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Fundamental Concepts

1-1

.
. .

.
)(
)( .


. .
) 3 (4
. 1 " " The Zeroth Law
2 " "
. "
" ) (3


) ( .
.

1 -

2-1

.

.
.
(

System and Boundary

" " .

.
.

.
) (.
Surrounding

. "
" ) universe .(1-1

Isolated and non isolated systems

2 -

1-1 .
Open and closed systems

3-1

Properties


. .
.
)(extensive variables


m Etot = EK + Ep
= V

EK Ep .

3 -

) .(intensive variables
specific value )
.(mass unit

value per

= v .

.
molal specific value
. mole .
32 g

NA=6.0231023

.
.
) ( : .
. 1-1
.

) (

:1-1 .

4 -

:1-1

.1
.2
.3 ) (
:

.1 :

E = j

.
.
.2 :

V
m
=
A
A

= l

V A

l .
.3 :

Fs
l

:2-1
:1 g cm-3
.1 MKS
.2 MKS
:


5 -

.1
= 1 g cm-3 = 1 10-3 kg 106 m-3 = 1000 kg.m-3 = 1 ton m-3

:
1
= 10 3 m3 kg1

= v

.2 1 kilomole .18 kg m
.n kilomole
V
m
18
=
=
18 10 3 m3 kg1
n
m 18

4-1

= v

Hydrostatic Pressure

) (
.
(1 : (2
. area element

dA .
) ( )
( .
. MKS
.1 dyne = 10-5 N
N m-2 cgs cm-2 dyne

6 -

:2-1 " ." .


1 bar = 105 N m-2 = 106 dyne cm-2
) (atm =atmosphere
76 cm = 13.5951 g cm-3
g =980.665 cm s-2 :
F
mg
mg
=
=
= gh
A
V h m h
1 atm = 13.5951 980.665 76
= P

)(1-1

= 1.01325 10 dyne cm

= 1.01325 105 N m 2 1 bar


76 cm Hg mm Hg

.760

1 Torr

) (Torricelli

1 mm
1 Torr = 1 atm/760 = 133.3 N m-2

7 -

5-1

-
Thermal Equilibrium, Temperature The Zeroth Law

1-5-1

"" "" .
: ...
" " .
)
(.
) (
.

.
" ".
.
.


.
.

8 -

2-5-1
:
stable equilibrium "
" .
metastable equilibrium
.
neutral equilibrium
.
unstable equilibrium
.

3-5-1

The Zeroth Law

" " .
) A ( ) B ( .
( A .C
A ) C


9 -

B C
.
.

:
.
:

.
.
.
.Thermometers
" " thermoscope .

4-5-1

The adiabatic boundary

.

. : .
.
.

10 -


.
" " "
".
:
.
) (diathermal boundary
.

6-1

1-6-1

Thermometers

) (
. " "

thermometric property

.Thermometer
:
-
- )
(Thermocouple
- )(

11 -

-
- - .

2-6-1

.
-3-1 .

(
:3-1 :(

( )As(Ge

)(

)) As(Ge -3-1(.
T
.

12 -

3-6-1

(
)
) .(4-1 )..( ) A
B ( .

:4-1
.
) ( standard junction
A) test junction (5-1
G) potentiometer (.

:5-1

13 -

4-6-1

:
) .(constant gas volume thermometer C
) .(6-1
B .A A B
.D

B E
.

:6-1

].[-200 , 1500 C

5-6-1

Temperature scales

X X . R
.
. 1


14 -

X1) X (X2 :
1
X
= 1
2
X2

)(2-1

.

) triple point of water .
: . .(4.58 mm Hg
3 X3 X
X :
X
3
X3

)(3-1


. X .
PS/P3 -
s ) - (steam )(
P3 =1.3660 :
.PS/P3
) P3=0 (
" "extrapolation .
. "" :

15 -

Pg
g = 3 lim
P3 0 P
3 V

)(4-1

PS/P3 :7-1 P3


. g
V P

. . 1954
:

) 1atm
.(ice point
4-1 g s 3 i
:
)(5-1

S - i = 100

16 -

P
s
= lim s
P

0
i
i
Pi V

100 Pi
100
=
Ps
Ps Pi
1
Pi

)(6-1

= i

P
lim s
PS 1.3661
P3 V

Pi

P3 0

. :

S= i + 100 = 373.15 degrees

)(7-1

100
"= 273.15 " deg rees
0.36611

= i


.
T .
T .

:3-1
5 cm
X ""
.
- .6 cm
- .
- X 0.01 cm

17 -

:
-

X6
6
= 273.16 = 327.8 degrees
X5
5

S
327.80
= 5
= 6.84cm
273.16
5

6 = 5

X S = X5

Xi X 3 = X 3 i 1 = 3
3
3

0.01 K
5
0.01 = 1.834 10 4 < 0.01
273.15

= X

K .K
T3 = 273.16 K : :
)(8-1

P
T = 273.16 K lim
P3 0 P3
V

) Celsius ( :
t C = T - Ti

)(9-1

Ti .273.15 K "

"C
100 C ti = 0 C
.tS = 100 C
) (

18 -

Ts - Ti 180
.100 ) (
) Fahrenheit ( . :
9
K
5

)(10-1

= 1R

:
9R
273.15 K = 491.67 R
5K

)(11-1

= Ti

t:
)(12-1

t = T - 459.67 R

T . F

.R
: Ti = 0 C
tF = 491.67 - 459.67 = 32 F

Ts= 100 C :
9 R
373.15 K - 495.67 = 212 F
5 K

180.
:

19 -

= ts

:8-1

:4-1

tt* = a 2 + b :

a b .3

- a b

t i* =0

*t
s = 100

- * t .X = 7.0 cm
- * t .50
- * t X.
:
-

= 0 = a (273.15) + b
2

= 100 = a (373.15) + b

*t i

100

t *s

:
b = -115.4 K a = 1.547 10-3 K-2

20 -

t i* ( X ) = a X 2 + b
X

-
-
-

273.16 2

t i* ( X = 7) = a 5 72 + b = 1.547 10-3
7 115.4

5
X5
= + 110.85K

t * b X5

X(t * = 50 0 ) = 5.98 cm
a
5
t*(X) K

X cm

-115.4

-110.8

-97.0

-73.9

-41.6

910-3

=X

:5-1
)(

-

( .

t = T - Ti = 77.35 -273.15 = -195.8 C

9R
73.15 K = 123.23 R
5K

9
t + 32 = 320.44 F
5

21 -

= tF

= R

K 77.36

7-1

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

.
.
elastic stress )(
.
. .
.
.
.
)(.

.

8-1

1-8-1

Processes

.
.

22 -

:quasistatic process
. .
.1

:nonelastic process .

: )
( . .
.
.

.

: T1 .T2 > T1
.T2

.
T1
T1
.

.


.1

isochoric .isovolumic

.2

.isobaric

.3

.isothermal

23 -

9-1
.

:1-9
.

2-8-1

Adiabatic Processes

.


.
.

3-8-1

24 -

reversible " "


:
.

- .

-
- .
"" .
T1 .T2
T1 > T2 T2 > T1
. T1 T2
.

T1

T2

.
.


.

25 -