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Setting Ground Rules 8 important things

to remember
No put downs. Everyone has the right to their beliefs, values and opinions.
No interruptions while someone is speaking.
Never refer to someone by name when giving an example.
Everyone has the right to speak or not to speak.
What other people say in class is confidential.
Respect other's cultural and religious traditions, beliefs, values and languages.
Use correct terminology.
Always support each other.
Important Milestones
Brainpop - Growing
Why do we change? - BBC
Puberty for Boys
NB: Copyrights were not obtained for this material, so web links have been supplied for ease of reference
Changes during puberty - Boys
Physical Emotional Social
Brainpop - Puberty Boots - Puberty
WhaLs Pappenlng?
Brainpop Puberty
WhaL ls uberLy?
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WhaL ls uberLy?
The cells necessary to make a new human
egg + sperm = baby

We wlll Lalk abouL Lhe changes LhaL
happen LhaL oLhers can see

And changes LhaL are prlvaLe

When we talk about these things
IT IS NORMAL to feel
LxclLed Shy
When do changes happen?
! anywhere beLween 8 and 17
! mosL people begln beLween Lhe ages of 10 and 14
! when you sLarL makes no dlerence Lo how you develop
! no age ls beuer any oLher one
! lor some, mosL of Lhe changes happen ln a few years
! lor some, changes happen slowly over loLs of years
=>!7 !7 ?<@ABC
WhaL changes happen Lo boys?
! Crow Laller and heavler
! 8ones grow blgger and heavler
! nose and [aw geL blgger and face geLs longer
! CeL more muscles
! Palr and skln can become olly and you may
geL plmples
! 8ody sweaLs more
! Palr grows on Lhe face, under Lhe armplLs,
around Lhe genlLals (publc halr).
BBC Interactive Body
WhaL changes happen Lo boys?
! May geL more halr on arms, legs and
! volce geLs deeper
! enls and Lesucles grow
! ScroLum changes
! May have mood swlngs, sexual
LhoughLs and feellngs
! 8reasLs may grow
WhaL causes Lhese changes?
! Pormones - chemlcal messengers LhaL Lravel ln Lhe blood
sLream from Lhe place where Lhey are made (called
glands) Lo Lhe place where Lhey do Lhelr work
! Lach hormone has a speclc [ob
! 1he plLulLary gland, deep lnslde your braln, geLs Lhlngs
sLarLed. lL sends ouL hormones Lo our sex organs Lo geL
Lhem Lo sLarL maklng sex hormones
WhaL causes Lhese changes?
! lL ls Lhe sex hormones LhaL make Lhe changes LhaL cause
chlldren's bodles grow lnLo adulL bodles.
! 8oLh boys and glrls make Lhe same sex hormones. 1he
maln ones are LesLosLerone and esLrogen
! 8oys make loLs of LesLosLerone, noL so much esLrogen
! Clrls make loLs of esLrogen, noL so much LesLosLerone
Brainpop - Hormones
WhaL causes Lhese changes?
What will I look like when I grow up?
That depends mostly on your HEREDITY, the GENES you got when an egg cell
and a sperm cell from your birth parents came together to make the cells
that developed into you
What will I look like when I grow up?
Genes mostly determine how tall you will grow, the colour of your hair, the size and shape of
your penis or breasts and your overall body shape.
Other things that affect our body are the foods we eat, how active we are and how much sleep
we get.
Brainpop Reproductive System
WhaL are Lhe sex organs?
1hese parLs are also called Lhe reproducuve organs and genlLals

1esucles or 1esLes
1he parLs are:
WhaL are Lhe sex organs?
- Lhe Lube Lhrough whlch urlne and semen leaves Lhe boy's
- Lube-llke organ LhaL hangs ouLslde Lhe body
- come ln all slzes and shapes, deLermlned by our genes
1esucles or LesLes
- usually Lwo, one hangs lower
- Someumes called balls or nuLs
- Where sperm are made
- bag of skln LhaL holds Lesucles
- keeps Lhem aL rlghL LemperaLure Lo make sperm, sllghLly
cooler Lhan body's LemperaLure
- geLs blgger and baggler and Lurns a darker colour
WhaL happens on Lhe lnslde?
! Pormones from Lhe plLulLary make Lhe Lesucles grow and
Lhey sLarL maklng more LesLosLerone and produclng sperm
! Aer puberLy you make !""#""" % &""#""" sperm cells a
day for Lhe resL of your llfe
! Sperm bulld up ln Lubes around Lhe Lesucles
! 1hey Lravel along some Lubes and mlx wlLh ulds from glands
WhaL happens on Lhe lnslde?
! Sperm + ulds
= semen
Pow does Lhe semen come ouL?
If semen is going to come out, the
penis is likely to be erect
A penis gets erect when blood
rushes into it
Muscles push the semen into the
urethra and out the penis
This is called an ejaculation.
WhaL can cause an erecuon?
! 8oys geL erecuons for all klnds of reasons - Lhey mlghL
happen lf you :
! Are Lhlnklng abouL someLhlng sexy
! When you wake ln Lhe mornlng and have Lo pee
! When you are relaxed
! When you are anxlous or frlghLened
! lor no reason aL all

WhaL can cause an erecuon?
! 8oys geL Lhelr rsL erecuons
before Lhey are born!
When does e[aculauon happen?
! lf a boy wakes up and nds a weL, sucky spoL on hls
bedcloLhes semen came ouL when he was sleeplng. 1hls
ls called a weL dream"
! lf a boy Louches or rubs hls penls and lL geLs erecL and
semen comes ouL. 1hls ls called masLurbauon.
! Some boys have weL dreams, some don'L
! Some boys masLurbaLe, some don'L
! Powever lL happens ls okay
uoes penls slze mauer?
! 1esucles grow rsL so your penls may look as lf lL ls shrlnklng.
! lL lsn'L
! lL can Lake a whlle for your penls Lo grow.
! enlses, llke noses and ears and hands, come ln all slzes and shapes and
colours. 1hey vary how Lhey curve and suck ouL when erecL.
! enlses, when erecL, are more allke ln slze Lhan when Lhey are so.
! 1hey all work.
So whaL are normal feellngs?
! ?ou may sLarL Lo Lhlnk abouL glrls and klsslng and
! Some guys don'L Lhlnk abouL any of Lhls sLu
! Some have crushes and fall ln love
! Some don'L
! Some geL angry aL parenLs
What's what?
Draw a line to match the word with the description:

The organ which produces sperm and testosterone.

Both semen and urine are released through this tube.

This coarse hair that develops during puberty.

Two thin tubes which carry sperm.

The thick loose skin covering the testicles.

Produces some of the fluid in semen.

The male sex organ, made of spongy tissue.

The skin covering the end of the penis.


Pubic hair




Vas deferens



Puberty for Girls
Changes during puberty - Girls
Physical Emotional Social
Brainpop - Puberty Boots - Puberty
Whats Happening?
What is Puberty?
! It is the time when our bodies change toward an
adult body.
Start to develop new feelings
and interests
Start to make sperm cells or
start to make egg cells
We will talk about the changes that
happen that others can see.

And changes that are private.

When we talk about these things
it is normal to feel
Comfortable Curious
Excited Shy
When do changes happen?
Anywhere between 8 and 17.
Most people begin between the ages of 10 and 14.
When you start makes no difference to how you develop.
No age is better any other one.
! For some, most of the changes happen in a few years.
! For some, changes happen slowly over lots of years.
This is normal.
What changes happen to girls?
! Hair grows under the armpits,
around the genitals (pubic hair)
! Hair on arms and legs grows
! Breasts and nipples get larger
! Body sweats more
! Internal and external sex organs
! May have mood swings, sexual
thoughts and feelings
BBC Interactive Body
What changes happen to girls?
! Get taller and heavier
! Bones grow bigger and heavier
! Hips get wider and more curvy
! Face changes shape
! Voice gets a little deeper
What causes these changes?
! Hormones chemical messengers
that travel in the blood stream from
the place where they are made
(called glands) to the place where
they do their work.
! Each hormone has a specific job.
! The pituitary gland, deep inside your
brain, gets things started. It sends
out hormones to our sex organs to
get them to start making sex
What causes these changes?
! It is the sex hormones that make the
changes that cause childrens bodies
grow into adult bodies.
! Both boys and girls make the same
sex hormones. The main ones are
testosterone and estrogen.
! Boys make lots of testosterone, not
so much estrogen.
! Girls make lots of estrogen, not so
much testosterone.
What will I look like when I grow up?
That depends mostly on your heredity, the genes you got when an egg
cell and a sperm cell from your birth parents came together to make the
cells that developed into you.
What will I look like when I grow up?
Genes mostly determine how tall you will grow, the colour of your hair, the
size and shape of your breasts and your overall body shape.
Other things that affect our body are the foods we eat, how active we are
and how much sleep we get.
What are the sex organs?
These parts are also called the reproductive organs and genitals.
The parts on the outside are:
The area of soft skin between a females
Small organ made of nerves and tissue.
At the top where the lips join.
Only the tip is on the outside, the rest is
hidden inside.
Sensitive to touch. Can feel tingly and
Soft folds of skin that cover the inner parts
Grow darker and bigger at puberty.
Not a sex organ.
Tiny opening that urine comes out from
the bladder.
Vaginal opening
Entrance to the vagina.
Thin piece of skin that may cover part of
the opening to the vagina.
Often small or missing.
Between the two cheeks of the buttocks.
It is where bowel movements come out.
What are the sex organs?
The parts on the inside are:
Sometimes called the womb.
Muscular organ about the size of
a pear.
Where developing baby, called a
fetus, grows and is fed.
Where the period comes from.
Warm, soft, moist passageway
joining outside and uterus.

Fallopian tubes
Narrow tubes between the uterus
and the ovary.
Glands that make egg cells and
female sex hormones.
The lower part of the uterus.
Makes mucus to keep sperm alive.
Has opening through which
menstrual fluid can pass out of the
uterus or sperm can enter.
The parts on the inside are:
So what about Breasts?
! Lots of girls feel nervous when their
breasts start to grow, other girls are thrilled.
Will they be too big or too
Will they be the
right shape?
YES - finally they
are growing!
So what about Breasts?
! Your genes determine the size and shape of breasts.
! The size does not affect how much milk a mother can
make to feed a baby.
! The first thing you may notice is a bump behind the
! Then there will be swelling underneath
! The nipple are gets darker.
! Breasts grow slowly and one side may be bigger for
! They may feel sore at times while they are developing.
Do I have to wear a bra?
! That is up to you.
! Some girls never wear bras.
! Some girls feel more comfortable wearing one.
Im worried that I will get fat when I go
through puberty. Can I stop it?
! Females body shape changes and hips widen to make
more space for a fetus to develop.
! At puberty, both guys and girls gain weight and develop
different strengths.
! Guys put on more muscle. Compared to a girl of the
same height, weight and build, the guy may be able to
lift more weight and run faster.
Im worried that I will get fat when I go
through puberty. Can I stop it?
! Girls build up adipose tissue fat, which is energy
stored in our body in our upper arms, breasts, thighs and
! Energy is needed for breast feeding and looking after a
newborn child.
! Girls can survive things, like hunger and extreme heat
and cold, better than a guy of her size.
What about feelings?
! Both girls and guys can experience lots of feelings as they grow up.
What about feelings?
! You may have mood swings happy one day, sad the next.
! You may love your friends or family at times and not want to have anything
to do with them at other times.
! Sometimes you may feel grown-up, other times like a kid
! There may be lots of tears and arguments.
! Changing hormones cause some of these feelings.
Sexual feelings
You may think about or have dreams about things such as:
Kissing someone
Naked bodies
Being touched
Falling in love
It could be someone your age, someone older, someone you know or
someone you dont know like a celebrity.

Sexual feelings
! When females get sexual feelings they can have a tingly feeling around
their sex organs.
The vagina gets wet.
Some females touch their sex parts to get the intense feeling called
orgasm. This is called masturbation. Some girls do it, some dont.
What are periods?
Brainstorm what we think we know about periods:
What are periods?
To explore your knowledge of periods, discuss the questions
on the following two pages and answer true or false.
Talking about periods can sometimes make people feel
When females get their period, they'll notice that a
small amount of blood will leak from their vagina.
x x
What are periods?
x X
Bleeding usually lasts for a month.
Every female loses the same amount of menstrual
True False
What are periods?
Brainpop - Periods
! Girls are born with hundreds of thousands of
tiny eggs, called ova one is called an
! These egg cells are only half formed.
! At puberty, hormones tell the ovaries it is
time to start releasing ova.
! Usually one egg at a time matures
(develops) and is released from an ovary.
So what are periods
and why do they happen?
! At the same time, the uterus starts to grow a
thick lining on the inside wall.
The lining has lots of tiny blood vessels.
The lining is there to protect and feed an egg
that has combined with a sperm to form a
fertilized egg.
So what are periods
and why do they happen?
If an egg does not meet a sperm, the lining is
not needed.
It breaks up.
Mixed with some blood it comes out the
uterus into the vagina and then out the
vaginal opening.
This is called menstruation but lots of females
just call it their period.
If a woman is not pregnant then her ovary
will release another egg, the lining build up
and, if the egg is not fertilized, she has
another period.
This is called the menstrual cycle.
So what are periods
and why do they happen?
How do girls feel about having periods?
! Nervous
! Scared
! Excited
! Curious
! Weird
! Mature
All feelings are normal
When will I get my period?
! No one can tell exactly when it will start.
! Many girls get some white or yellow stuff on their underwear.
! It is mucus and tells the girl that her period is coming sometime within
the next year.
How long will the bleeding last?
Each female is different. It can vary from 3 8 days.
During a period we only lose a few tablespoons to about half a cup of blood
in that time not a lot.
How often will I get a period?
! At first there may not be any pattern to
when you will get your next period.
! Some women never have a regular pattern.
! Most women eventually have a regular
cycle they know approximately when their
next period will happen.
! The length of a cycle is from the first day of
bleeding one month to the first day of
bleeding the next time it happens.
! Each person is different so some women
may have a period every 23 days, some
every 28 days and some every 35 days.
Lots of girls keep a calendar
to help them keep track of when they
have their period
and how long it lasts.
Will it hurt?
! The bleeding is like a nosebleed we dont know it is happening until we
become aware that we have blood on our underwear.
! Some girls get cramps tight pains around the uterus before and for a day
or two during their period.
! Some girls get cramps every period, some once in awhile and some never.
! If you get them, talk to your mom or another woman about what to do for them.
Will people know when I get my
! Not unless you tell them.
! The blood usually dribbles out a bit at a time, it doesnt gush out in a
What do I do when I get my period?
! Females use pads or tampons to catch the blood that comes from the vagina.
! Sanitary pads are made of material that absorbs the blood.
! Most have a sticky strip on one side to hold the pad to the underwear.
! Pads come in a variety of sizes and shapes.
What do I do when I get my period?
! A tampon is a small plug of material that fits inside the females vagina to
absorb the blood.
! Some girls like to use tampons, especially if they are doing physical
! Some girls only use pads.
It is up to you.
People say you get PMS with periods.
What is it and will I get it?
! PMS stands for premenstrual syndrome.
Some females start to feel weepy, headachy and bloated.
! Before and when their period comes. It happens because the hormones
are changing.
! Some females never have PMS.
! Everyone is different!
! If this happens to you talk to an adult you trust.
The Menstrual Cycle
On average, a menstrual cycle lasts around 28 to 30 days, but
because were all different, a cycle can range from 21 to 35 days.
The Menstrual Cycle
The period is considered the beginning of the menstrual cycle. A
period normally lasts for around five days, but can be as short as
two days or as long as seven. There will usually be around 2-6
tablespoons of blood lost during each period, depending on the
heaviness of the flow. A period occurs because the uterus will shed
its lining if an egg (ovum) is not fertilised.
The Menstrual Cycle
One of the ovaries releases an egg and the uterus begins to
rebuild its lining. Only one egg is released each cycle. The egg
will slowly travel down the fallopian tube from the ovaries
towards the uterus. If the egg is fertilised by a sperm before it
arrives in the uterus, a girl will fall pregnant.
The Menstrual Cycle
If the egg isnt fertilised, the uterus wall will continue to thicken until
there is a sudden drop in hormone levels. The lining will then break
down, and another period will begin.
The Menstrual Cycle
Follow the link below to view a flash version of the menstrual
NB: Copyrights were not obtained for this material, so web links have been supplied for ease of reference
The Menstrual Cycle
Draw a line to match the description to the word.
This releases an egg

Allows the egg to move towards
the uterus

The process of releasing an egg

These are tiny eggs

Controls menstruation

When the extra lining of the
uterus is no longer needed it
comes out through the uterus

Fallopian tube




The Menstrual Cycle
This releases an egg: Ovary

Allows the egg to move towards the uterus: Fallopian tube

The process of releasing an egg: Ovulation

These are tiny eggs: Ova

Controls menstruation: Oestrogen

When the extra lining of the uterus is no longer needed it
comes out through the uterus: Period

The Menstrual Cycle
Draw a line to match the time period with the process.
Period begins

2-6 tbsp blood loss

Uterus sheds its lining

Drop in hormone levels

Egg travels down the fallopian

Uterus wall continues to thicken

An ovary releases an egg

Lining begins to break down
Day 1-7

Day 8-14

Day 15-28
The Menstrual Cycle
Period begins: Day 1-7

2-6 tbsp blood loss: Day 1-7

Uterus sheds its lining: Day 1-7

Drop in hormone levels: Day 15-28

Egg travels down the fallopian tube: Day 8-14

Uterus wall continues to thicken: Day 15-28

An ovary releases an egg: Day 8-14

Lining begins to break down: Day 15-28

Getting your first period
Getting your first period can be quite a surprise.

Q: How will I know when I get my first period?
A: Usually, when you go to the toilet.

Q: What will I see ?
A: Dark colouring in your undies, menstrual blood.

Q: What colour is normal for menstrual blood ?
A: Anything from bright red to dark brown.

Q: How much menstrual blood is there ?
A: The amount differs for each woman.
Hint: The beginning of the period usually has heavier
bleeding and it gradually lightens up until it is finished.
Getting your first period
Getting your first period
Are there and early warning signs to indicate, that you are about
to get your first period?
You may notice underarm and pubic hair growth

White vaginal discharge

You may feel bloated or experience cramps

Your mood may change without reason

You may become more sensitive to emotions
Myths & Misconceptions
Most girls have been told at least one myth about menstruation. Discuss
with the class some of the myths and misconceptions associated with
Some myths and misconceptions are:
Dont participate in sport (strenuous activity) & swimming while you
Dont use Tampons when you are a virgin because you might break your hymen.
Tampons are bad for you because they go inside your body and could get lost.
Its impossible to get pregnant while you are menstruating
Dont wash your hair while you are menstruating
Its unhealthy to have sex while you are menstruating (a student may bring this
up so be prepared)
Swimming in the ocean when you have your period will get you eaten by a
Visit for more myths.

Sharing an experience
Getting your period for the first time is different for every girl.
Sharing your experience with your close friends of family may help
other feel that they are not alone.

Erin would like to share her experience
with you.

Click on her photo & listen
Dont want to be caught unaware by your first period ?
Have a few products on hand just in case!

Q: Where can I buy sanitary products?
A: 1. Ask your mum, OR
2. Buy your own at a convenience store, petrol
station, chemist or supermarket

Q: What should I buy?
A: You will notice there are two options: pads and
1. Pads = an easy option for getting started
Eg U by Kotex Ultrathin Pads.
2. Tampons = to start with, try the smaller ones (called
minis) as they are usually easier to insert.
Being prepared
Buying your new product
It may seem embarrassing buying tampons or pads at first. In fact, in
most circumstances it is even harder for males than females to
purchase tampons or pads. Follow the link below and see what you
NB: Copyrights were not obtained for this material, so web links have been supplied for ease of reference
Pads & Tampons
Pads and Tampons are designed to absorb menstrual blood during your period.
They are made from absorbent materials, that effectively absorb blood during
your period

The major difference between pads and tampons, is that a tampon is worn
inside the vagina and pads and panty liners are worn outside the vagina, in your

Whatever you choose to use, both pads and tampons are healthy and safe ways
to absorb your menstrual flow.
How do pads work?
Pads are made of absorbent material and are designed to soak
up the menstrual fluid. Many girls prefer to use pads when they
first get their period, but you can choose pads or tampons.

U by Kotex Ultrathins are available in Regular,
Super and Overnight absorbencies:

Use regular absorbency is great for everyday regular-flow
Super and Overnight absorbency is perfect for heavy flow and
overnight use.

View the video experiment before conducting it yourself.
Which pad is for when?
Q: How do tampons work?
A: The great thing about using tampons is that theyre really discreet and they
provide you with loads of freedom so you can get on with whatever you want to
do. The muscles inside your vagina will hold the tampon in place so it cant fall

Q: How often do I change a tampon?
A: This will depend on the heaviness of your flow. However, it is recommended
that you change a tampon every four hours.

Q: When can I use tampons?
A: Any time! You wont have to cancel that trip to the beach or dodge that pool
party, because you can even wear tampons when you go swimming. Now and
then tampons may absorb some water, but dont worry, this will only cause the
tampon to become a little wet and youll just need to change it for a fresh one
after youve dried off.

How much can a tampon absorb?
Mini tampons will absorb about two teaspoons. Use Mini tampons
when your flow is light.

Regular tampons can absorb about 2.5 teaspoons. Regular tampons
are great for when youre experiencing medium flow.

Super tampons can absorb about 3.5 teaspoons. Super tampons are
perfect for when your flow is at its
heaviest, particularly in the middle of your
How do tampons absorb menstrual fluid? Touch the picture,
watch a teacher conduct the experiment and then have a go
Final Activity
Each student writes down at least one question relating to puberty or
menstruation and places it in a box at the front.

This activity is an anonymous exercise and it is advised the teacher
endeavours to ensure no one can recognise who wrote the question.

The aim of this activity is to give the students a safe way to ask any questions
that might have arisen from the unit of learning.

The teacher pulls the questions out of the box and the class discusses the
question and thinks through best responses.

If nobody can answer the question (the teacher will find out before the next