power = BTS Power (bsTxPwrMin = 30
dB)
Attenuation Values (dB)
Power Values (dBm)
MS Max Power = (msTxPwrMax = 33 dB)
MS Min Power = (minMsTxPower = 13 dB)

Very low traffic in a cell:
msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30

Soc Classification level
81 Nokia Siemens Networks 81 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 4
Bad quality in UL after rehoming:
DiversityUsed parameter not set to yes anymore


RDIV = Y
Uplink Diversity
improves quality of
signal received.
After rehoming
RDIV
parameter
was set to
default value
(No) and UL
quality was
affected.
Soc Classification level
82 Nokia Siemens Networks 82 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 5
Few traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network:
Idle Mode: C2 parameters not set properly (temporaryOffset,
penaltyTime)
BCCH
BCCH
fast moving mobile
slow moving mobile
1800: micro-Layer
900: macro-layer
Soc Classification level
83 Nokia Siemens Networks 83 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Examples of wrong parameter set with impact
on network operation/performance upgrade
1. High drop call rate after upgrading a cell from 4 to 6
TRXs
Update MAL, no update of MAIO offset
TRXs with different power without ICE activated



Soc Classification level
84 Nokia Siemens Networks 84 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Examples of wrong parameter set with impact
on network operation/performance upgrade
1. High drop call rate after upgrading a cell from 4 to 6
TRXs
Update MAL, no update of MAIO offset
TRXs with different power without ICE activated



Soc Classification level
85 Nokia Siemens Networks 85 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1a
High drop call rate after upgrading a cell from 4 to 6 TRXs:
Update of the MAL with no update of the MAIO offset
Soc Classification level
86 Nokia Siemens Networks 86 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1b
High drop call rate after upgrading a cell from 4 to 6 TRXs:
TRXs with different power without ICE activated
Coverage
BCCH - TRX
Capacity
MS in a region covered only by Coverage-TRX, ICE not activated.
Result: BTS may allocate a TSL in Capacity TRX. Call will drop.
Traffic - TRX
Soc Classification level
87 Nokia Siemens Networks 87 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1b
TRXs with different power
Dual Duplex Unit
Antennas
TRX RF Units
TX
RX
main
div
WBC
Receive Multicouplers
& Wideband Combiners
TX/RX ant
TX/RX-div
ant
X
X
X
X
X
X
TX
RX
main
div
TX
RX
main
div
TX
RX
main
div
TX
RX
main
div
TX
RX
main
div
WBC

D
u
p
l
e
x
e
r


LNA

D
u
p
l
e
x
e
r


LNA

D
u
p
l
e
x
e
r


LNA

D
u
p
l
e
x
e
r


LNA
+3dB
Soc Classification level
88 Nokia Siemens Networks 88 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Examples of wrong parameter set with impact on
network operation/performance frequencies
1. Drop call rate increase after new frequency plan
implementation
Double BA List activated

2. Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a RF-frequency hopping
implementation

3. Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a frequency retune
NON-EDGE TRX, with GTRX = Y
TRX, with GTRX = Y, not attached to any EDAP pool

4. No handover happening after frequency retune between 2 cells from different
BSCs
ADCE table has not been updated for other BSC

Soc Classification level
89 Nokia Siemens Networks 89 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 1
Drop call rate increase after new frequency plan implementation:
In the meantime, measurementBcchAllocation has been changed to idle and
MA list defined with old BCCH frequency band

BCCH TCH
OLD FREQUENCY PLAN
BCCH
TCH
NEW FREQUENCY PLAN
TCH
OLD MA List
These BCCH frequencies will not be measured by old MA List
These TCH frequencies will be wrongly measured
Soc Classification level
90 Nokia Siemens Networks 90 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Example 4
No handover happening after frequency retune between 2
cells from different BSCs:
Frequency retune has been done with MML command. ADCE
table has not been updated for incoming adjacencies
belonging to other BSCs


BSC id BTS id TRX id FREQ
fA
BSC id BTS id N-LAC N-Cell id N-BCCH
fAB
TRX
ADCE
N-Neighbour
Cell A Cell B
fAB
fA
Soc Classification level
91 Nokia Siemens Networks 91 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Examples of wrong parameter set with impact
on network operation/performance Handover
1. No handover from a cell towards all its neighbours
PLMN permitted = No

2. High Handover failures after implementation of new adjacency plan
SYNC = YES

3. No handover happening from an interfered cell
hoMarginQual set to 0

4. 100% of handover failures in an adjacency relation
Co-BSIC co-BCCH declaration

5. High number of handovers
hoThresholdsLevUL = hoThresholdsLevDL

6. Handover not happening when DL signal level of neighbour much greater than
serving cell
POC DL activated



Soc Classification level
92 Nokia Siemens Networks
TIMERS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
93 Nokia Siemens Networks
GSM TIMERS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
94 Nokia Siemens Networks
RADIO RESOURCE TIMERS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
95 Nokia Siemens Networks
RADIO RESOURCE TIMERS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
96 Nokia Siemens Networks
TIMERS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
97 Nokia Siemens Networks
IMP TIMERS T8
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
98 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
T10
Soc Classification level
99 Nokia Siemens Networks
T3101
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
100 Nokia Siemens Networks
T3103
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
101 Nokia Siemens Networks
T3107
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
102 Nokia Siemens Networks
T200
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
103 Nokia Siemens Networks
General about T200 timer
When the BTS transmits a DL layer-2 frame on the air (e.g. an I-frame with an embedded layer 3
message) the BTS starts the timer T200 and waits for the acknowledgement frame from the MS.

The acknowledgement frame can be another I-frame sent by the MS in the UL (if the MS has to
transmit a layer-3 DTAP message anyway) as well as RECEIVE READY (RR) (if there is nothing to be
transmitted on layer 3). If the acknowledgement from the MS is not received within T200 the
transmission of the layer 2 frame is repeated and T200 restarted. The total number of repetitions is
restricted to N200, a fixed value specified by GSM which depends on the control channel types:
N200(SDCCH)=23, N200(SACCH)=5,

N200(FACCH/FR)=34, N200(FACCH/HR)=29

If T200 expires after the last layer 2 frame repetition the BTS sends an ERROR INDICATION with
cause T200 expired N200+1 times (followed by a RELEASE INDICATION) message to the BSC,
which releases the associated resources.
T200s Retuning
Soc Classification level
104 Nokia Siemens Networks
T200Timer BSC 94


ZEFO:

BASE CONTROL FUNCTION BCF-0006 DATA
SITE TYPE ............................ P - ULTRASITE
ADMINISTRATIVE STATE ................. UNLOCKED
OPERATIONAL STATE .................... WO

D-CHANNEL LINK SET 102 ............. OM006 WO-EX
RX DIFFERENCE LIMIT ..........(RXDL).. 10 dB
MASTER CLOCK BCF .............(MCBCF). --
CLOCK SOURCE .................(CS).... --
SYNCHRONIZATION ENABLED ......(SENA).. F
SYNCHRONIZATION MODE .........(SM).... UNSYNCH
FACCH LAPDM T200 .............(T200F). 0 (BCF PREDEFINED VALUES)
SDCCH LAPDM T200 .............(T200S). 0 (BCF PREDEFINED VALUES)
BTS UNDER THIS BCF ARE:
SEG-0006 S268MRICK3
BTS-0006 SECTOR-006 S268MRICK3 ..... UNLOCKED

Soc Classification level
105 Nokia Siemens Networks
T200-LAB TEST
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
106 Nokia Siemens Networks
Error Indication: T200 expired

This sub counter is triggered if the BSC receives an ERROR INDICATION with cause 'T200 expired
N200+1 times' from the BTS.

Explanation: Whenever the BTS transmits a layer 2 frame over the radio interface, it starts the timer T200
(see associated parameter in the command SET BTS PKGBTST) and waits for the corresponding layer 2
acknowledgement from the MS. If this acknowledgement is not received as long as T200 runs, the BTS
repeats the transmission of the same layer 2 frame at the maximum N200 times every time T200 expires.
N200 represents a fixed number of repetitions and depends on the type of radio channel (SDCCH,
FACCH (FR), FACCH (HR) etc.). If after N200 repetitions the acknowledgement still has not been
received from the MS the BTS sends an ERROR INDICATION with cause 'T200 expired N200+1 times' to
the BSC.

Up to a certain degree the occurrence of these ERROR INDICATIONs is normal in every network as it
indicates transmission problems on the radio interface possibly due to bad radio conditions for individual
mobiles (mobiles roaming indoor or in tunnels etc.). In fact, in a normal network the counts for the
ERROR INDICATIONs with this cause make up the biggest part of all ERROR INDICATIONs counted.
However, excessive occurrence of these ERR INDs point to severe radio interface problems.

Soc Classification level
107 Nokia Siemens Networks
SDCCH Radio Failures- Vodafone Network
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
12/1/2008 12/3/2008 12/5/2008 12/7/2008 12/9/2008 12/11/2008 12/13/2008 12/15/2008
SDCCH Radio Failures
sdcch_radio_fail sdcch_rf_old_ho
T200s Retuning
T200s new value Implemented in test BSC
T200s new value implemented across network.
EXAMPLE
Soc Classification level
108 Nokia Siemens Networks
SDCCH Completion trend (BBH)
Vodafone Network
78.00
80.00
82.00
84.00
86.00
88.00
90.00
92.00
94.00
96.00
98.00
100.00
MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUN MON TUE
1-Dec 2-Dec 3-Dec 4-Dec 5-Dec 6-Dec 7-Dec 8-Dec 9-Dec 10-Dec 11-Dec 12-Dec 13-Dec 14-Dec 15-Dec 16-Dec
SDCCH Completion Rate (BBH) >=98%
T200s Retuning
T200s new value Implemented in test BSC
T200s new value implemented across network.
Note : No Data on 3
rd
, 6
th
Dec08 due to OSS
up gradation issues.
EXAMPLE
Soc Classification level
109 Nokia Siemens Networks
SDCCH Enhancement after timer LAPD T200 was fine-tuned
appropriately from 0ms to 780ms ( sdcch)IDEA NETWORK(NW
Wide)
92.12
91.59
90.01
89.61
90.33
92.24
93.12 93.17
91.69
94.45
96.25
96.50
97.02
97.39
85.50
87.00
88.50
90.00
91.50
93.00
94.50
96.00
97.50
99.00
SDCCH DROP IMPROVEMENT
S
D

D
R
O
P


%

DATE
Timer --T200
implemented
EXAMPLE
Soc Classification level
110 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
DAY 2.NETWORK PERFORMANCE
OPTIMIZATION
Soc Classification level
111 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI with Counters
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
112 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
113 Nokia Siemens Networks
GHOST CCCH RES
Counter ID: 003030 Network element name: GHOST CCCH RES
Version: 2.1 NetAct name: GHOST_CCCH_RES
Description: Number of ghost reservations on a CCCH.

See also counter 003031.
Updated: When a ghost reservation is detected on a CCCH. This kind of random access can be caused, for example, by
white noise or co-channel interference. Note that the ghosts triggering this counter have illegal establishment cause.
Ghost accesses with legal establishment cause get on SDCCH and later fail typically causing the triggering of counter
0010075.

Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
114 Nokia Siemens Networks
RACH REJECTIONS ND 134
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
115 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
116 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Blocking
SDCCH
Blocking
>X%
Is dynamic sddch
active
Is dynamic sdcch
reaching max values
in some moment
Is combined sdcch
used
yes
yes
Check unavailability
in the cells,
averarage available
sdcch
Availability OK
Check sdcch blocking. Can
sdcch capacity be added
without tch blocking
SDCCH
blocking is high
yes
No
Yes, remove
combined sdcch
No, check parameter
Values and make
corrections
No, activate
Dynamic sdcch
Yes, make
corrections
Case closed No
Yes, add sdcch
capacity
Add TRX and add
Sdcch capacity
sdcch Blocking
is still high
No
Yes
Is high sdcch traffic due to
Location updates. If yes, can LU
area be optimized? Check also
PRAU parameter, can the value
be increased?
no
Yes, Optimize LU
area border
no
ND_211
ND_130
Cngt_2
Blck_5
Blck_5b
ND_139,ND_131
ND_130, uav_22
csf_1a,csf_11
Ava_45a
ND_211
c1154
ND_211
c2032
NetAct Planner
P_nbcs_cc_pm
ND_211
Soc Classification level
117 Nokia Siemens Networks
BLOCKINGND Report-182
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
118 Nokia Siemens Networks 118 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
SDCCH Blocking
SDCCH avalability
Check alarms (are TRXs & TSLs in Working State? ), check availability
report and RxQuality report to verify whether there is a badly
functioning TRX. Fix hardware problem.

SDCCH capacity
Check actual SDCCH configuration ( e.g. Combined BCCH/SDCCH,
Number of SDCCH channels). If there is insuficient SDCCH capacity
and enough TCH capacity, add SDCCH TSL. Other solution e.g. are to
add TRX, activate Dynamic SDCCH, activate FACCH Call Setup.

SDCCH traffic
Verify traffic distribution (LU, SMS and MOC in %);
Cell is covering a region greater than planned. Verify TA statistics. May
need to change DMAX, or downtilt.


FM
CM
PM
Soc Classification level
119 Nokia Siemens Networks 119 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
SDCCH blocking
SDCCH traffic due to location updates
Bad location area setting (Check MCC, MNC and LAC parameters)
Bad Location area geographical configuration. Too small LA definition
will cause many LA updates. Border of LA in a busy avenue will cause
many LUs in both location areas!
Low value for CellReselectHysteresis
Low value of periodicTimerLU
Verify if downtilt is needed or an increase in SDCCH capacity (air and
Abis interfaces).

SDCCH traffic due to SMS
Increase SDCCH capacity (air and Abis interfaces).

Change Request!
Soc Classification level
120 Nokia Siemens Networks
SD BLOCK ISSUES
Look into the BSS BBH KPI Reports and find out the list of cells where there is SD congestion
See the trend for at least 3 days to ensure that it was not due to any specific reason .if
appears for one day then no issue
Look into the SD configuration in that cell and try to have proper dimensioning as per the
demand.
Look into the A-ter status and also the site fluctuations or neighbour site not taking call
.escalate the same to OMC and O&M team
Look into the cell in LAC boundary andhavin lot of location update signaling due to high
traffic flow in LAC boundaries , correct this thro proper optimization to have minimum overlap
or introducing selection offset .
Look into the coverage foot print and over shooting of the site thro TA report , optimize and
ensure the neighbour cells sharing the SD demand for calls in that region.
Look into the A-bis signaling load if possible for a high configuration site go for 64K PCM slot
for LAP-D signaling thro OMC Engineer.
NSS should ensure minimum call re-attempts thro proper POI dimensioning so that the SD
usages will be less.
Disable Direct retry in that cell and enable Traffic reason HO.




Soc Classification level
121 Nokia Siemens Networks
Parameters & features SD blocking
Presentation / Author / Date
BSC parameter

Dynamic Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) enables the configuration of SDCCH
resources according to the actual SDCCH traffic situation of a cell. When the BTS temporarily needs
larger SDCCH capacity than normally, the BSC configures idle traffic channel (TCH) resources for
SDCCH use. When the SDCCH congestion situation is over, the extra SDCCH resources are
configured back to the TCH resources


Overview of FACCH Call Set-up
When an MS requests a dedicated resource by sending a random access, the BSC tries to allocate an
SDCCH for the MS. If there are no SDCCHs available at that moment, the BSC tries to allocate a TCH
instead of rejecting the resource request.
If there are free TCHs, FACCH Call Set-up is used to assign the MS from the CCCH to the TCH -
instead of the SDCCH - with the immediate assignment procedure. The FACCH is used for call set-up
signalling instead of the SDCCH. The TCH is used for signalling and thus no assignment procedure is
needed in the radio interface. Instead, only the mode modify procedure is required to change the
channel mode from signalling to, for example, speech or data.




Soc Classification level
122 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
123 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop
SD DCR > 2% and
SD DCRnum > 10
Drops due to
RF Reasons
Drops due to
Abis Reasons
No
Drops due to
A-interface
Reasons
No
Drops due to
other Reasons
No
Case Closed
No
RF Abis A Other
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes
No
ND_166
Soc Classification level
124 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (RF)
RF drops
Check RX
Statistic,qquality level
distribution. Any signal
level problems =
samples in bad signal
leve <-100dBm
Check RX
Statistic,qquality level
distribution. Any Bad
Quality problems =
Lots of samples in
good signal level and
bad quality
SDDCR still
too high
Any balance problems
between UL and DL.
Signal level
problems. Improve
signal level
TRX is broken
(sample
distribution is
somehow strange,
for example only
quality 4 samples)
Change new
frequency based
on interference
matrix
Yes
Yes
Not Correct
Make
corrections
YES Check TRX,
Combiners,
configuarions,
diversity and
power
parameters
No
Yes
No
YES,
Change
the TRX /
combiner
Yes
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics,
Counter (q0...q7)ul and dl all levels
ND_204,c1003
Check that power
control parameters
UL / DL are correct
All Alarms are
checked and
abis trace is
done
Investigate alarms.
If problems are not
solved, activate
abis trace
Trace has been
measured long
enough. Any
problems found
Investigate log
files. Check DX
causes
Any
Improvements
Make
corrections
SDDCR still
too high
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics,(
q0..q7) <100dBm
P_nbsc_Link_balance
ND_191, ND_195
No
Correct
No Yes
See doc Call related
DX causes in BSC,
Activate
Yes
No
Yes
If The trace
was not
long enough,
activate
another
trace
Case Closed
Add
-new site
-lna
-new sector
-more gain antenna
Optimizer, NetAct
Planner
No
Trace was
long enough,
not any
problem
was found
No
PoC parameters
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics,
Counter (q0...q7)ul and dl all levels
ND_204
P_nbsc_RX_
Statistics,
ND_204
No
alarms
Soc Classification level
125 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (abis)
Abis
>X%
Check abis drops.Is the main
reason sdcch_abis_fail_call
Check RX Statistic table or
ND report 204, UL/DL level
distribution. Any Bad Level
problems = samples in bad
signal level
Still Abis drops
and problems
Any availability
problems. Check
sdcch availability
Check Co BSIC +
BCCH problems, any
site with same BSIC +
BCCH is existing <
50km
Check t3101 expired,
is the value almost
same as
sdcch_abis_fail_call
Check ghost
reservations, c3030
values. Is this the
main reason
Check if cells are
located near LA
border more sdcch
traffic
Any
Improvements Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes, Try to
Reduce overlapping
Over borders etc.
Tilting? Rehoming can
Sometimes
helps, if areas
Are not optimized
Yes
No
No
Yes, change
bsic
Yes, unlock
TRXs
Yes, see
Interference
analysis
P_nbsc_rx_statistics
Any balance problems
between ul and dl. Check
ND 195, ND 191 or link
balance table
Check that power control
parameters UL / DL are
correct
Check RX Statistic quality/
level distribution. Any Bad
Quality problems = Lots of
samples in good signal level
and bad quality
Signal level
problems. Improve
signal level
TRX is broken (sample
distribution is somehow
strange, for example only
quality 4 samples)
Change new
frequency based
on interference
matrix
No
Yes
No
Has any parameter changes
done
Yes
No
Correct
No
Yes, Check TRX,
Combiners,
Configurations,
Diversity and
Power settings.
Make corrections
Not Correct
Make
corrections
Options:
-add site, sector
-add lna
-change antenna type
Adjust
rx_lev_access_min
rx_lev_min_cell
values little lower.
Caution, This can
increase TCH Drops.
No
Yes
Yes
Case Closed No
Optimizer, NetAct
Planner
Yes,
Change
TRX
P_nbsc_traffic
Counters(1072-1080)
P_nbsc_servi
ce, counter
57020
NetAct Planner
ND_131,ND_139
C3030
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics,
Counter (q0...q7)ul and dl all levels
ND_204
Soc Classification level
126 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (A)
A
>X%
A interface
problems. Alarms
are checked and A
interface trace is
done
Investigate
alarms.If problems
are not solved,
activate A trace
Any
improvements
Any problems
found. Trace
was long
enough
Make corrections
Check ET lines in
the BSC and
transcoders /TCSM.
Any problems
Repair ET
lines
Still A drops or
problems
No
Activate
No
No
Yes
Yes
Alarms
Are
Solved
Yes
Trace
was
not
long
enough
Case Closed
Yes
No
Trace was
Long enough. Not
An problem
was found
Investigate log
files. Check DX
causes, see
document Call
related DX causes
in BSC
No
alarms
Soc Classification level
127 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (other)
Other
Lapd fails BTS fails
Netw Act
Fails
User Act, bcsu,
resets
Still lots of
other drops
Check all the
alarms
signalling fails
or PCM fails.
Check
transmissio /
parameters
Yes
No
TRX or BTS
fails. Check
that BTS/ TRX
are working
properly
Yes
No
Configuration
problems,
check
configurations
Yes
No
Resets or act
fail channel
failures
Yes
No
Case Closed No
Yes
Soc Classification level
128 Nokia Siemens Networks 128 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Ghost SDCCH
Double-Access /Multiple reservations due to co-Bsic, co-BCCH. Check and
improve frequency plan.
RACH retransmissions/Multiple reservations due to bad coverage or
interference and high numberOfRachRetransmissions. Lower RACH
retransmission parameter value. Check and improve frequency plan and/or
downtilt.
RACH retransmissions/Multiple reservations due to mass paging deleted.
During festivals/ holidays/ concerts many subscribers are located at the same
LAC, paging and rach load increases considerably. Consider LAC optimization,
Abis expansion, paging group optimization, reduce paging repeat & rach
retransmission times during busy hour.
Radio Fails
Check alarms and RxQuality report to verify whether there is a badly functioning
TRX. Fix hardware problem. Check antenna line.





SDCCH Drop
CM
FM
Soc Classification level
129 Nokia Siemens Networks 129 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Radio Fails (cont.)
Coverage. Verify TA report and planning tool.
Interference. Check Frequency Plan. Solution e.g. add sites, downtilt
antennas, increase RxLevAccessMin.
Extended coverage of cells in location area borders. Check LU
parameters and/or downtilt

100% ABIS Fails
Failure in BTS software (BCSU reset in BSC).

100% AIF Fails
BTS connected to other BSC or BTS is not declared in MSC.
SDCCH Drop
Change Request!
PM
Soc Classification level
130 Nokia Siemens Networks
ND REPORT__SD DROP--166
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
131 Nokia Siemens Networks
SDCH DROP Issues

Check the High SD drop Cells from the BSS KPI reports
Look into the Drop Reason whether it is due to RF fail or any HW reason or any Signaling issue .If HW, site
fluctuation or Signaling issue escalate the same to O&M/OMC team for rectification
Check the proper A-bis link PCM mapping and signaling channel definition thro OMC engineer.
Look into the coverage foot print of the same thro TA report and the site Data base if the cell is overshooting
to longer distances optimize the same .
If SD is configured in BCH carrier then look for the C/I condition for the BCH carrier looking into the reuse
patterns. If SD is configured in Hopping TRX then look into the TRX performance and bad samples in that
TRX and check the VSWR/Antenna /Combiner connections to the TRX .U can get a hint if you look at the
assignment success ration of the cell.
Look into the Quality samples in the TRX in which the SD is configured if the TRX is faulty replace the same
at the earliest .

Try to reduce the SD usages and reduce the SD load of the cell thro proper optimization.
Look into the signaling TS load on A-bis link and try to reduce the same by reconfiguration of PCM slots
Check the Rx.P Value set to the cell , Make it -104 dBm .
Ensure the T-200 value set to 780 mSec in all cells
Correct the SD dimensioning so that there will be minimum no of dynamic SD allocations on TCH .


Following the procedures defined above and taking corrective action in time will result into a Quality network
with SD DROP KPI maintained

Soc Classification level
132 Nokia Siemens Networks
PATH BALANCE208
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
133 Nokia Siemens Networks
Parameter and features
Presentation / Author / Date
1. BTS : Antenna Hopping, HYS




Soc Classification level
134 Nokia Siemens Networks 134 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Case1: Jumper from TRX 4 to combiner loose (check
connectors at both ends)
Case2: Jumper from Duplexer to TRX 4 (check
connectors at both ends)
Case3: Check common feederline
from Top of cabinet to Antenna port (
loose connectors at either end or High VSWR problem,
TRX 2&4 in this case use the same feeder)

In this case, the Path imbalance (DL-UL) varies between
+1.6 to -4dB which doesnt tell much
BUT DL pathloss variations between TRXs is from 112.8
to 136dB
& UL pathloss variations between TRXs is from 111.2 to
140dB
DEFINITELY A PROBLEM!

Path balance --208
Soc Classification level
135 Nokia Siemens Networks 135 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Use OSS Data to identify & pinpoint HW faults
faster
Sector A
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
>70dBm 70-80dBm 80-90 90-100dBm <100dBm
Downlink Signal Strength
TRX3
TRX4
TRX5
TRX6
Sector B
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
>70dBm 70-80dBm 80-90 90-100dBm <100dBm
Uplink Signal Strength
TRX3
TRX4
TRX5
Path Balance Reports help understand any imbalance
between UL and DL
Whereas
Eg.Pathloss comparisons between TRXs of same sector
can help identify loose cables or hardware faults, taking
other TRXs as reference case

Eg. In Sector A:TRX 3 &4 have only 20% of DL SS
samples <-100dBm whereas TRX 5 & 6 have 70% of their
DL SS samples <-100dBm.
Prob:1 Combiner Faulty

In Sector B TRX 5 clearly had a difference in signal
strength only in Uplink.
Prob: Rx cable found to be loose


The same faults can also be seen
using Rxlevel statistics from OSS
shown in this slide, but 208 is faster for
analysis!
Soc Classification level
136 Nokia Siemens Networks 136 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
How to identify the worst cells in your network?
Import DL & UL pathlosses for all
TRXs of all cells into separate columns
Use a pivot table to get Min and Max
values of dL and Ul pathlosses in a cell
Identify all cells with DL TRX pathloss
variatons >10dB(for a NW with huge TI
quality issues , sstart with 15dB)
The same can be done for UL also
A combined analyses for DL& UL with
>10dB diff gave a list of 58 cells for
UP(West) attached below.
Go back to 208 report for detailed
analysis


Soc Classification level
137 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
138 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
139 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
140 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Blocking
TCH Blocking
>X%
Are there some
broken cells, check
alarms, also
Adjacent cells
Check RX statistics if
there are cells with
broken TRX. Alarms
are not always sent
Are POC parameter
correct, check also
adjacent cells
No
No broken components
Check unavailability
in the cells, also from
adjacent cells
Availability OK
Check if there are
some missing
neighbours
TCH blocking
is high
yes
All correct
Make corrections
Yes,Change
broken
components
Yes,
corrections
Yes, make
corrections
Case closed No
Yes, add neighbours
Add TRX
Tch Blocking is
still high
No
Have you checked
all capacity features
No
Is Half Rate
used and
parameter
optimized
No
yes
Yes
Yes
No. active HR
and adjust
Parameters
Check also Dual
Rate Timeslots
and if Possible
, change TCHF
To TCHD
Uav_15a
ND_139
Planner, Optmizer
ND_072
P_nbsc_rx_statistics
Counter (q0..q7)ul
and dl
NetAct,POC
Blck_8i
Trf_1d
ND_135
ND_138
ND_139
ND_211
ND_211
alarms
Block due to
any events
near ?
No
Yes. Check block
Trend if it will drop
after event
Is dual band
network
optimized
No, optimize dual
Band network traffic
handling parameters,
AUCL(umbrella)
Common BCCH param
yes
ND_211
Soc Classification level
141 Nokia Siemens Networks
TCH BLOCKING182-ND REPORT
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
142 Nokia Siemens Networks 142 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
TCH blocking
TCH availability
Check alarms (are TRXs & TSLs in Working State? ), check availability report and RxQuality
report to verify whether there is a badly functioning TRX. Make Loop Tests on TRX. Fix
hardware problem.

TCH capacity
Bad TCH capacity dimensioning. Check number of TRXs.

FM
CM
Soc Classification level
143 Nokia Siemens Networks 143 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
TCH blocking
TCH traffic
Cell is covering a region greater than planned. Verify TA statistics. Change DMAX, or downtilt.
High traffic in some cells. Solution .eg.:
Quality degradation
Add Macrocells no
Add Microcells no
Add TRXs with new freq no
Add TRXs without new freq no/yes (IUO, FH)
Activate Directed Retry no/yes
Activate Queuing yes
Activate HR yes
Activate AMR-HR no
Activate DADL/B no/yes
Activate AMH no/yes
Activate C2 parameter yes
Modify hoMarginPBGT yes
PM
Change Request!
Soc Classification level
144 Nokia Siemens Networks
Decongestion and TCH blocking Issues

Check the BBH KPI report and find out the cells having utilization more than 90% .

Check the blocked TRX report 111 and if TRX blocked found, follow up with O&M team to
rectify the same as soon as possible.

Look into the A-ter /TRAU status of the BSC in which the congested cell is integrated

Look into the GPRS and SD configuration and their usages in the congested cell ,Try to
reduce the same and obtain more TS for TCH.

Check the site location along with any site nearby to share the traffic and look into the TA
report 232 for the coverage foot print of the congested cell, if possible reduce the coverage
foot print and let the neighbour cell to share the traffic thro proper optimization

.
If decongestion is not possible with the optimization of the nearest site look into the MA list
and Fractional Frequency loading(20% in multiple site areas and 30% in single site areas) if
any scope for TRX addition is there go for TRX expansion and ensure the MAIO changes
properly to avoid co. and adj. channel hitting.
Soc Classification level
145 Nokia Siemens Networks
Suggestion ,in multiple site areas first go for nearest low utilized sites optimization to share the traffic from the
congested cells and after doing the optimization introduce the Traffic reason HO or Direct Retry between the
neighbours .

FRL of 20% and FRU limit of 40% for HR call are allowed to avoid blocking go ahead for the same in TCH
blocking cells.
Suggestion : If SD block is there in cells never go for Direct Retry between the neighbours better go for Traffic
reason HO with the neighbouring cells of the congested cell.

For single site areas if there is spectrum issue we should look for the customized MA list by adding some BCCH
carriers carefully looking into BCCH reuse pattern in neighbouring cells and their presence close to the site

If we are unable to add TRX due to Spectrum limitation propose for a new capacity site to share the traffic .

Following the procedures defined above and taking corrective action in time will
result into a Quality network with Utilization and blocking KPI maintained

Soc Classification level
146 Nokia Siemens Networks
Parameters & features
Presentation / Author / Date
1. BTS PARAMTER:
2. Directed Retry ,
3. FRL & FRU ,
4. TRHO,
5. BLT, LSEG,
6. Queuing



Soc Classification level
147 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
148 Nokia Siemens Networks
ASSIGNMENT FAILURES
Look into the BSS BBH KPI reports for High Assignment failure cells
Mostly due to HW issues like : TRX faulty, TS issues , Wrong Combiner
,Antenna connections, Wrong Air combing antenna positions , TRX cable
loose, VSWR issues ,Wrong PCM mapping ,TRAU issue, Site Fluctuations, A-
bis link BER .
Escalate to O&M and OMC team to rectify the same and follow up till got
rectified
RF issues : High Coverage foot print of the site , High Dense clutter ,Wrong
Antenna positioning . Needs optimization and site visit

IMPACT ; High assignment failures in cells contributes to Call drop , HOSR
failures, SD drops in dynamic SD , Low call volume etc etc .
Soc Classification level
149 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
150 Nokia Siemens Networks
TCH SEIZURES FOR NEW CALL
tch_norm_seiz /c1009
+tch_seiz_due_sdcch_con /c1099 (S5)
+msc_i_sdcch_tch /c4044
+bsc_i_sdcch_tch /c4057
+cell_sdcch_tch /c4074
-tch_succ_seiz_for_dir_acc /c1165 (S7)

-tch_re_est_assign /c57032 (S7)
TCH DROPS AFTER SEIZURE
TCH_RADIO_FAIL /c1013
+TCH_RF_OLD_HO /c1014
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_CALL /c1084
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_OLD /c1085
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_CALL /c1087
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_OLD /c1088
+TCH_TR_FAIL /c1029
+TCH_TR_FAIL_OLD /c1030
+TCH_LAPD_FAIL /c1046
+TCH_BTS_FAIL /c1047
+TCH_USER_ACT /c1048
+TCH_BCSU_RESET /c1049
+TCH_NETW_ACT /c1050
+TCH_ACT_FAIL_CALL /c1081

-tch_re_est_assign /c57032 (S7)
DROPS
CALLS
100 * %
STARTED CONVERSATIONS
conver_started /c57015
- msc_i_tch_tch /c4043
CONVERSATION DROPS
dropped_calls /c57007
TCH DROPS AFTER ASSIGNMENT
tch_new_call_assign /c57033
+tch_ho_assign /c57034

-tch_norm_release /c57035
-tch_ho_release /c57036

-tch_re_est_assign /c57032

TCH ASSIGNMENTS FOR NEW CALL
tch_new_call_assign /c57033


-tch_re_est_assign /c57032

TCH RELEASE
Disconnect from MS
RF CHN RELEASE
Rf_channel_release_ack
from BTS
CONVERSATION STARTED
conn_ack to BTS
TCH ASSIGNED
Assignment_complete from BTS
TCH SEIZED
BSC allocates a TCH as a response to
TCH request (Channel Activation)
Dcr_8h
Dcr_5a
Dcr_3j
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop Call Ratios
Soc Classification level
151 Nokia Siemens Networks
MS BTS BSC MSC
Assignment_Request
Start T9108
Physical_Context_Requ
est
Physical_Context_Confirmation
Stop T9108
Start T9103
Channel_Activation
Stop T9103
Channel_Activation_Ack
Assignment_Command
Start
T10,T3107
TCH seized
SDCCH signalling up to TCH seizure
Authentication_Request Authentication_Request
Authentication_Response Authentication_Response
Identification_Request Identification_Request
Identification_Response Identification_Response
Ciphering_Mode_Command
Encryption_Command
Ciphering_Mode_Command
Ciphering_Mode_Complete Ciphering_Mode_Complete
Setup Setup
Call_Proceeding Call_Proceeding
(TA info)
TCH DROPS AFTER SEIZURE
TCH_RADIO_FAIL /c1013
+TCH_RF_OLD_HO /c1014
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_CALL /c1084
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_OLD /c1085
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_CALL /c1087
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_OLD /c1088
+TCH_TR_FAIL /c1029
+TCH_TR_FAIL_OLD /c1030
+TCH_LAPD_FAIL /c1046
+TCH_BTS_FAIL /c1047
+TCH_USER_ACT /c1048
+TCH_BCSU_RESET /c1049
+TCH_NETW_ACT /c1050
+TCH_ACT_FAIL_CALL /c1081
57028 TCH_CALL_REQ, 57030 SERVED_TCH_CALL_REQ, 57031 SERVED_DR_REQ
csf_14
drops after this point
Assignment_Command (SDCCH)
Start T200
SABM (FACCH)
Establish_Indication
UA (FACCH)
Stop T200
Assignment_Complete (FACCH)
Assignment_Complete
Stop
T10,T3107
Assignment_Complete
SDCCH signalling: MS moves on TCH, SDCCH released
MS on TCH
TCH DROPS AFTER ASSIGNMENT
(Connection Failure from BTS, DX
cause >= 300)
spare057044 /c57044 (S10.5)
drop_after_TCH_assign c1202
(S11)
drops after this point
csf_15
csf_13
Dcr_8e
Soc Classification level
152 Nokia Siemens Networks
TCH DROP-ND REPORT(163)
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
153 Nokia Siemens Networks
TCH DROPKPI REPORT
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
154 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop
DCR > X% and
DCRnum > XX
Drops due to
RF Reasons
Drops due to
Abis Reasons
No
Drops due to
A-interface
Reasons
No
Drops due to
Transcoder
Reasons
No
Drops due to
other Reasons
No
Case Closed No
RF Abis A TR Other
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes
No
ND_163
Soc Classification level
155 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (RF)
RF drops
>X%
>X count
Check quality/level
distribution. Any Bad
Quality problems = Lots
of samples in good
signal level and bad
quality
Check quality/level
distribution. Any Bad
Level problems = Lots
of samples in bad
signal level
Check cell
parameters,
discrepancies?
DCR still too
high
Check all the
alarms
TRX is broken (sample
distribution is somehow
strange, for example
only quality 4 samples)
Change new
frequency based
on interference
matrix
TRX / combiner is
broken, for
example only <-
100dBm level
samples
Signal level
problems. Improve
coverage
Check TA statistics and
Check all Neighbors. If lots of
long distance samples and
only nearest cells are
neighbors, may be some
neighbor cells are missing
Neighbors are
missing
Check all HO
parameters, any HOC
parameter problems?
Check blocking in
target cells. If blocking,
add capacity to
blocked cells
Check if HO fails are due
to MSC/ BSC border. If
bad values, check
borders. OptimizeMSC/
BSC borders
Make parameter
corrections
Yes
Yes
No
Yes, change
-TRX
-Combiner
-broken antenna
No
Yes
No
Yes,
Change
TRX /
Combiner
Check HOs to
adjacent cells, Any
bad HO problems
to any adjacent
cells?
No
No
No
No Blocking
Yes, Add
neighbors
Yes,
Change
parameters
Yes, add
capacity
No
Yes
Yes
No
Case Closed No
Yes
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics
Counters(ul0..ul7,dl0..dl8)
ND_204
P_nbsc_HO_adj
Hfr_58,hfr_59
P_nbsc_power,Timing
advance
ND_232
OSS, Hoc
parameters
P_nbsc_HO_adj
Blck_19,blck_20
ND_150
OSS, BTS,Cell
parameters
NetAct Planner, Optimizer
P_nbsc_RX_Statistics
Counters(ul0..ul7,dl0..dl8)
ND_204
-Add LNA
-Add new site
-Add new sector
alarms
Soc Classification level
156 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (abis)
Abis
>X%
>X count
All Alarms are checked and
abis trace is done
Drops are
happening in
the release
phase
Still high drops
in Abis
interface
Check CC table,
which phase
drops are
happening
Investigate alarms. If problems
are not solved, activate abis
trace
Trace has been
measured long enough.
Any problems found
Any
improvements
Make
corrections
Investigate log
files.
No
activate
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Alarms
Are solved
If not long
enough,
activate
another
trace
Yes
No
Yes
check the BTS
release and the
timer 3109 expired
values. >BTS
version 6.1 3109
expires in a BSC
while waiting for
the Release
indication.These
are seen as abis
drops.These are
not real drop not
real abis problems
Check the
parameters
related to abis.
BSC parameters
No
Case Closed
No
Drops are checked and
Not real Abis problems
P_nbsc_CC_PM
All counters
BTS
configurations,
Pafile
OSS, BSC
parameters
alarms
alarms
Soc Classification level
157 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (A)
A
>X%
>X count
A interface
problems. Alarms
are checked and A
interface trace is
done
Investigate
alarms.If problems
are not solved,
activate A trace
Any
improvements
Investigate log
files.
Check if there are
errors, when MSC
assign some pools
Any protocol error
unspecified? Check
bug possibility
Any problems
found. Trace
was long
enough
Make corrections
Check ET lines in
the BSC and
transcoders /TCSM.
Any problems
Repair ET
lines
Are parameters
and timers
checked
Still A drops or
problems
Check that A
parameter values
are correct
Check that A timer
values are correct
Check that sccp
counter values are
correct
Make corrections
No
Activate
No
No
Yes No Yes
Yes
Alarms
Are
Solved
Yes
Trace
was
not
long
enough
Case Closed
Yes
No
No
Trace was
Long enough. Not
An problem
was found
ZNRI:NA0;
ZNNI:1,C;
ZNMI:C;
ZOCI:1;
Alarms
MML commands
P_nbsc_et_bsc
P_nbsc_et_tcsm
All counters
Soc Classification level
158 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (TR)
TR
>X%
>Xcount
TR problems.
Alarms are
checked
Check CC table, in
which phase TR drops
are happening
Still TR drops
or problems
Investigate alarms.If
problems are not
solved, activate abis
trace (remote TR
failures
Any
Improvements
Any problems
found
Make corrections
Investigate log files.Check if
failures are following some
PCM either in Abis or A and
fix accordingly. Before
Implementing HR in the BSC
& cells it is must to
reconfigure the A
interfacelinks to support Dual
Rate. Otherwise it will give
rise to high call failures
mainly TCH_TR_fail due to
mismatch of coding between
TCH in Radio & "A" interface.
No
If release
phase,
not real
drops
If drops are
happening in
some specific
codec HR/FR
issue investigate
or is it more like
individual TR
problem
If there some
problems with
TCSM
investigate. ICTF,
how many fails are
ignored
Check that TR
parameters are
correct. If not,
correct these
Investigate No
In release phase
Done
Not done
Not done
Trace
Was not
Long
enough
Yes
Alarms
are solved
Check TR codec
specific fails, run
Check TCSM
statistics
Yes
Not
In
Release
Phase
P_nbsc_CC_PM
All counters
Alarms
Done
Case Closed
No
Yes
Trace
was long
enough, No
Any problem
was found
ND_247
ND_523,
ICTF parameter
Soc Classification level
159 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (Other)
Other
Lapd fails BTS fails
Netw Act
Fails
User Act, bcsu,
act fails
Still lots of
other drops
Check all the
alarms
signalling fails
or PCM fails.
Check
transmissio /
parameters
Yes
No
TRX or BTS
fails. Check
that BTS/ TRX
are working
properly
Yes
No
Configuration
problems,
check
configurations
Yes
No
Resets or act
fail channel
failures
Yes
No
Case Closed No
Yes
Soc Classification level
160 Nokia Siemens Networks
TCH Drop and Corrective action

Non RF drops : Check the TCH drop reason in BBH stats report. Non RF drops may have two reasons one is
TR drop and other A-bis fail . If you find such issues in a site/cell then escalate to O&M team and do
continuous follow up till the same got corrected. Hint : If all cells or a single cell in a site is having TR drops
then check the PCM mapping and the link stability . If most of the cells /sites in a BSC is having TR drops
High then escalate the same to OMC to check TRAU block . For A-bis drop, it is the link or the E1/T1 card
which may have issues or any issue in the internal wiring of the BTS .




RF Drops :
1. If RF drop is high in cells first step is to check the Air interface clearance (BCCH reuse pattern and C/I, and the
database for Hopping, Over shooting sites, neighbour missing and neighbour definitions , call dragging due
to congestion in neighbour cells, border cells, VSWR issues or TRX wrong connections). Try to minimize the
Overlapping to reduce the co channel hitting and quick HO attempts .



Corrective action : See the path balance reports (208) to find out the VSWR issues , see to the assignment
issues in those cells, analyze the neighbour cells resource availability during BBH to take the HO request ,
Look into the BCCH reuse in the coverage area of the cell , check the overshooting of the cell to longer
distances and try to reduce the same thro optimization, check the Hopping pool MA List and MAIO and try to
have best offset to avoid co.and adj. interference.Check Fractional Frequency loading in the cell ,restrict over
shooting cells( This can be checked thro the report (196) which will give you a clear indication of bad
samples and confirms if all TRXs are having bad samples during BBH ) .



Soc Classification level
161 Nokia Siemens Networks

2. Another reason for RF drop may be due to HW faults in BTS ,like TRX having poor quality TS , wrong antenna
connections ,VSWR Issues in sites
Corrective action : Check the assignment success rates in those cells where drop rate is high this will give you
hint about the wrong connections of the devices ,Antennas . Look into the TRX Quality reports (196) where
you can look into the poor quality samples per TRX if some TRX is having high poor UL/DL quality samples
and others in the same cells are having good samples then the particular TRX is having some issue ,replace
the same thro O&M team

3. Minimize the Hand Over attempts between cells by minimizing the overlapping of source and target cells and
also setting the margins and Ping pong rejection timers .

4. Ensure the RLT and ARLT (in AMR environment ) is properly set guidelines we can set RLT 24 Frames and
ARLT 36 Frames )


4. If all above you are finding ok still there is high RF drops then have a drive test and site audit to find out any
external interference or Antenna issues in field ,check the VSWR thro O&M team .
Following the procedures defined above and taking corrective action in time will result into a Quality network
with Drop KPI maintained .

Soc Classification level
162 Nokia Siemens Networks
Parameters & features
Presentation / Author / Date
1. B TS parameter :Antenna Hopping,;;DMAX,;;STIRC;;BFG

2. BSC parameter:ITCF

3. MSC parameter : Call Re establishment

4. Features : AMR PPC, ROBUST AMR


Soc Classification level
163 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
164 Nokia Siemens Networks
KPI- Rules, HO fail
HO Fail
Any Bad interference in
adjacent cells
Any bad signal level
problems
No interfer
Check if HO fails are
due to blocking
Ho fail is high
yes
Yes, add
Capacity, TRX
Case closed No No
ND_150
ND_153
ND_157
P_nbsc_rx_statistics
Check if fails are
MSC incoming or
MSC outgoing fails
Check if fails are
BSC incoming or
BSC outgoing fails
Check if fails are
Intra HO Fails
ND_150
ND_153
ND_150
ND_153
ND_150
ND_153
ND_157
Check if adjacent
with high fail% are
working properly
No blocking
Yes, change
Frequency or
Tilt interferer
cells
Any broken
components
No
No, all cells
are OK
Yes, change
These broken
components
Yes, improve
coverage
-new site or LNA
-New sector
-More gain antenna
P_nbsc_rx_statistics
P_nbsc_rx_statistics
alarms
Are HO
parameters
correct
No
No,
optimize
parameters
Yes
Optimize MSC /
BSC borders
No
Are HO
parameters
correct
Yes
No,
optimize
HO
parameters
No
Check if HO fails are
due to missing
neighbours
No
Yes, add
neighbours
NetAct Planner
Optimizer
Optimize
dominance areas,
overlapping,
overshooting
Yes
There are
interference in
some
Frequency
yes
Yes
Change
Frequency
HOC HOC
P_nbsc_power
_control
NetAct
Planner
NetAct
Planner
There are
interference in
some TSLs
P_nbsc_RX_st
atistics
Ho fail is still
high
No
Yes
Soc Classification level
165 Nokia Siemens Networks
HO FAILURE REPORTND (153)
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
166 Nokia Siemens Networks
HANDOVER ANALYSIS
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
167 Nokia Siemens Networks
HO CAUSES BSC WISE
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
168 Nokia Siemens Networks
HO CAUSESCELL WISE--154

Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
169 Nokia Siemens Networks
POOR HOSR
Look into the 153 report for HOSR between source and target cells
List all the neighbours where there is poor HOSR
See the sites are performing well and there is no assignment failure issues
and TRX HW issues
Look into the BCCH and BSIC reuse pattern of the neighbours to ensure good
C/I of the BCCH carrier and their definition in neighbour.
Do the neighbour audit and check all the neighbours defined with proper
database and LAC etc etc

Define Sync neighbours between cells in a single site
Check the Signaling load on A-bis and A-ter
Thro Neighbour audit remove all neighbours which are not with level to retain
the call and add all missing neighbours.
Check the HO parameters and margins ,rescue hand over settings ,penalty
timers from ZEAO and ZEHO logs to ensure less attempts and enhnace the
success rate
Check the whether Clock shift DAC ( 1800-2400 )
Check Software mis match( BSC and BTS end


Soc Classification level
170 Nokia Siemens Networks
If AMR enabled ,NSS team should ensure Proper dimensioning and A-ter link availability
for codecs in TRAU .

Optimize the Overlap areas between cells to have minimum HO requests in each call .
Decongest the target cells to ensure TCH resource availability for a HO request .
Try to introduce more Ho margin between cells inter BSC to have less attempts for Inter
BSC HO .

Allow RX Lev HO between single sites and minimum overlapping neighbours , with a
very less HO Margin and penalty timer

In an AMR scenario to minimize the quality HO ensure the Threshold level for Quality
HO is set RX qual 5 or 6 .

Poor HOSR Impact: Enhances TCH drop, TCH Block due to poor mobility
management between sites.

Concentrating on reports and following the procedures defined above and taking
corrective action in time will result into a Quality network with all KPIs maintained



Soc Classification level
171 Nokia Siemens Networks
Paramters and features
Presentation / Author / Date
BTS Parameter : SL, PRI,PMRG,LMRG,QMRG,

HO parameter : MIU,MIH,HPP;;QDR & QUR;;LDR & LUR;;LAR & LER;C/I estimation
method

BCF parameter : DAC drift


MSC : LAC Mismatch


AMR : IHRH & IHRF,SAL;;;n(x),p(x) change for QDRF & QURF







Soc Classification level
172 Nokia Siemens Networks
RX QUALITY
Presentation / Author / Date
100* (sum of RxQual samples 0-5)/sum of all RxQual samples 0-7)
Soc Classification level
173 Nokia Siemens Networks 173 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Rx Quality
DL/UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY < 5 (dlq_2/
ulq_2)

Network Doctor report 196 model
Soc Classification level
174 Nokia Siemens Networks 174 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Rx Quality x Rx Level
DL/UL QUALITY/LEVEL DISTRIBUTION

Network Doctor report 204 model
Soc Classification level
175 Nokia Siemens Networks 175 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Rx Quality x Rx Level
Coverage
Problem: Bad
quality and Low
Rx Level
Interference
Problem: Bad quality
and
High Rx Level
Good Quality
High Rv Level
HW Problem:
Bad Quality
for all Rx Levels
NWD report 204 model
Soc Classification level
176 Nokia Siemens Networks 176 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Coverage Problem
Bad Quality is due to weak signal. Check TA statistics. Add sites.

Interference Problem
Internal interference. Check if interference profile follows increases in traffic profile. Check
frequency plan and TA statistics. Modify frequency to verify if problem is solved.
External interference. Check if interference is independent of traffic profile.
Due to synchronisation problem. Synchronisation source set in BTS clock. Change to BSC.

HW Problem
Bad quality in all RxLevel classes of ONE TRX. Check alarms to verify whether there is a
badly functioning TRX. Fix hardware problem. Check antenna line.
Swap frequency. If problem persists on the same TRX, fix HW problem.
Bad quality in all RxLevel classes of TWO TRX. Verify combiner or common parts connected
to both TRX.

Rx Quality x Rx Level
Soc Classification level
177 Nokia Siemens Networks 177 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
Timing Advance
Low share close:
BTS might be so
high that area
bellow it does not
receive any signal
They might be
another dominant
site
High share far:
May be causing
Interference and
drop call rate as
traffic is captured in
certain regions far
from the BTS.
High share
close:
Most calls are
established
near the BTS
BTS may have
indoor coverage
NWD report 232 model
Decreasing share:
Traffic is
distributed mostly
in regions with
higher signal level
Dont forget:
1. Traffic distribution depends on
clutter types and planned
coverage!
2. Repeters can change expected
distribution.
Soc Classification level
178 Nokia Siemens Networks 178 2006 Nokia 1. Network Optimization Principles / 2006-
08-11
High share of traffic far from the BTS

Internal Interference Problem:
High drop call rate in a certain area. Rx Quality statistics
indicates an internal interference problem. With planning tool
evaluate sites with the same frequency - interfering
candidates. TA statistics will show traffic distance of
interfering cells. Downtilt is needed.

No neighbours in area:
High drop call rate. As this cell is covering na unexpected
region, there will be no close neighbours declared and HO will
not happen. Downtilt is needed.

Timing Advance
Soc Classification level
179 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
180 Nokia Siemens Networks
ERLANG DROP PER MIN
Presentation / Author / Date
This KPI indicate the average time between the dropped calls. Its
is a division of traffic expressed in minute Erlangs divided by the
total drops and is inversely proportional to DCR.
Soc Classification level
181 Nokia Siemens Networks
Congestion & blocking
BTS
TRX
RACH
BSC
RACH/NOISE COLLISION
Abis link
Alarm 2720
Telecom Link overload
(030)
SDCCH congestion time (130,216) c2033 = sdcch_cong_time
Blocked SDCCH seiz att (216) c1001 = sdcch_busy_att
Blocking (204,204, 130,216) , csf_1a
Aif
TC
Processor unit
load (605,614)
avg.70% critical
(avg. 50% for MB)
HLR
TCH congestion time (138, 216), c2027 = tch_cong_time
Blocked TCH call att (216) blck_9c
Blocking (204,200,138,216) , csf_3m,csf_3i,csf_3l
No direct counter but
affects csf_2j
(200, 204, 250)
Aif
Circuit group blocking (602,604)
M058, M026: Max. 1% in BH
Signalling link (SS7) traffic
(524)
Add link if traffic > 200mErl
NOTE: In MSC terminology
instead of term blocking
there is term call congestion'
RACH load
rach_3, rach_4
(188, 216)
MS
Paging
AG blocking (229,204, 200, 216)
(blck_13)

AG blocking, GPRS (229)
(blck_21)
Access
grant
MSC
Processor unit
load (184,212)
avg.70% critical
avg.60% max. is
recommended by R&D
(avg. 50% for MB)
Processor unit
load (606,615)
avg.70% critical
(avg. 50% for MB)
Paging buffer
occupancy
pagings deleted
(186)
SGSN
Bearer channel /NSVC (240)

Alarm '7746'
Ch congestion in BTS above defined threshold'
NOTE:The lines indicate logical source of the info,
the actual genereation of the info can be in the above
standing object
500627 AIV PAGING REFUSED
BIG LOAD (BSCU overload )
0026 SIGNALLING LINK LOAD
OVER THRESHOLD (>0.2erl)
3164 PCU PROCESSOR OVERLOAD
Soc Classification level
182 Nokia Siemens Networks
ALARM ANALYSIS
Alarm Number Description
7745 CHANNEL FAILURE RATE ALARM
2992 BtTS and Tc unsynchronization clear calls on a interface
2993 BTS andTC unsynchronization clear calls on abis interface
7508 RADIO TIMESLOT FAILURE IN TRX
7600 BCF FAULTY
7601 BCF OPERATION DEGRADED
7603 BTS FAULTY
7604 BTS Operation Degraded
7606 TRX FAULTY
7617 SEVERAL CALLS DROPPED DUE TO PROBLEM WITH TRANSCODER
7704 PCM FAILURE
7705 LAPD FAILURE
7715 CONTINUOUS RESTARTS OF BCF-TRX
7725 TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE
7738 BTS WITH NO TRANSACTIONS
7743 MEAN HOLDING TIME BELOW DEFINED THRESHOLD
2955 TRANSCODER CHANNEL FAILURE
7746 CH CONGESTION IN CELL ABOVE DEFINED THRESHOLD
7767 BCCH MISSING
7939 FORWARD POWER TOO LOW AT TX ANTENNA
8112 FREQUENCY ERROR
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
183 Nokia Siemens Networks
7755Channel failure rate above defined
Threshold

Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
184 Nokia Siemens Networks
7745
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
185 Nokia Siemens Networks
7745
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
186 Nokia Siemens Networks
7745
Presentation / Author / Date
Soc Classification level
187 Nokia Siemens Networks
7601-BCF OPERATION DEGRADED
Presentation / Author / Date
BCF Operation Degraded :This alarm 7601 is generated at the BTS.
BD018 BCF-0030 EQUIPM 2007-07-24 04:20:45.42
** ALARM
(14652) 7601 BCF OPERATION DEGRADED
Difference between PCM and base station frequency reference.
02 01 07 96 00 00
1) Fault reason: Cabinet I2C bus is jammed.
Solution:
1)Switch the site power Off and On.
2)Check the fan unit, the power supply unit and the TRXs. If necessary, replace the faulty units(s).
3)If the fault reappears, replace the cabinet. The units inside the cabinet can be reused in the new cabinet
2) Fault reason: Incompatible unit presence has been detected in the BTS.
Solution:
Replace the high power or EDGE TRX(s) with normal type TRX(s) and reset the BCF
Or, replace the normal type FAN and power supply with high power or EDGE units. Now EDGE and high power TRXs
are supported.
Soc Classification level
188 Nokia Siemens Networks
7601
Presentation / Author / Date
3) Fault reason: Difference between the PCM and BTS frequency reference.
Solution:
Check the synchronisation settings of the transmission interface.( DAC Value)DAC value Range from 1800
t0 2200.
If the settings are OK, check the transmission chain.
If the alarm stays active or reappears after the recovery actions above, reset the BCF.
If the alarm reappears after the BCF reset, replace the BTS.
Note: If this Supplementary alarm appears there is Drift in clock value(DAC). That leads to HO failures
4) Fault reason: Oven oscillator control is close to its margins. The oven might be outdated.
Solution:
Check the synchronisation settings of the transmission interface.
If the settings are OK, check the transmission chain.
If the alarm stays active or reappears after the recovery actions above, reset the BCF.
If the alarm reappears after the BCF reset, replace the BTS
Note: If this Supplementary alarm appears there is Drift in clock value (DAC). That leads to HO failures
5) Fault reason: Flash operation failed in BOI or TRX.
Solution:
Replace the BOI (Base station operation Interface unit)
If it is TRX change the TRX
Descrpition of Supplementary information:
1-6 XX XX XX XX XX XX 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Rack (cabinet) number
2 shelf number
3 slot
4 Type of unit
5 unit number
6 subunit number
Soc Classification level
189 Nokia Siemens Networks