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Shaft Analysis

Lecture 18

Engineering 473
Machine Design
3
Bending Stresses Due to
Stationary Loads
M3
Combining Eq’3 1,3, and 4
c2
c3 2
θ M 2 r sin θ M 3 r cos θ
σb = −
M2 I I

M r sin θ M 3 r cos θ
Eq. 1 M 22 r M 32 r
σb = 2 − σb = − −
I I I I
M = M 22 + M 32 Eq. 3
− M2 M 22 + M 32 ⋅ r
sin θ = σb = −
M I
Eq’s 4
M3
cos θ =
M
Shaft Stress Equations
(Bending and Torsion Only)
Reference Bending Stress Torsional Stress
Mc Tc
σx = τ xy =
M = M 2y + M 2z I J

64Md 32 M Td
c=d 2 σx = = 2 = 16T
2π ⋅ d 4
πd 3 τ xy =
πd 4 32 πd 3
πd 4 Principal Stresses
I=
64 σx æ σx ö
2

σ1 , σ 2 = ± ç ÷ + τ 2xy
2 è 2 ø
πd 4 16M
2
æ 16M ö æ 16T ö
2
J = 2I = σ1 , σ 2 = ± ç 3 ÷ +ç 3 ÷
32 πd 3
è πd ø è πd ø
16
[
σ1 , σ 2 = 3 M ± M 2 + T 2
πd
]
Yielding in Ductile Material
(No Stress Concentration)

Distortion Energy Theory


Syt
(σ2
1 + σ − σ1σ 2
2
2 )
1
2

ns
σ3 = 0

Circular Shaft
16
[
σ1 , σ 2 = 3 M ± M 2 + T 2
πd
]
Distortion Energy Theory for Shaft

Syt
16
πd 3
(
4M 2
+ 3T 2
) 1
3

ns
Static Loading Minimum
Diameter

Syt
16
πd 3
(4M 2
+ 3T 2
) 1
3

ns

1 This equation is useful in


æ 32n s 3 2 ö÷
3
coming up with an initial
d=ç M + T
2
ç πS 4 ÷ø shaft size early in the
è yt
design process.
Shaft Stress Equations
(Bending, Axial, and Torsional Loading)

Axial Stress
32M 4P
σx = 3
+ 2
πd πd

Principal Stresses
2
σ1 , σ 2 = 3 é8M + Pd ±
êë
(8M + Pd )2 + (8T )2 ùú
πd û

Distortion Energy Theory


4 Syt
3
(8M + Pd ) + 48T ≤
2 2

πd ns
Fatigue Analysis of Shafts
Bending Stresses

Torsional Stresses
τ
Shear Stress

Time
Shaft von Mises Stress
Equation
2 2 2
Von Mises Equation æ σx ö æ σx ö æ σx ö æ σx ö
σ1 = ç ÷ + 2ç ÷ ç ÷ + τ xy + ç ÷ + τ 2xy
2 2

Syt
( 2
1
σ1 + σ 2 − σ1σ 2 ≤
2 2
)
ns
è 2 ø è 2 ø è 2 ø è 2 ø
2 2 2
æ σx ö æ σx ö æ σx ö æ σx ö
σ 2 = ç ÷ − 2ç ÷ ç ÷ + τ xy + ç ÷ + τ 2xy
2 2

è 2 ø è 2 ø è 2 ø è 2 ø
Principal Stress
æ σ x ö ìïæ σ x ö ü
2 2
Equation 2 ï
σ1σ 2 = ç ÷ − íç ÷ + τ xy ý = − τ 2xy
2 è 2 ø ïîè 2 ø ïþ
σx æσ ö
σ1 , σ 2 = ± ç x ÷ + τ 2xy
2 è 2 ø
Shaft Equivalent Stress

Syt
σ eff = σ + 3τ
2
x
2
xy ≤
ns
Effective Alternating and
Mean Stresses

σ eff = σ 2x + 3τ 2xy Since the bending stress is


completely reversed, the only mean
stress component is due to the shear
σ eff,a = σ x stress. Since the shear stress is
constant, the only alternating is
equal to the maximum bending
σ eff,m = 3τ xy stress.
ANSI Standard Fatigue
Curve
A

ANSI Standard B106.1M-1985, “Design of Transmission


Shafting”, American National Standards Institute, 1985, is
based on the ASME Elliptic Fatigue Interaction Curve.
ASME Elliptic
Fatigue Equation

2 2
æ n sk f σa ö æ n sσm ö
çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ =1
S ç S ÷
è e ø è yt ø

This equation is used to determine whether the shaft will


have infinite life. Note that the fatigue stress concentration
factor has only been applied to the alternating stress. Also,
the Marin factors need to be used to estimate the endurance
limit.
Minimum Diameter Equation
(Bending and Torsion Only)

πd 3 2 2
S= æ n s k f M ö æ n sT 3 ö
32 çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ =1
ç ÷
è S ⋅ Se ø è 2S ⋅ S yt ø

σ=M
S é 2 2
ù
n æ
2
k M
æ s ö êç f ÷ ö 3 æ T ö
ç ÷ ç + ç ÷ ú =1
è S ø êè Se ÷ø 4 çè S yt ÷ø ú
τ=T ë û
2S

2 2
æ kf M ö 3 æ T ö
2 2
æ n sk f σa ö æ n sσm ö 32n s
çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ =1 çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ = 1
ç ÷ πd 3 ç ÷
è Se ø è S yt ø è Se ø 4 è Syt ø
Minimum Diameter Equation
(Bending and Torsion Only)

2 2
32n s æ kf M ö 3 æ T ö This equation gives the
çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ = 1
πd 3 ç ÷ minimum diameter
è Se ø 4 è S yt ø
shaft that will result in
infinite fatigue life,
1
é 2 2 ù 3 and appears in the
ê 32n s æ kf M ö 3 æ T ö ú ANSI Standard.
d= çç ÷÷ + ç ÷
ê π ç ÷ ú
êë è Se ø 4 è S yt ø úû
Summary of Shaft Stress
Analysis Methodology
1
é 2 2 ù 3
32n s æ kf M ö 3 æ T ö
d=ê çç ÷÷ + ç ÷ ú
ê π ç ÷ ú
êë è Se ø 4 è S yt ø úû
1. Establish factor of safety that will be used in the design.
2. Draw axial,shear, bending, and torsion diagrams. May
require orthogonal shear and bending diagrams.
3. Determine loads acting on the shaft (M,P, and T) at
critical locations.
4. Compute stress concentration factors.
5. Estimate endurance limit using test data or 0.5Sut and
the Marin factors.
6. Use above equation or equivalent to determine if shaft is
acceptable.
Assignment
The shaft shown in the figure receives 110 hp from a
water turbine through a chain sprocket at point C. The
gear pair at E delivers 80 hp to an electrical generator.
The V-belt sheave at A delivers 30 hp to a bucket
elevator that carries grain to an elevated hopper. The
shaft rotates at 1,700 rpm. The sprocket, sheave, and
gear are located axially by retaining rings. The sheave
and gear are keyed with sled runner keyseats, and there
is a profile keyseat at the sprocket. The shaft is made
from AISI 1040 cold-drawn steel, and has a yield
strength of 71 ksi and and ultimate strength of 80 ksi.
Using a design factor of safety of 3, determine the
minimum diameters at each section on of the shaft.
Assignment
(Continued)

Mott, Figure 12-13