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Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi,


1887.
Names (details)
Known in English: Bodhidharma
Balinese: Darmo
Bengali:

Brmese: !!!!!!!!!
"hinese
abbre#iation:

$any %inyin: Ptdm
$okkien: Tatmo
&ndonesian: Bdhi Darma
'apanese: Daruma
Kannada:

Korean: Dalma
(alay: Dharma
(alayalam:
Bodhidharman
%ersian: ) * + , + - . / 0
1anskrit:
1impli2ied
"hinese:

1inhala:
3agalog: Dhar4ma
3amil: Ptitaruman
3elg:

3hai: Takmoh
3ibetan: Dharmottra
3raditional
"hinese:

5ietnamese: B678978:t7ma
;ade<=iles: P'u-t'i-ta-mo
Bodhidharma
>rom ;ikipedia, the 2ree encyclopedia
Bodhidharma was a Bddhist monk who li#ed dring the ?th or @th centry "E. $e is traditionally
credited as the transmitter o2 "hAan B1anskrit: Dhyna, Korean: Seon, 'apanese: ZenC to "hina, and
regarded as its 2irst "hinese patriarch. Dccording to "hinese legend, he also began the physical training o2
the 1haolin monks that led to the creation o2 1haolinEan.
Fittle contemporary biographical in2ormation on Bodhidharma is eGtant, and sbseEent acconts became
layered with legend.
H1IHnote 1I
3he principal "hinese sorces #ary on their accont o2 BodhidharmaAs origins.
HJIH?IHnote KI
Dside 2rom the "hinese acconts, se#eral poplar traditions also eGist regarding BodhidharmaAs
origins.
Hnote JI
3he acconts also di22er on the date o2 his arri#al, with one early accont claiming that he arri#ed dring
the FiL 1Mng Dynasty BJKN<J7OC and later acconts dating his arri#al to the FiPng Dynasty B?NK<??7C.
Bodhidharma was primarily acti#e in the lands o2 the Qorthern ;Ri Dynasty BS8@<?SJC. (odern
scholarship dates him to abot the early ?th centry.
H1?I
1e#eral stories abot Bodhidharma ha#e become poplar legends, which are still being sed in the "hAan
and Ten tradition.
BodhidharmaAs teachings and practice centered on meditation and the Fanka#atara 1tra.
3he Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all BO?KC identi2ies Bodhidharma as the K8th %atriarch o2 Bddhism in
an ninterrpted line that eGtends all the way back to the Bddha himsel2.
3hroghot Bddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill7tempered, pro2sely bearded and wide7
eyed barbarian. $e is re2erred as U3he Ble7Eyed BarbarianU BC in "hinese "han teGts.
H1@I
Contents
1 Biography
1.1 %rincipal sorces
1.1.1 YPng VWnXhY BYang $sZan7chihC 7 3he [ecord o2 the Bddhist (onasteries o2
Foyang
1.1.K 3Pnl\n 7 pre2ace to the 3wo Entrances and >or Dcts
1.1.S "hing7chZeh 7 "hronicle o2 the Fanka#atara (asters
1.1.J DWoG4n B3ao7hsanC 7 >rther Biographies o2 Eminent (onks
1.K Fater acconts
1.K.1 Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all
1.K.K DWoyPn 7 3ransmission o2 the Famp
1.S %oplar traditions
K Fegends abot Bodhidharma
K.1 Enconter with Emperor Vi4o Y]n
K.K Qine years o2 wall7gaXing
K.S $ike cts o22 his arm
K.J 3ransmission
K.J.1 1kin, 2lesh, bone, marrow
K.? Bodhidharma at 1haolin
K.@ 3ra#els in 1otheast Dsia
K.7 Dppearance a2ter his death
S %ractice and teaching
S.1 %ointing directly to oneAs mind
S.K ;all7gaXing
S.S 3he Fa^k4#at4ra 1_tra
J Fineage
J.1 "onstrction o2 lineages
J.K 1iG patriarchs
J.S "ontinos lineage 2rom 1hakyamni Bddha
? (odern scholarship
?.1 Biography as a hagiographic process
?.K `rigins and place o2 birth
?.S "aste
%Pgina 1 de 11 Bodhidharma 7 ;ikipedia, the 2ree encyclopedia
1JaN8aKN1J http:aaen.wikipedia.orgawikiaBodhidharma
A Dehua ware porcelain statuette
of Bodhidharma, from the late
Ming Dynasty, 17th century
5.4 Name
5.5 Aode in !hina
5." #haolin o$ing
" %or&s attriuted to Bodhidharma
7 #ee also
' Notes
( )eferences
1* #ources
1*.1 +ulished sources
1*., %e sources
11 -$ternal lin&s
Biography
Principal sources
.here are two &nown e$tant accounts written y contemporaries of Bodhidharma.
Yng Xunzh (Yang Hsan-chih) - The Record o !he Buddhis! "onas!eries o #uoyang
.he earliest te$t mentioned Bodhidharma is The #e!ord o the Buddhi$t %ona$terie$ o &uoyang /&u'yng
(i)ln*+0 which is compiled in 547 y 12ng 3u4n5h6 /1ang78suan7chih 0, a writer and translator of Mah9y9na
Buddhist te$ts into the !hinese language. 1ang ga:e the following account;
At that time there was a mon& of the %estern )egion named Bodhidharma, a +ersian !entral Asian. 8e tra:eled
from the wild orderlands to !hina. #eeing the golden dis&s <on the pole on top of 1=ngn>ng?s stupa@ reflecting in
the sun, the rays of light illuminating the surface of the clouds, the Aewel7ells on the stupa lowing in the wind, the
echoes re:ererating eyond the hea:ens, he sang its praises. 8e e$claimed; B.ruly this is the wor& of spirits.B 8e
said; BC am 15* years old, and C ha:e passed through numerous countries. .here is :irtually no country C ha:e not
:isited. -:en the distant Buddha7realms lac& this.B 8e chanted homage and placed his palms together in salutation
for days on end.
<"@
Tnl$n - preace !o !he T%o &n!rances and 'our (c!s
.he second account was written y .2nl>n /D 5*"E5740. .2nl>n?s rief iography of the BDharma MasterB is found in his preface to the T,o -ntran!e$
and .our A!t$, a te$t traditionally attriuted to Bodhidharma, and the first te$t to identify Bodhidharma as #outh Cndian;
.he Dharma Master was a #outh Cndian of the %estern )egion. 8e was the third son of a great Cndian &ing. 8is amition lay in the Mahayana
path, and so he put aside his white layman?s roe for the lac& roe of a mon& <...@ Famenting the decline of the true teaching in the outlands, he
suseGuently crossed distant mountains and seas, tra:eling aout propagating the teaching in 8an and %ei.
<'@
.2nl>n?s account was the first to mention that Bodhidharma attracted disciples,
<17@
specifically mentioning D4oyH /0 and 8uI&J /0, the latter of whom
would later figure :ery prominently in the Bodhidharma literature. Although .2nl>n has traditionally een considered a disciple of Bodhidharma, it is more
li&ely that he was a student of 8uI&J.
<1'@
)hing-cheh - )hronicle o !he #an*a+a!ara "as!ers
.anlin?s preface has also een preser:ed in !hing7chKeh?s /"'L775*0 &eng-!h'ieh $hih-t/u !hi /!hronicle of the Fan&a:atara Masters0, which dates from 71L7
71".
<L@
Mca. 715
<7@
8e writes;
.he teacher of the Dharma, who came from #outh Cndia in the %estern )egions, the third son of a great Brahman &ing.
<(@
,o-u.n (Tao-hsuan) - 'ur!her Biographies o &/inen! "on*s
Cn the 7th7century historical wor& .urther Biogra0hie$ o -minent %onk$ /12 go$3ng /hu4n0, D4o$u9n /D 5("7""70 possily drew on .anlin?s
preface as a asic source, ut made se:eral significant additions;
Nirstly, D4o$u9n adds more detail concerning Bodhidharma?s origins, writing that he was of B#outh Cndian Brahman stoc&B /nn tin/h
0lum)n /h5ng0.
<1(@
#econdly, more detail is pro:ided concerning Bodhidharma?s Aourneys. .anlin?s original is imprecise aout Bodhidharma?s tra:els, saying only that he
Bcrossed distant mountains and seasB efore arri:ing in %ei. D4o$u9n?s account, howe:er, implies Ba specific itineraryB;
<,*@
B8e first arri:ed at Nan7yKeh
during the #ung period. Nrom there he turned north and came to the Oingdom of %eiB.
<1(@
.his implies that Bodhidharma had tra:elled to !hina y sea, and
that he had crossed o:er the 1angt5e )i:er.
.hirdly, D4o$u9n suggests a date for Bodhidharma?s arri:al in !hina. 8e writes that Bodhidharma ma&es landfall in the time of the #ong, thus ma&ing his
arri:al no later than the time of the #ong?s fall to the #outhern Pi Dynasty in 47(.
<,*@
+2gina , de 11 Bodhidharma 7 %i&ipedia, the free encyclopedia
14M*'M,*14 http;MMen.wi&ipedia.orgMwi&iMBodhidharma
This Japanese scroll
calligraphy of Bodhidharma
reads Zen points directly to
the human heart, see into your
nature and become Buddha.
It was created by Hauin
!au "#$%& to #'$%(
Bodhidharma
)inally, *+o,u-n pro.ides information concerning Bodhidharma/s death. Bodhidharma, he writes, died at the bans of the
0uo 1i.er, where he was interred by his disciple Huie, possibly in a ca.e. 2ccording to *+o,u-n/s chronology,
Bodhidharma/s death must ha.e occurred prior to &34, the date of the 5orthern 6ei *ynasty/s fall, because Huie
subse7uently lea.es 0uoyang for 8e. )urthermore, citing the shore of the 0uo 1i.er as the place of death might possibly
suggest that Bodhidharma died in the mass e,ecutions at Heyin in &9%. :upporting this possibility is a report in the
Tai$h $hin$h6 dai/ky stating that a Buddhist mon was among the .ictims at H;y<n.
=9#>
Later accounts
Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall
In the Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all "Z7tng*( of ?&9, the elements of the traditional Bodhidharma story are in
place. Bodhidharma is said to ha.e been a disciple of @raAB-t-ra,
=99>
thus establishing the latter as the 9'th patriarch in India.
2fter a threeCyear Aourney, Bodhidharma reached Dhina in &9'
=99>
during the 0iang *ynasty "as opposed to the :ong period
of the &th century, as in *+o,u-n(. The Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all includes Bodhidharma/s encounter with !mperor
6u, which was first recorded around '&% in the appendi, to a te,t by :henChui "(, a disciple of Huineng.
=93>
)inally, as opposed to *ao,uan/s figure of Eo.er #&F years,E
=94>
the Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all states that
Bodhidharma died at the age of #&F. He was then buried on Gount Hiong/er "1ing8r Shn( to the west of 0uoyang.
Howe.er, three years after the burial, in the @amir Gountains, :IngyJn "(Kan official of one of the later 6ei
ingdomsKencountered Bodhidharma, who claimed to be returning to India and was carrying a single sandal. Bodhidharma
predicted the death of :ongyun/s ruler, a prediction which was borne out upon the latter/s return. Bodhidharma/s tomb was
then opened, and only a single sandal was found inside.
Insofar as, according to the Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all, Bodhidharma left the 0iang court in &9' and relocated to
Gount :ong near 0uoyang and the :haolin Gonastery, where he Efaced a wall for nine years, not speaing for the entire
timeE,
=9&>
his date of death can ha.e been no earlier than &3$. Goreo.er, his encounter with the 6ei official indicates a date
of death no later than &&4, three years before the fall of the last 6ei ingdom.
Doyun - Transmission of the Lamp
:ubse7uent to the Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all, the only dated addition to the biography of Bodhidharma is in the
9ingde #e!ord$ o the Tran$mi$$ion o the &am0 "9:ngd) !hund3ng l2, published #FF4 D!(, by *+oyuLn
"(, in which it is stated that Bodhidharma/s original name had been Bodhit-ra but was changed by his master
@raAB-t-ra.
=9$>
The same account is gi.en by the Japanese master MeiNan/s #3th century wor of the same title.
=9'>
Popular traditions
:e.eral contemporary popular traditions also e,ist regarding Bodhidharma/s origins. 2n Indian tradition regards
Bodhidharma to be the third son of a Tamil @alla.a ing from Manchipuram.
=##>=note 3>
This is consistent with the :outheast
2sian traditions which also describe Bodhidharma as a former south Indian prince who had awaened his undalini and
mastered the martial arts.
=#3>
The Tibetan .ersion similarly characterises him as a darCsinned *ra.idian sage from south
India.
=#4>
Don.ersely, the Japanese tradition generally regards Bodhidharma to be from @ersia.
=web #>
Legends about Bodhidharma
:e.eral stories about Bodhidharma ha.e become popular legends, which are still being used in the Dh/an, :eon and ZenCtradition.
Encounter with Emperor Xio !"n
The Anthology o the Patriar!hal "all tells us that in &9' during the 0iang *ynasty, Bodhidharma, the first @atriarch of DhLn, .isited the !mperor 6u
"!mperor Hi-o 8On "posthumous name 6PdQ ( of 0iLng Dhina(, a fer.ent patron of BuddhismR
!mperor 6uR ;"o, mu!h karmi! merit ha<e = earned or ordaining Buddhi$t monk$> ?uilding mona$terie$> ha<ing $utra$ !o0ied> and
!ommi$$ioning Buddha image$@;
BodhidharmaR ;AoneB Cood deed$ done ,ith ,orldly intent ?ring good karma> ?ut no meritB;
!mperor 6uR ;So ,hat i$ the highe$t meaning o no?le truth@;
BodhidharmaR ;There i$ no no?le truth> there i$ only em0tine$$B;
!mperor 6uR ;Then> ,ho i$ $tanding ?eore me@;
BodhidharmaR ;= kno, not> Dour %a*e$tyB;
=9%>
2fter Bodhidharma left, the !mperor ased the official in charge of the Imperial 2nnals about the encounter. The Sfficial of the 2nnals then ased the
!mperor if he still denied nowing who Bodhidharma was. 6hen the !mperor said he didn/t now, the Sfficial said, EThis was the TreatCbeing Tuanyin "i.e.,
the Gahasatt.a 2.aloiteU.ara( transmitting the imprint of the Buddha/s HeartCGind.E
The !mperor regretted his ha.ing let Bodhidharma lea.e and was going to dispatch a messenger to go and beg Bodhidharma to return. The Sfficial then said,
E8our Highness, do not say to send out a messenger to go fetch him. The people of the entire nation could go, and he still would not return.E
This encounter was included as the first Van of the oanCcollection The Blue Eli #e!ord.
#ine years of wall-ga$ing
)ailing to mae a fa.orable impression in :outhern Dhina, Bodhidharma is said to ha.e tra.elled to the northern Dhinese ingdom of 6ei to the :haolin
Gonastery. 2fter either being refused entry to the shaolin temple or being eAected after a short time, he li.ed in a nearby ca.e, where he Efaced a wall for nine
years, not speaing for the entire timeE.
=9&>
@Lgina 3 de ## Bodhidharma C 6iipedia, the free encyclopedia
#4WF%W9F#4 httpRWWen.wiipedia.orgWwiiWBodhidharma
Huike offering his arm to
Bodhidharma. Ink painting by
Sessh
The biographical tradition is littered with apocryphal tales about Bodhidharma's life and circumstances. In one version of
the story he is said to have fallen asleep seven years into his nine years of wall!ga"ing. Becoming angry with himself he
cut off his eyelids to prevent it from happening again.
#$%&
'ccording to the legend as his eyelids hit the floor the first tea
plants sprang up( and thereafter tea would provide a stimulant to help keep students of )h*n awake during meditation.
#+,&
The most popular account relates that Bodhidharma was admitted into the Shaolin temple after nine years in the cave and
taught there for some time. However other versions report that he -passed away seated upright-(
#$.&
or that he
disappeared leaving behind the Di 9in 9ing(
#+/&
or that his legs atrophied after nine years of sitting
#+$&
which is why
0apanese Bodhidharma dolls have no legs.
Huike cuts off his arm
In one legend Bodhidharma refused to resume teaching until his would!be student 1a"u Huike who had kept vigil for
weeks in the deep snow outside of the monastery cut off his own left arm to demonstrate sincerity.
#$%&#note .&
Transmission
Skin, flesh, bone, marrow
2egend has it that Bodhidharma wished to return to India and called together his disciples and the following e3change
took place4
#note 5&
Bodhidharma asked 6)an each of you say something to demonstrate your understanding78
1ao 9u stepped forward and said 6It is not bound by words and phrases nor is it separate from words and phrases. This is the function of the
Tao.8
Bodhidharma4 6:ou have attained my skin.8
The nun ;ong )hi
#note <&#note =&
stepped up and said 6It is like a glorious glimpse of the realm of 'kshobhya Buddha. Seen once it need not be
seen again.8
Bodhidharma( 6:ou have attained my flesh.8
1ao :u said 6The four elements are all empty. The five skandhas are without actual e3istence. >ot a single dharma can be grasped.-
Bodhidharma4 6:ou have attained my bones.8
9inally Huike came forth bowed deeply in silence and stood up straight.
Bodhidharma said 6:ou have attained my marrow.8
#+.&
Bodhidharma passed on the symbolic robe and bowl of dharma succession to Huike and some te3ts claim a copy of the 2ankavatara Sutra.
#+5&
Bodhidharma
then either returned to India or died.
Bodhidharma at Shaolin
Some )hinese accounts describe Bodhidharma as being disturbed by the poor physical shape of the Shaolin monks
#+<&
after which he instructed them in
techni?ues to maintain their physical condition as well as teaching meditation.
#+<&
He is said to have taught a series of e3ternal e3ercises called the @ighteen
'rhat Hands AShi-?a &ohan ShouB
#+<&
and an internal practice called the Sinew Cetamorphosis )lassic.
#+=&
In addition after his departure from the temple
two manuscripts by Bodhidharma were said to be discovered inside the temple4 the :iDin 0ing A or -CuscleETendon )hange )lassic-B and the Fi Sui
0ing. )opies and translations of the :i 0in 0ing survive to the modern day. The Fi Sui 0ing has been lost.
#+%&
Travels in Southeast Asia
'ccording to Southeast 'sian folklore Bodhidharma travelled from 0ambudvipa by sea to Galembang Indonesia. Gassing through Sumatra 0ava Bali
Calaysia and Thailand he eventually entered )hina from the Southeast 'sian mainland. In his travels through the region Bodhidharma is said to have
transmitted his knowledge of the Cahayana doctrine and the martial arts. Calay legend holds that he introduced forms to silat.
#/+&
HaDrayana tradition links Bodhidharma with the //th!century 1ravidian monk Ghadampa Sangye who travelled e3tensively to Tibet and )hina spreading
tantric teachings.
#I,&
Appearance after his death
Three years after Bodhidharma's death 'mbassador SJngyKn of northern Lei is said to have seen him walking while holding a shoe at the Gamir Heights.
SJngyKn asked Bodhidharma where he was going to which Bodhidharma replied -I am going home-. Lhen asked why he was holding his shoe
Bodhidharma answered -:ou will know when you reach Shaolin monastery. 1on't mention that you saw me or you will meet with disaster-. 'fter arriving at
the palace SJngyKn told the emperor that he met Bodhidharma on the way. The emperor said Bodhidharma was already dead and buried and had SJngyKn
arrested for lying. 't the Shaolin Temple the monks informed them that Bodhidharma was dead and had been buried in a hill behind the temple. The grave
was e3humed and was found to contain a single shoe. The monks then said -Caster has gone back home- and prostrated three times4
-9or nine years he had remained and nobody knew him(
)arrying a shoe in hand he went home ?uietly without ceremony.-
#I/&
Practice and teaching
Bodhidharma is traditionally seen as introducing dhyana!practice in )hina.
Pointing directly to one's mind
Mne of the fundamental )h*n te3ts attributed to Bodhidharma is a four!line stan"a whose first two verses echo the &aFk<atra S6tra's disdain for words and
G*gina I de // Bodhidharma ! Likipedia the free encyclopedia
/IE,=E$,/I http4EEen.wikipedia.orgEwikiEBodhidharma
whose second two verses stress the importance of the insight into reality achieved through "self-realization":
;A $0e!ial tran$mi$$ion out$ide the $!ri0ture$>
Not founded upon words and letters;
By pointing directly to [one's] mind
t lets one see into [one's own true] nature and [thus] attain Buddhahood!"
["#]
$he stanza% in fact% is not Bodhidharma's% &ut rather dates to the year ''()!
["*]
Wall-gazing
$anlin% in the preface to T,o -ntran!e$ and .our A!t$% and +ao,uan% in the .urther Biogra0hie$ o -minent %onk$% mention a practice of Bodhidharma's
termed "wall-gazing" -?+gun.! Both $anlin
[note /]
and +ao,uan
[we& "]
associate this "wall-gazing" with "0uieting [the] mind"
['1]
-n GHn.!
n the T,o -ntran!e$ and .our A!t$% traditionally attri&uted to Bodhidharma% the term "wall-gazing" is given as follows:
$hose who turn from delusion &ac2 to reality% who meditate on ,all$% the a&sence of self and other% the oneness of mortal and sage% and who
remain unmoved even &y scriptures are in complete and unspo2en agreement with reason"!
["3][note '(]
+ao,uan states: ;The merit$ o %ahyna ,all-ga/ing are the highe$t;!
["4]
$hese are the first mentions in the historical record of what may &e a type of meditation &eing ascri&ed to Bodhidharma!
5,actly what sort of practice Bodhidharma's "wall-gazing" was remains uncertain! Nearly all accounts have treated it either as an undefined variety of
meditation% as +ao,uan and +umoulin%
["4]
or as a variety of seated meditation a2in to the zazen -; 6hinese: /u'!hn. that later &ecame a defining
characteristic of 6h7n! $he latter interpretation is particularly common among those wor2ing from a 6h'an standpoint!
[we& 3][we& 4]
$here have also% however% &een interpretations of "wall-gazing" as a non-meditative phenomenon!
[note '']
The Lakvatra Stra
$here are early te,ts which e,plicitly associate Bodhidharma with the &aFk<atra S6tra! +ao,uan% for e,ample% in a late recension of his &iography of
Bodhidharma's successor 8ui2e% has the s9tra as a &asic and important element of the teachings passed down &y Bodhidharma:
n the &eginning +hyana :aster Bodhidharma too2 the four-roll &aFk S6tra% handed it over to 8ui2e% and said: ";hen e,amine the land of
6hina% it is clear that there is only this sutra! f you rely on it to practice% you will &e a&le to cross over the world!"
[")]
<nother early te,t% the #e!ord o the %a$ter$ and Di$!i0le$ o the &aFk<atra S6tra -&)ngIi) $hH/H *+. of =>ng?u@ -; 4)*A13(.% also
mentions Bodhidharma in relation to this te,t! =ing?ue's account also ma2es e,plicit mention of "sitting meditation"% or zazen:
[we& 1]
Bor all those who sat in meditation% :aster Bodhi[dharma] also offered e,positions of the main portions of the &aFk<atra S6tra% which are
collected in a volume of twelve or thirteen pages%
[note '#]
[!!!] &earing the title of Tea!hing o JBodhi-KDharma;B
["/]
n other early te,ts% the school that would later &ecome 2nown as 6h'an is sometimes referred to as the "CaD2EvatEra school" -&)ngIi) /ng.!
[3(]
$he &aFk<atra S6tra% one of the :ahEyEna Buddhist s9tras% is a highly "difficult and o&scure" te,t
[3']
whose &asic thrust is to emphasize "the inner
enlightenment that does away with all duality and is raised a&ove all distinctions"!
[3#]
t is among the first and most important te,ts in the FogEcEra% or
"6onsciousness-only"% school of :ahEyEna Buddhism!
[3*]
Gne of the recurrent emphases in the &aFk<atra S6tra is a lac2 of reliance on words to effectively e,press reality:
f% :ahamati% you say that &ecause of the reality of words the o&?ects are% this tal2 lac2s in sense! ;ords are not 2nown in all the Buddha-lands;
words% :ahamati% are an artificial creation! n some Buddha-lands ideas are indicated &y loo2ing steadily% in others &y gestures% in still others &y
a frown% &y the movement of the eyes% &y laughing% &y yawning% or &y the clearing of the throat% or &y recollection% or &y trem&ling!
[3"]
n contrast to the ineffectiveness of words% the s9tra instead stresses the importance of the "self-realization" that is "attained &y no&le wisdom"
[33]
and occurs
"when one has an insight into reality as it is":
[34]
"$he truth is the state of self-realization and is &eyond categories of discrimination"!
[31]
$he s9tra goes on to
outline the ultimate effects of an e,perience of self-realization:
[$he Bodhisattva] will &ecome thoroughly conversant with the no&le truth of self-realization% will &ecome a perfect master of his own mind% will
conduct himself without effort% will &e li2e a gem reflecting a variety of colours% will &e a&le to assume the &ody of transformation% will &e a&le
to enter into the su&tle minds of all &eings% and% &ecause of his firm &elief in the truth of :ind-only% will% &y gradually ascending the stages%
&ecome esta&lished in Buddhahood!
[3)]
Lineage
Construction of lineages
$he idea of a patriarchal lineage in 6h'an dates &ac2 to the epitaph for BHrI - 4*)A4)/.% a disciple of the 3th patriarch 8JngrKn - 4('A41".! n the
$wo 5ntrances and Bour <cts and the Eontinued Biogra0hie$ o -minent %onk$% +aoyu and 8ui2e are the only e,plicitly identified disciples of
Bodhidharma! $he epitaph gives a line of descent identifying Bodhidharma as the first patriarch!
[3/][4(]
n the 4th century &iographies of famous mon2s were collected! Brom this genre the typical 6h'an-lineage was developed:
L7gina 3 de '' Bodhidharma - ;i2ipedia% the free encyclopedia
'"M()M#('" http:MMen!wi2ipedia!orgMwi2iMBodhidharma
These famous biographies were non-sectarian. The Ch'an biographical works, however, aimed to establish Ch'an as a legitimate school of
Buddhism traceable to its Indian origins, and at the same time championed a particular form of Ch'an. Historical accurac was of little concern to
the compilers! old legends were repeated, new stories were invented and reiterated until the too became legends.
"#$%
&.T. 'u(uki contends that Ch'an's growth in popularit during the )th and *th centuries attracted criticism that it had +no authori(ed records of its direct
transmission from the founder of Buddhism+ and that Ch'an historians made Bodhidharma the ,*th patriarch of Buddhism in response to such attacks.
"#,%
Six patriarchs
The earliest lineages described the lineage from Bodhidharma into the -th to )th generation of patriarchs. .arious records of different authors are known,
which give a variation of transmission lines/
The Continued
Biographies
of Eminent Monks
X gosng zhun

of Doxun
(596667)
The Record of the Transmission
of the Dharma-Jewel
Chun f!"!o #$
of D %&i
History of Masters and Disciples of the a!k"#at"ra-
$%tra
'(ng)i( sh*z* #$
of +$ng#u(
(ca, 6-. ca, 65/)
The &i'n()ng*+
of $h,nhu+
$ Bodhidharma Bodhidharma Bodhidharma Bodhidharma
, Hu0k1 23*)4 5 -678
&9o: &9o: &9o:
Hu0k1 23*)4 5 -678 Hu0k1 23*)4 5 -678 Hu0k1 23*)4 5 -678
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Continuous 0in1ag1 fro2 Sha34a2uni 5u66ha
Fventuall these descriptions of the lineage evolved into a continuous lineage from GHkamuni Buddha to Bodhidharma. The idea of a line of descent from
GHkamuni Buddha is the basis for the distinctive lineage tradition of the ChDn school.
Iccording to the Song of Enlightenment 2Zhngdo g8 b JKngEiH CuDnEuB 2##--)$78,
"#7%
one of the chief disciples of Hu0nBng, was Bodhidharma
the ,*th Latriarch of Buddhism in a line of descent from GHkamuni Buddha via his disciple MahHkHNapa/
Mahakashapa was the first, leading the line of transmission!
Twent-eight ?athers followed him in the Oest!
The Pamp was then brought over the sea to this countr!
Ind Bodhidharma became the ?irst ?ather here
His mantle, as we all know, passed over si= ?athers,
Ind b them man minds came to see the Pight.
"#3%
The Transmission of the Light gives ,* patriarchs in this transmission/
",)%"#-%
LDgina # de $$ Bodhidharma - Oikipedia, the free encclopedia
$3Q<*Q,<$3 http/QQen.wikipedia.orgQwikiQBodhidharma
SANSKRT CHINESE VIETNAMESE JAPANESE KOREAN
1 Mahkyapa / Mhjiy Ma-Ha-Ca-Dip Makakashyo / Mahagasp
2 nanda / nnt !-"an-#$ / !-"an !nan / !nanda
% &na'sa / (hngn$h)*i+ ,h-.ng-"a-H/a-, (hona0ash / (anah0asa
1 2pagpta / 34pj5d4 6-7a-C58-#a 29akikta / 29agpta
: Dh;taka / D<d4ji #=-#a-Ca Daitaka / Ch>daga
? Mi88aka / M@Ahji Di-D-Ca Mishaka / Mi8haga
B CasDit;a / E*+DF 7$-,-MGt 7ashDits / EasDiHta
I 7ddhanandi / J5tnnd< EhGt-#$-"an-#= 7ddanandai / EKHtananj>
L 7ddhaDit;a / J5tDFd4 EhM8-#$-MGt-#a 7ddaDitta / Ekta>DiHda
1N E;'a / EHFsh<p 7$-OGt-,hPp-7$ / Hip-,Qn-RiS 7a;ishi9a / Hypjonj>
11 Enyayaas / JTn$ysh Eh5-"a-DU-Va Jnayasha / Enayasa
12
na9odhi /
!'aghoWa
/ n$p5t@ !-"a-7X-#= / MY-Minh !na9ot>i / MaDyng
1% ZapiDaHa / [ip@DH Ca-,\-Ma-Oa Za9iDa;a / Za9iDa;a
11 "g;jna / OngshT Oong-,h] ^ysho / 3ongs
1: Znad>'a / [in$t@p Ca-"a-#=-7$ Zanadai9a / Zanaj>9a
1? ^hHata / OhHd4 Oa-H_-Oa-#a ^ago;ata / ^ah;ada
1B (anghnandi / (ng`i)nnt@ ,ang-Ri$-"an-#= (4gyanandai / (Kngsananj>
1I (anghayaas / (ng`i)shd4 ,ang-Ri$-Da-V (ogyayasha / Zayasada
1L ZD;ata / [i+DHd4 C--Ma-Oa-#a ZDa;ada / ZDa;ada
2N &ayata / (h)yd4 V$-DU-#a [ayana / (ayada
21 Cas9andh / (hF`<n 7$-,-7$n-#_ 7ashy9anA / Eas9and
22 Mano;hita / MnH Ma-"oa-Oa Man;a / Mana;a
2% HakH>nayaas / HHyn$yAhb HU8-Oc8-"a Zak;okyasha / HakHKkna
21 (iDha9odhi / (h<Adp5t@ (--,e-7X-#= / (--,e-,;@ (hishi9odai / (aja
2: Casiasita / Eshs<d4 7$-V-,--#a 7ashashita / Easasada
2? EnyaDit;a / 7T;5DFd4 7Pt-"h--MGt-#a JnaDitta / EnyDiHta
2B E;ajft;a / 7n;/d4H 7t-"hY-#a-Oa Hannyata;a / Eanyada;a
2I
/
Dharma
/ DD
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Modern scholarship
7odhidha;Da has 9>>n th> s9j>8t om 8;iti8aH s8i>ntimi8 ;>s>a;8hn 0hi8h has sh>d n>0 Hight on th> t;aditionaH sto;i>s a9ot 7odhidha;Dai
io!raph" as a ha!io!raphic process
!88o;ding to [ohn M8^a>n 7odhidha;Da has 9>>n th> s9j>8t om a hagiog;aphi8 p;o8>ss 0hi8h s>;'>d th> n>>ds om th> Chin>s> Choan Do'>D>nti !88o;ding
to hiD it is not possi9H> to 0;it> an a88;at> 9iog;aphy om 7odhidha;Dah
"It is ultimately impossible to reconstruct any original or accurate biography of the man whose life seres as the original trace of his
hagiography ! where "trace" is a term from "ac#ues $errida meaning the beginningless beginning of a phenomenon% the imagined but always
intellectually unattainable origin& 'ence any such attempt by modern biographers to reconstruct a definitie account of (odhidharma)s life is
both doomed to failure and potentially no different in intent from the hagiographical efforts of premodern writers"
p??q
M8^a>os standpoint a88o;ds 0ith 3anagidaos standpointh
"*anagida ascribes great historical alue to the witness of the disciple T)an!lin% but at the same time ac+nowledges the presence of "many pu,,les
in the biography of (odhidharma"& -ien the present state of the sources% he considers it impossible to compile a reliable account of
(odhidharma)s life"&
p?Bq
(>'>;aH s8hoHa;s ha'> sgg>st>d that th> 8oDpos>d iDag> om 7odhidha;Da d>p>nd>d on th> 8oD9ination om sppos>d histo;i8aH inmo;Dation on 'a;ios
histo;i8aH mig;>s o'>; s>'>;aH 8>nt;i>si
p?Iq
7odhidha;Da as a histo;i8aH p>;son Day >'>n n>'>; ha'> a8taHHy >*ist>di
p?Lq
Ori!ins and place o# $ir%h
See also E.tensie oeriew of possible birthplaces
DDoHin 8oDD>nts on th> th;>> p;in8ipaH so;8>si ,h> E>;sian h>;itag> is do9tmHn a88o;ding to DDoHinh
"In the description of the Lo!yang temple% bodhidharma is called a /ersian& -ien the ambiguity of geographical references in writings of this
period% such a statement should not be ta+en too seriously&"
pBNq
DDoHin 8onsid>;s ,an-Hinos a88ont om 7odhidha;Da 9>ing rth> thi;d son om a g;>at 7;ahDan kingr to 9> a Hat>; additionn and minds th> >*a8t D>aning om
Egina B d> 11 7odhidha;Da - sikip>dian th> m;>> >n8y8Hop>dia
11/NI/2N11 httph//>ni0ikip>diaio;g/0iki/7odhidha;Da
"South Indian Brahman stock" unclear:
[71]
"0nd when Tao!hsuan spea+s of origins from South Indian (rahman stoc+% it is not clear whether he is referring to roots in nobility or to India in
general as the land of the (rahmans&"
These Chinese sources lend themselves to make inferences about Bodhidharma's oriins! "The third son of a Brahman kin" has been s"eculated to mean "the
third son of a #allavine kin"!
[11]
Based on a s"ecific "ronunciation of the Chinese characters as $an%&hi' "meanin frarance e(treme"'
[11]
Tsutomu
$ambe identifies to be $anchi"uram' an old ca"ital to)n in the state Tamil%*adu! +ccordin to Tstuomu $ambe:
"1anchi means )a radiant 2ewel) or )a lu.ury belt with 2ewels)% and puram means a town or a state in the sense of earlier times& Thus% it is
understood that the )!1ingdom) corresponds to the old capital )1anchipuram)&"
[11]
Caste
In the conte(t of the Indian caste s,stem the mention of "Brahman kin"
[-.]
ac/uires a nuance! Brouhton notes that "kin" im"lies that Bodhidharma )as of
a member of the $shatri,a caste of )arriors and rulers!
[70]
Brahman is' in )estern conte(ts' easil, understood as Brahmana or Brahmin' )hich means priest!
Name
+ccordin to tradition Bodhidharma )as iven this name b, his teacher kno)n variousl, as #an,atara' #ra1natara' or #ra123dhara!
[74]
5is name "rior to
monkhood is said to be 6a,avarman!
[7-]
Bodhidharma is associated )ith several other names' and is also kno)n b, the name Bodhitara! 7aure notes that:
Bodhidharma8s name a""ears sometimes truncated as Bodhi' or more often as 9harma :Ta%mo;! In the first case' it ma, be confused )ith another
of his rivals' Bodhiruci!
[7<]
Tibetan sources ive his name as "Bodhidharmott3ra" or "9harmottara"' that is' "5ihest teachin :dharma; of enlihtenment"!
[7=]
Abode in China
Bus)ell dates Bodhidharma abode in China a""ro(imatel, at the earl, <th centur,!
[77]
Brouhton dates Bodhidharma's "resence in >uo,an to bet)een <1=
and <0=' )hen the tem"le referred to?@AnnBnsC :;' )as at the heiht of its lor,!
[7D]
Startin in <0=' @AnnBnsC suffered damae from a series of
events' ultimatel, leadin to its destruction in <4-!
[7.]
Shaolin boxing
Traditionall, Bodhidharma is credited as founder of the martial arts at the Shaolin Tem"le! 5o)ever' martial arts historians have sho)n this leend stems
from a 17th%centur, /ion manual kno)n as the *i2in "ing!
[DE]
The authenticit, of the *i "in "ing has been discredited b, some historians includin Tan 5ao' Fu Ghen and Hatsuda I,uchi! This arument is summari&ed
b, modern historian >in Bo,uan in his Zhongguo wushu shi:
+s for the "@i 6in 6in" :Huscle Chane Classic;' a s"urious te(t attributed to Bodhidharma and included in the leend of his transmittin martial
arts at the tem"le' it )as )ritten in the Hin d,nast,' in 1=0-' b, the 9aoist "riest Ginin of Ht! Tiantai' and falsel, attributed to Bodhidharma!
7ored "refaces' attributed to the Tan eneral >i 6in and the Southern Son eneral *iu Jao )ere )ritten! The, sa, that' after Bodhidharma
faced the )all for nine ,ears at Shaolin tem"le' he left behind an iron chestK )hen the monks o"ened this chest the, found the t)o books "Fi Sui
6in" :Harro) Lashin Classic; and "@i 6in 6in" )ithin! The first book )as taken b, his disci"le 5uike' and disa""earedK as for the second'
"the monks selfishl, coveted it' "racticin the skills therein' fallin into heterodo( )a,s' and losin the correct "ur"ose of cultivatin the Ieal!
The Shaolin monks have made some fame for themselves throuh their fihtin skillK this is all due to havin obtained this manuscri"t!" Based
on this' Bodhidharma )as claimed to be the ancestor of Shaolin martial arts! This manuscri"t is full of errors' absurdities and fantastic claimsK it
cannot be taken as a leitimate source!
[41]
The oldest available co", )as "ublished in 1D07!
[D1]
The com"osition of the te(t itself has been dated to 1=0-!
[41]
Mven then' the association of Bodhidharma
)ith martial arts onl, became )ides"read as a result of the 1.E-N1.E7 seriali&ation of the novel The Traels of Lao Ts)an in Illustrated 3iction 4aga,ine:
[D0]
One of the most recentl, invented and familiar of the Shaolin historical narratives is a stor, that claims that the Indian monk Bodhidharma' the
su""osed founder of Chinese Chan :Gen; Buddhism' introduced bo(in into the monaster, as a form of e(ercise around a!d! <0<! This stor, first
a""eared in a "o"ular novel' The Traels of Lao T5san' "ublished as a series in a literar, maa&ine in 1.E7! This stor, )as /uickl, "icked u" b,
others and s"read ra"idl, throuh "ublication in a "o"ular contem"orar, bo(in manual' Secrets of Shaolin Bo(in Hethods' and the first
Chinese "h,sical culture histor, "ublished in 1.1.! +s a result' it has en1o,ed vast oral circulation and is one of the most PsacredQ of the
narratives shared )ithin Chinese and Chinese%derived martial arts! That this stor, is clearl, a t)entieth%centur, invention is confirmed b,
)ritins oin back at least 0<E ,ears earlier' )hich mention both Bodhidharma and martial arts but make no connection bet)een the t)o!
[D4]
Works attributed to Bodhidharma
Two Entrances and 3our /ractices'
The (loodstream sermon
$harma Teaching of /acifying the 4ind
Treatise on 6eali,ing the 7ature
(odhidharma Treatise
6efuting Signs Treatise :a!k!a! 8ontemplation of 4ind Treatise;
#Rina D de 11 Bodhidharma % Liki"edia' the free enc,clo"edia
1-SEDS0E1- htt":SSen!)iki"edia!orS)ikiSBodhidharma
Two Types of Entrance
See also
Buddhism in China
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Tamil Buddhism
Kanchipuram
Daruma doll
List of Buddhist topics
4aster of Zen
Notes
1. ^ There are three principal sources for Bodhidharma's biograph!
"#$
%&ng 'u(n)h*'s +%ang ,s-an.chih/ The 6ecord of the (uddhist
4onasteries of Luoyang +012/3
T&nl4n's preface to the Two Entrances and 3our 0cts +5th centur C6/7
8hich is also preser9ed in Ching.ch-eh's 8hronicle of the Lan+aatar
4asters +21:.215/3
":$
D(o;u<n's +Tao.hsuan/ 3urther (iographies of Eminent 4on+s +2th
centur C6/.
#. ^ The origins 8hich are mentioned in these sources are!
=">$ monk of the ?estern Region named Bodhidharma7 a @ersian
Central >sian=
"5$
c.A. =from @ersia=
"2$
+(uddhist monasteries% 9:;/3
=">$ South Bndian of the ?estern Region. ,e 8as the third son of a
great Bndian king.=
"C$
+Tanlin% <th century 8E/3
="?$ho came from South Bndia in the ?estern Regions7 the third son of
a great Brahman king=
"D$
c.A. =the third son of a Brahman king of South
Bndia=
"2$
+Lan+aatara 4asters% ;=>!;=<
":$
?ca& ;=9
"2$
/3
="E$f South Bndian Brahman stock=
"1F$
c.A. =a Brahman monk from
South Bndia=
"2$
+3urther (iographies% <:9/.
See BodhidharmaGBirthplace sources for an e;tensi9e o9er9ie8 of possible
origins7 and the reliabilit of the sources pro9ided for these possible origins.
:. H
a -
See also South Bndia7 Dra9idian peoples7 Tamil people and Tamil
nationalism for backgrounds on the Tamil identit.
1. ^ >n Bndian tradition regards Bodhidharma to be the third son of a Tamil
@alla9a king from Kanchipuram.
"11$"1#$"note :$
The Tibetan and Southeast
traditions consistentl regard Bodhidharma as South Bndian7
"1:$
the former in
particular characterising him as a dark.skinned Dra9idian.
"11$
Con9ersel7 the
Iapanese tradition generall regards Bodhidharma to be from @ersia.
"8eb 1$
0. ^ D(o;u<n records that ,uJkK's arm 8as cut off b bandits.
"::$
5. ^ This e;change is recorded in the "@ngdA 6ecords of the Transmission of the
Lamp +ILngdM chu&ndNng lO / of D(ou&n 7 presented to the
emperor in 1FF1
2. ^ Parious names are gi9en for this nun. QRng)hL is also kno8n b her title SoSi7
and b Toren7 her nun name. Bn the "@ngdA 6ecords of the Transmission of
the Lamp7 Dharani repeats the 8ords said b the nun %uanSi in the Two
Entrances and 3our 0cts7 possibl identifing the t8o 8ith each other .
":1$
,eng.Ching Shih states that according to the "@ngdA chuBndng lC
the first UbhikVuniU mentioned in the Ch&n literature 8as a disciple of the Wirst
@atriarch of Chinese Ch&n Bodhidharma7 kno8n as QRng)hL "earl.mid
5th centur$
"8eb #$
C. ^ Bn the ShRbRgen)R chapter called Katto +=T8ining Pines=/ b
DRgen QenSi +1#FFX1#0:/7 she is named as one of Bodhidharma's
four Dharma heirs. >lthough the Wirst @atriarch's line continued through
another of the four7 Dogen emphasi)es that each of them had a complete
understanding of the teaching.
"8eb :$
D. ^
"11$
translates as =8all.e;amining=.
1F. ^ Broughton +1DDD!D/ offers a more literal rendering of the ke phrase
+nDng,hC bEguFn/ as ="8ho$ in a coagulated state abides in 8all.e;amining=.
11. ^ i,&7
"12$
8here a Tibetan Buddhist interpretation of =8all.ga)ing= as being
akin to D)ogchen is offered.
1#. ^ The =9olume= referred to is the Two Entrances and 3our 0cts.
References
1. ^ TcRae #FF:
#. ^ Dumoulin #FF07 p. C0.DF.
:. H
a - c
Dumoulin #FF07 p. CC.
1. ^ TcRae #FF:.
0. ^ Dumoulin #DD0.
5. H
a -
Broughton 1DDD7 p. 01X00.
2. H
a - c d e
TcRae #FF:7 p. #5.
C. H
a -
Broughton 1DDD7 p. C.
D. H
a -
Dumoulin #FF07 p. CD.
1F. ^ Dumoulin #FF07 p. C2.
11. H
a - c d e
Kambe +ear unkno8n/
1#. ^ Q9elebil 1DC27 p. 1#0.1#5.
1:. H
a - c
Shaikh >8ab #FF5.
11. H
a -
6dou 1DD5.
10. ^ Tacmillan +publisher/ #FF:7
p. 027 1:F.
15. ^ Soothill 1DD0.
12. H
a -
Broughton 1DDD!D
1C. ^ Broughton 1DDD!0:
1D. H
a -
Dumoulin #FF0!C2
#F. H
a -
Broughton 1DDD!05
#1. ^ Broughton 1DDD!1:D
##. H
a -
Broughton 1DDD!#
#:. ^ TcRae #FFF.
#1. ^ Dumoulin #FF0!CC
#0. H
a - c
Lin 1DD5!1C#
#5. ^ Broughton 1DDD!11D
#2. H
a -
Cook #FF:.
#C. ^ Broughton 1DDD!#X:
#D. H
a -
Taguire #FF17 p. 0C.
:F. ^ ?atts 1D5#7 p. 1F5.
:1. H
a - c
Lin 1DD57 p. 1C:.
:#. ^ Dumoulin #FF0!C5
::. ^ Broughton 1DDD7 p. 5#.
:1. ^ Broughton 1DDD7 p. 1:#.
:0. ^ Werguson7 pp 15.12
:5. ^ Waure 1DC57 p. 1C2.1DC.
:2. H
a - c
Yarfinkel #FF57 p. 1C5.
:C. ^ ?ong #FF17 p. Chapter :.
:D. ^ ,aines 1DD07 p. Chapter :.
1F. ^ 6dou 1DD57 p. :#7 p.1C1 n.#F.
11. ^ ?atts 1D0C7 p. :#.
1#. ^ Dumoulin #FF0!C0
1:. ^ Dumoulin #FF0!1F#
11. ^ Broughton 1DDD7 pp. D7 55.
10. ^ Red @ine 1DCD7 p. :7 emphasis
added.
15. H
a -
Dumoulin #FF0!D5
12. ^ Broughton 1DDD7 p. 52X5C.
1C. ^ Broughton 1DDD!5#
1D. H
a -
Dumoulin #FF0!CD
0F. ^ Dumoulin #FF07 p. 0#.
01. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 @reface
+http!GGlirs.ruGdoGlankaZengGlanka.
intro.htm[preface/
0#. ^ Kohn 1DD17 p. 1#0.
0:. ^ Sutton 1DD17 p. 1.
01. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 'LBB.
00. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 'B+a/.
05. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 'PB.
02. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 B'.
0C. ^ Su)uki 1D:#7 PBBB.
0D. ^ Dumoulin 1DD:7 p. :2.
5F. ^ Cole #FFD7 p. 2:X111.
51. ^ %ampolski #FF:7 p. 0.5.
5#. ^ Su)uki 1D1D7 p. 15C.
5:. ^ Chang 1D52.
51. ^ Su)uki 1D1C7 p. 0F.
50. ^ Diener 1DD17 p. #55.
55. ^ TcRae #FF:7 p. #1.
@&gina D de 11 Bodhidharma . ?ikipedia7 the free encclopedia
11GFCG#F11 http!GGen.8ikipedia.orgG8ikiGBodhidharma
67. ^ Dumoulin 2005:89
68. ^ McRae 2003:25
69. ^ Chaline 2003:2627
70. ^ Dumoulin 2005:8990
71. ^ Dumoulin 2005:90[1]
(htt:!!"oo#$.%oo%le.com.$%!"oo#$&
i'(9C)e*)t)+,-C.%(/090.'1(Dumoulin234ein5ich3"o'hi'ha5ma.hl(en.ei(16i37678-9:50;:<6C90=.$a(>.oi("oo#?5e$ult.ct(5e$ult.5e$num(1.@e'(0CC=A60B=00C@($niet.1(+o'hi'ha5maD
20,outhD20En'ian.;(;al$eF
72. ^ +5ou%hton (1999:2F
73. ^ Bitel (190-F
7-. ^ 0nan' G5i$hna (2005F.
(odhidharmaG 1ata 0wal adalah
1ata 0+hir (in En'one$ianF.
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4. ^ some in$ormation
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External links
Lssen!e o$ (aha=ana 0ra!ti!e (http:!tzen.or#sunn="aleenMSinde?.phpE
optionG!omK!ontentFtaskG"ie&FidG146F1temidG37) += +odhidharma, &ith annotations. 5lso kno&n as :The
)utline o$ 0ra!ti!e.: translated %= Chun# Tai Translation Committee
+odhidharma (http:&&&.onmarkprodu!tions.!omhtmldaruma.shtml)
Buddhist titles
0re!eded %=
Prajdhara
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"uike
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