Anda di halaman 1dari 14

A tradio

interpretativa de
rabinos e cabalistas,
a crtica literria e
a traduo
*
)
' Estc artic crsa scbrc ur dcs tcras
uc abcrdci cr rinha tcsc dc dcutc-
rarcntc, cua rclcrcncia biblicralica
cnccntra-sc nc linal dc rcsrc.
'' lrclcsscra-Adunta dc lcpartarcntc dc
Lct r as Est r anci r as Mcdcr nas c dc
Mcstradc cr Tccria da Litcratura da FlF.
Maria C|ara Caste||es
de O|iveira
""
Abstract
Appr cach t c s crc cl t hc
rclaticns arcn thc traditicn cl
intcrprctaticn prcscnt in thc
lcWish ccntcxt, as it has bccn
dccl cpcd b, r abbi s and
cabalists, thc critical litcrar, pcst-
structuralist thcuht, and thc
translaticn thccriaticn cl lcWish
intcllcctuals.
Keywords: lcWish kabbinical
i ntcrprctati c ccntcxt, pcst-
structuralist litcrar, criticisr,
cabalistic translaticn rctaphcrs.
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0
&
C IcxIo ~Ic u :IIc.Io ~]c:Io:o . Ic Jo
:c.oc.c c c :c:]ouc J: uII~: c o~: ]~I~:~:
IIc:]:cI~II~: uc Ic :Jo uI:IIu~:. /c]oI: uc o IcxIo
~.~ou uc I~I~:, Iuuo o uc c ouIuo c ~ oz uo IIc:]:cIc.
I~: c::~: ]~I~:~: uo IIc:]:cIc Ic u~ Iu,Jo uI~IcII.~
I~c, ]o:uc, ~ uc:]cIIo uc :u~ uI:IJ.I~ ~IIcIc~,
cI~: ou:~ uII:~]~::~: ~ I~.u~ I:Io:I.~ c cuI~:
u~Iuc: .ouI.~,Jo I~:uI~ uc u IcxIo ]o::~ cxII:.
Michacl Fishbanc
1
1. Introduco
pcc udaicc, durantc scculcs, scbrcicu scr uc ticssc ur pcdacc
dc tcrra a uc pudcssc charar dc patria. Nc cntantc, a dcspcitc dcssc latc,
clc pcrrancccu unidc na histcria, cr luncc dc scu apcc a ur lirc,
' Lirc', dc tal rcdc uc a tradicc udaica tcrncu-sc 'ur ccrcntaric
inlinitc scbrc ur Tcxtc !aradc, uc scinhc dcu ac scu pcc ur rcic dc
supcrtar c ur scntidc para supcrtar'
2
. As intcrprctacccs nc ccntcxtc udaicc
lcrar rcspcnsacis pclc surircntc da 7o:J cu IcI~Icu.o, cs cincc lircs dc
Mciscs, assir tarbcr ccrc dcs IIu:~:I, intcrprctacccs s uais cs rabincs
antics subrctcrar as palaras das Escrituras, c da cabala, cnsinarcntcs
risticcs cxtraidcs das Escrituras pclcs udcus. s IIu:~:I, lcrra plural dc
IIu:~:, palara dcriada dc u~:~:, uc sinilica 'indaar', 'incstiar',
'intcrprctar', ticrar inicic nc scculc ll da cra crist c ccssarar dc scr rcaliadcs
nc scculc Xlll. Elcs sc cnccntrar cntrc as lcrras rais ccnhccidas dc cxccsc
das Escrituras c lcrar crprccndidcs 'ccr a linalidadc dc dclas cxtraircr
lcis c cnsinarcntcs nc aparcntcs cr ura lcitura supcrlicial'
S
. s IIu:~:I,
alcr dc tcrcr sidc inccrpcradcs nc 7~Iuuc, tarbcr icrar a scr rcunidcs
cr lircs scparadcs. lcr sua c, a cabala, uc sinilica 'tradicc', dcscnclcu-
sc ncs scculcs Xl c Xll. Essc sistcra intcrprctatic dcstincu-sc a cxtrair cs
scntidcs intcrncs c ccultcs das Escrituras, dc tal rcdc uc 'a lci da Tcra
tcrncu-sc ur sirbclc da lci ccsrica, c a histcria dc pcc udcu, ur sirbclc
dc prcccssc ccsricc'
+
.
As intcrprctacccs dc rabincs c cabalistas sc rcstrinirar acs uctcs,
cnclacs uc tracarar cs liritcs da ida dc udcu nas sccicdadcs ccidcntais,
atc a Erancipacc, iniciada nc ultirc uartcl dc scculc X\lll. Ncssc rcrcntc,
1 Tcxtc criinal. 'Thc tcxt raintains a 'racstic silcncc.' lt ncithcr ackncWlcdcs ncr rcspcnds tc thc
ran, ncW, intcrprctin Wcrds Which addrcss it. Altcr thc tcxt has ccascd tc spcak, all that is hcard
is thc cicc cl thc intcrprctcr. but thcsc Wcrds cl thc intcrprctcr hac a dialcctal luncticn as Wcll,
lcr dcspitc thcir alicn distancc, thc, darc crcss ccr thc histcrical ap and rcdiatc Whatccr lattcr-
da, ccrrunicaticn a tcxt riht ,icld' |Fl!HbANE, 1??2, p.11S).
2 Tcxtc criinal. '...cndlcss ccrrcntar, cn a !acrcd Tcxt, Which alcnc ac its pccplc a rcans tc
cndurc and a rcanin tc cndurc' |HANlELMAN, 1?82. p. 18?).
S Tcxtc criinal. '...in crdcr tc rakc it ,icld laWs and tcachins nct apparcnt in a surlacc rcadin'
|lACb!, 1??5. p. S+5).
+ !CHLEM, 1?88. p. ?.
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra
'
a tradicc dc intcrprctacc nc ccntcxtc udaicc-rabinicc, rcstrita ac tcxtc
biblicc, sc sccularicu. Entrc as disciplinas uc abscrcrar as tccnicas dc
intcrprctacc dc rabincs c cabalistas cnccntra-sc a critica litcraria, tal ccrc
tccriada c praticada ccntcrpcrancarcntc pcr intclcctuais udaiccs, nc
ccntcxtc dc pcs-cstruturalisrc. !usan Handclran |1?82) lci ura das
prirciras cstudicsas a rclacicnar a cspccilicidadc da critica litcraria dc cxtracc
udaica ac ccntcxtc udaicc-rabinicc. s cstudcs dc Handclran, aliadcs a
pcrccpcccs a dcscnclidas antcricrrcntc, pcrritcr-rc arurcntar uc ha
ura cspccilicidadc na tccriacc tradutcria rcaliada pcr intclcctuais udaiccs,
tarbcr inculada ac ccntcxtc intcrprctatic udaicc-rabinicc.
cbctic dcstc artic c, pcrtantc, ilurinar aluns pcntcs dc intcrsccc
cntrc c rcdc dc intcrprctacc das Escrituras pcr partc dc pcc udaicc c c
pcnsarcntc dc intclcctuais dc cricr udaica uc sc scbrcssacr nc ccntcxtc
pcs-cstruturalista ccidcntal ac sc ranilcstarcr scbrc a critica litcraria c a
traducc. Er prircirc luar, abcrdarci as rclacccs cntrc c ccntcxtc intcrprctatic
udaicc-rabinicc c as pcsturas dc lacucs lcrrida c Harcld blccr scbrc
litcratura para, cr scuida, dcsclar c uantc c pcnsarcntc tradutcric dc
intclcctuais ccrc waltcr bcnarin, Fran kcscnWci c c prcpric lcrrida,
cntrc cutrcs, sc ccnstrci cr tcrnc dc ccnccitcs c rctalcras prccnicntcs dc
ccntcxtc cabalisticc dc intcrprctacc.
2. errida e 8|oom e a tradico interpretativa [udaico-rabnica
lacucs lcrrida c Harcld blccr, arbcs dc cricr udaica, nc apcnas
dcrar prcsscuircntc tradicc dc intcrprctacc nascida nc ccntcxtc das
Escrituras, ccrc tarbcr sc alcrar da nccc, prcscntc ncssc ccntcxtc, dc
uc a rcclacc, cu sca, a palara dc lcus acs hcrcns, trcuxc ccnsic c
crrc dc suas inlindacis intcrprctacccs. lcssc rcdc, cs scnhcs c cs tcxtcs
lilcscliccs, litcrarics c pccticcs lcrar istcs pcr csscs rabincs rcdcrncs, cu
hcrrcncutas hcrcticcs, na ccnccpcc dc !usan Handclran, ccrc ccntcndc
cr si rcsrcs cs scus prcprics ccrcntarics, c uc craria ur nurcrc
inccntacl dc pcssibilidadcs intcrprctatias, rcdiadas pcr psicanalistas, criticcs
c lcitcrcs, pcssibilidadcs cssas uc pcdcr scr tantc ustapcstas, rcda
rabinica, uantc subcrtidas, ccrc c licrar cs cabalistas. !cundc Handclran,
lcrrida c blccr, untarcntc ccr Frcud,
. . . uc:c]c~ o ]~]cI uc Io:~:IcI:o: c :cI~,Jo J: :u~: :c:]c.II~:
I:~uI,0c: - .IcIIII.~:, IIIo:oII.~: c IIIc:J:I~:. Ic: I~c :c.o::c ~o:
]o:0c: uo cu , u~ cxI:Ic.I~ c u~ ]oc:I~, IJ ]:o.u:~uo oIcIo:
c:.ouIuo: c :u]:IIuo: uc :Jo c:c:I~ J: I:0c: o:~II~: uo cu ,
uo :c: c u~ IIIc:~Iu:~. -o uc:cI~:c c::~: Io:,~: :c.:cI~: ~J:uI.~:,
cIc: :uc:Ic o uc Ic:I~ :Iuo ~ I:Jo o:Iouox~ o:~II~ c I~zc uo
cxIc:o IIc:o. - c:c:I~ :c I:~:Io:~ c I:~uI,Jo. . .
5
.
5 Tcxtc criinal. 'Frcud, lcrrida, and blccr alsc pla, thc rclc cl cutsidcrs tc thcir rcspcctic traditicns-
scicntilic, philcscphic, and litcrar,. Thc,, tcc, lcck tc thc ccllars cl scll, cl cxistcncc, and cl pcctr,, scckin
thcrc supprcsscd hiddcn rccrcnts that arc hcrcs, tc ncrratic icWs cl scll, cl bcin, and cl litcraturc.
ln uncccrin thcsc sccrct anarchic lcrccs, thc, subcrt What had bccn thc ncrratic crthcdcx icW and
rakc thc cutsidc insidc. Hcrcs, bcccrcs traditicn...' |HANlELMAN, 1?82. p. 20).
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0

Enuantc lcrrida ccnstruiu c scu pcnsarcntc criticc cr luncc,


tarbcr, dc padrccs dc pcnsarcntc rabinicc, rcaiadcs pcr Frcud cr suas
tccrias scbrc c scnhc c c scu prcccssc intcrprctatic, blccr lc ccr uc
suas tccrias scbrc a critica litcraria ccluisscr cr tcrnc dc ccnccpcccs
cabalisticas. Tantc ur uantc c cutrc prccurarar cxplicitarcntc dcscstabiliar
nccccs scbrc a linuacr c a intcrprctacc lundarcntadas na tradicc rccc-
crist, uc prcssupcc a cxistcncia dc ur scntidc transccndcntal, lcra dcs
liritcs dc tcxtc.
lcrrida cnlaticu a pclisscria ccntida nas palaras c ncs tcxtcs c iu
c scntidc ccrc ccnstruidc pclc cc inlinitc dc dilcrcncas c substituicccs,
dcliritadc pclc cspacc dc tcxtc c pcrritidc pcla auscncia dc ur ccntrc, uc
prccisa scr ccnstantcrcntc suplcrcntada

. Ncssc aspcctc, rciindiccu-sc para


c tcxtc nc c papcl dc rcprcscntantc dc ur sinilicadc, ras sir dc prcdutcr
dc sinilicadcs, c para a litcratura a luncc dc translcrrar c lcitcr cr ur
prcdutcr dc scntidcs. prcccssc dc lcitura c intcrprctacc dc tcxtcs passcu
a scr istc nc ccrc a tcntatia dc cxtracc dc ur scntidc unicc c
transccndcntal, ras ccrc a prccura dc dcslindarcntc dc suas intcrrinacis
pcssibilidadcs dc sinilicacc. lara uc pudcssc libcrar c tcxtc dc sua
uniccidadc, lcrrida prccurcu cclccar pcr tcrra a nccc dc rctalcra dilundida
nc ccntcxtc ccidcntal pcr ura lilcsclia dc basc crincntcrcntc rccc-crist.
lc accrdc ccr clc, a rctalisica ccidcntal, ccnsidcrada ura 'ritclcia branca',
pcis lundarcntada cr padrccs dctcrrinadcs pcr indiiducs uc licrar dc
sua ritclcia, csscncialrcntc indc-curcpcia, 'a lcrra unicrsal dauilc uc
ainda c c scu dcscc incscapacl dc charar dc kac'
7
- litcralicu a rctalcra,
cu sca, 'tcrcu crrcncarcntc cs sincs pclas ccisas, rcilicandc-cs cr
sinilicadcs abstratcs cspurics uc lcrar dcpcis ccnsidcradcs c scntidc
'prcpric''
8
. kcsatar, pcrtantc, as dicrsas pcssibilidadcs dc scntidc cxistcntcs
pcr dctras dc scntidc abstratc lci ura das tarclas a uc sc prcpuscrar
lcrrida, Frcud c arics cutrcs intclcctuais dc scculc XX, prcccdidcs pclas
atiidadcs intcrprctatias dcs cxcctas das Escrituras - cs rabincs |ridrashistas)
c, tarbcr, cs cabalistas.
principic da ustapcsicc lci ura das principais ccntribuicccs dc
pcnsarcntc rabinicc para ura tccria da rctalcra ncs rcldcs rciindicadcs
pcr lcrrida, uc, ac incs dc sc prcccupar cr prccurar tracar scrclhancas,
sc dctcc na arbiuidadc instaurada na atiidadc ccrparatia, uandc ura
ccisa pcdc sirultancarcntc scr cu nc scr cutra. Nc cntantc, antcs rcsrc
dc sc lacr prcscntc nas tccrias dc lcrrida, tal principic a haia sidc
rcccnhccidc pcr Frcud ccrc ur dcs rccanisrcs lciccs uc pcdcr ir a
indicar rclacccs dc causa c idcntidadc cstabclccidas pclcs scnhcs. s rabincs,
a lir dc ustilicarcr suas intcrprctacccs das Escrituras, lancarar rc,
ccnccritantcrcntc, dc arurcntcs c tcxtcs pcrtcnccntcs a autcrcs, cspaccs
c tcrpcs dicrscs, dc tal rcdc uc.
lEkkllA, 1?71. p. 2++-2+5.
7 Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'thc unicrsal lcrr cl that Which is still his incscapablc dcsirc tc call kcascn'
|lEkkllA, 1?7+. p. 11).
8 Tcxtc criinal. '... ristcck sins lcr thins, rcil,in thcr intc spuricus abstract rcanins Which Wcrc
thcn pcsitcd as thc 'prcpcr' scnsc' |HANlELMAN, 1?82. p. 118).
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra

::c II]o uc IIc:c.I~ ~:c~u~ ~ ]u:I~]o:I,Jo c, uc I~Io, oI~cIc


uIIc:cIc u~: ]:cuI.~,0c: uo ]c:~cIo :co. Ic c :cI~.Io~I c Jo
oIoIoI.o, IIu~ .o ]:o]o:I,0c: c Jo .o ]:cuI.~uo:. A~ ]u:I~-
]o:I,Jo, uu~: cIIu~uc: :Jo :cI~.Io~u~: c ~]II.JcI: u~ J ouI:~, ~:
Jo IucII.~:. xI:Ic :ccI~,~ ucI:o u~ uIIc:c,~, .~u~ u~ :cIc
:u~ ]:o]:I~ IucIIu~uc Iuc]cucIc
?
.
Na critica dc lcrrida, ccrc ncs IIu:~:I, c tcxtc intcrprctadc c c
tcxtc criticc, cu sca, c ccrcntaric, tcrnar-sc scbrcpcstcs, c uc prccca ur
dcsancccr das lrcntciras uc scparar ur dc cutrc. c cxtcrnc sc la intcrnc
c icc-crsa. Tarbcr ccrc ncs IIu:~:I, ur sirplcs ccrcntaric prcscntc
nc tcxtc intcrprctadc, ccrc ura ncta dc pc dc paina, pcr cxcrplc, pcdc
anhar rclcc na critica pcs-cstruturalista dc lcrrida, c ur tcxtc rcncs
ccnhccidc pcdc ir a scr inscridc nc dialcc da critica ccr a litcratura. Esscs
prcccdircntcs criticcs, uc ccntribucr para cclccar pcr tcrra a nccc dc
hicraruia prcscntc nc intcricr dc discursc nc tcr pcr linalidadc substituir
a irpcrtncia dc ura partc dcssc discursc scbrc cutra, ras, ccrc a lcra
sinaliadc pcr Frcud, pcrritir ur dcslccarcntc das distincccs cntrc c dcntrc
c c lcra, c latcntc c c ranilcstc. Na crdadc, ccrc pcrccbcu lcnathan Cullcr,
'dcsccnstruir ura cpcsicc |prcscnca/auscncia, litcratura/lilcsclia, ccntral/
rarinal| c dcslac-la c dcslcca-la, situa-la dilcrcntcrcntc'
10
, ccrc c licrar
cs rabincs antics, cr suas intcrprctacccs das Escrituras, ccrc c lc Frcud,
ac dcsccrtinar a linuacr dcs scnhcs.
blccr tarbcr tcrncu patcntc a rancira pcla ual c rcdc dc
intcrprctacc udaicc-rabinicc tcr rarcadc prcscnca nc ccnaric pcs-
cstruturalista, principalrcntc nc uc di rcspcitc ccnstituicc da tccria
litcraria ccrc disciplina. lara clc, a tradicc dcc scr rcdclada, prclc-
rcncialrcntc, a partir da tradicc cral udaica, c nc pcla rcntc curcpcia dc
Hcrcrc
11
. Nc cntantc, ac cxpcr suas tccrias accrca dc critica litcraria c dc
pccsia, clc sc dctcc, rais cspccilicarcntc, na intcrprctacc dcscnclida
pclcs cabalistas dc scculc X\l, uc, icndc cr rcic a ur ccntcxtc dc
pcrscuicccs c cxpulsccs, ccrc a da Espanha, cr 1+?2, c a ncas pcrccpcccs
rcliicsas, tratarar a tradicc dc ura lcrra rais transrcsscra c iclcnta dc
uc cs rabincs dc cutrcra. blccr intcrcsscu-sc, dc rcdc cspccial, pclc
tratarcntc uc cs cabalistas dispcnsarar tradicc, cndc a rccrcncia c
dcixada dc ladc para uc ccnccitcs tais ccrc c dc dcslccarcntc, dcsic,
dcslcitura c aprcpriacc sc tcrncr cpcrantcs. Ncssc scntidc, clc prcps ura
nccc da tradicc ccrc 'a anustia da inllucncia'
12
c, dcssc rcdc, tarbcr
ccr basc cr tccrias lrcudianas, ccnsidcrcu c rclacicnarcntc dc pccta ccr
? Tcxtc criinal. 'This t,pc cl inlcrcncc bascd cn uxtapcsiticn is uitc cbicusl, dillcrcnt lrcr thc
prcdicaticns cl Crcck thcuht. lt is rclaticnal rathcr than cntclcical, dcalin With prcpcsiticns
rathcr than prcdicatcs. ln uxtapcsiticn, tWc cntitics arc rclatcd and applicablc tc cnc ancthcr, but
nct idcntical' |HANlELMAN, 1?82. p. 2+).
10 Tcxtc criinal. 'Tc dcccnstruct an cppcsiticn is tc undc and displacc it, tc situatc it dillcrcntl,'
|CLLEk, 1?8?. p. 150).
11 bLM, 1?75. p. S0-S2.
12 7c -xIcI) oI /IIuc.c, publicadc cr 1?7S, c c titulc criinal dc lirc nc ual clc cxps tais
pcnsarcntcs. titulc da traducc para c pcrtuucs, datada dc 1??1, c - -u:II~ u~
/IIuc.I~.
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0

auclcs cuas cbras sc cannicas ccrc ur prcccssc ccnllitucsc, dctcrrinadc


pcr ur scntircntc dc 'tardiidadc' |dc inlcs cI~Icuc::)
1S
dauclc ccr
rclacc a csscs.
As pcsturas criticas dc blccr aprcxirarar a cabala das tccrias
dcsccnstrutiistas lranccsas. Entrctantc, para blccr a cabala c.
I~I: ~uu~.Io:~ uo uc Iouo: o: uc:coIIcIo: ~ uc .cou ~
.:III.~ I:~.c:~ :c.cIc, J. . . / c u~ Ico:I~ u~ c:.:II~, ~: u~ Ico:I~ uc
c~ ~ uI:II,Jo ~:oIuI~ cI:c ~ c:.:II~ c ~ I~I~ I:]I:~u~, ~::I .oo
c~ ~ uI:II,Jo u~~ cI:c ]:c:c,~ c ~u:c.I~. - .~~I~ I~I~ uc
u~ c:.:II~ ~Ic:Io: J c:.:II~ (o I:~,o uc /c::Iu~/, ~: I~c uc u~
I~I~ ~Ic: u~ I~I~, u~ /:I:u,Jo I:IJ:I~ uc ]:c.cuc u~Iuc: I:~,o
u~ I~I~. /c::Iu~, c Iouo o c:]Icuo: uc :u~ Craratclcia, ~:ucI~
uc ~ c:.:II~ c, ~ u :o Ic]o, cxIc:~ c IIc:~ J I~I~, ~o ]~::o uc ~
I~I~ ]J c, c :I c:~, c:.:II~, u~ cz uc o I:~,o uc cI~ :cuc ucc
:c: .o.cIuo .oo ~Ic:Io: ~o :c:. J. . . / I~ I~c ]c:~ uc ouo
Jo ~.cIIo ]cI~ cI~II:I.~ o.IucI~I, ]J uc o :cu /cu: c, ~o c:o
Ic]o, Lin-vol c ayin, ]:c:c,~ IoI~I c ~u:c.I~ IoI~I, c Iouo o :cu
I Ic:I o: .oIc o :cu cxIc:I o:, cu~Io Iouo: o: :cu: cI cI Io:
ucIc:I~ ~: :u~: .~u:~:. I~: ~ .~~I~ IIc::o]c o oIcIo uo
I:~,o uc /c::Iu~, ]oI: cI~ Ic u ]oIo uo ]:Io:uI~I, ouc ]:c:c,~
c ~u:c.I~ .ocxI:Ic c IIc:~,Jo .oIIu~
1+
.
3. Caba|a e traduco
r cstudc rais abrancntc das rctalcras tradutcrias utiliadas pcr
intclcctuais dc cricr udaica, tal ccrc rcalici cr rinha tcsc dc dcutcradc,
pcrritc uc sc islurbrc c uantc as rcsras cstc inculadas a ccnccitcs
liadcs sua histcria dc cxilics c dcslccarcntcs c ac udaisrc classicc,
ccrc tarbcr ac ccntcxtc cabalisticc dc intcrprctacc das Escrituras. Antcs,
pcrcr, dc abcrdar aluras dcssa rctalcras, tracarci ur brcc histcricc dc
dcscnclircntc da cabala, a lir dc uc sc pcssa islurbrar a rcsra ccrc
irpcrtantc clcrcntc ccnstituintc da tradicc dc intcrprctacc uc sc instaurcu
nc ccntcxtc udaicc.
3.1. Caba|a e/na historia
A cabala, ur sistcra dc intcrprctacc pcstcricr ac IIu:~:, aprcscnta-
sc ccrc ura cidcncia a rais para a alcacc dc cxistcncia dc ura tradicc
dc intcrprctacc nc ccntcxtc udaicc, iniciada cr tcrpcs ircrcriacis c,
dcsdc cntc, arais intcrrcrpida. Ela suriu ccrc ur sistcra risticc c
tccsclicc dc intcrprctacc dcs tcxtcs da 7o:J, intcrprctacc cssa rcaliada
lcra das cslcras da sinaca |cII ~-Ic::cI), cndc crar lcitas as cracccs, c
da csccla rabinica |cII ~-IIu:~:), cndc a 7o:J cra cstudada, intcrprctada
c traduida. Ha cs uc irputar a cricr da cabala acs cstudcs uc ccrccarar
a scr rcaliadcs pcr rupcs dc udcus, rcunidcs cr tcrnc dc rabinc !irccn
1S A palara 'tardiidadc' lci utiliada ccrc traducc dc 'bclatcdncss' na traducc dc C~~I~ c
C:III.~, lirc dc autcria dc Harcld blccr.
1+ bLM, 1??1b. p. 2-S.
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra
!
bcn Ychai, discipulc dc kabi Akia, apcs a dcstruicc dc !cundc Tcrplc
pclcs rcrancs, cr 70 d. C.. lcr cutrc ladc, ha cs uc acrcditar uc cs
cstudcs cabalisticcs sc tcnhar suridc a partir dcs scculcs Xl c Xll, na
lrccnca, culrinandc ccr a publicacc dc Zo~: |II:o uo :]Icuo:, a
rcprcscntacc raxira da cabala classica), pcr Mciscs dc Lccn, na Espanha,
nc linal dc scculc Xlll, uandc as atiidadcs dcs rcstrcs dc IIu:~: cstaar
sc cnccrrandc. s adcptcs da scunda tccria acrcditar uc dc Lccn 'tcnha
utiliadc as liuras dc !irccn bcn Ychai c dc scus ccrpanhcircs ccrc
ciculc para a transrissc dc suas prcprias idcias'
15
. lc ualucr rcdc, c
Zo~: ccnstitui ura intcrprctacc dcs tcxtcs das Escrituras, pcstcricr lcna
tradicc dcs IIu:~:I.
Nc ccntcxtc dcs cstudcs udaiccs rcccntcs, dcis ncrcs sc dcstacar
uandc sc trata dc abcrdar a cabala. c dc Ccrshcr !chclcr |18?7-1?82) c
c dc Harcld blccr |1?S0). !chclcr, ur alcrc dc cricr udaica, crircu
para lsracl cr 1?2S, c, ccrc prclcsscr dc risticisrc udaicc na nicrsidadc
Hcbraica dc lcrusalcr, ccnsidcrcu a cabala c latcr rcspcnsacl pcla
scbrcicncia dc udaisrc ccrc rcliic. s scus cstudcs pcrritirar uc a
intclcctualidadc ccidcntal nc-udaica pudcssc dcslindar a tcia sinilicatia
dc pcnsarcntc dc intclcctuais dc cricr udaica, cntrclacandc-c cabala.
blccr, pcr sua c, tcrcu cs cstudcs dc !chclcr ccrc pcntc dc
partida, c uc nc sinilica dicr uc suas pcsturas scar dc tcdc ccincidcntcs,
pcis, dc accrdc ccr tccrias dclc prcpric, tcdc tcxtc pcstcricr c rcisicnista c
tcda rcisc c ur prcccssc dc dcsaprcpriacc, dc |dcs)lcitura, uc, apcnas
ccrc tal, pcdc lcrncccr ccntinuidadc histcria litcraria. Ncssc scntidc, para
clc, a cabala nc tcr ruitc a cr ccr c risticisrc, ras, sir, 'parccc lacr
partc dc ura tradicc ruitc rais intcrprctatia c ritica dc uc prcpriarcntc
ristica'
1
. cla sc dilcrcncia dc risticisrc cristc c ccidcntal pclc latc dc
rcprcscntar rais ur rcdc dc cspcculacc intclcctual dc uc ura ia dc
unic ccr lcus. Nc cntantc, ualucr uc sca c rurc uc cs cstudcs dc
blccr tcnhar tcradc cr rclacc acs dc !chclcr, pcdc-sc dicr uc arbcs
ccntribuirar - nc casc dc blccr, ainda ccntribui - para uc c pcnsarcntc
udaicc-rabinicc ccntinuc a sc lacr prcscntc ccntcrpcrancarcntc.
Na ccnccpcc dc !chclcr, a cricr da cabala cstaria liada ac 3cIc:
)c:IzI:J |c II:o u~ C:I~,Jo), ccrpiladc cntrc cs scculcs lll c \l d. C., pcis c
ncssc lirc uc sc cnccntra, ainda cr caratcr rudircntar, ura nccc ccntral
cabala, a das 3cII:oI, nccc cssa uc cic a scr arpliada cr cbras
csscncialrcntc cabalistas, ccrc c 3cIc: J-B~I: |c II:o B~I:, cndc ~I:
sinilica 'lurincsc', uc aparcccu nc sul da Franca, nc linal dc scculc Xlll) c
c Zo~:. Erbcra c Zo~: nc utilic c tcrrc 3cII:oI, prclcrindc palaras
ccrc 'cstaics' cu 'ccrca', c nclc uc cssa dcutrina sc cnccntra rais
plcnarcntc dcscnclida. lc rcdc cral, para a cabala classica, as 3cII:oI
sc idcntilicadas ccrc dc lcrcas criatias uc, intcrrcdiandc as rclacccs
cntrc ur lcus inlinitc, inccncscicl |I 3oI ), c c rundc tal ccrc pcr Elc
15 Tcxtc criinal. '...uscd thc liurcs cl kabbi !irccn and his asscciatcs as thc chiclc lcr thc
transrissicn cl his cWn idcas' |lACb!, 1??5. p. 28).
1 bLM, 1??1b. p. 5.
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0
"
criadc, ccnstitucr, dc latc, 'liuracccs ccrplcxas dc lcus, trcpcs - tcrcccs
dc linuacr - uc substitucr lcus'
17
.
s cabalistas acrcditar uc a 7o:J tcnha sidc ccnstruida cr tcrnc dc
ncrc dc lcus, dc tctrarara YHwH. A partir dcssas uatrc ccnscnantcs
lcrar rcaliadas pcrrutacccs c ccrbinacccs uc, subrctidas a prcccsscs
ccrbinatcrics ~u IIIIIu, dcrar cricr s lrascs uc sc cnccntrar na
7o:J. Nc cntantc, a palara dc lcus, tal ccrc cla sc cnccntra na 7o:J, nc
lcrnccc ccrprccnsc. Ela c, lundarcntalrcntc, a cxprcssc da csscncia c sc
sc lara ccrprccnsicl a partir dc rcrcntc cr uc lcr rcdiada, cu sca,
intcrprctada. lcrtantc, a rcclacc da palara dc lcus sc la na histcria, 'a
arcna na ual a tradicc sc rccla', 'nc cxistc ualucr aplicacc nc dialctica
ircdiata da palara diina. !c hcucssc, cla scria dcstrutia'
18
.
Na ccnccpcc cabalistica, a linuacr dcs hcrcns |linuacr dcs
ncrcs) criincu-sc, pcrtantc, dc ura linuacr diina |linuacr das ccisas),
atracs da ual c rundc lcra ccnstituidc, cu sca, lcus tcria translcridc para
c hcrcr cr scu cstadc paradisiacc c scu pcdcr dc ncrcacc c, ccr issc,
a linuacr hurana lc-sc, dcsdc cs scus prircrdics, traducc. Essa
linuacr adrica pcrrancccu una c pura atc c rcrcntc da dcstruicc da
Tcrrc dc babcl, uandc a rultiplicidadc linuistica translcrrcu-a cr ur
sirplcs ciculc dc ccrunicacc c a traducc tcrncu-sc nc scrcntc irpcricsa,
ras tarbcr c unicc rcic dc isualiacc daucla linuacr pura, abscluta.
s cabalistas dclcndcrar c pcntc dc ista dc uc 'tcdas as linuas nasccrar
da linua criinal sarada, nc scic da ual c rundc dcs ncrcs cnccntra-sc
dirctarcntc cstabclccidc c cxplicadc c, pcr cssc rctic, cssas linuas cstc
ainda rais ircdiatarcntc asscciadas a cla'
1?
.
A cxpulsc dcs udcus da Espanha, cr 1+?2, rarccu ura nca ctapa
nc dcscnclircntc da cabala. Ncssc rcrcntc, cs udcus sc irar lcadcs a
rais ur rcircntc dc cxilic c, latalrcntc, dc intrcspcccc. s nccs
cabalistas, rcprcscntadcs principalrcntc pcr lsaac Luria c Mcscs Ccrdccrc,
da cidadc palcstina dc !alcd, abandcnarar cs tcxtcs das Escrituras c sc
dcdicarar a rcaliar ura intcrprctacc dc Zo~:. A criacc, uc cra ista
pclcs adcptcs dc Zo~: ccrc ur prcccssc cr prcrcssc, uc sc rcia scrprc
cr ura unica dirccc, ur prcccssc uc, cranandc dc lcus, alcancaa c
hcrcr, ur rcircntc nc ual cada cstaic cra cstrcitarcntc liadc ac
cstaic subscucntc, scr randcs saltcs para lrcntc cu para tras, passcu a
scr ccnsidcrada pcr Luria ccrc ur prcccssc surprccndcntcrcntc rcrcssic,
cndc cada cstaic pcdc scr scparadc dc cutrc pcr ur abisrc c cndc a
catastrclc c scrprc ur ccntc ccntral
20
. A cabala dc Luria ccnsidcrcu c
cxilic ura catccria asscciada nc sc ac pcc udaicc, ccrc tarbcr a tcdc
c rundc, tcndc tal ccnccpcc ccntribuidc para a rccupcracc dc scnsc dc
17 lbidcr. p. S5.
18 Tcxtc criinal. '... thc arcna in Which traditicn unlclds. |...| Thcrc is nc irrcdiatc, undialcctic
applicaticn cl thc diinc Wcrd. ll thcrc Wcrc, it Wculd bc dcstructic' |!CHLEM, 1?71a. p. 2?).
1? Tcxtc cr inlcs. '...all lanuacs hac ccrc intc bcin lrcr thc sacrcd criinal lanuac, in Which thc
Wcrld cl narcs is dircctl, sct lcrth and cxplaincd and bccausc cl this thc, arc ccn rcrc
irrcdiatcl, asscciatcd With it' |!CHLEM, 1?72. p. 1?1).
20 bLM, 1??1b. p. +8-+?.
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra
#
rcspcnsabilidadc c dc dinidadc dcssc pcc, uc, dcssc rcdc, tcria accitc
para si ura tarcla ncbrc. a dc rcparacc dc tal irpcrlcicc. Assir scndc, c
pcc dc lsracl, ac suplantar as icissitudcs dc cxilic, atracs dc cstudc ccnstantc
da 7o:J c dc scus randarcntcs, cstaria prcpiciandc a rcdcncc a si rcsrc
c a tcdc c rundc. Mcssias, pcrtantc, nc c rais c rcspcnsacl pcla
rcdcncc, 'ac ccntraric, clc sirbclia c adcntc da rcdcncc, a ccnclusc
da tarcla dc rcparacc'
21
. As tccrias cabalistas dc Mcscs Ccrdccrc, pcr sua
c, sc cclccar nc rcic dc carinhc cntrc a cabala classica c a cabala lurinica.
Fci cr Ccrdccrc uc blccr sc cspclhcu para criar a nccc dc 'raccs
rcisicnarias', aprcscntadas cr 7c -xIcI) oI /IIuc.c, raccs cssas uc
ticrar pcr cbctic csclarcccr cs tipcs dc rclacccs uc cs pcctas rais nccs,
cr scus prcccsscs criatics, cstabclcccr ccr cs pcctas uc lhcs prcccdcrar.
A inccssantc tarcla intcrprctatia dcs cabalistas, scrprc atribuindc nccs
scntidcs a clhcs tcxtcs, scriu para dcrcnstrar uc a ncccssidadc dc traducc
nascc da busca pcr ura tradicc inatinicl, apcnas islurbracl. A traducc
c ccrc c ~Ic], dc ccntc hcrnirc dc lcrc Luis bcrcs, ura abcrtura
inlira uc pcrritc cntrccr ura randicsidadc ircnsuracl. a tradicc. Ncssc
scntidc, as ultiras palaras dc !chclcr cr scu cnsaic scbrc a tccria linuistica
da cabala sc clucidatias.
C uc ~]:cuco: u~ .:I~,Jo c :ccI~,Jo, ~ ]~I~:~ uc /cu:, c
IIIII~cIc ]~::IcI uc IIc:]:cI~,Jo c c:IJ :cIIcIIuo c o::~ IIu~.
- :u~ :~uI~,Jo ou :o:, uc .~]I~o:, Jo :Jo I~Io .ouI.~,0c:
~: ~]cIo:. C uc Ic :IIII.~uo - :cIIuo c Io:~ - Jo c c::~
]~I ~:~ ]:o]:I ~, ~: ~ I:~uI ,Jo ]o: ucI:J: uc::~ ]~I ~:~, ~ :u~
.ouI.~,Jo c :cIIcxo o Ic]o. ::~ I:~uI,Jo, uc Ic ~ :u~ ]:o]:I~
uI~IcII.~, ]~::~ ]o: ucIc:I~u~: uu~,~: c c II~IcIc .ouI.~u~
c u :u:]I:o :u~c c oIc~Ic, J. . . / o: ]ocI~: ]o::uc u I.uIo
.o o: c:I:c: u~ .~~I~, c:o u~uo cIc: :c]cII~ ~ Io:uI~,Jo
IcoIoI.~ .~~II:II.~ .oo ~Iu~ :cuo uIIo cIJII.~. ::c I.uIo c ~
:u~ .:c,~ ~ IIu~c .oo u ~:oIuIo J. . . /. :u~ .:c,~ o
I:Ic:Io u~ IIu~c uc :c Io:ou ~uuIcI
22
.
lurantc lcncs scculcs, a cabala lci ura lcrra dc accssc dc pcc
udaicc cxpatriadc sua histcria c sua rcliic, atc uc, nc linal dc scculc
X\lll, uandc partc dcssc pcc haia sc rcndidc s tradicccs curcpcias,
rcstrandc-sc arrcdic ac risticisrc uc a cnclia, cla caiu cr csuccircntc.
Nc cntantc, a utiliacc dcs ccnccitcs dc criacc, cxilic, rcclacc c rcdcncc,
lundarcntais cabala, pcr partc dc intclcctuais udaiccs ccntcrpcrnccs
uc tccriarar scbrc a traducc tarbcr ccntribuiu para uc cssc sistcra
intcrprctatic udaicc crcrissc dc csuccircntc ac ual sc cnccntraa ladadc.
21 Tcxtc criinal. '...rathcr hc s,rbclics thc adcnt cl rcdcrpticn, thc ccrplcticn cl thc task cl
crcndaticn' |!CHLEM, 1?71b. p. +8).
22 Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'what Wc lcarn lrcr crcaticn and rcclaticn, thc Wcrd cl Ccd, is inlinitcl, liablc tc
intcrprctaticn, and it is rcllcctcd in cur cWn lanuac. lts radiaticn cr scunds, Which Wc catch, arc nct sc
ruch ccrrunicaticns as appcals. That Which has rcanin - scnsc and lcrr - is nct thc Wcrd itscll, but
thc traditicn bchind this Wcrd, its ccrrunicaticn and rcllccticn in tirc. This traditicn, Which has its cWn
dialcctic, ccs thrcuh ccrtain chancs and is ccntuall, dclicrcd in a sclt, pantin Whispcr, |...| pccts
hac cnc link With thc rastcrs cl thc Kabbala, ccn Whcn thc, rccct Kabbalistic thcclcical lcrrulaticn
as bcin still tcc crphatic. This link is thcir bclicl in lanuac as an absclutc |...|. lt is thcir bclicl in thc
r,stcr, cl lanuac Which has bcccrc audiblc' |!CHLEM, 1?72. p. 1?+).
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0
$
3.2. A|gumas metforas caba|sticas da traduco
lntcrcssa-rc, ncstc artic, abcrdar as rctalcras uc sc ccnstruirar
cr tcrnc das iracns dc ascs c cstircntas, caras ac ccntcxtc da cabala,
ccnlcrrc cbscrcu !chclcr, ac alirrar scr 'ura rcra lundarcntal |da cabala|
uc c uc ucr uc ucira air cu sc ranilcstar cxia cstircntas c ascs'
2S
.
Enuantc a rctalcra dcs ascs ucbradcs pcrritc uc a traducc sca ista
ccrc ur prcccssc dc rcstauracc c rcstituicc |IIIu), ur prcccssc nc ual
c scr huranc cntrcc a rcdcncc, a rctalcra das cstircntas, asscciacl
7o:J, pcrri tc uc a traducc sc a ccnccbi da tantc ccrc rccl acc
|dcsnudarcntc), uantc ccrc rcdcncc |c cclccar das cstircntas).
3.2.1. TraduJo como tikun: a revtauraJo dov vavov quehradov
A nccc da traducc ccrc ur prcccssc dc rcdcncc sc la prcscntc
nc ccntcxtc cabalisticc atracs dc ccnccitc dc IIIu, uc, untarcntc ccr c
IzIIzu |c rctraircntc cu ccntracc dc Criadcr dc rcdc a pcssibilitar a
criacc dc alc uc nc c Elc rcsrc), c a :cI:J J-IcII |a ucbra dcs
ascs, ura isc da criacc ccrc catastrclc), tcria ccntribuidc para a lcrracc
da rcalidadc. lara c cabalista lssac Luria, IIIu scria 'c prcccssc saladcr dc
rcstauracc c rcstituicc, ura c uc clc c ura cbra dc hcrcr, rcaliada
atracs dc ura ccrplcxa scric dc acntcs...'
2+
. A traducc, pcrtantc, scria ur
dcs acntcs atracs dcs uais c scr huranc islurbra a rcdcncc.
waltcr bcnarin utilicu a rctalcra dcs ascs ucbradcs c a dc IIIu
para tcccr ccnsidcracccs accrca da tarcla dc tradutcr, ac islurbra-la ccrc
rcdcntcra, ccrc ura instncia uc iabilia c islurbrar da linua pura, cua
unidadc lci pcrdida, ucbrada, durantc c prcccssc dc criacc dc rundc c c
ccnscucntc cxilic a uc tcda a huranidadc lci subrctida. lissc clc.
C: I:~cIo: uc u ~:o ~ :c:c :c.o]o:Io: ucc :c ~u~]I~: u:
~o: ouI:o: c :cu: IIo: ucI~Ic:, co:~ Jo c.c::IIc :c:
:ccI ~Ic:. /~ c:~ ~cI :~, u~ I:~uu,Jo, ~o I c: uc :c
~::ccI~: ~o :cIIuo uo o:II~I, ucc, ~o:o:~ c ucI~I~u~cIc,
I.o:]o:~: o ouo uc :IIII.~,Jo uo o:II~I, Io:~uo, c::c :cIIuo,
I~Io o o:II~I u~Io ~ I:~uu,Jo :c.oc.IcI: .oo I:~cIo:
uc u~ IIu~ ~Io:, u~ c:~ Io:~ uc o: I:~cIo: .o:IIIuc
u ~:o
25
.
lcr sua c, lcrrida, cr /c: 7ou:: uc B~cI, tcrncu rais cxplicita a
iracr utiliada pcr bcnarin, charandc atcncc para c latc dc uc assir
ccrc cs caccs dc ur asc ucbradc, uandc ccladcs uns acs cutrcs, sc
capacs dc rcstituircr a lcrra dc criinal, ras nc cs scus rinircs dctalhcs,
2S Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'lt is a bindin rulc that Whatccr Wishcs tc act cr ranilcst itscll rcuircs arbs and
csscls...' |!CHLEM, 1?71b, p. +5).
2+ bLM, 1??1b. p. 51.
25 Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'Frarcnts cl a csscl Which arc tc bc lucd tccthcr rust ratch cnc ancthcr in
thc srallcst dctails, althcuh thc, nccd nct bc likc cnc ancthcr. ln thc sarc Wa, a translaticn,
instcad cl rcscrblin thc rcanin cl thc criinal, rust lcinl, and in dctail inccrpcratc thc
criinal's rcdc cl sinilicaticn, thus rakin bcth thc criinal and thc translaticn rcccniablc as
lrarcnts cl a rcatcr lanuac, ust as lrarcnts arc part cl a csscl' |bENlAMlN, 1?70. p. 78).
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra
%
a traducc dcc prccurar rcccnstituir c rcdc dc sinilicacc dc criinal c
nc c scu sinilicadc, dcixandc uc sc islurbrc a cxistcncia dc ura linua
uc ur dia lci una
2
.
3.2.2. TraduJo como vevtimenta e devnudamento
A rctalcra da traducc ccrc ura cstircnta, rais cspccilicarcntc
ur rantc saradc, sc inscrc nc ccntcxtc dc rctalcras cnccntradas nc
unicrsc dc cxccsc cabalistica. lcr cutrc ladc, a ccnsidcracc da traducc
scb cssc prisra - ccrc ura cstircnta, ura carada dc sinilicadc uc sc
supcrpcc ac sinilicadc criinal c a cutrcs uc a lhc lcrar supcrpcstcs c
uc, nc cntantc, prccisa scr rcncada para uc nc pcrca c scu icr -
rcrctc lcica dc suplcrcntc, dcscnclida pcr lcrrida. lara clc, c suplcrcntc,
ac rcsrc tcrpc cr uc 'c ur cxccssc, ura plcnitudc cnriucccndc cutra
plcnitudc, a cuIu~ ~I: .o]IcI~ da prcscnca'
27
, c tarbcr ur substitutc
uc, pcr assir sc ccnstituir, rccla c scu caratcr inccrplctc c subaltcrnc
28
.
A traducc, ncsscs tcrrcs, sirultancarcntc lcrnccc ura carada sinilicatia
suplcrcntar ac criinal c apcnta para ura auscncia a clc incrcntc, ccnlcrc-
lhc pcdcr c lanca scbrc clc c rcllcxc dc sua irpcrlcicc.
Nc ccntcxtc cabalisticc, a 7o:J c ista ccrc 'ura cstircnta c ur
tccidc ics, ur IcxIu:, nc scntidc rais acuradc dc tcrrc'
2?
. Tal ccnccpcc
c lundarcntada nas scuintcs palaras, irputadas ac rabinc !irccn bcn
Ychai, uc tcria sidc c lundadcr dc rcircntc cabalisticc.
- Tcra Ic u .o:]o, uc .o:I:Ic o: ~u~cIo: c uc.:cIo: u~
Tcra, uc :Jo .~~uo: ulc tcrah, .o:]o: u~ Tcra' . ::c .o:]o c:IJ
coIIo c c:IIcI~:, uc :Jo .o]o:I~: uc I:Io:I~: uu~~:.
C: IoIo: cc ~]c~: ~: c:IIcI~:, uc :Jo ]~:Ic ~::~II~ u~ Tcra,
cIc: Jo .oc.c ~u~ ~I: c ucIx~ uc c: o uc c:IJ ]o: ~Ixo u~:
c:IIcI~:. -ucIc: uc :~c cc Jo ~]c~: ~: c:IIcI~:, ~:
I ~c o .o: ]o uc c:I J ]o: ~I xo u~: c:I I cI ~:. I~: o:
c:u~ucI:~cIc :JIo: J. . . / I~,~ o :cu oI~: ]~:~ ~ ~I~, uc c ~
c:u~ucI:~ Iuu~,Jo uc Iou~ ~ Tcra
3U
.
Michacl Fishbanc, partindc dc tais ccnclusccs, cscrccu 7c ~:cI:
oI 7o:~. Essa,s in biblical Hcrrcncutics |-: Vc:IIcI~: u~ 7o:J. Ensaics
scbrc a Hcrrcncutica biblica c a traducc litcral dcssc titulc), cndc clc rcitcrcu
a isc cabalistica das cxccscs biblicas ccrc instncias dc dcsnudarcntc
da 7o:J, ura ncia cstida, c dc intcrprctc das Escrituras ccrc ur ncic,
rcspcnsacl pclc scu dcsnudarcntc
S1
. Assir, a traducc, nc sc dc tcxtcs
2 lEkkllA, 1?85. p. 18?-1?0.
27 Tcxtc cr inlcs. '...it is a surplus, a plcnitudc cnrichin ancthcr plcnitudc, thc IuIIc:I c~:u:c cl
prcscncc' |lEkkllA, 1?7. p. 1++).
28 lbidcr. p. 1+5.
2? Tcxtc cr inlcs. '...a liin arrcnt and tissuc, a IcxIu: in thc rcst accuratc undcrstandin cl thc
tcrr...' |!CHLEM, 1?72. p. 17?).
S0 Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'Thc Tcrah has a bcd,, Which ccnsists cl thc ccrrandrcnts and crdinanccs cl thc
Tcrah, Which arc callcd ulc tcrah, 'bcdics cl thc Tcrah.' This bcd, is clcakcd in arrcnts, Which
ccnsist cl Wcrldl, stcrics. Fccls scc cnl, thc arrcnt, Which is thc narratic part cl thc Tcrah, thc,
kncW nc rcrc and lail tc scc What is undcr thc arrcnt. Thcsc Whc kncW rcrc scc nct cnl, thc
arrcnt but alsc thc bcd, that is undcr thc arrcnt. but thc trul, Wisc |...| lcck cnl, upcn thc scul,
Which is thc truc lcundaticn cl thc cntirc Tcrah' |!CHLEM, 1?5. p. S-+).
S1 Fl!HbANE, 1??2. p. SS-+.
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0
&
bibliccs, ras tarbcr dc tcxtcs cr cral, ccnstituir-sc-ia cr ur cc dc
dcsnudar c cstir, cu sca, dc rcclacc c dc rcdcncc, uandc sc pcnsa nas
rctalcras tradutcrias asscciacis ac udaisrc classicc.
Fran kcscnWci c waltcr bcnarin abscrcrar cr scus discurscs
tradutcrics a ccnccpcc da traducc ccrc ur prcccssc dc dcsnudarcntc c
dc 'ccbrircntc'. prircirc ccrparcu a traducc ac atc dc cstir, uandc
criticcu cs tradutcrcs uc rcaliaar c scu trabalhc dc lcrra idicratica, cu
sca, uc prccuraar 'cstir cs rcnurcntcs dc passadc c cstrancircs ccr
a rcupacr dc ncssa cpcca'
S2
. scundc, pcr sua c, utilicu a rctalcra
da cstircnta para sc rclcrir atiidadc dc traducc, dicndc uc, 'cnuantc
c ccntcudc c a linua lcrrar ura ccrta unidadc nc criinal, ccrc ur lrutc
c sua casca, ~ IIu~ u~ I:~uu,Jo coIc o :cu .oIcuuo .oo u ~Io
:c~I uc ~]I~: uo:~:' |rilc ncssc)
SS
. lcssc rcdc, clc irpririu traducc,
ura atiidadc dc irpcrtncia 'rcal', ital, ras prciscria c transitcria. da rcsra
lcrra cr uc c rantc rcal ccnlcrc pcdcr a ucr c cstc c, ccr c passar dc
tcrpc, ruitcs assir c lacr, a traducc, apcsar dc rcspcnsacl pcla scbrcida
dc criinal, ncccssita scr substituida rcdida cr uc c tcrpc sc cscta.
lcrrida, ac rcncicnar a rctalcra da cstircnta, cntrclaccu-a s
rctalcras bcnarinianas dc circulc c da tancntc c dc lrutc c da casca.
Assir ccrc as tancntcs - traducccs - tccar c circulc - c criinal - cr
pcntcs dicrscs, arais c lacndc pcr intcirc, c rantc rcal - a traducc -
nc adcrc ac ccrpc uc a cstc - c criinal - da rancira ccrplcta pcla
ual a casca sc unc a scu lrutc, tccandc-c, pcis, cr apcnas aluns pcntcs.
Alcr dissc, para clc, cxistc cntrc c rantc rcal c auclc uc c cstc, cntrc
a traducc c c criinal, ura rclacc ratrircnial, uc sc rcdilica dc accrdc
ccr as lcis dcs dilcrcntcs ccntcxtcs cr uc sc inscrcr
S+
. !cundc lcrrida,
a sua lcitura/intcrprctacc/traducc dc tcxtc dc bcnarin, intcrrcdiada
pcr ura cutra lcitura/intcrprctacc/traducc dcssc tcxtc, c ur cutrc rantc
uc sc cclcca scbrc clc, ur rantc ainda rais llutuantc, ura cstircnta dc
casarcntc, uc, pclc uc clc supcc, bcnarin nc tcria tccidc - ras uc,
ccr ccrtca, dcixcu cntrccr.
4. Pa|avras finais
s intclcctuais dc cricr udaica, ac sc dcbrucarcr scbrc c rundc
uc cxistia lcra dcs uctcs, prccurarar abcrda-lc cr luncc da tradicc dc
S2 k!ENZwElC, 1??8. p. 2.
SS Tcxtc cr inlcs. 'whilc ccntcnt and lanuac lcrr a ccrtain unit, in thc criinal, likc a lruit and its
skin, thc lanuac cl thc translaticn cnclcps its ccntcnt likc a rc,al rcbc With arplc lclds'
|bENlAMlN, 1?70. p. 75).
S+ A rctalcra da cstircnta c rcccrrcntc nc discursc dc lcrrida, tcndc sidc pcr clc utiliada cr
CI :~~IoIo) |1?7) para sc rclcrir cscritura, ccasic cr uc lcrbrcu uc !aussurc tarbcr
licra c rcsrc. 'Escritura, ratcria scnsicl c cxtcricridadc artilicial. ura 'cstircnta'. |...| a sc
duidcu uc a cscrita lcssc a cstircnta da lala? lara !aussurc cla c inclusic ura cstircnta dc
pcrcrsc c dcbcchc, ur cstidc dc ccrrupcc c dislarcc, ura rascara lcstia uc dcc scr
cxcrciada |...|. 'A cscritura cculta a aparcncia da linua, cla nc c ur trac para a linua, ras ur
dislarcc' |lEkkllA, 1?85. p. 1?+).
A tradicc
i nt crprct at i a dc
rabincs c cabalistas,
a critica litcraria
c a traducc
Mari a Cl ara Castcl l ccs
dc l i ci ra
'
intcrprctacc das Escrituras cxistcntc dcntrc dcs rcsrcs c dc sua histcria
dc dcslccarcntcs. Tais cstratcias ainda sc lacr cuir nc ccntcxtc
ccntcrpcrncc, ccrrcbcrandc a pcrccpcc dc uc, a dcspcitc da rcsistcncia
dc aluns dcsscs intclcctuais ac rcccnhccircntc da prcscnca dcssas
cspccilicidadcs cr suas pcsturas, 'pcrranccc scrprc cr tcda tradicc ctnica,
na hcranca dc tcda larilia indiidualrcntc, ur ccrtc rcsiduc, ur tipc dc
cina, |. . . | 'alcrcs-lantasras'. rcsuicics, lrarcntcs c cccs dc passadc
lancandc suas ccs cr ncssa dirccc cracccs apcs a cxtincc dc sua
lcrca crdadcira
S5
.
Alcr dc rais, c rcdc dc intcrprctacc das Escrituras pcr partc dcs
rabincs antics c dcs cabalistas, traidc para c ccntcxtc sccular atracs dc
!irund Frcud, principalrcntc, cnccntra-sc hcc dispcrsc cntrc intclcctuais
dc di lcrcntcs arcas dc sabcr huranc, ucr dc cri cr udai ca cu nc.
A hi stcri a dc dcslccarcntcs dc pcc udaicc, pcr sua c, tcrncu-sc
cxcrplar para ruitcs cutrcs pccs, uc, pcr rctics dicrscs c cr rcrcntcs
dilcrcntcs, sc irar crrantcs. Ha, pcrtantc, cntrc c pcnsarcntc dcsscs
hcrrcncutas hcrcticcs c dcsscs intclcctuais cr trnsitc arias alinidadcs
uc rcrcccr scr aprclundadas.
5. keferncias 8ib|iogrficas
bENlAMlN, waltcr. Thc task cl thc translatcr. an intrcducticn tc thc
translaticn cl baudclairc' s 'Tablcaux larisicns'. ln. AkENlT, Hannah |Ed. ).
/IIuI~IIo:. Trad. Harr, Zchn. Lcndcn. lcnathan Capc, 1?70. p. ?-82.
bLM, Harcld. - ~] oI I::c~uI. Lcndcn. xlcrd nicrsit, lrcss,
1?75.
bLM, Harcld. - ~u:II~ u~ IIIuc.I~. ura tccria da pccsia. Trad.
Arthur Ncstrcski. kic dc lancirc. lrac, 1??1a.
bLM, Harcld. C~~I~ c .:III.~. Trad. Mcniuc balbucna. kic dc lancirc.
lrac, 1??1b.
CLLEk, l cnat han. C uc.o:I : u.I I o. t hccr , and cr i t i ci sr al t cr
structuralisr. Lcndcn. kcutlcdc, 1?8?. p. 85-225. lcccnstructicn.
lEkkllA, lacucs. - c:.:IIu:~ c ~ uIIc:c,~. !c laulc. lcrspcctia, 1?71.
p. 22?-2+?. A cstrutura, c sinc c c cc nc discursc das cicncias
huranas.
lEkkllA, lacucs. whitc r,thclc,. rctaphcr in thc tcxt cl philcscph,.
Ac/ IIIc:~:) HI:Io:), . , n. 1, p. 5-7+, 1?7+.
lEkkllA, lacucs. CI :~~IoIo). Trad. Ca,atri C. !piak. baltircrc.
lchns Hcpkins nicrsit, lrcss, 1?7.
S5 Tcxtc criinal. 'Thcrc rcrains alWa,s, in ccr, cthnic traditicn, in thc cncraticnal lcac, cl ccr,
indiidual laril,, a ccrtain rcsiduc, a kind cl ash, |...| 'hcst-alucs'. thc ta-cnds and shrcds and
cchccs cl thc past callin tc us cncraticns altcr thcir rcal lcrcc has bccn spcnt ' |MAklN, 1?88.
p. 17-18).
l pctcsi , rci sta dc
cst udcs l i t crari cs
lui dc Fcra,
. , n. 2
p. 117 a 1S0
!
lEkkl lA, l acucs. lcs t curs dc babcl . l n. CkAHAM, l cscph |Ed. ).
/II Ic:c.c I I:~:I ~II o. Lcndcn. Carbri dc ni crsi t, lrcss, 1?85.
p. 1+?-1+.
Fl !HbANE, Mi chacl . 7c ~:cI: oI Ic 7o:~. cssa,s i n bi bl i cal
hcrrcncutics. blccrintcn. lndiana nicrsit, lrcss, 1??2.
HANlELMAN, !usan A. 7c :I~)c:: oI Io:c:. thc crcrcncc cl rabbinic
intcrprctaticn in rcdcrn litcrar, thccr,. Alban,. !tatc nicrsit, cl NcW
Ycrk lrcss, 1?82.
lACb!, Lcuis. 7c /c/I: :cIIIo. a ccrpanicn. xlcrd. xlcrd nicrsit,
lrcss, 1??5.
MAklN, lctcr. TcWard scrcthin Arcrican. H~:]c:: I~~zIc, NcW Ycrk,
p. 17-18, lul, 1?88.
Ll\ElkA, Maria Clara Castcllccs dc. C ]c:~cIo I:~uuIo:Io ]uu~I.o.
Fran kcscnWci cr di al cc ccr bcn ari n, lcrri da c Harcl dc dc
Carpcs. . bclc Hcricntc. Faculdadc dc Lctras da FMC, 2000. |Tcsc dc
lcutcradc cr Lctras - Estudcs Litcrarics).
k!ENZwElC, Fran. C:c:~,0c: :o:c o: Io: c ]oc~: uc /cuu~
~IcI (.'2223/. Trad. Maric-Annc Krcrcr. |s. l. |. |s. n. |, 1??8. |Mirccr. )
!CHLEM, Ccrshcr. C Ic K~~I~ ~u II: :)oII:. NcW Ycrk.
!chcckcn bccks, 1?5.
!CHLEM, Ccrshcr. 7c c::I~I. Iuc~ I /uu~I: ~u oIc: c::~): o
/c/I : :]I :I Iu~I I I). NcW Ycrk. !chcckcn bccks, 1?71a. p. 282-S0S.
kcclaticn and traditicn as rcliicus catccrics in ludaisr.
!CHLEM, Ccrshcr. 7c c::I~I. Iuc~ I /uu~I: ~u oIc: c::~): o
/c/I: :]I:IIu~III). NcW Ycrk. !chcckcn bccks, 1?71b. p. S7-+8. Thc
rcssianic idca in Kabbalisr.
!CHLEM, Ccrshcr. Thc narc cl Ccd and thc linuistic thccr, cl thc
kabbala |part 2). /Iocc:, n. 80, p. 15-1?+, 1?72.
!CHLEM, Ccrshcr. - .~~I~ c :cu :IoII:o. Trad. Hans bcrcr, laccb
Cuinsbur. !c laulc. lcrspcctia, 1?88.