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Paper I
ID 2A 3B 4A
Paper 2
Section A
f (a) (i)
1. Process that plays a role in plant and
organisms growth
2. Process that plays a role in cell
replacement in an organism
Telophase Metaphase
Anaphase Prophase
Chromatin will undergo replication
Enzyme and protein which needed in cell
division is syrthesised
Cytoplasm and the number of organelle
such as mitochondria will increase
Then, the nucleus is removed from the cell
The ovum from another cow is taken and also
its nucleus is removed
The nucleus from the cow is then injected to the
denucleated ovum and ovum is left to undergo
The cells that are produce are transferred to
the surrogate mother to develop normally until
Digestion of starch, peptone, peptides,
process of hydrolysis of fat to fatty acids
and glycerol is inhibited.
Glucose level in blood cannot be controlled
at normal range because excess glucose
cannot be converted to glycogen.
The patient has to reduce intake of food
that rich in starch because of the absence
of pancreatic arnylase and starch cannot
be digested in the small intestine.
The patient need to reduce intake ofsugar
because when the pancreas is removed,
the hormone insulin cannot be produced
Whorl: Composite
{ii) Genetic factor
Anangement and recombination of genes
during crossover will produce gametes that
are different genetically.
) Discontinuous variation
Ability to roll the tongue
Thumbprint is discontinuous variation and the
photograph is continuous variation for individual
that has same face i.e for the identical twin.
The body mass is continuous variation whereas
thumbprint is discontinuous variation
Body mass is influenced by genetic factor
and environment whereas thumbprint is only
influenced by genetic factor.
Light energy received 300 000 000
60 000
100 x 60 000%
300 0o0 000
Because some ofthe light energy is reflected
by the outer surface ofthe source.
Total energy from the tissues of herbivore
that cannot be used is
Some of the energy is lost during the
processes of respiration, metabolic and
growth of the herbivore.
The organism P can oxidise ammonia to nitrate, by
using the plant nitrate to make protein. Because of
that, if organism P is destroyed by the use of
pesticide, the nitrogen-flrxation process of plants
will be unhindered and producers (plant)
make its own protein.
(ii) Parasites obtain its nutrient from its host.
Hence, when the parasite in destroyed:
producer, herbivore and carnivore that are
hosts can get suffrcient nutrient for growth.
5C 6D
13D 14A l5C 16D t7 B 18A
19B 20 A 2L B 22 D 23C 24 B
25 C 26 C 27 B 28 A 29 C 30.D
31D 32 B 338 34 B 35D 36A
37 B 38D 39A 40 D 4L D 12 D
43 B 44 D 45 D 46 C 47 A 4a A
49 D 50A
(b) (i)
(c) (i)
2 (a) (i)
(c) (i)
Absorptionofdigestedfood (d)
Surface area of T has structure that are
folded, increase surface area for absorption of
digested food.
(d) (i)
S is pancreas, removal causes enzyme
lipase, amylase, t4rpsin, hormone glucagon
and insulin cannot be produced.
Trophic level 3
Trophic levcl 2
Trophic level 1
(a) (i)
(b) (i)
(c) (i)
Offspring phenohype
Carnivore 30 kJ
The male karyotype will have a pair of
homologous chromosome that have
different sizes, i.e. chromosome pair XY.
Thc female karyotype will consist of all
chromosome pairs with the samc size
and homologous.
22 + X
Gamete R: 22 + Y
Gamcte J: 22 + X
Process P is meiosis, i.e. the homologous
chromosome pairs is separated to different
daughter cells.
A concentration
between the
potassium permanganate(Vll)
at thc
base of the beaker with the distilled
water at the top.
The diffusion of potassium
permanganate(Vll) molecule will occur
from the region of high concentration to
low concentration, which is in accordance
to the concentration gradient to achieve
equilibrium of concentration.
Hence, at the end of the experiment, the
purple colour of potassium
permanganate(\lll) can be seen throughout
the water in the beaker because the
potassium permanganate molecules have
moved by simple diffusion to a region of
low concentration of potassiun-r
Pasteurisation is a method ofpreservation
of milk.
Fresh milk is heated to 63 "C for 30
minutes and then cooled in3tantly.
Or milk is heated to 72 "C for 15 scconds
and then cooled instantly.
The method of preservation will destroy
the microorganisms but will not change
the nutrient value and colour of milk.
The process ofdehydration is a method of
preserving fish.
The fish is dried with the use of fire,
smoke or is left in the hot sun.
Food that is dried will have very low
content of water and also is covered with
The water content is which is low will
cause the microorganisms which is
present to be destroyed or change into
spores which are not active.
When the plant cell is put into 1Vo of sucrose
solution, the solution is isotonic to the plant
cell sap.
Hence, there is no concentration gradient
between the osmotic pressure ofthe cell sap of
the plants with the environment.
So the rate of water molecules moving into the
plant cell is equal with the rate of water
moving out from the cell to the surrounding.
Hence, there is no change in the structure or
the size ofthe vacuole observed.
Then the cell is put into 307o of sucrose solution,
that is a hypertonic solution compared to the
cell sap ofthe plants.
There is a osmotic concentration gradient
between the cell sap of the plants with the
The water molecules will move out of the
vacuole in the plant cytoplasm of to the
surrounding to achieve an osmotic equilibrium.
This will cause the volume of water in the
vacuole in the cytoplasm to decrease, hence
cell membrane will be detached from the cell
wall and the vacuole will contract.
Section B
(a) (i) The process shown in Figure 8 is simple
At the beginning of the experiments the
base ofthe beaker has a high concentration
of potassium permanganate(Vll) whereas
in the distilled water, the concentration
of potassium permanganate(\4l) is low.
Pyramid ofenergy
Mother -
-xlOOVo 4
The female carrier of colour-blind gene has
genotype XBXb and the male colour-blind has
genotype ofXY.
A great possibility that during fertilisation of
gametes that carries the allele Xb is not
fertilised because fertilisation that occurs is
Hence, genotype XBX" and XbY cannot be
The cell undergoes plasmolysis.
When tlre cell is put back into 0.lVo of tt'e
sucrose solution, the solution is hypotonic to
the plant cell sap.
There exists an osmotic concentration
gradient between the plant cell sap with the
surrounding solution.
This situation will cause a lot of water
molecules from the surrounding move into the
plant cell compared with water that moves out
from the plant cell to the surrounding.
The volume of the water in the cell increase,
the vacuole enlarges, and the c5,toplasm and
the cell membrane will be pushed towards the
cell wall.
The cell becomes turgid.
Stage 1:
The insulin concentration in the blood
of the individual Y is 0.02 arbitrary
unit and at this instance, the glucose
concentration is at normal concentration,
that is 0.09 dmr.
Stage 2:
At stage 2, i.e. 15 number after
individual Y taken the glucose solution,
the glucose concentration in his blood
will start to increase beyond the normal
concentration, i.e. nearly achieving the
concentration of 0.014 g/dmr.
The insulin concentration in the blood of
the individual Y will increase compared
with before taking the glucose solution,
i.e. nearly achieving 0.06 arbitrary unit.
Stage 3:
At stage 3, i.e. 45 minutes after taking the
glucose solution, the glucose concentration
in the blood of the individual Y will come
back to normal concentration, i.e. the
same as before the taking of glucose
solution i.e- 0.09 g /dmr.
The insulin concentration in the blood of
individual Y back to normal just as in the
beginning of the experiment, i.e. 0.02
arbitrary unit.
A{ter 15 minutes of taking the glucose
solution, the concentration of glucose in
the blood of individual Y increase until
nearly 0.13 g/dmr.
The high blood sugar level in individuals
Y will stimulate the Langerhans cells to
secrete insulin.
The insulin is carried by the blood will
reach the liver and increase the oxidation
ofglucose and change glucose to glycogen-
At the same time, insulin will hinder the
formation of glucose from glycogen and
carbohydrate sources.
The effect is insulin will cause the blood
sugar level to decrease to normal
(b) (i)
For individual Y, the reading ofthe blood
glucose concentration at the beginning
of the investigation is 0.09 g/dmr. i.e. at
the norrnal range, on the other hand, for
individual X, the initial reading of blood
glucose level is 0.03 g/dmr. i.e. more than
the normal concentration ofblood glucose.
The normal concentration of glucose in
the blood is 0.09 g/dm-3.
After the two individuals have taken the
glucose solution, their blood glucose
concentration increases, i.e. until
0.03 g/dmr in the blood of individual Y
and achieving 0.02 g/dmr in the blood of
individual X.
45 minutes after taking the glucose
solution, the blood glucose concentration
in both of the individual starts to
decrease, i.e. for individual Y the glucose
concentration achieving 0.09 g/dmr again.
However for individual X, the blood
glucose concentration did not return to the
same concentration as in the initial stage
i.e. the reading of the blood glucose is less
than 0.17 g/dmr, still more than the
initial blood glucose concentration.
Individual Y shows negative feedback in
the control of blood glucose, whereas
individual X shows a positive feedback for
the control ofblood glucose.
At the beginning of the investigation, the
insulin concentration of the blood of
individual Y is only 0.01 arbitrary unit
whereas the insulin concentration in
individual X is 0.02 arbitrary unit.
This shows that individual X has a
problem of producing insulin by the
Langerhans cells in his pancreas.
After taking the glucose solution, the
insulin reading of individual Y increase
very quickly achieving 0.04 arbitrary
units, but not for individual X.
At stage 2, the blood insulin concentration
of individual continue to increase until ii
reaches the maximum level i.e. 0.06
arbitrary units a{ter 30 minutes of
consuming the glucose solution and after
that return back to shou' the decrease of
the concentration. On the other hand, for
individual X the glucose concentration
shows slightly increase after 45 minutes of
investigation and the maxinum reading
is only nearby to 0.02 arbitrary units.
At stage 3, the insulin concentration in the
blood ofindividual Y starts to decrease to
the initial value at the beginning of the
investigation, i.e.0.02 and achieve the level
of the initial investigation in 75 minutes
after the investigation has began, but is
individual X there is no change of insulin
Benedict's test to test the presence of
glucose in the urine ofindividual X and Y.
Procedure (Benedict's
About 1cm of urine sample of individual X
and Y is put into different test tubes.
(a) (i)
Section C
(a) (i)
Add 1 ml of Benedict's solution into each
ofthe test-tube.
- The mixtures are heated in a water bath
for 5 minutes.
The change that happen to the contents of
the test tube is observed and recorded.
Ifthe result is the colour change from the
blue solution to green, yellow, orange and
finally brick red, there are presence of
reducing sugar, i.e. glucose is present in
the urine sample.
It is predicted that the Benedict's test
for individual X will produce brick-red
precipitate but for individual Y, the
colour of the mixture in the test tube will
remain blue.
If brick-red precipitate is obtained, this
shows that the individual has diabetes
Individuals who has to control the glucose
concentration in his blood is individual X.
Individual X has to control his diet, i.e.
reducing food intake that contains glucose.
Yes, because it consist of all the different
groups offood at the current proportion.
The products ofdigestion includes glucose,
amino acid, fatty acid and glycerol.
Glucose and monosaccharides will be used
at the beginning of cellular respiration by
our body cells. The formation of ATP as
chemical energy will occur.
38 ATP will be produced during aerobic
respiration but only 2 ATP will be
produced in anaerobic respiration. Lactic
acid will also be produced.
Amino acid will combine with other amino
acid to change the protein after the
nucleus gives translocation to form the
required protein.
Fatty acid will combine with glucose to
form fatty acid droplets which turns as the
basic unit in the nervous system and
lymphatic system. Others are used for
the cell when respiration.
Excess fats will be sent to the liver and
then to the adipose tissues to be stored
as fat.
High possibility that the teenager will have
several diseases such as obesity, constipation,
poisoning, high dosage of mineral salt, kidney
failure and if continues will become cancer.
Obesity is caused by excessive intake of food.
Hence, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart
disease and arteriosclerosis can be caused
Constipation is caused by lack of fibre.
Intestinal disease will occur ifit persists.
Excessive intake of mineral salt will cause
poisoning of high dosage of mineral salt. If the
mineral salt is excessively taken, cirrhosis of
the liver will occur, high intake of calcium and
phosphorus will result in the formation of
kidney stones.
Excessive continued intake of protein
will result
in kidney failure. The kidney cannot excrete
the urea that is formed; hence toxin will
accumulate in the blood. This will cause death.
The use of preservative, seasoning and food
colouring will cause cancer because excess of
them is carcinogenic.
(a) (i)
The source of pollution that occur at the
beach is domestic discharge.
Food remnants from houses and hotels
are discharged to rivers/ drain and
subsequently they flow to the sea, causing
the dense growth ofE. coli.bacteria.
Waste disposal has to be treated first
before being discharged to the sea.
Water containing food remnants has to be
filtered; added bacteria decomposers of
fungi decomposers which are not harmful,
left for several days to decompose food
remnants to mineral salts before being
discharged to the sea.
Enforcement of Environment
Law 1979 that controls the disposal of
toxic waste.
Sea water at beach X is polluted by the
dense growth of microorganisms such
as E. coli. This is because of the disposal
of non biodegradable waste to the sea
by inhabitants.
Problem statement:
What is the level of water pollution at
beach X?
The level of water pollution is dependent on
the value of BOD.
Apparatus and Materials:
Reagent bottles with stoppers, methylene
blue solution.
water sample (100
1. 5 samples of water (100m3)
are obtained
from 5 different station along the beach X.
2. All the water samples is put into
different reagent bottles until full.
With the use of syringe, 1 ml of
methylene blue solution is added to the
water samples.
The reagent bottles are closed
immediately and make sure that the
bottles are not shaken.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 5 with distilled water.
6. The bottles are observed every hour
until the blue colour is bleached or as
long as 6 hours. The time for the
bleaching ofthe colour is recorded.
The water sample that is obtained near to a
housing estate and hotel is the fastest to be
Time for bleaching of the blue colour is
faster if the oxygen content is less. This
means that the area is the most polluted
with microoiganisms.
The higher BOD value indicates that the
water is the most polluted.
The diagrams show human activity on the
environment to enable the growth ofeconomy and
development of the country.
Among what is shown is industrialisation, logging
and organisation.
The qualities of life of humans will increases
with the above activities. Job opportunities will
increase, unemployment will decrease, the
economy of the country will improve because of
foreigrr investment, infrastructure will improve
and transportation from one place to another will
be more advanced. Communication will be more
sophisticated enabling global communication
will improve. Hence, the life style of human will
improve. In spite of all the advancements, the
ecosystem will be affected. This is because of
more areas are being developed to the above
activities. The decreases number of trees will
cause the definite ofoxygen and air pollution will
occur because the concentration ofcarbon dioxide
will increase. The earth temperature will increase
and the gleenhouse effect will occur. Besides this,
acid rain, soil erosion, floods and water reservoir
and diseases will occur. Animals will lose their
habitats. Flora and fauna species will face
1. When white cloth is used, as many as
6 black buttons are taken compared
with other coloured buttons.
When black cloth is used, as many as
7 white buttons are taken compared
with other coloured buttons.
When white cloth is used, the black
button is clearly seen compared with
the other colours, hence more black
buttons are taken.
When black cloth is used, the white
buttons are more clearly seen compared
with other colours, hence more white
buttons are taken.
(ii) 1.
Colour ofcloth area
Colour ofbuttons taken
Size ofcloth used.
Colour of different cloth
(c) (i)
that is being
Taking the buttons which are on top of
the cloth quickly.
Size of the cloth is fixed at 50 cm x 50 cm.
When the cloth colour and colour of the buttons
are different, hence the buttons are more clearly
seen and is taken quickly.
The more different the colours of the tloth and
the colour of the buttons, the clearer the buttons
on top of the cloth are the more different
coloured buttons are to be taken.
The black colour button will be taken the most
followed by the green buttons because these
buttons are clearly seen on top ofthe yellow cloth.
When the tree is more polluted, the colour of the
bark of the tree becomes darker. Hence, the
butterflies with bright coloured will be more
visible to their predators. As time passes, the
number of butterllies which are bright coloured
will decreases.
The change in the physical structure so that it is
same as the environment hence it is not too
otrvious to the predators for survival.
Effect: The prey will be safe from the predators.
Variegated leaf
Red coloured leaf
H"bit"t of..terpillars and
Greencoloured leaf
Green-coloured caterpillars
Grey-coloured caterpillars
Posses colour closcly
linked to the
environment to
protecL it lrorn
its predators
Objective ofstudy
To investigate the relation between the conr:cntrtrtion
ofcarbon dioxide with the rate ofphotosyntlresis.
(i) Manipulatedvariable:
concentration ofcarbon dioxide that is used.
(ii) Respondingvariable:
number of bubbles released per minutcs
distance between the light source, t,he pl.,rrrt an,i
The increase in carbon dioxide conccritrrrlirrt s;ll
increase the rate ofphotosynthesis until the maxitlum
Boiling tutres, 20 ml beakers, measuring c.r.lindtr I t) ;i:i.
light bulb
(60 W), retort stand and clamp, tripod stanri,
spatula, thermometer, stop watch.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, aquatic plarit (.Ei r,&u )
(a) (i)
Numberof buttons
according to colour
White 6 0
I 1 10
Black 0 0 I I 0 10
Coloured 1 4 4 1 I l1
Technique used:
Locating of the number of air bubbles which are
released in l minute
A plant section is cut approximately 6 cm.
The plant is put into a boiling tube filled with
sodium hydrogen carbonate ZVo (source
of carbon
(iii) The cut-section of the plant is arranged by facing
(iv) A part of the boiling tube is immersed in the
water-bath at warm temperature and the
temperature is maintained.
(v) A light bulb of 60 watt is placed at a distance of
10 cm from the surface ofthe beaker.
The bulb is lighted up and the stopwatch started.
When the air bubble is released through the end of
the cut section ofthe plant is constant, the number
ofair bubbles produced in 1 minute is recorded.
(viii)Steps (ii)
is repeated for concentration of
sodium hydrogen carbonate of concentration 37o,
4Vo,1Vo andGVo.
Then, draw a graph of number of this bubbles
released versus concentration of sodium hydrogen
Presentation of results:
Predicted graph:
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Concentration of sodium hydrogen carlmnate (7o)
Concentration of carbon dioxide affects the rate of
photosynthesis, i.e. when the concentration of carbon
dioxide is increased; the rate of photosynthesis also
increases until a maximum value-
Paper 1
lc 2c 3
7B 88 9
13D 14A t5
19D 20c 2r
25 A 26 D 27
3lD 32 B 33
43 A 44 A 45
49 A 50A
c 10A 11c 12c
c 16B nD 18B
c 22 D 23B- 24 A
B 2A D 29 B 30B
B 40 D 4tB 42 C
c 46 A 47 C 48C
Paper 2
Section A
1 (a) (i)
Q -
1. Actspesifically
2. Can be reused
(b) (i)
As a catalyst which increase the rate of
digestion of fats to fatty acid and glycerol
during reaction. The enzyme will combine
with substrate at the active site to form a
complex enzyme-substrate, then the products
will leave the active site of the enzyme.
Making of skin digestion of fat.
Rate ofreaction decreases. This is because a lot of
enzyme lipase has been destroyed at high
Because the enzyme is most effectively at a
temperature of less than 37
The low temperature
makes the enzyme inactive.
J : hydrophilichead
M : proteinpore
Molecules which are very minute such as
small molecules and ions
Small molecules and ions move across the
pore between the protein pore by simple
diffusion. The molecules are at the higher
concentration outside the cell cause the
molecules to be pushed into the cells through
the pore.
Specifrc rehabitation
The glucose with high concentration is acts
as a hypertonic solution causing the water
in the food to move by exosmosis through the
plasma membrane. This causes dehydration
occurs to the food. Hence, the condition is not
suitable for the growth of microorganisms.
Outer cell
2.0 1.0
Air moves out
lnside the cell
Carbonate (7o)
Number of air bubbles released
in l minute
l minute
I rninute
I minute
(a) (i)
R: Pulmonary circulation
Oxygenated blood will be pumped into
the heart through the pulmonary vein.
Deoxygenated blood will be pumped out
from the heart to the lungs through the
pulmonary artery.
Oxygenated systemic circulation from
the heart Blood is pumped throughout
the body through the aorta and
oxygenated blood to the heart through
vena cava.
An electronic gadget will give the frrst heartbeat
to act as sino-atrial node and then spread to all
the atrium muscle and then to the atrioventrical
node until the whole heartbeats.
(d) (i)
because X pumps blood from the'heart to the
whole body whereas
returns blood to the
Vigorous exercise will cause defrciency of
oxygen. Hence, the heart will beat faster to
increase the blood flow to carry more oxygen
and supply to the cells.
Temperature, water, soil
Decomposers, producers, consumers
(b) (i)
Producer: kiambangplant
Consumer: bird, earthworm
Decomposer: bacteria
Duckweed *Butterfly -----
(producer) (primary (secondary (tertiary
consumer) consumer) consumer)
(d) (i)
When the owl is get rid off, the population of
the birds will increase because the predator
is decreases.
Trophic level 2
10 x 150000
15 000 J
Trophic level 3
x 15000
1500J= r.5kJ
Role: Sent from the pituitary gland to stimulate
the formation offollicles in the ovary
Hormone P is oestrogen whereas hormone
luteinising hormone (LH).
cause the
of uterus wall, whereas hormone
will cause ovulation. Ifhormone
is not balanced
with Y, hence the ovulation process will be delaved
or increased.
day 26
Structure T is corpus luteum that secrete
and oestrogen. When reaches
d,ay 26, the structure will degenerate.
Hormone P and
will decrease.
The pituitary gland will secrete FSH, LH, oxytocin
and prolactin. If the menstrual persists, hence
FSH and LH will play their part. If fertilisation
occurs, and during pregrrancy, FSH and LH will
not be secreted. Progesterone will be high. The
menstrual cycle will not occur. Oxytocin and
prolactin hormone will be produced when the baby
is born.
Section B
I (a)
Process P: aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
Process P uses oxygen. Respiration produces a lot
of ATP. Process
does not use oxygen.
Respiration produces less ATp because of lactic
acid formation.
The athlete wears a tracksuit so that there is no
sudden decrease in temperature in his muscles. A
sudden decrease in temperature will cause the
accumulation of lactic acid and muscle pain/
cramp. The athlete draws a deep breath several
times to oxidise lactic acid that has been
accumulated and pays back the oxygen detrt
during vigorous activity. He walks freely so that
the muscles takes time to oxidise 1/6 of lactic aci,-l
to carbon dioxide, water and energy and 5/6 of
lactic acid is converted back to glucose.
Difference of respiratory system in human and
lfuman Fish
Organ Lungs Gills
Habitat On land In the water
Function Lungs do not
need a medium to
Gills need flow of
water through the
gills for gaseous
Adaptation Human lungs
have a lot of
alveolus and
blood capillaries.
exchange occurs
by diffusion
through alveolus.
Water is drank in
and flows through
the gills for
absorption ofoxygen
to blood capillaries
which are cross-
linked with
filaments of gills.
Then, water flows
out through the
operculum and
absorbs carbon
dioxide f'rom the
blood capillaries to
the water to be
Characteristics Total surfacc
area is big
with presence
of 700 million
Surface is
Thin wall.
A lot ofblood
A lot ofgills
filament with
thin plates
(gills lamella) to
increase surface
area for gaseous
A lot ofblood
Section C
3 (a)
Female ( p
(a) (i) When the finger is poked with a needle, the
receptors at the tip of the frnger will receive
stimulation and sends impulse to nervous
system through the afferent nerve. The
impulsc is forced to move in one direction
through the synapses and then through the
efferent ncrve to the brain for rcaction.
Figure 7(a) is reflex action whereas Figure
7(b) is involuntary action.
Reflex arc Involuntary action
Cannot be controlled
by brain.
Controlled by medulla
oblongata, part ofthe
Reacts towards
external stirnulation.
R-eacts towards
internal stimulation.
Reaction and
movement is very quick
and not long lasting
Reaction and
movement is slow
and last longer
When the condition is cold, the smooth muscle in
the arteriole of the skin will contract. The
diameter of the arteriole will decreasc and cause
less blood to flow to the skin. This cause loss of
The erector muscle of the hair folicle
contracts causing the hair follicle to stand. For
mammals with thick hair, this will increase the air
trapped which acts as heat insulator and
preventing heat loss.
The muscular skeleton contracts and relaxes
causing one to shiver. This increases the body
The sweat gland is not stimulated. Hence,
sweating does not occur. The adrenaline hormones
is secreted to increase the rate of glycogen
conversion to glucose, hence the metabolic rate
The stimulation of surrounding temperature
and at low temperature is received by
thermoreceptors in the skin and at the certain
part in the brain is sent by afferent nerve to
control part, hypothalamus.
Based on the differences above, can be
concluded that the child inherit a lot of
characteristics from the father who is dominant.
fBh-kJr I
In the parents, a pair of alleles code for
colours at the same locus on the pair of
homologous chromosomes. From the pair of allele,
only one allele exists in the gametes due to
meiosis. This occurs in Mendel's First Law.
db Jb
Ifthc first generation is cross-breed between
themselvcs, the rat in Fl will obtain a pair of
alleles for black colour at the same locus at
the pair of homologous chromosomes afLer
From the pairs of alleles, only one allele
exists in the gamete.
The rat from F2 will obtain a pair of alleles
for coloured body at the same locus on the pair of
homologous chromosome.
Chemical K, a mutagen will cause mutation on the
genes or the chromosomes of the rat naturally
during replication of the chromosome and
segregation of the chromosome to the gamete cells
in the reproductive organs. Mutation will be
passed down to the zygote. Mutation of the
chromosome cause changes in the structure of the
chromosome which includes:
(i) loss ofseveral genes
(ii) additionofgenes
Changes in the number of chromosomes is
also a part of mutation of chromosome, i.e. loss of
chromosome or addition of chromosomes. Genes
mutation causes changes at the base ofthe DNA
molecule and this affects the production ofprotein.
Degeneration will exist in the rats. There
will be sterile rats, their offsprings will defected.
The rat population will decrease until a state
of equilibrium where they are able to adapt
themselves and live as mutants.
Father Mother chitd
Curly hair
Black hair
Has dimpler
Thick lips
Oval face
Straight hair
Brown hair
No dimpler
Thin lips
Round face
Curly hair
and black
Has dimpler
Thick lips
Round face
The combination of characteristics of the
father and mother can be inherited by the child by
cross-over at meiosis 1
choosing of dorninant characteristics through
Mendel's First Law
Haemophilia is a sex-linked disease on
chmmosome X only. The characteristics is carried
by the recessive gene.
Haemophilia can occur in men because men
only need one recessive gene on chromosome X to
cause the haemophilic characteristic.
A woman who has family pedigree of
haemophiiia does not necessaiily has it because
she can still exist in heterozygous condition
which means that the female is normal but is a
carrier for the next generation. Two recessive
genes are needed to show the haemophilic
characteristic. The inheritance of haemophilia can
be avoided by making sure that every marriage of
the grandchildren do not involve caniers or
haemophilic individuals, and eventually after
generations by elimination, the recessive genes
will disappear.
The more volume of
that is needed to
decolourise DCPIP, the less is the vitamin content.
The volume will increase because oxygen from
the atmosphere will reoxidise DCPIP which is
reduced by an ascorbic acid.
Vitamin C is easily oxidise by the oxygen.
(a) (i)
Changes ofcolour of
DCPIP solution
Blue becomes colourless
I (b) (ii) Blue becomes colourless
1 (b) (iii) Blue becomes colourless
Papayajuice needs larger volume because the
vitamin C content is very low. More juice is
needed to change the colour of methylene
blue to colourless.
Rcagent Materials to be tested
solution 0.17o
Ascorbic acid 1.07o
Objective ofstudy:
To investigate and estimate the population ofbirds.
The population size ofthe birds can be determined by:
Number of bird at lst capture x Number of
bird at 2nd capture
Number of marked birds at 2nd capture
(i) Manipulated: Birds which are capturrd and
Responding: Birds are marked
Controlled: Place of experiment, species of
birds, days of experiment
Apparatus and materials:
Light ring, fruit-eating birds that has been determined
and special net that can cover the area ofsampling.
Technique used:
Capture, mark, release and recapture
1. A special net is put up at a sample area that has a
lot of birds to be sampled.
2. A total 120 birds are captured and a small ring are
placed at their feet. Then they are released.
3. After 2 days, 100 birds are recaptured randomly.
4. The numberofbirds that tagged are countc.l.
5. All the information are recorded.
Tabulation ofdata:
Number of birds at lst capture, x
the less
Number of birds tagged/with ring=
Estimation of the number of birds in the sample area
tii) Limejuicc
The more volume of fruit juice needed,
percentage of vitamin C is in the
Variable Method to handle
the variable
1. Juiceneeded Use different
juice i.e. lime
and papayajuice
2. Bleaching of
DCPIP colour
BIue colour of DCPIP
becomes colourless
3. Concentration
ofascorbic acid
and its volume to
2 ml
Volume (ml) to
decolourise DCPIP
Ascorbic acid
Lime juice 4ml
Papayajuice 8ml
120 x 100
120 000
Number of birds can be determined by capture, mark,
release and recapture technique
120 x 100
Problem: To identift quality genes that is being
clone resistant to diseases and changes in the
Glass tube: trachea
Belljar: thoracic cage
(i) Tochange thevolume ofbelljar
Balloon expands shows air goes into lungs
during inhalation
Balloon flatten shows air goes out from
lungs during exhalation
(c) (i)
Paper I
1D 2B 3D 4
7A 88 98 10
13A 144 158 16
r9A 20 D 2t c 22
37 A 38A 39A 40
43C 44 C 45A 46
Paper 2
Section A
(a) (i)
P : mutualism
: commensalism
(ii) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria gets its habitat for
survival and this bacteria fix atmospheric
nitrogen to produce nitrate as organic
fertilizer for the plants.
(b) (i) Organism X: epiphyte
Organism Y: saprophyte
Ability to make its own food without
obtaining any minerals from the trees.
(c) X may be still survives if the tree height are tall
enough to obtain enough sunlight.
The hlpha of the mushroom/fungi produces an
enzyme that can hydrolyse for the digestion of
cellulose on sawdust to produce glucose which is
consequently absorbed as nutrient for the plants,
2 (a) (i) K : chromatid
L : spindle frbre
(ii) CellP : metaphase
CellQ: metaphasel
(b) 23=8
(c) (i)
(ii) Testes /Ovary/Anther/Ovule
Radioactive rays will kill cancer cells. When all the
cancer cells are destroyed, they cannot reproduce
by mitosis.
Balloon expands
Thin rubber sheet
(ii) When diaphragm flattens, it becomes level.
Moves upwards creating a large thoracic
volume. Higher internal pressure than
atmospheric pressure force air to go into
Because only CO, gas can be absorbed by
potassium hydroxide, leaves only O, which is
insoluble in potassium hydroxide but can be
absorbed by potassium pyrogallol.
Because exhalation produces CO, gas.
Oxygen and glucose is used for cellular
respiration, produces COr.
P : Golgiapparatus
R : vesicle/lysosome
(i) ToproduceATP
replicates section of DNA in chromosome
as m-RNA. Transports through nuclear
membrane to ribosome in rough endoplasmic
reticulum for transcription and synthesis of
protein enzymes.
Protease enzyme used for digestion of hard
protein and to soft it. Soft protein is easy to
Selulase enzJrme are used to digest cell wall of
seaweeds and let out the agar.
Enzyme + substrate
C 5A 6C
D TlD 12A
B t7 D 18C
B 23 D 24 B
c 29 A 308
B 4t C 42 B
A 47 A 4A C
4 (a)
Enzyme complex + substrate
Enz5rme + products