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Exam

Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers
the question.
1)
Which South America was most likely chosen for habitation by early hunter-gatherer civilizations?
region of
A)
Chile
B)
Argentina
C)
Brazil
D)
Uruguay
E)
none of the above

2)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Mayan civilization?
A)
literate
B)
warlike
C)
complex
D)
contemplative
E)
scientific

3)
Who were the moundbuilders of the Ohio River valley?
A)
Choctaw
B)
Adena
C)
Natchez
D)
Powhatan
E)
Cheyenne

4)
How did Chimor's social structure mimic Mayan social structure?
A)
Both had "social pyramids."
B)
Both viewed priests as commoners.
C)
Both viewed artisans as nobility.
D)
Both viewed war as immoral, so the warriors were the lowest class.
E)
Both rejected the practice of slavery.

5)
Why is the term "Native Americans" rejected by some historians and anthropologists?
A)
because the first people on the continent were actually Africans
B)
because no human life was "native" to the Western hemisphere
C)
because the first people on the continent were actually Europeans
D)
because the term "Indian" was used first
E)
all of the above

6)
The n that contact might have occurred between the early Mississippians and the Amerinds of
suggestio Mesoamerica is supported by
A)
The discovery that the layout of Cahokia was similar to Mesoamerican cities.
B)
the fact that cultivated corn, beans, and squash--crops that were originally planted in Mexico.
Mississippians
C)
the discovery of skeletons in Cahokia that had fillings in the teeth.
D)
the discovery of carefully positioned bodies in the mound excavated at Cahokia.
E)
all of the above

7)
What conclusion can be drawn from anthropological evidence regarding the origins of the Amerinds?
logical
A)
They are of African descent.
B)
They are of Australian descent.
C)
They are of European descent.
D)
They are of Asian descent.
E)
They are of Alaskan descent.

8)
The e of the skulls found by archaeologists in Washington and Nevada is the implication that
significanc
A)
all Amerinds were of central Asian origin.
B)
some Amerinds were of African origin.
C)
Amerinds did not arrive in the Western hemisphere as early as previously believed.
D)
not all Amerinds were of Central Asian origin.
E)
most Amerinds were not from Asia at all.

9)
Which civilization most profoundly affected the development of Mayan society?
A)
Olmec
B)
Natchez
C)
Mesopotamian
D)
Apache
E)
Navajo

10)
There are opinions regarding the cause of the collapse of Mesoamerican civilization. Which viewpoint is
varying most widely accepted today?
A)
Invasion by other Amerind tribes destroyed Mesoamerican civilization.
B)
Natural disasters destroyed Mesoamerican civilization.
C)
The Toltec destroyed Mesoamerican civilization.
D)
Epidemic disease destroyed Mesoamerican civilization.
E)
Internal rebellion destroyed Mesoamerican civilization.

11)
Which of the following statements accurately portrays relations between the Nazca and the Moche?
A)
They frequently engaged in conflict.
B)
They engaged extensively in trade.
C)
These two groups never came in contact with each other.
D)
They eventually combined forces through intermarriage.
E)
They eventually combined forces through peace treaties.

12)
In which area of society did the Teotihuacanos and Maya differ greatly?
A)
commerce
B)
government
C)
religion
D)
military
E)
none of the above

13)
When the Spanish invaders entered central Mexico, many Amerinds showed great reverence to them
first because they
A)
believed that this was a fulfillment of Quetzalcoatl's prophecy.
B)
were experiencing a great famine, and the Spanish brought plenty of food.
C)
hoped that the Spanish would help them defeat the Toltecs.
D)
had just powerful earthquake and they believed that the gods had sent these messengers from
experienced a heaven to help them.
E)
none of the above

14)
Which of the following does NOT accurately represent Chavin civilization?
A)
It was the first Andean society.
B)
It was a farming civilization.
C)
It had a strong central government.
D)
It was a polytheistic civilization.
E)
It was a civilization isolated from other civilizations.

15)
Which of the following is NOT one of the four principal types of preinvasion Amerind groups?
A)
hunter- gatherers
B)
full-scale tribal societies
C)
farmers
D)
mound builders
E)
limited-scale tribal societies

16)
When was the Mayan writing system deciphered?
A)
during the Russian Revolution
B)
during the 1980s
C)
after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone
D)
after WWII
E)
none of the above

17)
Which of following best explains the reason for the loose affiliation among the Algonquian peoples in the
the eastern Canadian Sub-Arctic?
A)
They realized that they must cooperate in order to expel the European settlers.
B)
They banded together for the purpose of hunting caribou.
C)
They banded purposes of fishing for salmon and smoking it to ensure a year-round abundance of food.
together for the
D)
They realized grow enough crops to feed the entire tribe if they planted communal gardens instead of
that they could each family planting its own individual garden.
E)
none of the above

18)
Who are the Amerinds?
A)
Asian Indians
B)
African American Indians
C)
Native Asian Indians
D)
American Indians
E)
all of the above

19)
The Aztec Empire referred to its artisans by the name
A)
Chichen.
B)
Hopewell.
C)
Tolteca.
D)
Mayan.
E)
Haudenosaunee.

20)
How did Knosorov develop an interest in Mayan writing?
A)
He discovered the Rosetta Stone.
B)
He spent a great deal of time in Mexico and became immersed in the culture.
C)
He met Tania Proskouriakoff, a Mayan writing expert.
D)
He saved a book containing Mayan manuscript from a fire.
E)
none of the above

21)
Which of the following civilizations did NOT believe in the idea of recurrent historical cycles?
A)
Egyptian
B)
Roman
C)
Chinese
D)
Olmec
E)
All of the above believed in recurrent historical cycles.

22)
Which of the following was NOT a Mesoamerican society?
A)
Toltec
B)
Maya
C)
Olmec
D)
Apache
E)
Teotihuacanos

23)
Which of the following does NOT accurately portray the landscape of west South America?
A)
The Andes mountains are between Chile and Argentina.
B)
There are numerous active volcanoes.
C)
The landscape mirrors the eastern region of the continent.
D)
Earthquakes and mudslides are common.
E)
The mountains are part of the "Ring of Fire."

24)
Which American Amerind society is most comparable to the Asian and North African river civilizations?
North
A)
Hopewell
B)
Powhatan
C)
Natchez
D)
Iroquois
E)
Mississippians

25)
Which people created the famous heads of San Lorenzo?
A)
Natchez
B)
Pueblo
C)
Olmec
D)
Maya
E)
Mississippian

26)
Where is the Great Serpent Mound located?
A)
Kentucky
B)
Mexico City
C)
Peru
D)
Pennsylvania
E)
Arizona

27)
Which of the following does NOT accurately portray the Pueblo Indians?
A)
They produced woven baskets and cotton cloth.
B)
They were nomadic.
C)
They were town- dwellers.
D)
They built multistoried apartment houses.
E)
They developed complex irrigation techniques.

28)
Which tribe was known for its rigid hereditary castes such as the "Suns" and the "Stinkards"?
A)
Pueblo
B)
Choctaw
C)
Chickasaw
D)
Natchez
E)
Creek

29)
Which region of the Western hemisphere was home to the most complex of Amerind civilizations?
A)
South America
B)
North America
C)
Alaska
D)
Mesoamerica
E)
Extreme North America

30)
Which region of the world is the least thoroughly explored?
A)
North America
B)
Central Asia
C)
Africa
D)
South America
E)
Central America

31)
Which of the following groups is NOT classified as a full-scale tribal society?
A)
Choctaws
B)
Haudenosaunee
C)
Creeks
D)
Plains
E)
Apache

32)
According the Long Count calendar, when is the world scheduled to end?
A)
2099
B)
2012
C)
2053
D)
2010
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Sudan.
D)
Mali.
E)
Ghana.

35)
According whose Christian kingdom was supposed to be the site of the final battle against Muslims over
to legend, control of the Holy Land?
A)
Mansa Musa's
B)
Queen of Sheba's
C)
Fatimid's
D)
Prester John's
E)
King Solomon's

36)
Which of the following accurately describes the typical African clan?
A)
matrilineal and monogamous
B)
matrilineal and polygamous
C)
patriarchal and polygamous
D)
all of the above
E)
none of the above

37)
The land of gold was
A)
Mali.
B)
Sudan.
C)
Zimbabwe.
D)
Ghana.
E)
Ethiopia.

38)
Mansa Musa strengthened Mali's connections with other Islamic states by
A)
marrying the Saudi princess.
B)
offering salt to all Muslims for free.
C)
making a pilgrimage to Mecca.
D)
offering gold from the gold mines at a reduced price for Muslims.
E)
all of the above

39)
In early Africa, religious practices and beliefs were reinforced by
A)
music.
B)
art.
C)
dancing.
D)
architecture.
E)
all of the above

40)
The Sanhaja were
A)
followers of the Moors.
B)
Berber tribesmen who engaged in the Salt Trade.
C)
Coptic Christians.
D)
Swahili-speaking Africans who mined gold.
E)
Bantu clans who ruled West Africa.

41)
Trade across the Sahara was made possible by the
A)
arrival of cattle.
B)
discovery of salt.
C)
arrival of camels.
D)
discovery of a large oasis.
E)
gold trade.

42)
Where did the Fatimids establish their capital?
A)
Constantinople
B)
Mali
C)
Cairo
D)
Ethiopia
E)
Zimbabwe

43)
What was Ghana's successor state?
A)
Axum
B)
Mali
C)
Congo
D)
Zimbabwe
E)
Ethiopia

44)
Who brought the first system of writing to the Africans?
A)
Arabs
B)
Aryans
C)
Nubians
D)
Egyptians
E)
Persians

45)
Who were the Bantu peoples?
A)
African tribes who migrated into eastern, central, and southern Africa
B)
African tribes who spoke a language called Bantu
C)
African tribes whose homeland was West Africa
D)
all of the above
E)
none of the above

46)
Who was the most formidable and wealthy ruler in the recorded history of West Africa?
A)
Sundiata
B)
Ibn Rushd
C)
Kumbi
D)
Sondinke
E)
Mansa Musa

47)
Where was the first centralized Bantu kingdom in Central Africa?
A)
Kongo
B)
Ethiopia
C)
Mali
D)
Zimbabwe
E)
Axum

48)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Ethiopia in the 600s?
A)
It was a naval power.
B)
It was revered by Muhammad.
C)
It was Africa's first democracy.
D)
It was a military power.
E)
It was a Christian state.

49)
How did Isma'ilis theology differ from that of Orthodox Shi'ites?
A)
Orthodox Shi'ites believed in the resurrection of Christ.
B)
Orthodox Shi'ites expected the last imam to return as the Messiah.
C)
Orthodox Shi'ites rejected the practice of polygamy.
D)
Orthodox Shi'ites did not believe that Muhammad was the last prophet.
E)
Orthodox Shi'ites rejected the idea of jihad.

50)
Which of the following was NOT a result of the trans-Saharan trade in West Africa?
A)
the introduction of Arabic, which led to written records
B)
the introduction of brick-making to Sub-Saharan Africa
C)
the creation of a large market for African gold
D)
the abolition of slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa
E)
the introduction of Islam to Sub-Saharan Africa

51)
Muslim invaders were stopped in France at the
A)
Battle of el Alamein.
B)
Crusades.
C)
city of Versailles.
D)
Battle of Tours.
E)
Rhone River.

52)
Ethiopian kings claimed to be descendents of
A)
Muhammad.
B)
Solomon.
C)
Ishmael.
D)
Mansa Musa.
E)
Cyrus the Great.

53)
Remains of an impressive stone complex have been found in
A)
Egypt.
B)
Ghana.
C)
Zimbabwe.
D)
Mali.
E)
Ethiopia.

54)
Early African religious beliefs most closely resembled the beliefs of the early
A)
Persians.
B)
Europeans.
C)
Chinese.
D)
Indians.
E)
Arabs.

55)
Which region of Africa was least affected by the spread of Islam?
A)
West Africa
B)
North Africa
C)
South Africa
D)
East Africa
E)
All of the above were significantly affected by Islam.

56)
The emperor was almost always a
A)
judge.
B)
warrior.
C)
priest.
D)
female.
E)
noble.

57)
The Tlatlacotin caste was the
A)
artisan caste.
B)
slave caste.
C)
commoner caste.
D)
ruling caste.
E)
merchant caste.

58)
More than one-third of Mexico's population died in less than twelve months from
A)
bubonic plague.
B)
syphilis.
C)
smallpox.
D)
polio.
E)
malaria.

59)
According to legend, the Aztecs expected to find at their promised land
A)
a human heart still beating.
B)
a group of islands in the midst of a lake.
C)
an eagle on a cactus eating a snake.
D)
a land flowing with milk and honey.
E)
the god of the sun.

60)
How did Inca succession differ from most other monarchies?
A)
The youngest son always inherited the throne in the Inca Empire.
B)
It was more flexible in that the emperor did not have to name his eldest son heir.
C)
It was more rigid in that the oldest son assumed the throne regardless of his age.
D)
It allowed girls to assume the throne.
E)
Inca succession was not based on heredity as the Inca monarch could adopt his successor.

61)
The Aztecs called themselves
A)
Huitzilopochtli.
B)
Mexica.
C)
Chinampa.
D)
Texcoco.
E)
Tlaloc.

62)
Which of the following best describes the size, location, and topography of the Inca Empire?
A)
It was a large, flat region on the Yucatan Peninsula.
B)
It was a long, narrow region around the Andes Mountains along the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
C)
It was a large mountainous region in present-day Brazil on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
D)
It was a short, stretching from the west banks of the Amazon River to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
wide plain
E)
none of the above

63)
How did the practice of slavery differ in Aztec and Incan societies?
A)
There were no slaves in Incan society.
B)
The practice of slavery was the same in Aztec and Incan societies.
C)
There were no slaves in Aztec society.
D)
Incan society was racially based; Aztec was not.
E)
Aztec slavery was racially based; Incan was not.

64)
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztecs described them as
A)
gods with brown skin.
B)
strangers who walked on water.
C)
strangers in floating mountains.
D)
strangers on floating beds.
E)
white men with hairy faces.

65)
Which Amerind empire could best be considered a melting pot?
A)
Maya
B)
Inca
C)
Aztec
D)
all of the above
E)
none of the above

66)
The Pochteca caste was the
A)
ruling caste.
B)
commoner caste.
C)
merchant caste.
D)
artisan caste.
E)
slave caste.

67)
Who was the leader of the Spanish explorers who invaded the Aztec empire?
A)
Cortes
B)
Capac
C)
Balboa
D)
Columbus
E)
De Soto

68)
Which of the following statements about Montezuma II is NOT true?
A)
He was the first priest to rule the Aztec Empire.
B)
He was killed in battle with the Spanish.
C)
He initially gave offerings to the Spanish.
D)
He was the emperor when the Spanish arrived.
E)
He might have believed that the Spaniards were gods.

69)
How did the foreign policy of the Aztecs and Incas differ?
A)
The Aztecs had no foreign policy preferring instead isolationism.
B)
The Incas had no foreign policy preferring instead isolationism.
C)
The Incas were oppressive; the Aztecs preferred assimilation.
D)
The Aztecs were oppressive; the Incas preferred assimilation.
E)
none of the above

70)
Most Aztec men worked as
A)
farmers or artisans for eight months and soldiers for the rest of the year.
B)
soldiers for eight months of the year and farmers or artisans for the rest of the year.
C)
hunters and gatherers during four months of the year and soldiers for the rest of the year.
D)
hunters during the winter and soldiers during the rest of the year.
E)
soldiers for half the year and farmers for the remaining half.

71)
Who was the "feathered serpent"?
A)
Tania Proskouriakoff
B)
Hernan Cortez
C)
Quetzalcoatl
D)
Yuri Knosorov
E)
none of the above

72)
Which of the following does NOT accurately portray Mayan religion?
A)
They were polytheistic.
B)
The Maya were death because they thought most common people went to the underworld.
terribly afraid of
C)
Only kings and priests were allowed to take part in religious rituals.
D)
They believed temporal and spiritual worlds could sometimes be connected through proper rituals.
that the
E)
The practice of bloodletting was a common ritual.

73)
Which region of the Western hemisphere was home to the Moche?
A)
Mississippi
B)
Brazil
C)
Mexico
D)
Peru
E)
Argentina

74)
Which of the following accurately describes the first inhabitants of North America?
A)
They were nomadic hunter-gatherers.
B)
They were farmers.
C)
They were very warlike.
D)
They were not of Asian descent.
E)
all of the above

75)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Long Count calendar?
A)
It was useful in the areas of astronomy and agriculture.
B)
It contained a cogwheel with 365 notches for the days of the solar year.
C)
It was created by the Mayan Indians.
D)
It contained a cogwheel with 260 notches for the days of the sacred almanac.
E)
It was useful in the area of genealogy.

76)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Cheyenne?
A)
They were among the most highly organized Plains Indians.
B)
Their chiefs exercised day-to-day authority over all matters affecting the tribe.
C)
They were seminomadic.
D)
They were buffalo hunters.
E)
They were ruled by a council of 44 chiefs selected by birth.

77)
The Yucatan Peninsula was home to a tribe of Amerinds known as
A)
Aztecs.
B)
Maya.
C)
Incas.
D)
Choctaw.
E)
Cherokee.

78)
Which of the following locations represents "Mesoamerica"?
A)
North and Central America
B)
Mexico and southern North America
C)
Central and South America
D)
Mexico and northern Central America
E)
all of the above

79)
Which of the following crops was NOT one of the "three sisters"?
A)
pumpkin
B)
beans
C)
corn
D)
squash
E)
none of the above

80)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Mayan society?
A)
Slaves were lower-ranking than serfs.
B)
Merchants were commoners.
C)
Free peasants and serfs were commoners.
D)
Priests were part of the nobility.
E)
Slavery was hereditary.

81)
Over half of Africa's land surface is comprised of
A)
black soil.
B)
desert.
C)
savannas.
D)
cacti.
E)
rivers.

82)
Which king formed the foundation for the state of Mali?
A)
Ibn Rushd
B)
Sondinke
C)
Sundiata
D)
Mansa Musa
E)
Kumbi

83)
Tariq was interested in Toledo because
A)
he believed that Toledo was the place that Muhammad would return as Messiah.
B)
he saw the most beautiful women in the world in his first visit there.
C)
he believed that King Solomon's treasure was hidden in Toledo.
D)
Toledo was mentioned in the Qur'an as the prophet's favorite city.
E)
Toledo was a major commercial center.

84)
How did Muslims first arrive in Spain?
A)
They invaded after drought plagued North Africa.
B)
They were invited by a contender for the Spanish throne.
C)
They arrived by ships carrying cargo.
D)
They arrived with camel caravans carrying cargo.
E)
They came from France after being defeated.

85)
In Sudan, the following were prized as status symbols and were used in commercial and political
which of bargaining?
A)
cattle
B)
camels
C)
sheep
D)
sons
E)
daughters

86)
Complexe s of inns and markets developed for camel merchants were called
A)
Sundiatas.
B)
Caravanserais.
C)
Swahili markets.
D)
caravans.
E)
Fatimids.

87)
Why was Montezuma's army somewhat small when Cortes invaded?
A)
It was harvest season.
B)
Many of the soldiers had fled in fear.
C)
Many of the soldiers would not fight due to their belief that Cortes was a god.
D)
Cortes formed alliances with neighboring tribes who usually provided soldiers for the Aztec army.
E)
none of the above

88)
Which of the following civilizations is the oldest?
A)
Tlaxcaltecs
B)
Totonacs
C)
Inca
D)
Maya
E)
Aztec

89)
Which of the following statements about the Aztec capital is NOT true?
A)
It was an immaculate city in the Valley of Mexico.
B)
It was named Tenochtitlan.
C)
It was eight thousand feet above sea level.
D)
It was built on a group of islands within a lake.
E)
It was a large city by Amerind standards, but much smaller than European cities.

90)
How did slavery in the Aztec empire differ from the Atlantic slave trade?
A)
African slaves experienced more opportunities than Aztec slaves.
B)
African slaves were forced to work the land; Aztecs were forced to engage in combat.
C)
Aztec slavery was only temporary.
D)
Aztec slavery was not racially based.
E)
none of the above

91)
Which people built San Lorenzo and Tres Zapotes?
A)
Olmec
B)
Toltec
C)
Navajo
D)
Maya
E)
Apache

92)
Which of the following does NOT apply to the preinvasion Eskimo?
A)
They are also classified as Inuit people.
B)
They were nomadic hunter-gatherers.
C)
They never developed complex societies.
D)
They are classified as a "Great Basin" society.
E)
They lived in small nomadic bands with no formal government.

93)
How did Knosorov's research affect current theories regarding Mayan writing?
A)
He realized that Mayan writing was phonetic, not hieroglyphic.
B)
He realized that the Mayan writing system was actually begun by the Toltec.
C)
He realized that most Mayan writing centered on religion.
D)
He realized that Mayan writing was hieroglyphic.
E)
none of the above

94)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Berbers?
A)
They were eventually conquered by the Arabs.
B)
They were fishermen and farmers.
C)
They were Caucasian.
D)
They adopted the Persian language and culture.
E)
They engaged in trade.

95)
African history is often interpreted through the eyes of foreigners because
A)
early African writing systems have yet to be deciphered.
B)
African natives have never shared their earliest writings with outsiders.
C)
Africa has always been under the domination of foreigners.
D)
Africa had no written records prior to the coming of Muslims.
E)
all of humanity has African ancestry.

96)
Aztec legend stated that men who died in combat were reborn as
A)
hummingbirds.
B)
lions.
C)
gods.
D)
white men.
E)
cobras.

97)
The African region south of the Sahara yet north of the rain forest is called
A)
Sudan.
B)
Zimbabwe.
C)
Morocco.
D)
Mali.
E)
Kongo.

98)
How was upward mobility possible in Aztec society?
A)
adoption of Aztec religion
B)
excellence in combat
C)
Upward mobility was not possible in Aztec society.
D)
offering numerous sacrifices
E)
marriage to nobility

99)
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Caliphate of Cordoba?
A)
It lasted for a little more than a hundred years.
B)
It was a site for intellectual prowess.
C)
It fell apart due to internal dissent.
D)
It was noted for its immense paper mills.
E)
It was governed by Shi'ite Muslims.

100)
Which of following men has NOT traditionally considered by historians to be one of history's premier
the empire builders?
A)
Topa Inca Yupanqui
B)
Alexander the Great
C)
Viracocha
D)
Genghis Khan
E)
Pachacuti
1)
C
2)
B
3)
B
4)
A
5)
B
6)
E
7)
D
8)
D
9)
A
10)
E
11)
A
12)
B
13)
A
14)
C
15)
C
16)
D
17)
B
18)
D
19)
C
20)
D
21)
B
22)
D
23)
C
24)
E
25)
C
26)
A
27)
B
28)
D
29)
D
30)
D
31)
E
32)
B
33)
C
34)
B
35)
D
36)
C
37)
D
38)
C
39)
E
40)
B
41)
C
42)
C
43)
B
44)
A
45)
D
46)
E
47)
A
48)
C
49)
B
50)
D
51)
D
52)
B
53)
C
54)
C
55)
C
56)
B
57)
B
58)
C
59)
C
60)
B
61)
B
62)
B
63)
A
64)
C
65)
B
66)
C
67)
A
68)
B
69)
D
70)
A
71)
C
72)
C
73)
D
74)
A
75)
C
76)
E
77)
B
78)
D
79)
A
80)
B
81)
C
82)
C
83)
C
84)
B
85)
A
86)
B
87)
A
88)
D
89)
E
90)
D
91)
A
92)
D
93)
D
94)
D
95)
D
96)
A
97)
A
98)
C
99)
E
100)
C