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Sistem Penyaluran Air Limbah (RE 091310)

PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH KOTA PASURUAN


EKO PAMUNGKAS
NRP. 3311100013

Dosen Pengajar :
Ipung Fitri P, S.T, M.T, Ph.D

Dosen Asisten :
Alfan Purnomo, S.T, M.T

JURUSAN TEKNIK LINGKUNGAN


Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya
2013

JURUSAN TEKNIK LINGKUNGAN


Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya
2013

PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

KATA PENGANTAR
Puji dan syukur penulis panjatkan kehadirat Allah Yang Maha Esa atas perlindungan, ilmu, bimbingan, rahmat
serta hidayah-Nya sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan tugas perencanaan dengan judul Perencanaan Penyaluran
Air Limbah dengan lancar. Penulisan Tugas ini merupakan salah satu tugas besar guna memenuhi standar
kompetensi mata kuliah Sistem Penyaluran Air Limbah (SPAL) pada semester lima (V) ini.
Terdapat 3 seri tugas besar perencanaan di semester ini yaitu SPAM SPAL SDRAIN, sehingga masih ada 2
seri buku perencanaan yang sejenis tentang perencanaan Kota Pasuruan yang penulis buat, yaiut Sistem Penyediaan Air
Minum Kota Pasuruan dan Sistem Drainase Kota Pasuruan
Tugas ini ditulis berdasarkan penyusunan data data primer dan sekunder yang penulis peroleh dari buku
panduan yang berkaitan, serta berbagai macam informasi baik yang berasal dari media massa maupun institusi
pemerintah yang berhubungan dengan sistem penyediaan air minum. Tak lupa penulis mengucapkan terima kasih
kepada semua pihak yang telah membantu kelancaran penulisan tugas ini, yakni :
1. Allah SWT atas segala rahmat dan nikmat yang diberikan kepada saya
2. Kedua Orang Tua penulis, atas segala dukungan moral, materi, dan doanya
3. Ibu Ipung F. selaku dosen mata kuliah SPAL kelas A, terima kasih atas segala ilmu yang telah diajarkan dan
kesabarannya dalam mengajar kami.
4. Ibu Atiek M dan Bu Ellina P. selaku dosen mata kuliah SPAL kelas lain, terima kasih atas segala ilmu yang
telah diajarkan dan kesabarannya dalam mengajar kami.
5. Bapak Alfan Purnomo selaku dosen asisten, terima kasih kesediaan, kesabaran, dan ilmu yang diberikan dalam
proses bimbingan kami.
6. Teman teman angkatan 2011, atas kebersamaan serta kritik dan sarannya khususnya yang se asdos mulai nrp
8 sampai 18 (april, sovi, misbah, putmei, bima, feri, upek, bebi, wahyu, fitri) semoga menjadi tim yang teringat.
7. Terima kasih semuanya
Penulis menyadari masih terdapat banyak kekurangan dalam penyusunan tugas besar ini, oleh karena itu penulis
menerima kritik dan saran yang bersifat membangun sehingga penulisan tugas besar selanjutnya dapat lebih baik lagi.
Semoga laporan tugas besar ini dapat memberikan manfaat bagi pembaca.

Surabaya, Januari 2014

Penyusun
3311100013

Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013


SPAM (RE 091313)| Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS

PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

DAFTAR ISI
KATA PENGANTAR............. ............................................................ ...........................................................................................i
DAFTAR ISI............. ............................................................................ ...........................................................................................ii
DAFTAR TABEL ......................................................................................................................................................................... iv
DAFTAR GAMBAR............. .............................................................. ..........................................................................................vi
BAB I PENDAHULUAN ..........................................................................................................................................................1
1.1. Latar Belakang ....................................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Maksud dan Tujuan ...........................................................................................................................................................1
1.3 Ruang Lingkup ...................................................................................................................................................................2
BAB II Tinjauan Pustaka ............................................................................................................................................................3
2.1 Air Limbah .........................................................................................................................................................................3
2.1.1

Definisi Air Limbah ............................................................................................................................................3

2.1.2

Sumber Air Limbah ............................................................................................................................................3

2.1.3

Karakteristik Air Lmbah ....................................................................................................................................4

2.2 Metode Proyeksi Penduduk .............................................................................................................................................5


2.3 Proyeksi Fasilitas ................................................................................................................................................................7
2.4 Kebutuhan Air dan Fluktuasinya.....................................................................................................................................7
2.4.1

Kebutuhan Domestik .........................................................................................................................................7

2.4.2

Kebutuhan Non Domestik ...............................................................................................................................8

2.5 Pemilihan Daerah Perencanaan .......................................................................................................................................9


2.5.1

Aspek Fisik ...........................................................................................................................................................9

2.5.2

Aspek Ekonomis .................................................................................................................................................9

2.6 Sistem Penyaluran Air Limbah ........................................................................................................................................9


2.6.1

Berdasarkan Sistem Pengumpulan ...................................................................................................................9

2.6.2

Berdasarkan Sarana .......................................................................................................................................... 10

2.6.3

Berdasarkan Pengaliran ................................................................................................................................... 10

2.7 Perencanaan Saluran Air Limbah ................................................................................................................................. 11


2.7.1

Perencanaan Saluran Air Limbah .................................................................................................................. 11

2.7.2

Debit Air Limbah............................................................................................................................................. 11

2.7.3

Kecepatan Aliran.............................................................................................................................................. 14

2.7.4

Kedalaman Aliran dalam Saluran .................................................................................................................. 15

2.7.5

KemiringanSaluran Penanaman Pipa............................................................................................................ 15

2.8 Perhitungan Dimensi Pipa ............................................................................................................................................. 15


2.9 Tipe-tipe Saluran ............................................................................................................................................................. 17
2.10 Jenis Bahan...................................................................................................................................................................... 18
2.11 Penentuan Elevasi Muka Tanah .................................................................................................................................. 19
2.12 Bangunan Pelengkap ..................................................................................................................................................... 20
BAB III GAMBARAN UMUM WILAYAH PERENCANAAN ................................................................................. 24
3.1 Kondisi Fisik Kota Pasuruan ........................................................................................................................................ 24
Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013
SPAM (RE 091313)| Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS

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PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

3.1.1

Profil Geografis ................................................................................................................................................ 24

3.1.2

Profil Topografi................................................................................................................................................ 25

3.1.3

Profil Geohidrologis ........................................................................................................................................ 25

3.1.4

Profil Klimatologi ............................................................................................................................................ 26

3.2 Profil Administratif ......................................................................................................................................................... 26


3.3 Kondisi Kependudukan ................................................................................................................................................. 30
3.3.1

Laju Pertumbuhan Penduduk ........................................................................................................................ 30

3.3.2

Sebaran Kepadatan Penduduk ....................................................................................................................... 31

3.4 Fasilitas-fasilitas Umum dan Industri .......................................................................................................................... 33


3.5 Rencana Pengembangan Kota Pasuruan..................................................................................................................... 35
3.5.1

Rencana Pengembangan Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum .......................................................................... 35

3.5.2

Rencana Pengembangan Sistem Pengolahan Air Liimbah ........................................................................ 35

3.5.3

Rencana Pengembangan Drainase Perkotaan ............................................................................................. 36

BAB IV PROYEKSI PENDUDUK DAN PERENCANAAN SALURAN.............................................................. 37


4.1 Ptoyeksi Penduduk ......................................................................................................................................................... 37
4.2 Pemilihan Metode Proyeksi Penduduk........................................................................................................................ 37
4.3 Proyeksi Penduduk Tiap Kelurahan Terlayani ........................................................................................................... 41
4.4 Proyeksi Fasilitas ............................................................................................................................................................ 43
4.5 Kebutuhan Air Domestik .............................................................................................................................................. 60
4.5.1

Kebutuhan Air Domestik ............................................................................................................................... 60

4.5.2

Kebutuhan Air Non Domestik ...................................................................................................................... 60

4.5.3

Kehilangan Air.................................................................................................................................................. 61

4.5.4

Fluktuasi Kebutuhan Air ................................................................................................................................ 62

4.6 Perhitungan Debit Air Limbah ..................................................................................................................................... 74


4.7 Pembebanan Pipa............................................................................................................................................................ 76
4.8 Perhitungan Dimensi Saluran ....................................................................................................................................... 79
4.9 Penanaman Pipa .............................................................................................................................................................. 82
4.10 Profil Hidrolis ................................................................................................................................................................. 82
BAB V BANGUNAN PELENGKAP .................................................................................................................................. 84
5.1 Manhole ............................................................................................................................................................................ 84
5.2 Shipon ............................................................................................................................................................................... 85
5.3 Pompa ............................................................................................................................................................................... 90
BAB VI BILL OF QUANTITY ............................................................................................................................................ 92
6.1 BOQ Perpipaan............................................................................................................................................................... 92
6.2 BOQ Penanaman Pipa ................................................................................................................................................... 93
6.3 BOQ Tenaga Kerja dan Peralatan................................................................................................................................ 98
6.4 BOQ Manhole ............................................................................................................................................................... 100
6.5 BOQ Pompa .................................................................................................................................................................. 100
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN LAMPIRAN
Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013
SPAM (RE 091313)| Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS

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PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

DAFTAR TABEL
Table 2.1 Konsumsi Air Domestik ............. ...................................... ...........................................................................................8
Table 2.2 Konsumsi Non Domestik..............................................................................................................................................8
Tabel 2.3 Slope Minimum Berdasarkan Diameter Pipa........................................................................................................... 15
Table 2.4 Jarak Antar Manhole .................................................................................................................................................... 21
Tabel 3.1 Data Curah Hujan Kota Pasuruan ............................................................................................................................. 26
Tabel 3.2 Nama-nama Kelurahan tiap Kecamatan Kota Pasuruan ....................................................................................... 27
Tabel 3.3 Penggunaan Lahan pre Kecamatan / Kelurahan (Ha) Tahun 2009 .................................................................... 29
Tabel 3.4 Luas Lahan Tambak (Ha) menurut Kecamatan di Kota Pasuruan ...................................................................... 30
Tabel 3.5 Jumlah Penduduk Perkecamatan / Kelurahan 2003-2011 .................................................................................... 30
Tabel 3.6 Laju Pertumbuhan Penduduk per Kecamatan Kota Pasuruan ............................................................................. 31
Tabel 3.7 Kepadatan Penduduk Kota Pasuruan ....................................................................................................................... 31
Table 3.8 Jumlah RT/RW di Wilayah Kota Pasuruan Tahun 2009....................................................................................... 32
Tabel 3.9 Fasilitas Umum dan Industri Kota Pasuruan Tahun 2011 .................................................................................... 34
Tabel 4.1 Data Penduduk Kota Pasuruan Tahun 2003-2011 ................................................................................................. 37
Tabel 4.2 Perhitungan Nilai Korelasi Metode Aritmatik ........................................................................................................ 38
Tabel 4.3 Perhitungan Nilai Korelasi Metode Geometrik....................................................................................................... 39
Tabel 4.4 Perhitungan Nilai Korelasi Metode Least Squere ................................................................................................... 40
Tabel 4.5 Perbandingan Nilai Korelasi ...................................................................................................................................... 41
Tabel 4.6 Data Kelurahan per Kecamatan Terlayani dan Jumlah Penduduk Tahun 2011 ................................................ 41
Tabel 4.7 Perhitungan Proyeksi dengan Metode Geometrik .................................................................................................. 42
Tabel 4.8 Perhitungan Proyeksi Penduduk per Kelurahan Kota Pasuruan 2011-2024 ...................................................... 44
Tabel 4.9 Data Fasilitas Umum dan Pusat Industri Kota Pasuruan per Kelurahan Terlayani Tahun 2011 .................. 45
Tabel 4.10 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Krapyak Rejo ........................................................................................................... 46
Tabel 4.11 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Bukir .......................................................................................................................... 46
Tabel 4.12 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Sebani ........................................................................................................................ 47
Tabel 4.13 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Gentong .................................................................................................................... 47
Tabel 4.14 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Karanganyar ............................................................................................................. 48
Tabel 4.15 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Trejeng ..................................................................................................................... 48
Tabel 4.16 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Gading Rejo ............................................................................................................. 49
Tabel 4.17 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Tambaan ................................................................................................................... 49
Tabel 4.18 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Petahunan ................................................................................................................. 50
Tabel 4.19 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Tambakrejo .............................................................................................................. 50
Tabel 4.20 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Puturejo .................................................................................................................... 51
Tabel 4.21 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Kebonagung ............................................................................................................ 51
Tabel 4.22 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Purworejo ................................................................................................................. 52
Tabel 4.23 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Kebonsari ................................................................................................................. 52
Tabel 4.24 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Bangilan .................................................................................................................... 53
Tabel 4.25 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Mayangan ................................................................................................................ 53
Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013
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PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

Tabel 4.26 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Ngemplakrejo .......................................................................................................... 54


Tabel 4.27 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Sekargadung ............................................................................................................. 54
Tabel 4.28 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Krampyangan........................................................................................................... 55
Tabel 4.29 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Bugulkidul ................................................................................................................ 55
Tabel 4.30 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Petamanan ............................................................................................................... 56
Tabel 4.31 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Pekuncen .................................................................................................................. 56
Tabel 4.32 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Kandangsapi ............................................................................................................ 57
Tabel 4.33 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Bugulor ..................................................................................................................... 57
Tabel 4.34 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Tapaan ..................................................................................................................... 58
Tabel 4.35 Proyeksi Fasilitas Kelurahan Mandaranrejo ........................................................................................................... 58
Tabel 4.36 Total Proyeksi Fasilitas 26 Kecamatan .................................................................................................................. 59
Tabel 4.37 Jumlah Kebutuhan Air berdasarkan Jumlah Penduduk ...................................................................................... 60
Tabel 4.38 Kebutuhan Air Non Domestik ............................................................................................................................... 61
Tabel 4.39 Perhitungan Kebutuhan Air Bersih #no 1-15 ..................................................................................................... 63
Tabel 4.40 Perhitungan Kebutuhan Air Non Domestik #no 16-21 .................................................................................... 73
Tabel 4.41 Penentuan Kebutuhan Air Bersih #no 22-25 ...................................................................................................... 71
Tabel 4.42 Perhitungan Debit Air Limbah ................................................................................................................................ 75
Tabel 4.43 Pembebanan Pipa Air Limbah ................................................................................................................................ 78
Tabel 4.44 Diamter Pipa .............................................................................................................................................................. 81
Tabel 4.45 Penanaman Pipa ........................................................................................................................................................ 81
Tabel 5.1 Jarak antar Manhole Lurus pada setiap Diameter .................................................................................................. 84
Tabel 5.2 Jarak antar Manhole .................................................................................................................................................... 85
Tabel 5.3 Debit dalam siphon ..................................................................................................................................................... 85
Tabel 5.4 Perhitungan Beda Tinggi Shipon .............................................................................................................................. 89
Tabel 5.5 Perhitungan Diameter siphon ................................................................................................................................... 89
Tabel 5.5 Nilai kb untuk belokan ............................................................................................................................................... 86
Tabel 5.6 Kekasaran Strickler ..................................................................................................................................................... 86
Tabel 5.7 Perhitungan Pompa Drop Manhole ......................................................................................................................... 86
Tabel 6.1 Panjang Pipa Setiap Segmen ...................................................................................................................................... 92
Tabel 6.2 BOQ Pipa ..................................................................................................................................................................... 93
Tabel 6.3 BOQ Shipon ................................................................................................................................................................ 93
Tabel 6.4 Standar Urugan Galian ............................................................................................................................................... 93
Tabel 6.5 Dimensi Saluran direncanakan .................................................................................................................................. 94
Tabel 6.6 Dimensi Saluran terpakai ........................................................................................................................................... 94
Tabel 6.7 BOQ Galian dan urugan Pipa ................................................................................................................................... 97
Tabel 6.8 Ketentuan Jumlah Pekerja ......................................................................................................................................... 98
Tabel 6.9 BOQ Tenaga Kerja ..................................................................................................................................................... 99
Tabel 6.10 BOQ Manhole ......................................................................................................................................................... 100

Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013


SPAM (RE 091313)| Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS

PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 2.1 Grafik Average Inflitration Rate ............. .................. ...........................................................................................12
Gambar 2.2 Grafik Peak Infiltration ......................................................................................................................................... 13
Gambar 2.3 Grafik Peaking Factor ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Gambar 2.4 Hydraulics Elements for Circular Sewer ............................................................................................................. 16
Gambar 2.5 Sketas Berbagai Macam Tipe Saluran Buangan ................................................................................................. 18
Gambar 2.6 Bentuk Manhole ...................................................................................................................................................... 22
Gambar 3.1 Peta Batas Administrasi Kota Pasuruan ....................................................................................................................
Gambar 3.2 Peta Topografi...............................................................................................................................................................
Gambar 3.3 Wilayah Permukiman ............................................................................................................................................. 27
Gambar 3.4 Wilayah Pesisir untuk Tambak ............................................................................................................................ 28
Gambar 3.5 Wialayah yang dimanfaatkan untuk sawah 2 ....................................................................................................... 28
Gambar 3.6 Wilayah TPA Blandongan ..................................................................................................................................... 28
Gambar 3.7 Peta Tata Guna Lahan ................................................................................................................................................
Gambar 3.8 Peta Tatak Letak IPAL IPAM Stasiun Hujan ...................................................................................................
Gambar 4.1 Area Blok Pelayanan SPAL .........................................................................................................................................
Gambar 4.2 Grafik Hubungan f peak dengan Q peak ........................................................................................................... 76
Gambar 4.3 Grafik Hubungan Average Infiltration rate ........................................................................................................ 76
Gambar 4.5 Hydraulic Element Circular Sewer ....................................................................................................................... 79
Gambar 4.7 Profil Hidrolis Saluran .................................................................................................................................................
Gambar 4.8 Contoh Profil Hidrolis ............................................................................................................................................ 83
Gambar 5.2 Bangunan Shipon .................................................................................................................................................... 86
Gambar 5.5 Penempatan Pompa ............................................................................................................................................... 91

Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013


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BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

BAB II
TINJAUAN PUSTAKA

BAB III
GAMBARAN UMUM
WILAYAH PERENCANAAN

BAB IV
PROYEKSI PENDUDUK,
DEBIT AIR LIMBAH DAN PERPIPAAN

BAB V
BANGUNAN PELENGKAP

BAB VI
BOQ
BILL OF QUANTITY

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN

PERENCANAAN SISTEM PENYALURAN AIR LIMBAH


KOTA PASURUAN

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Fair, Geyer, Okun. 1966. Water And Wastewater Engineering. John Willey and Sons Inc., New York.
Hartati A., dkk. Pengelolaan Sistem Drainase Dan Penyaluran Air Limbah. Departemen Pemukiman dan Prasarana
Wilayah. Bandung.
Mangkoedihardjo, S. 1985. Penyediaan Air Bersih Dasar-Dasar Perencanaan dan Evaluasi Kebutuhan Air. Jilid 1. Teknik
Penyehatan FTSP-ITS. Surabaya.
Metcalf and Eddy, Engineer. 1981.Waste Water Engineering, Collection and Pumping of Waste Water. Mc Graw Hill Book
Company. New York.
SNI DT 91 0006 2007
Stell D.W. 1979. Water Supply And Sewerage. McGraw Hill Book Company. New York.

Eko Pamungkas | 3311100013


SPAM (RE 091313)| Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS