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Indentured Servitude

Origins of Human Ownership



Also, New England
Tobacco boom, 1617 1630
Cost vs. Benefit
Planters
Servants
Abuse & Exploitation
Social mobility
Jamestown

Tobacco Bust, 1630 1660
Competition
Delaware Valley
British military

Decline

Rise of Slavery

Sugar
Triangle Trade
English Economy
Natural Rate of Increase

West Indies

Triangle Trade

Rice
Similar to West Indies
Demographics
80% slave
20% white
Malaria
Sickle-cell anemia
Natural Rate of Increase

South Carolina

1740
Africans: 40% of the population
Tobacco
Treatment of slaves
Natural Rate of Increase
Why the variation?

Chesapeake

Far less
New York City
Puritanical views
Quaker views
New England & Mid
Atlantic

Middle Passage
Death rate: 14%
Dysentery
Dehydration
Uprisings & Revolts
1 in 10


Middle Passage Film
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgTGiWeRCWc

Treatment
West Indies & S. Carolina
Intensive labor crops
Harsh treatment
Natl Rate of Increase
Constant Influx

Chesapeake
Less Intensive crops
Not as harsh
Natl Rate of Increase
Birth rate: 1750

Social Effects

Christian superiority to Paganism
Black Freedom (Chesapeake)
Interracial marriage
Black ownership of slaves/servants
Early Social Norms

1705, Whipping white servants prohibited
Not extended to black servants
White ex-servants: 50 acres
Prohibition of English and African Sexual
Intercourse
Outlawed:
Blacks owning guns
Blacks owning English servants
Race

T. Jefferson
Each generation nursed, educated and daily
exercised in tyranny. [B]etween master and slave is a
perpetual exercise of despotism on the one part and
degrading submission on the other.
George Mason
Every master is born a petty tyrant.
Tyranny

Fled to frontier
Bartering w/ masters
Slowdowns
Revolts & Uprisings
Kill masters/overseers
Slave Response

Stono Rebellion
Largest slave uprising
South Carolina, 1739
Stono River
War of Jenkins Ear
Spanish promises to
slaves
White militia victory

Enslaved Blacks & Wealthy Whites

Plantations as Slave
Communities

Ethnic Diversity

Unifying factor
English
French
Gullah
Creole
Language

Kinship & Marriage
Unifying factor
Stable families
Generational continuity
In which colonies
would this happen?
In which would this not
happen?


White Gentry
Wealthy Landowing Elites

Very few families
Carter
Lee
Randolph
Robinson
Yeomen farmers as collaborators
Aristocratic control
Elites

The English Aristocratic Model
Behavior
Architecture
Education
Gentile Women
Culture