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Introduction to

modeling and
simulation
Engr. Hinesh Kumar
Institute of Biomedical Technology, LUMHS
System
A set of interacting components or entities which are
related by some form of interaction and operating
together to achieve a common goal or objective.
Examples:
A manufacturing system with its machine centers,
inventories, conveyor belts, production schedule, items
produced.
A telecommunication system with its messages,
communication network servers.
A theme park with rides, workers,
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Solar-Heated Water System
Collectors
Capture suns thermal energy
Storage tank
Pump
Move the water through the tank
Booster element
Heat water
Relief valve
Cold water inlet
Hot water outlet

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Systems
Natural vs. Artificial Systems
A natural system exists as a result of processes occurring in the natural world
(e.g. river, universe)
An artificial system owes its origin to human activity (e.g. space shuttle,
automobile)
Static vs. Dynamic Systems
A static system has structure but no associated activity (e.g. bridge, building)
A dynamic system involves time-varying behavior (e.g. machine, U.S. economy)
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Systems
Open-loop vs. Closed-loop systems

Inputs
Variables that influence the behavior of the system
e.g. wheel, accelerator, and brake of a car

Outputs
Variables that are determined by the system and may
influence the surrounding environment
e.g. direction and speed of a car
Systems
An open-loop system cannot control or adjust its own
performance
e.g. watch, car

A closed-loop system controls and adjusts its own
performance in response to outputs generated by the system
through feedback
e.g. watch with owner, car with driver

Feedback is the system function that obtains data on system
performance (outputs), compares the actual performance to
the desired performance (a standard or criterion), and
determines the corrective action necessary

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System
Controller
Input Output
Open-Loop System
System
Controller
Desired Reference
or Input
Output
Feedback
Closed-Loop System
-
+
Error
Signal
How to study the System?
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System
Experiment
with the
actual system
Experiment with a
mathematical model
of the system
Mathematical
Analysis
Simulation
Measure/estimate performance
Improve operation
Prepare for failures
Experiment with
a physical model
of the system
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Entity: is an object of interest in the system
Dynamic objects get created, move around, change status,
affect and are affected by other entities, leave (maybe)
Can have different types of entities concurrently



Example: Health Center
Patients
Visitors
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Attribute: is a characteristic of all entities, but with
a specific value local to the entity that can differ
from one entity to another.


Example: Patient
Type of illness,
Age,
Sex,
Temperature,
Blood Pressure
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Resources: what entities compete for
Entity seizes a resource, uses it, releases it
Think of a resource being assigned to an entity, rather than an
entity belonging to a resource



Example: Health Center
Doctors, Nurses
X-Ray Equipment
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Variable: A piece of information that reflects some
characteristic of the whole system, not of specific
entities
Entities can access, change some variables

Example: Health Center
Number of patients in the system,
Number of idle doctors,
Current time
State: A collection of variables that contains all the
information necessary to describe the system at
any time
Example: Health Center
{Number of patients in the system,
Status of doctors (busy or idle),
Number of idle doctors,
Status of Lab equipment, etc}
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Event: An instantaneous occurrence that changes
the state of the system
Example: Health Centre
Arrival of a new patient,
Completion of service
(i.e., examination)
Failure of medical
equipment, etc.
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
Activity: represents a time period of specified length.


Example: Health Center
Surgery,
Checking temperature,
X-Ray.
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Models
What is Model
A Representation of an object, a system, or an idea in some
form other than that of the entity itself .
Similar to but simpler than the system it represents
Close approximation to the real system and incorporate most of
its salient features
Should not be so complex that it is hard to understand or
experiment with it
Models
Physical Model
A physical object that mimics some properties of a real system
e.g. During design of buildings, it is common to construct small
physical models with the same shape and appearance as the real
buildings to be studied
Through prototyping process
Prototyping is the process of quickly putting together a working
model (a prototype) in order to test various aspects of a design,
illustrate ideas or features and gather early user feedback
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Models
Mathematical Model
A description of a system where the relationship between
variables of the system are expressed in a mathematical form
e.g. Ohm's law describes the relationship between current
and voltage for a resistor;
Hooke's Law gives the relationship between the force
applied to an unstretched spring and the amount the spring
is stretched when the force is applied, etc.
Through virtual prototyping
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F
Spring
= -kx
Hookes Law
x= -F
Spring
/k
spring constant
The amount spring
is stretched
F
spring
F
spring
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Simulation
What is Simulation
A simulation of a system is the operation of a model of
the system, as an imitation of the real system
A tool to evaluate the performance of a system, existing
or proposed, under different configurations of interest
and over a long period of time
Reasons for Simulation
Experiments on real systems are too expensive, too dangerous, or the
system to be investigated does not yet exist
e.g. a simulation of an industrial process to learn about its behavior under
different operating conditions in order to improve the process
The time scale of the dynamics of the system is not compatible with that of the
experimenter
e.g. It takes millions of years to observe small changes in the development of the
universe, whereas similar changes can be quickly observed in a computer
simulation of the universe
Easy manipulation of parameters of models (even outside the feasible range of a
particular physical system)
e.g. The mass of a body in a computer-based simulation model can be increased
from 40 to 500 kg at a keystroke, whereas this change might be hard to realize in
the physical system

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Elements of Simulation Analysis
Problem Formulation: questions for which answer are
sought, the variables involved and measures of system
performance to be used

Data Collection and Analysis: assembling the information
necessary to further refine our understanding of the
problem.

Model Development: building and testing the model of the
real system, selecting simulation tool (programming
language), coding the model and debugging it.
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Elements of Simulation Analysis
Model Verification and Validation: establish that the
model is an appropriate accurate representation of the real
system.

Model Experimentation and Optimization: precision
issues, how large sample (simulation time) is necessary to
estimate the performance of the system. The design of
effective experiments with which to answer the question
asked in the problem formulation.

Implementation and Simulation result: acceptance of the
result by the users and improved decision making stemming
from the analysis.
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Elements of Simulation Analysis
Problem Formulation
Data Collection and Analysis
Model development
Model Verification and Validation
Model Experimentation and Optimization
Implementation of Simulation Results
Major Iterative Loops in a Simulation Study
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Advantages of Simulation
Decision aid.
Cause-effect relations
Exploration of possibilities.
Diagnosing of problems.
Identification of constraints.
Visualization of plans.
Building consensus.
Preparing for change.
Cost effective investment.
Training aid capability.
Specification of requirements.

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Disadvantages of Simulation
Training required.
Interpretation of results required.
Time consuming/expensive.
Inappropriately used.
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Application Areas
Manufacturing/ Materials Handling
Public and Health Systems
Military
Natural Resource Management
Transportation
Computer Systems Performance
Communications